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  1. Particulate Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technology Laws & Regulations About EPA Contact Us Particulate Matter (PM) You are here: EPA Home Air & Radiation Six Common Pollutants Particulate Matter Announcements March 13, 2013 - An updated “Strategies ...

  2. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  3. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  4. Particulate matter phagocytosis induces tissue factor in differentiating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Milano, M; Dongiovanni, P; Artoni, A; Gatti, S; Rosso, L; Colombo, F; Bollati, V; Maggioni, M; Mannucci, P M; Bertazzi, P A; Fargion, S; Valenti, L

    2016-01-01

    Airborne exposure to particulate matter with diameter < 10 mcM (PM10) has been linked to an increased risk of thromboembolic events, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PM10 phagocytosis on the release of procoagulant molecules in human differentiating macrophages, and that of PM10 inhalation in an experimental model in rats. Human monocytes were separated from the peripheral blood by the lymphoprep method, differentiated in vitro and treated with standard PM10 or vehicle. Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with PM10 or vehicle alone. The outcome was expression of proinflammatory genes and of tissue factor (TF). In human differentiating macrophages, PM10 exposure upregulated inflammatory genes, but most consistently induced TF mRNA and protein levels, but not TF protein inhibitor, resulting in increased TF membrane expression and a procoagulant phenotype. Differentiation towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype inhibited PM10 -mediated TF expression. TF induction required phagocytosis of PM10 , whereas phagocytosis of inert particles was less effective. PM10 phagocytosis was associated with a gene expression profile consistent with intracellular retention of iron, inducing oxidative stress. Both PM10 and iron activated the stress kinases ERK1/2 pathway, involved in the induction of TF expression. In rats, alveolar exposure to PM10 was associated with pulmonary recruitment of inflammatory cells and resulted in local, but not systemic, induction of TF expression, which was sufficient to increase circulating TF levels. In conclusion, TF induction by differentiating lung macrophages, activated following phagocytosis, contributes to the increased risk of thromboembolic complications associated with PM10 exposure. PMID:25858758

  5. Particulate matter induces prothrombotic microparticle shedding by human mononuclear and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neri, Tommaso; Pergoli, Laura; Petrini, Silvia; Gravendonk, Lotte; Balia, Cristina; Scalise, Valentina; Amoruso, Angela; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Bollati, Valentina; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Particulate airborne pollution is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity. Microparticles are extracellular vesicles shed by cells upon activation or apoptosis involved in physiological processes such as coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation. We investigated the hypothesis that particulate matter causes the shedding of microparticles by human mononuclear and endothelial cells. Cells, isolated from the blood and the umbilical cords of normal donors, were cultured in the presence of particulate from a standard reference. Microparticles were assessed in the supernatant as phosphatidylserine concentration. Microparticle-associated tissue factor was assessed by an one-stage clotting assay. Nanosight technology was used to evaluate microparticle size distribution. Particulate matter induces a dose- and time- dependent, rapid (1h) increase in microparticle generation in both cells. These microparticles express functional tissue factor. Particulate matter increases intracellular calcium concentration and phospholipase C inhibition reduces microparticle generation. Nanosight analysis confirmed that upon exposure to particulate matter both cells express particles with a size range consistent with the definition of microparticles (50-1000 nm). Exposure of mononuclear and endothelial cells to particulate matter upregulates the generation of microparticles at least partially mediated by calcium mobilization. This observation might provide a further link between airborne pollution and cardiopulmonary morbidity. PMID:26876346

  6. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  7. Bim mediates mitochondria-regulated particulate matter-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Ghio, A.J.; Chang, W.; Kamdar, O.; Rosen, G.D.; Upadhyay, D.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the role of Bim, a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member in Airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 μm)-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). PM induced AEC apoptosis by causing significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 activation. PM upregulated pro-apoptotic protein Bim and enhanced translocation of Bim to the mitochondria. ShRNABim blocked PM-induced apoptosis by preventing activation of the mitochondrial death pathway suggesting a role of Bim in the regulation of mitochondrial pathway in AEC. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that Bim mediates PM-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:17716672

  8. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33

    PubMed Central

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-01-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. < 10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged repeatedly with a low (≈3 mg/m3) mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks. Responses were compared to animals administered carbon black as a negative control, or a moderate (≈30 mg/m3) concentration of ovalbumin to simulate an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Delivery of PM10 to mice, in which experimental mild chronic asthma had previously been established, elicited characteristic features of enhanced allergic inflammation of the airways, including eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment, similar to that in the allergen-induced exacerbation. In parallel, there was increased expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10. PMID:24730559

  9. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  10. IN VIVO MECHANISMS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED LUNG AND VASCULAR INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insight into the mechanisms by which ambient particulate matter (PM) mediates its adverse cardiopulmonary effects can provide biological plausibility to epidemiological associations between PM exposure and health effects. Current information on mechanisms of pulmonary injury have...

  11. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  12. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  13. Environmental Particulate Matter Induces Murine Intestinal Inflammatory Responses and Alters the Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Lisa; Hotte, Naomi; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Vincent, Renaud; Tso, Robert; Gänzle, Michael; Rioux, Kevin P.; Thiesen, Aducio; Barkema, Herman W.; Wine, Eytan; Madsen, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. Methods Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93) for 7–14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days) on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10−/−) mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum. Results Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10−/− mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10−/− mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage. Conclusions Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine. PMID:23638009

  14. Regulation of particulate matter-induced mucin secretion by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongmei; Li, Qi; Kolosov, Victor P; Perelman, Juliy M; Zhou, Xiangdong

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a worldwide health problem. Previous studies have reported that PMs induced depolarizing currents and increased intracellular Ca(2+) in human bronchial epithelial cells. Ca(2+) plays important role in the regulation of mucus exocytosis, and mucin hypersecretion is a key pathological feature of inflammatory respiratory diseases. To explore more mechanisms underlying PM toxicity, we measured PM-induced mucin secretion in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells. MUC5AC secretion and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level were detected by ELISA. Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 inward currents were examined by electrophysiology. Ca(2+) concentration was assessed by laser scanning confocal microscope. Exposure of PMs to 16HBE cells was found to induce mucin secretion, as a consequence of sustained Ca(2+) influx and cAMP increase through TRPV1 receptors. Mucin secretion was completely inhibited by TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. Removal of Ca(2+) by Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA or inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by the PKA inhibitors H-89 each partially reduced PC(2)s-induced mucin secretion. The combination of BAPTA and H-89 completely prevented mucin secretion mediated by PMs. These results suggest that PM induces mucin secretion through Ca(2+) influx and cAMP/PKA pathway by TRPV1 receptors in human bronchial epithelial cells, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce PM toxicity. PMID:22829138

  15. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yeongkwon; Mishin, Vladimir; Welsh, William; Lu, Shou-En; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Kipen, Howard; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing molecular probes (disodium terephthalate, 3′-p-(aminophenyl)fluorescein, coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and sodium benzoate) for their applicability to measure •OH induced by PM in a high-throughput cell-free system using fluorescence techniques, based on both our experiments and on an assessment of the physicochemical properties of the probes reported in the literature. Disodium terephthalate (TPT) was the most applicable molecular probe to measure •OH induced by PM, due to its high solubility, high stability of the corresponding fluorescent product (i.e., 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid), high yield compared with the other molecular probes, and stable fluorescence intensity in a wide range of pH environments. TPT was applied in a high-throughput format to measure PM (NIST 1648a)-induced •OH, in phosphate buffered saline. The formed fluorescent product was measured at designated time points up to 2 h. The fluorescent product of TPT had a detection limit of 17.59 nM. The soluble fraction of PM contributed approximately 76.9% of the •OH induced by total PM, and the soluble metal ions of PM contributed 57.4% of the overall •OH formation. This study provides a promising cost-effective high-throughput method to measure •OH induced by PM on a routine basis. PMID:26516887

  16. Sirtuin 3 Protects against Urban Particulate Matter-Induced Autophagy in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chieh; Huang, Hsin-Hsiu; Chen, Pei-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2016-07-01

    Urban particulate matter (urban PM) is a heterogeneous mixture of various types of particles originating from different sources. Exposure to high concentrations of urban PM leading to adverse health effects is evaluated by using in vitro cultures of human lung epithelial cells. However, the mechanism underlying the correlation between high concentrations of urban PM exposure and adverse health effects has not been fully elucidated; urban PM-induced oxidative stress is considered as an important mechanism of urban PM-mediated cytotoxicity. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a primary mitrochondrial deacetylase, controls cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and expression of antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of urban PM-induced oxidative stress in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpiCs). Cell viability showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease when exposed to urban PM, which could indicate that the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released from the cell in response to urban PM is related to cell viability in HBEpiC. The effects of urban PM on morphological and biochemical markers of autophagy in HBEpiC were analyzed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Overexpression of SIRT3 inhibited urban PM-induced ROS generation, while concomitantly increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and decreasing NF-κB activation and release of inflammation factors. Up-regulation of SIRT3 significantly inhibited the expression of autophagy markers and autophagic vacuole formation. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the potential role of the SIRT3 enzyme in regulating urban PM-induced autophagy by mediating urban PM-induced oxidative stress, which may contribute to urban PM-induced impairment of airway epithelial cell function. PMID:27125970

  17. THE ROLE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have tested the hypothesis that organic and ozonized organic components of particulate matter (PM) may play a role in the induction of lung toxicity reported in some epidemiological studies. Our lab has utilized diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and extracts of diesel exhaust (i....

  18. Particulate matter (PM₁₀) induces metalloprotease activity and invasion in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-17

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases and cancer. The aim of this work was to identify alterations in airway epithelial (A549) cells induced by PM10 that could explain how subtoxic exposure (10 μg/cm(2)) promotes a more aggressive in vitro phenotype. Our results showed that cells exposed to PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and an urban commercial zone (CZ) induced an increase in protease activity and invasiveness; however, the cell mechanism is different, as only PM10 from CZ up-regulated the activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and disrupted E-cadherin/β-catenin expression after 48 h of exposure. These in vitro findings are relevant in terms of the mechanism action of PM10 in lung epithelial cells, which could be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of some human illness associated with highly polluted cities. PMID:26047787

  19. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Induces Apoptosis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Xie, Xiaoyun; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jason Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. Some environmental insults, like fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair cardiovascular functions. However, the mechanisms for PM-induced adverse effects on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown. The present research was to study the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods PM was intranasal-distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry was used to measure the number of EPCs, apoptosis level of circulating EPCs and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using ELISA. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in EPC apoptosis, PM was co-administrated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in wild type mice or used in a triple transgenic mouse line (TG) with overexpression of antioxidant enzyme network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx-1) with decreased in vivo ROS production. Results PM treatment significantly decreased circulating EPC population, promoted apoptosis of EPCs in association with increased ROS production and serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels, which could be effectively reversed by either NAC treatment or overexpression of AON. Conclusion PM exposure significantly decreased circulating EPCs population due to increased apoptosis via ROS formation in mice. PMID:25591776

  20. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  1. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  2. Airways Hyperresponsiveness Following a Single Inhalation Exposure to Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure Prevents Airways Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Matter in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution results in airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), however it also results in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly in individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease. The impact of pre-existing cardiac deficit on PM-induced ...

  3. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Carll, Alex P; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Winsett, Darrell W; Rowan, William H; Hazari, Mehdi S; Ledbetter, Allen D; Nyska, Abraham; Cascio, Wayne E; Watkinson, William P; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2010-04-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were infused with isoproterenol (ISO; 2.5 mg/kg/day subcutaneous [sc]), a beta-adrenergic agonist, for 28 days and subsequently exposed to PM by inhalation. ISO induced tachycardia and hypotension throughout treatment followed by postinfusion decrements in heart rate, contractility, and blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, pulse), and fibrotic cardiomyopathy. Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) 17 days after ISO cessation indicated parasympathetic dominance with concomitantly altered ventilation. Rats were subsequently exposed to filtered air or Harvard Particle 12 (HP12) (12 mg/m(3))--a metal-rich oil combustion-derived PM--at 18 and 19 days (4 h/day) after ISO infusion via nose-only inhalation to determine if cardio-impaired rats were more responsive to the effects of PM exposure. Inhalation of PM among ISO-pretreated rats significantly increased pulmonary lactate dehydrogenase, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and heart-to-body mass ratio. PM exposure increased the number of ISO-pretreated rats that experienced bradyarrhythmic events, which occurred concomitantly with acute alterations of HRV. PM, however, did not significantly affect mean HRV in the ISO- or saline-pretreated groups. In summary, subchronic ISO treatment elicited some pathophysiologic and histopathological features of heart failure, including cardiomyopathy. The enhanced sensitivity to PM exposure in SHHF rats with ISO-accelerated cardiomyopathy suggests that this model may be useful for elucidating the mechanisms by which PM exposure exacerbates heart disease. PMID:20121584

  4. Particulate matter pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Vega R, E.; Mora P, V.; Mugica A, V.

    1998-12-31

    The levels of particulate matter are of concern since they may induce severe effects on public health and is the second atmospheric pollution problem in Mexico City. Another noticeable effect in large cities attributable to particulate matter, is the deterioration of visibility. In this paper the analysis of the data of TSP and PM10 during 1988 to 1996 is presented. The seasonal variation of particulate matter, the typical ratios of PM10/TSP and relationships of the two variables were determined. It was found that PM10 concentrations show an important tendency to decrease during this period, due to some control strategies, although this is not the case for TSP. The monthly trend exhibits a clear relationship with the dry (October through April) and wet (May through September) seasons. The particulate matter concentrations are lower during the wet season. The hourly behavior shows that the highest concentrations are correlated with the traffic rush hours. The most TSP polluted area was the northeast, meanwhile the southeast is the most PM10 polluted area. There is a clear evidence of the particulate matter transportation from these areas to other sites of the City.

  5. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  6. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  7. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  8. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS) and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS). THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control). Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS) and two (one ADS and one non-ADS) collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles. PMID:26184251

  9. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS) and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS). THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control). Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS) and two (one ADS and one non-ADS) collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles. PMID:26184251

  10. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-α mediates interactions between macrophages and epithelial cells underlying proinflammatory gene expression induced by particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Musah, Sadiatu; DeJarnett, Natasha; Hoyle, Gary W

    2012-09-28

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is known to have adverse effects on respiratory health, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that macrophages and epithelial cells synergize to produce maximal cytokine release in response to PM exposure, thereby promoting inflammatory responses. We developed a co-culture model using MLE-12 (mouse lung epithelial) cells and RAW 264.7 (mouse monocyte/macrophage) cells. MLE-12 cells produced KC (Cxcl1) but not tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), and KC was upregulated only at high levels of urban particulate matter (UPM; NIST 1648a). RAW 264.7 cells produced TNF but not KC, and TNF production was increased by treatment with UPM. In contrast, KC production was upregulated by co-culture of MLE-12 and RAW 264.7 cells, and it was further increased by treatment with a concentration of UPM that had no effect on MLE-12 cells alone. Multiplex cytokine assay revealed a similar pattern of synergistic production of MIG (Cxcl9) and IP-10 (Cxcl10) in co-cultures in response to UPM. TNF was implicated as mediating the synergistic increase in KC production because TNF upregulated KC production in MLE-12 cells, and UPM-induced KC production in co-cultures could be inhibited by a TNF blocking antibody. Intratracheal instillation of UPM into both wild-type and TNF receptor knockout mice resulted in increased TNF production in lavage fluid and increased TNF mRNA expression in cells recovered from lavage fluid. Additionally, UPM instillation into wild-type mice resulted in increased neutrophils and KC in lavage fluid, and these were inhibited in UPM-exposed TNF receptor knockout mice. These results are consistent with a model in which PM activates TNF production in macrophages which in turn stimulates epithelial cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as KC. The findings suggest a potential mechanism by which inhaled PM induces inflammation in the lung. PMID:22634322

  12. Mucosal production of uric acid by airway epithelial cells contributes to particulate matter-induced allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Gold, M J; Hiebert, P R; Park, H Y; Stefanowicz, D; Le, A; Starkey, M R; Deane, A; Brown, A C; Liu, G; Horvat, J C; Ibrahim, Z A; Sukkar, M B; Hansbro, P M; Carlsten, C; VanEeden, S; Sin, D D; McNagny, K M; Knight, D A; Hirota, J A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major component of air pollution, contributes to increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. PM induces innate immune responses and contributes to allergic sensitization, although the mechanisms governing this process remain unclear. Lung mucosal uric acid has also been linked to allergic sensitization. The links among PM exposure, uric acid, and allergic sensitization remain unexplored. We therefore investigated the mechanisms behind PM-induced allergic sensitization in the context of lung mucosal uric acid. PM10 and house dust mite exposure selectively induced lung mucosal uric acid production and secretion in vivo, which did not occur with other challenges (lipopolysaccharide, virus, bacteria, or inflammatory/fibrotic stimuli). PM10-induced uric acid mediates allergic sensitization and augments antigen-specific T-cell proliferation, which is inhibited by uricase. We then demonstrate that human airway epithelial cells secrete uric acid basally and after stimulation through a previously unidentified mucosal secretion system. Our work discovers a previously unknown mechanism of air pollution-induced, uric acid-mediated, allergic sensitization that may be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:26509876

  13. Quinones and Aromatic Chemical Compounds in Particulate Matter Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Implications for Ultrafine Particle Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Korge, Paavo; Weiss, James N.; Li, Ning; Venkatesen, M. Indira; Sioutas, Constantinos; Nel, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Particulate pollutants cause adverse health effects through the generation of oxidative stress. A key question is whether these effects are mediated by the particles or their chemical compounds. In this article we show that aliphatic, aromatic, and polar organic compounds, fractionated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), exert differential toxic effects in RAW 264.7 cells. Cellular analyses showed that the quinone-enriched polar fraction was more potent than the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)–enriched aromatic fraction in O2•− generation, decrease of membrane potential (ΔΨm), loss of mitochondrial membrane mass, and induction of apoptosis. A major effect of the polar fraction was to promote cyclosporin A (CsA)–sensitive permeability transition pore (PTP) opening in isolated liver mitochondria. This opening effect is dependent on a direct effect on the PTP at low doses as well as on an effect on ΔΨm at high doses in calcium (Ca2+)-loaded mitochondria. The direct PTP effect was mimicked by redox-cycling DEP quinones. Although the aliphatic fraction failed to perturb mitochondrial function, the aromatic fraction increased the Ca2+ retention capacity at low doses and induced mitochondrial swelling and a decrease in ΔΨm at high doses. This swelling effect was mostly CsA insensitive and could be reproduced by a mixture of PAHs present in DEPs. These chemical effects on isolated mitochondria could be reproduced by intact DEPs as well as ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs). In contrast, commercial polystyrene nanoparticles failed to exert mitochondrial effects. These results suggest that DEP and UFP effects on the PTP and ΔΨm are mediated by adsorbed chemicals rather than the particles themselves. PMID:15471724

  14. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D.; Van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  15. Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter induces macrophage infiltration, unfolded protein response, and lipid deposition in white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Roberto; Zheng, Ze; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a link between exposure to ambient air-pollution and susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as Type II diabetes mellitus. Previously, we provided evidence that both short- and long-term exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) induces multiple abnormalities associated with the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes mellitus, including insulin resistance, visceral adipose inflammation, brown adipose mitochondrial adipose changes, and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this report, we show that chronic inhalation exposure to PM2.5 (10 months exposure) induces macrophage infiltration and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), an intracellular stress signaling that regulates cell metabolism and survival, in mouse white adipose tissue in vivo. Gene expression studies suggested that PM2.5 exposure induces two distinct UPR signaling pathways mediated through the UPR transducer inositol-requiring 1α (IRE1α): 1) ER-associated Degradation (ERAD) of unfolded or misfolded proteins, and 2) Regulated IRE1-dependent Decay (RIDD) of mRNAs. Along with the induction of the UPR pathways and macrophage infiltration, expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and lipid droplet formation was increased in the adipose tissue of the mice exposed to PM2.5. In vitro study confirmed that PM2.5 can trigger phosphorylation of the UPR transducer IRE1α and activation of macrophages. These results provide novel insights into PM2.5-triggered cell stress response in adipose tissue and increase our understanding of pathophysiological effects of particulate air pollution on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:23573366

  16. Cardiovascular Depression in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Effects of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katryn; Yang, Hui-yu; Nan, Bin; Morishita, Masako; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Fink, Gregory D.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Brook, Robert D.; Harkema, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High ambient levels of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. Enhanced susceptibility to the toxicity of air pollutants may include individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses to O3 and PM2.5 will be enhanced in rats with diet-induced MetS. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet (HFrD) to induce MetS and then exposed to O3, concentrated ambient PM2.5, or the combination of O3 plus PM2.5 for 9 days. Data related to heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) were collected. Results: Consistent with MetS, HFrD rats were hypertensive and insulin resistant, and had elevated fasting levels of blood glucose and triglycerides. Decreases in HR and BP, which were found in all exposure groups, were greater and more persistent in HFrD rats compared with those fed a normal diet (ND). Coexposure to O3 plus PM2.5 induced acute drops in HR and BP in all rats, but only ND rats adapted after 2 days. HFrD rats had little exposure-related changes in HRV, whereas ND rats had increased HRV during O3 exposure, modest decreases with PM2.5, and dramatic decreases during O3 plus PM2.5 coexposures. Conclusions: Cardiovascular depression in O3- and PM2.5-exposed rats was enhanced and prolonged in rats with HFrD-induced MetS. These results in rodents suggest that people with MetS may be prone to similar exaggerated BP and HR responses to inhaled air pollutants. Citation: Wagner JG, Allen K, Yang HY, Nan B, Morishita M, Mukherjee B, Dvonch JT, Spino C, Fink GD, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q, Brook RD, Harkema JR. 2014. Cardiovascular depression in rats exposed to inhaled particulate matter and ozone: effects of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Environ Health Perspect 122:27–33; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307085 PMID:24169565

  17. EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

  18. Eupafolin nanoparticles protect HaCaT keratinocytes from particulate matter-induced inflammation and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zih-Chan; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Ko, Horng-Huey; Fang, Jia-You; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Liang, Chan-Jung; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major form of air pollution, can induce oxidative stress and inflammation and may lead to many diseases in various organ systems including the skin. Eupafolin, a flavonoid compound derived from Phyla nodiflora, has been previously shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, eupafolin is characterized by poor water solubility and skin penetration, which limits its clinical applications. To address these issues, we successfully synthesized a eupafolin nanoparticle delivery system (ENDS). Our findings showed that ENDS could overcome the physicochemical drawbacks of raw eupafolin with respect to water solubility and skin penetration, through reduction of particle size and formation of an amorphous state with hydrogen bonding. Moreover, ENDS was superior to raw eupafolin in attenuating PM-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes, by mediating the antioxidant pathway (decreased reactive oxygen species production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity) and anti-inflammation pathway (decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling). In summary, ENDS shows better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities than raw eupafolin through improvement of water solubility and skin penetration. Therefore, ENDS may potentially be used as a medicinal drug and/or cosmeceutical product to prevent PM-induced skin inflammation. PMID:27570454

  19. Eupafolin nanoparticles protect HaCaT keratinocytes from particulate matter-induced inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zih-Chan; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Ko, Horng-Huey; Fang, Jia-You; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Liang, Chan-Jung; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major form of air pollution, can induce oxidative stress and inflammation and may lead to many diseases in various organ systems including the skin. Eupafolin, a flavonoid compound derived from Phyla nodiflora, has been previously shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, eupafolin is characterized by poor water solubility and skin penetration, which limits its clinical applications. To address these issues, we successfully synthesized a eupafolin nanoparticle delivery system (ENDS). Our findings showed that ENDS could overcome the physicochemical drawbacks of raw eupafolin with respect to water solubility and skin penetration, through reduction of particle size and formation of an amorphous state with hydrogen bonding. Moreover, ENDS was superior to raw eupafolin in attenuating PM-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes, by mediating the antioxidant pathway (decreased reactive oxygen species production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity) and anti-inflammation pathway (decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling). In summary, ENDS shows better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities than raw eupafolin through improvement of water solubility and skin penetration. Therefore, ENDS may potentially be used as a medicinal drug and/or cosmeceutical product to prevent PM-induced skin inflammation. PMID:27570454

  20. Ambient particulate matter induces IL-8 expression through an alternative NF-kB mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been shown to increase rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine signaling events involved in the expression of the inflamma...

  1. METALS MIMIC AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY INDUCED BY IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO UTAH VALLEY AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associationsbetween changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided withclosure of an open-hearth steel...

  2. Water-insoluble fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM10 ) induces oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shuo; Zhang, Fang; Qu, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 ) links with public health hazards and increases risk for lung cancer and other diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying the toxic effects of exposure to PM10 . Several components of water-soluble fraction of PM10 (sPM10 ) have been known to be capable of inducing oxidative stress in in vitro studies. In this study, we investigated if water-insoluble fraction of PM10 (iPM10 ) could be also capable of inducing oxidative stress and oxidative damage. Human lung epithelial A549 cells were exposed to 10 μg/mL of sPM10 , iPM10 or total PM10 (tPM10 ) preparation for 24 h. Here, we observed that all three PM10 preparations reduced cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. We further found that, similar to the exposure to sPM10 and tPM10 , the intracellular level of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in the iPM10 -exposed cells was increased significantly; meanwhile the activity of catalase was decreased significantly as compared with the unexposed control cells, resulting in significant DNA damage. Our data obtained from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) assays showed that iron is the most abundant metal in all three PM10 preparations. Thus, we have demonstrated that, similar to sPM10 , iPM10 is also capable of inducing oxidative stress by probably inducing generation of H2 O2 and impairing enzymatic antioxidant defense, resulting in oxidative DNA damage and even apoptotic cell death through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction. PMID:22331617

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

  4. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  5. Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in inflammatory immune responses induced by fine and coarse ambient air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Shoenfelt, Joanna; Mitkus, Robert J.; Zeisler, Rolf; Spatz, Rabia O.; Powell, Jan; Fenton, Matthew J.; Squibb, Katherine A.; Medvedev, Andrei E.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of proinflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient air particulate matter has been suggested to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases in the lungs. However, receptors and mechanisms underlying these responses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether TLR2, TLR4, and the key adaptor protein, MyD88, mediate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fine and coarse PM. TLR2 deficiency blunted macrophage TNF-α and IL-6 expression in response to fine (PM2.5), while not affecting cytokine-inducing ability of coarse NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1648) particles. In contrast, TLR4−/− macrophages showed inhibited cytokine expression upon stimulation with NIST SRM 1648 but exhibited normal responses to PM2.5. Preincubation with polymyxin B markedly suppressed the capacity of NIST SRM 1648 to elicit TNF-α and IL-6, indicating endotoxin as a principal inducer of cytokine responses. Overexpression of TLR2 in TLR2/4-deficient human embryonic kidney 293 cells imparted PM2.5 sensitivity, as judged by IL-8 gene expression, whereas NIST SRM 1648, but not PM2.5 elicited IL-8 expression in 293/TLR4/MD-2 transfectants. Engagement of TLR4 by NIST SRM 1648 induced MyD88-independent expression of the chemokine RANTES, while TLR2-reactive NIST IRM PM2.5 failed to up-regulate this response. Consistent with the shared use of MyD88 by TLR2 and TLR4, cytokine responses of MyD88−/− macrophages to both types of air PM were significantly reduced. These data indicate differential utilization of TLR2 and TLR4 but shared use of MyD88 by fine and coarse air pollution particles. PMID:19406832

  6. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Collected from an Appalachian Mountaintop Mining Site Induces Microvascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    KNUCKLES, TRAVIS L.; STAPLETON, PHOEBE A.; MINARCHICK, VALERIE C.; ESCH, LAURA; MCCAWLEY, MICHAEL; HENDRYX, MICHAEL; NURKIEWICZ, TIMOTHY R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Air pollution PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Appalachia, PM from mining may represent a health burden to this sensitive population that leads the nation in cardiovascular disease, among others. Cardiovascular consequences following inhalation of PMMTM are unclear, but must be identified to establish causal effects. Methods PM was collected within 1 mile of an active MTM site in southern WV. The PM was extracted and was primarily <10μm in diameter (PM10), consisting largely of sulfur (38%) and silica (24%). Adult male rats were IT with 300 μg PMMTM. Twenty-four hours following exposure, rats were prepared for intravital microscopy, or isolated arteriole experiments. Results PMMTM exposure blunted endothelium-dependent dilation in mesenteric and coronary arterioles by 26%, and 25%, respectively, as well as endothelium-independent dilation. In vivo, PMMTM exposure inhibited endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation (60% reduction). α-adrenergic receptor blockade inhibited PVNS-induced vasoconstriction in exposed animals compared with sham. Conclusions These data suggest that PMMTM exposure impairs microvascular function in disparate microvascular beds, through alterations in NO-mediated dilation and sympathetic nerve influences. Microvascular dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular disease in regions with MTM sites. PMID:22963349

  7. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  8. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  9. Modeling exposure to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    Exposure assessment, a component of risk assessment, links sources of pollution with health effects. Exposure models are scientific tools used to gain insights into the processes affecting exposure assessment. The purpose of this paper is to review the process and methodology of estimating inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) using various types of models. Three types of models are discussed in the paper. Indirect type of models are physical models that employ inventories of outdoor and indoor sources and their emission rates to identify major sources contributing to exposure to PM, and use fate and transport and indoor air quality models to estimate PM concentrations at receptor sites. PM concentrations and time spent by a subject at each receptor site are input variables to the conventional exposure model that estimates the desired exposure levels. Direct type models use measured exposure or exposure concentrations in conjunction with information obtained from questionnaires to formulate exposure regression models. Stochastic models use exposure measurements, estimates can also be used, to formulate exposure population distributions and investigate associated uncertainty and variability. Since models developed using databases from western countries are not necessarily applicable in developing countries, the difference in requirements among western and developing countries is highlighted in the paper. Employment of exposure modeling methods in developing countries requires development of local information. Such information includes local outdoor and indoor source inventories, local or regional meteorological conditions, adjustment of indoor models to reflect local building construction conditions, and use of questionnaires to obtain local time budget and activity patterns of the subject population. PMID:12492168

  10. An in vitro alveolar macrophage assay for the assessment of inflammatory cytokine expression induced by atmospheric particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Sijan, Zana; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Heo, Jongbae; Kado, Norman Y; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos; Shafer, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    Exposures to air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM) can result in excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the respiratory system, potentially causing both localized cellular injury and triggering a systemic inflammatory response. PM-induced inflammation in the lung is modulated in large part by alveolar macrophages and their biochemical signaling, including production of inflammatory cytokines, the primary mechanism via which inflammation is initiated and sustained. We developed a robust, relevant, and flexible method employing a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) which can be applied to routine samples of PM from air quality monitoring sites to gain insight into the drivers of PM toxicity that lead to oxidative stress and inflammation. Method performance was characterized using extracts of ambient and vehicular engine exhaust PM samples. Our results indicate that the reproducibility and the sensitivity of the method are satisfactory and comparisons between PM samples can be made with good precision. The average relative percent difference for all genes detected during 10 different exposures was 17.1%. Our analysis demonstrated that 71% of genes had an average signal to noise ratio (SNR) ≥ 3. Our time course study suggests that 4 h may be an optimal in vitro exposure time for observing short-term effects of PM and capturing the initial steps of inflammatory signaling. The 4 h exposure resulted in the detection of 57 genes (out of 84 total), of which 86% had altered expression. Similarities and conserved gene signaling regulation among the PM samples were demonstrated through hierarchical clustering and other analyses. Overlying the core congruent patterns were differentially regulated genes that resulted in distinct sample-specific gene expression "fingerprints." Consistent upregulation of Il1f5 and downregulation of Ccr7 was observed across all samples, while TNFα was upregulated in half of the samples and downregulated in

  11. Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  12. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  13. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  14. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  15. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  16. Latest Results from the PICO-2L Dark Matter Detector, and the identification and mitigation of particulate-induced backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Daniel; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration has taken a key step toward a background-free bubble chamber for WIMP dark matter detection. An unexpected background of unknown origin limited WIMP searches in the PICO-2L and PICO-60 detectors at SNOLAB in 2013 and 2014. Recent efforts targeting particulate contamination in the active volume of PICO-2L have reduced this background by at least one order of magnitude, to a rate below the known neutron background in the detector. The resulting data set the most stringent limit to date from a direct detection experiment on spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions. I will present a comparison of the background-limited Run-1 of PICO-2L with the new results from Run-2, identifying particulate as the primary source of the previously unexplained background. I will describe the engineering and operational controls now being implemented to eliminate this background in the PICO-60 detector, with the goal of a background-free run using our large detector within the next year. Supported in part by Department of Energy award #DE-SC0012161.

  17. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  18. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  19. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  20. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  1. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  2. PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

  4. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  5. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  6. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  7. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia, pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiologic events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflamm...

  8. THE ROLE OF MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND PM COMPONENT-INDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS: OXIDATIVE STRESS AS A MEDIATOR OF THROMBOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with increased plasma fibrinogen. We have found that Spontaneously hypertensive rats respond to PM by increasing fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 at PM concentration that would cause minimal changes in healthy ...

  9. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5. PMID:27624276

  10. Seasonal variation in air particulate matter (PM10) exposure-induced ischemia-like injuries in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Li, Ben; Miao, Juan-Juan; Yun, Yang; Li, Guang-Ke; Sang, Nan

    2015-03-16

    Epidemiological studies imply a significantly positive association between particulate matter (PM) level and ischemic stroke hospitalization. However, considering that PM10 is highly heterogeneous and varies with season within the same location, existing experimental evidence remained low. In the present study, we first treated Wistar rats with PM10 samples collected from different seasons in Taiyuan, a typically coal-burning city of China, and determined ischemia-related markers in the cortex. The results indicated that PM10 exposure caused endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory response, and neuro-functional impairment similar to that of cerebral ischemia with season-dependent properties, and the winter sample presented the most obvious injuries. Then, we detected the chemical composition of PM10 samples followed by analysis of their correlation with the above biomarkers and found that winter PM10, characterized by higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbon load, played the major role in causing brain ischemia-like injuries among different season samples. Furthermore, by setting up an ischemic neuron model in vitro, we confirmed that winter PM10 presented the most serious aggravation on ischemia-produced injury outcome. This study provides experimental evidence for clarifying the association between season-dependent PM10 pollution in the atmospheric environment and an increased risk of ischemia-like injuries. PMID:25517455

  11. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  12. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  13. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  14. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  15. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  16. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  17. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  18. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  19. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  1. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  3. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  4. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  5. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  6. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  7. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  8. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  9. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  11. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  12. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  13. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  14. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  15. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  16. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  17. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  18. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  19. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  20. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  1. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  2. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  4. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  5. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  6. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  7. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  8. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  10. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  12. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  13. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  14. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  16. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  17. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  18. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  19. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  1. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  2. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  3. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  4. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  5. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  6. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  8. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  9. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  10. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  12. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  13. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  14. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  15. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  16. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  17. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  18. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  19. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  20. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  1. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  2. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  3. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  4. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  5. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  6. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  7. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  8. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  10. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  11. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  12. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  13. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  14. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  15. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  16. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  17. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  18. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  19. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  20. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  1. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  2. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  3. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  4. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  5. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  6. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  7. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  8. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  9. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  10. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  12. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  14. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  16. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  17. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest are induced in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ji-Yu; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Chen, Dao-Jun; Che, Zhen; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a linkage between morbidity and mortality and particulate matter (PM), particularly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that can readily penetrate into the lungs and are therefore more likely to increase the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the compositions of cooking oil fume (COF)-derived PM2.5, which is the major source of indoor pollution in China. Furthermore, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest induced by COF-derived PM2.5 in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II cells) were also detected. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a radical scavenger, was used to identify the role of oxidative stress in the abovementioned processes. Our results suggested that compositions of COF-derived PM2.5 are obviously different to PM2.5 derived from other sources, and COF-derived PM2.5 led to cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and G0/G1 cell arrest in primary fetal AEC II cells. Furthermore, the results also showed that COF-derived PM2.5 induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, which is indicated by the increased expression of ER stress-related apoptotic markers, namely GRP78 and caspase-12. Besides, the induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest was reversed by pretreatment with NAC. These findings strongly suggested that COF-derived PM2.5-induced toxicity in primary fetal AEC II cells is mediated by increased oxidative stress, accompanied by ER stress which results in apoptosis. PMID:25634364

  18. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Ambient Particulate Matter-induced Lung Diseases and Its Implications in the Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is an environmental factor that has been associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The major effect of ambient PM on the pulmonary system is the exacerbation of inflammation, especially in susceptible people. One of the mechanisms by which ambient PM exerts its proinflammatory effects is the generation of oxidative stress by its chemical compounds and metals. Cellular responses to PM-induced oxidative stress include activation of antioxidant defense, inflammation, and toxicity. The pro-inflammatory effect of PM in the lung is characterized by increased cytokine/chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression. Moreover, there is evidence that ambient PM can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization, which raises the possibility that long-term PM exposure may lead to increased prevalence of asthma. In addition to ambient PM, rapid expansion of nanotechnology has introduced the potential that engineered NP may also become airborne and may contribute to pulmonary diseases by novel mechanisms that could include oxidant injury. Currently, little is known about the potential adverse health effect of these particles. In this communication, the mechanisms by which particulate pollutants, including ambient PM and engineered NP, exert their adverse effects through the generation of oxidative stress and the impacts of oxidant injury in the respiratory tract will be reviewed. The importance of cellular antioxidant and detoxification pathways in protecting against particle-induced lung damage will also be discussed. PMID:18313407

  19. Inhalation Toxicity of Particulate Matters Doped with Arsenic Induced Genotoxicity and Altered Akt Signaling Pathway in Lungs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Hong; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Arassh, Minai-Teherani; Hwang, Soon-Kyung; Chang, Seung-Hee; Lim, Hwang Tae; Cho, Hyun-Seon

    2010-01-01

    In the workplace, the arsenic is used in the semiconductor production and the manufacturing of pigments, glass, pesticides and fungicides. Therefore, workers may be exposed to airborne arsenic during its use in manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of particulate matters (PMs) doped with arsenic (PMs-Arsenic) using a rodent model and to compare the genotoxicity in various concentrations and to examine the role of PMs-Arsenic in the induction of signaling pathway in the lung. Mice were exposed to PMs 124.4 ± 24.5 μg/m3 (low concentration) , 220.2 ± 34.5 μg/m3 (middle concentration) , 426.4 ± 40.3 μg/m3 (high concentration) doped with arsenic 1.4 μg/m3 (Low concentration) ,2.5 μg/m3 (middle concentration) , 5.7 μg/m3 (high concentration) for 4 wks (6 h/d, 5 d/wk) , respectively in the whole-body inhalation exposure chambers. To determine the level of genotoxicity, Chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in splenic lymphocytes and Supravital micronucleus (SMN) assay were performed. Then, signal pathway in the lung was analyzed. In the genotoxicity experiments, the increases of aberrant cells were concentration-dependent. Also, PMs-arsenic caused peripheral blood micronucleus frequency at high concentration. The inhalation of PMs-Arsenic increased an expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt: protein kinase B) and phpsphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) at high concentration group. Taken together, inhaled PMs-Arsenic caused genotoxicity and altered Akt signaling pathway in the lung. Therefore, the inhalation of PMs-Arsenic needs for a careful risk assessment in the workplace. PMID:24278533

  20. Pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced by specific components in ambient particulate matter in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawei; Liu, Gang; Lin, Ziying; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological effect of particulate matter (PM2.5) is involved in including chemical composition and mass concentration, but the precise components and biological action on human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of PM2.5 collected at six urban sites in China, and to investigate how particle composition affects cytotoxicity. We used human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines as model in vitro to expose to PM2.5 from different source, and then reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Furthermore, we estimated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and transition metal and the endotoxin contents. The mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-10 following exposure to PM2.5 was measured by QRT-PCR. We also observed the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using JC-1 staining, and apoptosis of BEAS-2B using flow cytometry. In addition, double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) were assessed using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence. Our results show that high concentrations of PAHs and elemental Ni were strongly associated with high apoptosis rates and high expression of IL-1β, in addition, Fe element was associated with the ROS level, furthermore, Fe and Cr element were associated with DNA damage in BEAS-2B cells. The cytotoxic effects of urban PM2.5 derived from six different cities in China appear dependent on the specific components in each. Our results indicate that air quality standards based on PM2.5 components may be more relevant than concentration-response functions (CRF). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 923-936, 2016. PMID:25533354

  1. Oxidative stress-induced telomeric erosion as a mechanism underlying airborne particulate matter-related cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, the majority due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). While many potential pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, there is not yet a consensus as to which are most important in causing pollution-related morbidity/mortality. Nor is there consensus regarding which specific types of PM are most likely to affect public health in this regard. One toxicological mechanism linking exposure to airborne PM with CVD outcomes is oxidative stress, a contributor to the development of CVD risk factors including atherosclerosis. Recent work suggests that accelerated shortening of telomeres and, thus, early senescence of cells may be an important pathway by which oxidative stress may accelerate biological aging and the resultant development of age-related morbidity. This pathway may explain a significant proportion of PM-related adverse health outcomes, since shortened telomeres accelerate the progression of many diseases. There is limited but consistent evidence that vehicular emissions produce oxidative stress in humans. Given that oxidative stress is associated with accelerated erosion of telomeres, and that shortened telomeres are linked with acceleration of biological ageing and greater incidence of various age-related pathology, including CVD, it is hypothesized that associations noted between certain pollution types and sources and oxidative stress may reflect a mechanism by which these pollutants result in CVD-related morbidity and mortality, namely accelerated aging via enhanced erosion of telomeres. This paper reviews the literature providing links among oxidative stress, accelerated erosion of telomeres, CVD, and specific sources and types of air pollutants. If certain PM species/sources might be responsible for adverse health outcomes via the proposed mechanism, perhaps the pathway to reducing mortality/morbidity from PM would become clearer. Not only would pollution

  2. Inhalation of concentrated ambient particulate matter near a heavily trafficked road stimulates antigen-induced airway responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Michael T; Hamade, Ali; Meacher, Dianne; Oldham, Michael; Sioutas, Constantinos; Chakrabarti, Bhabesh; Stram, Dan; Froines, John R; Cho, Arthur K

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) exposure to mobile emissions from mobile sources close to a heavily trafficked roadway will exacerbate airway inflammation and allergic airway responses in a sensitized mouse model, and (2) the magnitude of allergic airway disease responses will decrease with increasing distance from the roadway. A particle concentrator and a mobile exposure facility were used to expose ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice to purified air and concentrated fine and concentrated ultrafine ambient particles at 50 m and 150 m downwind from a roadway that was heavily impacted by emissions from heavy duty diesel-powered vehicles. After exposure, we assessed interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, OVA-specific immunoglobulin G1, and eosinophil influx as biomarkers of allergic responses and numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a marker of inflammation. The study was performed over a two-year period, and there were differences in the concentrations and compositions of ambient particulate matter across those years that could have influenced our results. However, averaged over the two-year period, exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) increased the biomarkers associated with airway allergies (IL-5, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin G1 and eosinophils). In addition, mice exposed to CAPs 50 m downwind of the roadway had, on the average, greater allergic responses and showed greater indications of inflammation than did mice exposed to CAPs 150 m downwind. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to CAPs close to a heavily trafficked roadway influenced allergic airway responses. PMID:16259423

  3. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

  4. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  5. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  6. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  7. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. PMID:27016579

  8. [In vitro study of genotoxic and oxidative effects induced on human pulmonary cells by exposure to PAHs extracted from airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, D; Ursini, C L; Pira, E; Romano, C; Ciervo, A; Maiello, R; Caglieri, A; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Genotoxic and oxidative effect of airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant were evaluated on lung epithelial cells (A549). We aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of complex mixtures of PAHs and to identify biomarkers of effect of lung cancer. Particulate matter was analysed by GC/MS. Genotoxic and oxidative effects induced by the exposure to the extract were evaluated by Fpg comet assay. The cells were exposed for 30 min, 2h and 4h to 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.05% of the extract. We evaluated comet percentage and analysed tail moment values of exposed and unexposed cells treated with Fpg enzyme (TMenz) and untreated (TM) that indicate respectively oxidative and direct DNA damage. We found 0.328 ng/m3 of pyrene, 0.33 ng/m3 of benzo(a)anthracene, 1.073 ng/m3 of benzo(b)fluoranthene, 0.22 ng/m3 of benzo(k)fluoranthene, 0.35 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene, 0.079 ng/m3 of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and 0.40 ng/m3 of benzo(g,h,i)perylene. A dose-dependent increase, although not significant, of TM and TMenz in the exposed cells in respect to controls was found that indicates a slight increase of both direct and oxidative damage in exposed cells. A slight increase of comet percentage was found at the highest dose. We show the high sensibility of comet assay to measure early DNA damage also at low doses suggesting the use of such test on A549 to evaluate on target organ the effects of complex mixtures of genotoxic substances. PMID:18409689

  9. Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2009-02-01

    Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

  10. Characterizing the origins of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstrom, Kristina Michelle

    When developing policy targeted at decreasing air pollution, it is essential that we have a strong understanding of when and where the pollution originated. Towards this goal, we have implemented and evaluated two different source attribution schemes in PMCAMx, a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model. The two schemes, an online (OPSA) and offline version (PSAT), are both designed for computational efficiency and the ability to track source contributions to primary and secondary particulate matter. The two versions showed good agreement with each other and with more accurate, computationally demanding methods. The off-line algorithm (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology, PSAT) is simpler to implement, has a lower computational cost and is suitable for a range of source apportionment studies. We have utilized this algorithm to study the age distribution of atmospheric particulate matter mass in space and time. The average calculated ages are on the order of a few days for particulate matter near the ground, but are highly variable in space and time. Primary aerosol species had average ages of approximately 24 hours over this polluted continental region while the average ages for secondary species were 48-72 hours near the surface. As expected, the average age of all aerosol components increases vertically in the atmosphere. Age increases rapidly away from the sources of aerosol and its precursors and for non-volatile species it increases with particle size. PSAT is an excellent tool for the study of source-receptor relationships. We have studied the extent of pollutant transport in the Eastern United States using two approaches. The first PSAT-based approach is focused on source regions and the second is focused on receptor regions. For the source region focused approach, transport of pollutants is quantified by tracking the emissions from these regions. For the receptor region focused approach, PSAT tracks the pollutants emitted from a series

  11. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) exposure-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis evasion through STAT3 activation via PKCζ and Src kinases in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zárate, Elizabeth; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Chirino, Yolanda I; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Souza-Arroyo, Verónica; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but cellular pathways are not completely understood. STAT3 is a p21(Waf1/Cip1) transcription factor and is associated with proliferation and cell survival and is upregulated in lung cancer. PM10 exposure induces p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression, which could be related to STAT3 activation. The aims of this work were to investigate whether STAT3 was activated on lung epithelial cells after PM10 exposure and to determine whether or not STAT3 could have an impact on cell cycle distribution and cell survival. Our results showed that PM10 induced STAT3 activation through Src and PKCζ kinases, and it is partially responsible for the p21(Waf1/Cip1) induction that was also observed. Moreover, PM10 induced G1-G0 cell cycle arrest. The inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation prevented cell cycle arrest and triggered apoptosis. These results suggest that PM10 exposure might activate a survival pathway related to STAT3 activation, similar to what has been described as part of the immune system and apoptosis evasion during tumor promotion and development. PMID:27131825

  12. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  13. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  14. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  16. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  17. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62... Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton)....

  18. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  19. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  20. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  3. Organic extracts of urban air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells).

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Soo Yeun; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-08-16

    Traffic is a major source of particulate matter (PM), and ultrafine particulates and traffic intensity probably contribute significantly to PM-related health effects. As a strong relationship between air pollution and motor vehicle-originated pollutants has been shown to exist, air pollution genotoxicity studies of urban cities are steadily increasing. In Korea, the death rate caused by lung cancer is the most rapidly increased cancer death rate in the past 10 years. In this study, genotoxicity of PM2.5 (<2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter particles) collected from the traffic area in Suwon City, Korea, was studied using cultured human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) as a model system for the potential inhalation health effects. Organic extract of PM2.5 (CE) generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation in a dose-dependent manner (1μg/cm(3)-50μg/cm(3)). In the acid-base-neutral fractionation of PM2.5, neutral samples including the aliphatic (F3), aromatic (F4) and slightly polar (F5) fractions generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation. These genotoxic effects were significantly blocked by scavenging agents [superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodium selenite (SS), mannitol (M), catalase (CAT)]. In addition, in the modified Comet assay using endonucleases (FPG and ENDOIII), CE and its fractions (F3, F4, and F5) increased DNA breakage compared with control groups, indicating that CE and fractions of PM2.5 induced oxidative DNA damage. These results clearly suggest that PM2.5 collected in the Suwon traffic area has genotoxic effects and that reactive oxygen species may play a distinct role in these effects. In addition, aliphatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons, PAH/alkylderivatives, and nitro-PAH/ketones/quinones may be important causative agents of the genotoxic effects. PMID:21524716

  4. Signals of typhoon induced hydrologic alteration in particulate organic matter from largest tropical river system of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Ying; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    Tropical river systems affected by climatic extremes (typhoon) are recognized as significant source of particulate organic matter (POM) delivered to their adjacent seas. Studies on POM composition in typhoon affected rivers of tropical Hainan Island are limited. The Nandu River-Estuary (NRE) is the largest river system on Hainan Island in the South China Sea, affected by frequent typhoons every year. We used elemental contents, stable isotope ratios of organic carbon and lignin phenols to characterize POM compositions in NRE during typhoon affected wet season (August, 2011) vs. normal wet season (October, 2012). Short term and heavy precipitation during typhoon in August, 2011 was evidenced with a significant hydrologic change as well as change in POM composition along the NRE. The multi-proxy results suggest that POM was degraded and their sources significantly changed along the NRE hydrograph. Results from an end member mixing model indicated that POM constituted nearly similar OM input from soil (35%) and freshwater plankton (32%) during August, 2011, in contrast POM dominated with OM from freshwater plankton (51%) during October 2012 in riverine regions of NRE. In the estuarine region, POM constituted dominant inputs from marine plankton during August, 2011 (44%) and October, 2012 (56%) as compared to other sources. Collectively, the nature of POM composition change in the vicinity of typhoon induced copious precipitation, with potential land-use intervention across the Hainan Island are key factors affecting the carbon cycling in NRE and adjacent South China Sea.

  5. Oxidative damage induced in A549 cells by physically and chemically characterized air particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kouakou S; Billet, Sylvain; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Diouf, Amadou; Cazier, Fabrice; Djaman, Joseph; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollution particulate matter (PM) is strongly associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms of action whereby PM cause adverse health effects are still unclear. In developing countries, like in the sub-Saharian region of Africa, people are often exposed to high PM levels. Hence, three PM(2.5) samples were collected in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), under rural, urban or industrial influences. Their most toxicologically relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined--thereby showing that most of them were equal or smaller than 2.5 microm--and the influence of both natural (Ca, Na, Mg, Ti, etc.) and anthropic (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, benzene and its derivatives, paraffins, etc.) emission sources. The toxicity induced by the three PM samples was studied through 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation to DNA, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. Hence, effect concentrations at 10 and 50% (EC(10) and EC(50), respectively) were as follows: (i) rural PM--EC(10) = 5.91 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 29.55 microg cm(-2); (ii) urban PM--EC(10) = 5.45 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 27.23 microg cm(-2); and (iii) industrial PM--EC(10) = 6.86 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 34.29 microg cm(-2). Moreover, PM-induced oxidative damage in A549 cells was observed through the induction of lipid peroxidation, the alteration of superoxide dismutase activity, and the disruption of glutathione status. Both the transition metals and the organic chemicals within the three collected PM samples under study might be involved in the oxidative damage and, therefore, the toxicity they induced in A549 cells. PMID:19943358

  6. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  13. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  14. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  17. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  19. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  20. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  2. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  5. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  8. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  9. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  11. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  12. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  20. Production of particulate matter from the combustion of wood pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papučík, Štefan; Jandačka, Jozef; Chabadová, Jana; Pialát, Peter

    2015-05-01

    For production of particulate matters affect more aspects. One of the biggest affect is combustion air volume and iťs deviding on primary and secondary part. In this article is described experimental device, on which was investigated affect of combustion air volume on production particulate matters, measuring method, measured and analysed achieved results.

  1. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

  2. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  3. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...

  4. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain...

  8. FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

  9. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  10. Let-7a modulates particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm)-induced oxidative stress and injury in human airway epithelial cells by targeting arginase 2.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Li, Dan; Gu, Yue; Li, Xiaoping; Peng, Liping

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies show that particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is associated with cardiorespiratory diseases via the induction of excessive oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanism underlying PM2.5-mediated oxidative stress injury has not been fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence has indicated the microRNA let-7 family might play a role in PM-mediated pathological processes. In this study, we investigated the role of let-7a in oxidative stress and cell injury in human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B (B2B) cells after PM2.5 exposure. The let-7a level was the most significantly decreased in B2B cells after PM2.5 exposure. The overexpression of let-7a suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and the percentage of apoptotic cells after PM2.5 exposure, while the let-7a level decreased arginase 2 (ARG2) mRNA and protein levels in B2B cells by directly targeting the ARG2 3'-untranslated region. ARG2 expression was upregulated in B2B cells during PM2.5 treatment, and ARG2 knockdown could remarkably reduce oxidative stress and cellular injury. Moreover, its restoration could abrogate the protective effects of let-7a against PM2.5-induced injury. In conclusion, let-7a decreases and ARG2 increases resulting from PM2.5 exposure may exacerbate oxidative stress, cell injury and apoptosis of B2B cells. The let-7a/ARG2 axis is a likely therapeutic target for PM2.5-induced airway epithelial injury. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26989813

  11. Endothelial dysfunction in the pulmonary artery induced by concentrated fine particulate matter exposure is associated with local but not systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Davel, Ana Paula; Lemos, Miriam; Pastro, Luciana Manfré; Pedro, Sibelli Cosme; de André, Paulo Afonso; Hebeda, Cristina; Farsky, Sandra Helena; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Rossoni, Luciana Venturini

    2012-05-16

    Clinical evidence has identified the pulmonary circulation as an important target of air pollution. It was previously demonstrated that in vitro exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm, PM2.5) induces endothelial dysfunction in isolated pulmonary arteries. We aimed to investigate the effects of in vivo exposure to urban concentrated PM2.5 on rat pulmonary artery reactivity and the mechanisms involved. For this, adult Wistar rats were exposed to 2 weeks of concentrated São Paulo city air PM2.5 at an accumulated daily dose of approximately 600 μg/m3. Pulmonary arteries isolated from PM2.5-exposed animals exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine without significant changes in nitric oxide donor response compared to control rats. PM2.5 caused vascular oxidative stress and enhanced protein expression of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase in the pulmonary artery. Protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was reduced, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was enhanced by PM2.5 inhalation in pulmonary artery. There was a significant positive correlation between eNOS expression and maximal relaxation response (Emax) to acetylcholine. A negative correlation was found between vascular TNF-α expression and Emax to acetylcholine. Plasma cytokine levels, blood cells count and coagulation parameters were similar between control and PM2.5-exposed rats. The present findings showed that in vivo daily exposure to concentrated urban PM2.5 could decrease endothelium-dependent relaxation and eNOS expression on pulmonary arteries associated with local high TNF-α level but not systemic pro-inflammatory factors. Taken together, the present results elucidate the mechanisms underlying the trigger of cardiopulmonary diseases induced by urban ambient levels of PM2.5. PMID:22361244

  12. An evaluation of the protein mass of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Dean, T. R.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

    This research study provides the characterization of mass percent of protein-based particulate matter in total ambient particulate matter collected in a metropolitan area of NC. The project determined the percentages of protein-based ambient bioaerosols for particles in the 2.5-10 μm range and for particles in the range of 2.5 μm or less in 298 samples taken over a six-month period. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all-inclusive indicator of biologically based aerosols. These organic bioaerosols may have nucleated with inorganic non-biological aerosols, or they may be combined with inert aerosols. The source of these bioaerosols may be any combination of pollen, mold, bacteria, insect debris, fecal matter, or dander, and they may induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Ambient samples of PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 were analyzed for gravimetric mass and total protein mass. The results for 19 of 24 sample periods indicated that between 1% and 4% of PM 10-2.5 and between 1% and 2% of PM 2.5 mass concentrations were made of ambient protein bioaerosols. (The remaining 5 of 24 sample periods yielded protein results which were below detectable limits.)

  13. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia and pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Carll, Alex P; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Winsett, Darrell W; Hazari, Mehdi S; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy H; Cascio, Wayne E; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2015-02-01

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiological events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflammation, oxidative stress, arrhythmia and autonomic nervous system imbalance. Cardiomyopathy results from cardiac injury, is the leading cause of heart failure, and can be induced in heart failure-prone rats through sub-chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO). To test whether cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to inhaled PM2.5 and can elucidate potential mechanisms, we investigated the cardiophysiologic, ventilatory, inflammatory and oxidative effects of a single nose-only inhalation of a metal-rich PM2.5 (580 µg/m(3), 4 h) in ISO-pretreated (35 days × 1.0 mg/kg/day sc) rats. During the 5 days post-treatment, ISO-treated rats had decreased HR and BP and increased pre-ejection period (PEP, an inverse correlate of contractility) relative to saline-treated rats. Before inhalation exposure, ISO-pretreated rats had increased PR and ventricular repolarization time (QT) and heterogeneity (Tp-Te). Relative to clean air, PM2.5 further prolonged PR-interval and decreased systolic BP during inhalation exposure; increased tidal volume, expiratory time, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters of parasympathetic tone and atrioventricular block arrhythmias over the hours post-exposure; increased pulmonary neutrophils, macrophages and total antioxidant status one day post-exposure; and decreased pulmonary glutathione peroxidase 8 weeks after exposure, with all effects occurring exclusively in ISO-pretreated rats but not saline-pretreated rats. Ultimately, our findings indicate that cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to the oxidative, inflammatory, ventilatory, autonomic and arrhythmogenic effects of acute PM2.5 inhalation. PMID:25600220

  14. Selective TNF-α targeting with infliximab attenuates impaired oxygen metabolism and contractile function induced by an acute exposure to air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Timoteo; D'Annunzio, Verónica; Paz, Mariela L; Cáceres, Lourdes; Garcés, Mariana; Perez, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah; Vanasco, Virginia; Magnani, Natalia; Gonzalez Maglio, Daniel; Gelpi, Ricardo J; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to air pollution particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to analyze the cardioprotective effect of selective TNF-α targeting with a blocking anti-TNF-α antibody (infliximab) in an in vivo mice model of acute exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice received an intraperitoneal injection of infliximab (10 mg/kg body wt) or saline solution, and were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1 mg/kg body wt). Control animals were instilled with saline solution and handled in parallel. After 3 h, heart O2 consumption was assessed by high-resolution respirometry in left ventricle tissue cubes and isolated mitochondria, and ventricular contractile reserve and lusitropic reserve were evaluated according to the Langendorff technique. ROFA instillation induced a significant decrease in tissue O2 consumption and active mitochondrial respiration by 32 and 31%, respectively, compared with the control group. While ventricular contractile state and isovolumic relaxation were not altered in ROFA-exposed mice, impaired contractile reserve and lusitropic reserve were observed in this group. Infliximab pretreatment significantly attenuated the decrease in heart O2 consumption and prevented the decrease in ventricular contractile and lusitropic reserve in ROFA-exposed mice. Moreover, infliximab-pretreated ROFA-exposed mice showed conserved left ventricular developed pressure and cardiac O2 consumption in response to a β-adrenergic stimulus with isoproterenol. These results provides direct evidence linking systemic inflammation and altered cardiac function following an acute exposure to PM and contribute to the understanding of PM-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26386109

  15. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia, and pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats

    PubMed Central

    Carll, Alex P.; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Winsett, Darrell W.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy H.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiologic events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflammation, oxidative stress, arrhythmia, and autonomic nervous system imbalance. Cardiomyopathy results from cardiac injury, is the leading cause of heart failure, and can be induced in heart failure-prone rats through sub-chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO). To test whether cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to inhaled PM2.5 and can elucidate potential mechanisms, we investigated the cardiophysiologic, ventilatory, inflammatory, and oxidative effects of a single nose-only inhalation of a metal-rich PM2.5 (580 μg/m3, 4h) in ISO-pretreated (35 days * 1.0 mg/kg/day sc) rats. During the 5 days post-treatment, ISO-treated rats had decreased HR and BP and increased pre-ejection period (PEP, an inverse correlate of contractility) relative to saline-treated rats. Before inhalation exposure, ISO-pretreated rats had increased PR and ventricular repolarization time (QT) and heterogeneity (Tp-Te). Relative to clean air, PM2.5 further prolonged PR-interval and decreased systolic BP during inhalation exposure; increased tidal volume, expiratory time, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters of parasympathetic tone, and atrioventricular block arrhythmias over the hours post-exposure; increased pulmonary neutrophils, macrophages, and total antioxidant status one day post-exposure; and decreased pulmonary glutathione peroxidase 8 weeks after exposure, with all effects occurring exclusively in ISO-pretreated rats but not saline-pretreated rats. Ultimately, our findings indicate that cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to the oxidative, inflammatory, ventilatory, autonomic, and arrhythmogenic effects of acute PM2.5 inhalation. PMID:25600220

  16. [Carbon in particulate matter in the air].

    PubMed

    Godec, Ranka

    2008-12-01

    Carbon in Particulate Matter in the AirCarbon (Latin carbo) in elemental form appears as diamond, graphite, fullerene, and black amorphous carbon. Black amorphous carbon can be found in atmospheric aerosols and its main forms are elemental (EC), organic (OC), and carbonate (CC) carbon. Atmospheric carbon particles are transmitted through more than 70 sources of air pollutants. Elemental carbon is the primary pollutant, which results from incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. It also appears as soot, in sediment, soil, and ice core. Many quantitative determinations of elemental carbon are based on its chemical inertness, thermal stability, and visual features. Organic carbon includes organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenylethers, and other organic pollutants are the products of combustion and formation of secondary organic aerosols.The aim of this paper was to describe different forms of carbon in the atmosphere, how they affect people, climate, and the atmosphere, and to give an overview of different methods for their determination. PMID:19064370

  17. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  18. Respiratory health effects of diesel particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Ristovski, Zoran D; Miljevic, Branka; Surawski, Nicholas C; Morawska, Lidia; Fong, Kwun M; Goh, Felicia; Yang, Ian A

    2012-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions involve a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in a gas, where it is noted that PM emissions from diesel engines are a major contributor to the ambient air pollution problem. While epidemiological studies have shown a link between increased ambient PM emissions and respiratory morbidity and mortality, studies of this design are not able to identify the PM constituents responsible for driving adverse respiratory health effects. This review explores in detail the physico-chemical properties of diesel PM (DPM) and identifies the constituents of this pollution source that are responsible for the development of respiratory disease. In particular, this review shows that the DPM surface area and adsorbed organic compounds play a significant role in manifesting chemical and cellular processes that if sustained can lead to the development of adverse respiratory health effects. The mechanisms of injury involved included inflammation, innate and acquired immunity, and oxidative stress. Understanding the mechanisms of lung injury from DPM will enhance efforts to protect at-risk individuals from the harmful respiratory effects of air pollutants. PMID:22126432

  19. Factors Controlling Liquid Particulate Matter in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; de Sá, S. S.; Wernis, R. A.; Yee, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Castillo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Alexander, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The hygroscopic response of particulate matter (PM) during GoAmazon 2014/5 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The hygroscopic response was measured online and in real-time using a custom designed impaction apparatus. The impaction apparatus was calibrated with respect to particle viscosity indicating a liquid state (viscosity <102 Pa s) for complete adherence (no particle rebound). By varying the PM water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH (up to 98%), the hygroscopic response and phase state of the PM under investigation was determined. The hygroscopic response curves were categorized according to the rebound fraction at high RH (80 - 98%) bounded by two extremes. 1) Time periods that resemble pure SOM generated under controlled chamber conditions, where no particle rebound is observed above 80% RH. 2) Time periods that a large fraction (10 - 40%) of particles rebound at RH values >95%, an indication of hydrophobic particles. The role of anthropogenic and biogenic factors in controlling the hygroscopic response of PM in Amazonia is investigated through meteorological conditions and particle chemical composition.

  20. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

  1. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

  2. CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

  3. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  4. Settling Efficiency of Urban Particulate Matter Transported by Stormwater Runoff.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Penna, Nadia; Piro, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of control measures in urban areas is to retain particulate matter washed out by stormwater over impermeable surfaces. In stormwater control measures, particulate matter removal typically occurs via sedimentation. Settling column tests were performed to examine the settling efficiency of such units using monodisperse and heterodisperse particulate matter (for which the particle size distributions were measured and modelled by the cumulative gamma distribution). To investigate the dependence of settling efficiency from the particulate matter, a variant of the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), a Microsoft Excel function based on multi-objective EPR technique (EPR-MOGA), called EPR MOGA XL, was used as a data-mining strategy. The results from this study have shown that settling efficiency is a function of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) concentration and of the median diameter (d50 index), obtained from the particle size distributions (PSDs) of the samples. PMID:26961472

  5. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  6. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  7. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

  9. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  10. Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2011-11-01

    The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (α). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

  11. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  12. Particulate matter and early childhood body weight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjeong; Park, Hyesook; Park, Eun Ae; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over adverse effects of air pollution on children's health have been rapidly rising. However, the effects of air pollution on childhood growth remain to be poorly studied. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight from birth to 60months of age. This birth cohort study evaluated 1129 mother-child pairs in South Korea. Children's weight was measured at birth and at six, 12, 24, 36, and 60months. The average levels of children's exposure to particulate matter up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) were estimated during pregnancy and during the period between each visit until 60months of age. Exposure to PM10 during pregnancy lowered children's weight at 12months. PM10 exposure from seven to 12months negatively affected weight at 12, 36, and 60months. Repeated measures of PM10 and weight from 12 to 60months revealed a negative association between postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight. Children continuously exposed to a high level of PM10 (>50μg/m(3)) from pregnancy to 24months of age had weight z-scores of 60 that were 0.44 times lower than in children constantly exposed to a lower level of PM10 (≤50μg/m(3)) for the same period. Furthermore, growth was more vulnerable to PM10 exposure in children with birth weight <3.3kg than in children with birth weight >3.3kg. Air pollution may delay growth in early childhood and exposure to air pollution may be more harmful to children when their birth weight is low. PMID:27344372

  13. FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

  14. Some improvements in air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, M. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Almeida, S. M.; Reis, M. A.

    2001-06-01

    At ITN, analysis of air particulate matter has been made since 1999, stimulated by a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Samples are analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedures for filter analysis have recently been changed, leading to the present comparison between the old and the new procedures. For INAA, in this new procedure we look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of 115mIn in addition to the gamma-ray line of 527.9 keV used for the detection of 115Cd. Cd evaluations obtained by both gamma lines are compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Preliminary results for Cd, As, Ni, and Hg are shown for a region in the north of Lisbon.

  15. [Inhalable particulate matter and fine particulate matter: their basic characteristics, monitoring methods, and forest regulation functions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Lu, Shao-Wei; Li, Shao-Ning; Pan, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yu-ping

    2013-03-01

    Both inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are not only one of the main causes of air pollution, but also the primary pollutants in most cities. Based on the analysis of the impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 on the environment and human health, this paper summarized the components, sources, and mass concentration variations of PM10 and PM2.5 and related affecting factors, and introduced the network layout of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring and its principles and features. The research methods on the removal of PM10 and PM2.5 by forests, the removal rates of PM10 and PM2.5 by different forests, and the related affecting mechanisms were summed up at regional and individual scales, and the existed problems in this research field were discussed. Due to the lack of the comparable observation studies on the atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 along different gradients and in background areas, the joint effects of multiple factors on the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are not revealed. It was suggested that to make a rational network layout of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring, to correctly select proper monitoring methods, and to compare and calibrate the observed results from classical manual methods would be the bases to guarantee the validity of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring data. At present, there are few reports about the PM2.5 removal by forests, and it's not clear about the physiological processes and ecological mechanisms of PM10 and PM2.5 removal at cell, tissue, organ, and individual level. PMID:23755507

  16. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  17. A Simplified and Rapid Screening Assay using Zebrafish to Assess Cardiac Effects of Air Pollution-derived Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative toxicity assessment of particulate matter (PM) from different sources will potentially inform the understanding of regional differences in PM-induced cardiac health effects by identifying PM sources linked to highest potency components. Conventional low-throughput in...

  18. Ultrafine particulate matter exposure in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and aged murine aortic rings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies positively associate exposure to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure....

  19. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  20. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

  1. [Determination of particulate matter in small volume antibiotic injections].

    PubMed

    Niizeki, M; Tanno, K

    1989-03-01

    Amounts of particulate matter present in 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan were determined using light obscuration particle analyzer (HIAC). The vial volume range of each batch of product was 7-20 ml, and each vial contained 1 g as antibiotic potency. In 4 products, contents of particles between 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter were counted 2,000-7,000 per vial, and particles in other products were counted less than 2,000 per vial. Numbers of particles greater than or equal to 10 microns in diameter were much less than the USP XXI criteria for particulate matter in small volume injections. The product of the highest counts for particles between 10 and 25 microns in diameter showed counts amounted to 0.13% of the USP XXI criteria. In the 25-50 microns particulate diameter range, particulate matters were detected only in 2 products, and they were less than 0.2% of the USP XXI criteria. Particles over 50 microns in diameter were not detected in any products. These results showed that 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan had good qualities regarding contents of particulate matter. PMID:2746842

  2. Comparative Toxicity of Biodiesel Exhaust and Petroleum Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Using WKY Rat Alveolar Machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter <2.5um (PM2.5) can induce airway inflammation, cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel contributes to PM2.5. Possible toxicity caused by inhalation of biodiesel emission particles (BioDEP) h...

  3. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  4. Pulmonary particulate matter and systemic microvascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Porter, Dale W; Hubbs, Ann F; Stone, Samuel; Moseley, Amy M; Cumpston, Jared L; Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Stephanie J; Perrotta, Peter L; Brock, Robert W; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Boegehold, Matthew A; Frazer, David G; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary particulate matter (PM) exposure has been epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanistic foundations for this association are unclear. Exposure to certain types of PM causes changes in the vascular reactivity of several macrovascular segments. However, no studies have focused upon the systemic microcirculation, which is the primary site for the development of peripheral resistance and, typically, the site of origin for numerous pathologies. Ultrafine PM--also referred to as nanoparticles, which are defined as ambient and engineered particles with at least one physical dimension less than 100 nm (Oberdorster et al. 2005)--has been suggested to be more toxic than its larger counterparts by virtue of a larger surface area per unit mass. The purpose of this study was fourfold: (1) determine whether particle size affects the severity of postexposure microvascular dysfunction; (2) characterize alterations in microvascular nitric oxide (NO) production after PM exposure; (3) determine whether alterations in microvascular oxidative stress are associated with NO production, arteriolar dysfunction, or both; and (4) determine whether circulating inflammatory mediators, leukocytes, neurologic mechanisms, or a combination of these play a fundamental role in mediating pulmonary PM exposure and peripheral microvascular dysfunction. To achieve these goals, we created an inhalation chamber that generates stable titanium dioxide (TiO2) aerosols at concentrations up to 20 mg/m3. TiO2 is a well-characterized particle devoid of soluble metals. Sprague Dawley and Fischer 344 (F-344) rats were exposed to fine or nano-TiO2 PM (primary count modes of approximately 710 nm and approximately 100 nm in diameter, respectively) at concentrations of 1.5 to 16 mg/m3 for 4 to 12 hours to produce pulmonary loads of 7 to 150 microg in each rat. Twenty-four hours after pulmonary exposure, the following procedures were

  5. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of urban particulate matter in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumax-Vorzet, Audrey F.; Tate, M.; Walmsley, Richard; Elder, Rhod H.; Povey, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM)-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a variety of altered cellular outcomes. In this study, three different PM samples from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust standard reference material SRM1649a and air collected in Manchester have been tested for their ability to oxidise DNA in a cell-free assay, to increase intracellular ROS levels and to induce CYP1A1 gene expression in mammalian cells. In addition, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PM were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and alkaline comet assay, respectively. All PM samples catalysed the Fenton reaction in a cell-free assay, but only DEP resulted in the generation of ROS as measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation in mammalian cells. However, there was no evidence that increased ROS was a consequence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism via CYP1A1 induction as urban dust, the Manchester dust samples but not DEP-induced CYP1A1 expression. Urban dust was more cytotoxic in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) than the other PM samples and also induced expression of GADD45a in the GreenScreen Human Cell assay without S9 activation suggesting the presence of a direct-acting genotoxicant. Urban dust and DEP produced comparable levels of DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay, in MEFs at higher levels than those induced by Manchester PM. In conclusion, results from the cytotoxic and genotoxic assays are not consistent with ROS production being the sole determinant of PM-induced toxicity. This suggests that the organic component can contribute significantly to this toxicity and that further work is required to better characterise the extent to which ROS and organic components contribute to PM-induced toxicity. PMID:26113525

  6. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter in excess of 0.67 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still when a catalyst is added to... still when a catalyst is added to the still and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner; and (3... a catalyst; and (4) Particulate matter in excess of 0.64 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged...

  7. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter in excess of 0.67 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged to the still when a catalyst is added to... still when a catalyst is added to the still and when No. 6 fuel oil is fired in the afterburner; and (3... a catalyst; and (4) Particulate matter in excess of 0.64 kg/Mg (1.3 lb/ton) of asphalt charged...

  8. Human bronchial epithelial cell injuries induced by fine particulate matter from sandstorm and non-sandstorm periods: Association with particle constituents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Ning; Deng, Furong; Buglak, Nicholas; Park, George; Su, Shu; Ren, Aiguo; Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the exacerbation of respiratory diseases following sandstorm-derived particulate matter (PM) exposure. The presence of anthropogenic and biological agents on the sandstorm PM and the escalation of PM<2.5μm (PM2.5) pollution in China have led to serious concerns regarding the health effects of PM2.5 during Asian sandstorms. We investigated how changes in PM2.5 composition, as the weather transitioned towards a sandstorm, affected human airway epithelial cells. Six PM2.5 samples covering two sandstorm events and their respective background and transition periods were collected in Baotou, an industrial city near the Gobi Desert in China. PM samples from all three periods had mild cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, which was positively correlated with the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and several metals. All PM samples potently increased the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Endotoxin in all samples contributed significantly to the IL-6 response, with only a minor effect on IL-8. Cr was positively correlated with both IL-6 and IL-8 release, while Si was only associated with the increase of IL-6. Our study suggests that local agricultural and industrial surroundings in addition to the sandstorm play important roles in the respiratory effects of sandstorm-derived PM. PMID:27593287

  9. LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the data analysis of two extensive field studies on urban particulate matter, the 1974-77 St. Louis (RAPS) and the July/August 1982 Philadelphia (PAFS) studies. The major conclusion of the study is that in both cities the majority (more than 50%) of the tota...

  10. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SAMPLE COLLECTOR OF RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype sampler designed to collect particulate matter from air in sized fractions has been designed and tested. The sampler excludes particles above 20 micrometers in diameter and collects fractions centered at 3.5 micrometers and 1.7 micrometers on impaction plates and smal...

  12. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  13. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  14. A preliminary particulate matter emission factor from cotton harvesting.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particulate matter (PM) sampling of cotton harvesting operations at three locations in Texas was conducted during the summer of 2006. PM emissions generated by a two-row (John Deere Model 9910) and six-row (John Deere Model 9996) cotton picker were measured at each sampling location. The PM emission...

  15. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  16. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  17. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  18. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  19. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  20. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  1. Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Particulate Matter (2006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) is currently underway. The Criteria Document was completed in October 2004, and a proposed decision to revise the PM NAAQS was published in January 2006. The final decision is to be signe...

  2. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

  3. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Ament, Frank

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  4. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  5. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  6. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter: (1) Lake County APCD. (i) Part III-50 and Part V-1B, submitted on October 23, 1974, and previously approved under 40 CFR 52.223. (2... under 40 CFR 52.223. (b) The following regulations are disapproved because they relax the control...

  7. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  8. Workshop on Health Risks of Particulate Matter (PM) Indoors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) is gaining attention as a potential source of adverse health effects. The Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has been tasked by EPA to convene a workshop that will explore the latest re...

  9. Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

  10. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  11. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.102 Standard for...

  12. RECEPTOR MODELS RELATING AMBIENT SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER TO SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of receptor models to determine the source contributions to ambient particulate matter loadings at sampling sites, based on common properties between sources and receptors. (This is in contrast to using source models which start with emission rates an...

  13. Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal…

  14. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  15. Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

  16. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF COTTON GIN PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS – FIRST YEAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt, including the National, Texas, Southern, Southeastern, and California associations, agreed that there is an urgent...

  18. Evaluation of a Direct Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Monitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    One aspect of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment study (NCAAES) was to evaluate personal exposures to coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and their associated variability. As part of this, we examined the ability of a community-based monitor to act as...

  19. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  20. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent oxygen... oxygen, when gaseous fossil fuel is burned. (ii) 0.30 g/dscm (0.13 gr/dscf) corrected to 10 percent oxygen, when liquid fossil fuel is burned....

  1. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... manufacturing plant industry segment Col. 2—Furnace fired with gaseous fuel Col. 3—Furnace fired with liquid... maintenance is conducted in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practices for...

  2. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  3. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel...

  4. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel...

  5. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel...

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task is primarily concerned with the elemental characterization, by X-ray fluorescence analysis, of particulate matter (PM) collected during active or passive sampling of ambient air. The NERL X-ray fluorescence laboratory is an in-house research facility dedicated to quant...

  7. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

  8. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  9. Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

  10. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  11. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )...

  12. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER TO AMBIENT SUSPENDED FINE PARTICLE MASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scope: The periodic (5 years) review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and the subsequent determination by EPA and NAS of particulate matter research needs have identified areas of uncertainty including exposure measurement th...

  13. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  14. PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

  15. 75 FR 17894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... September 11, 2009. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October 2006 by strengthening the 24... particulate matter. DATES: Comments must be received on or before May 10, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit...

  16. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  17. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  18. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  19. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Natalia D; Muresan, Ximena M; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Miracco, Clelia; Marchini, Timoteo; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased airborne particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles. PMID:26507108

  20. Characteristics and cellular effects of ambient particulate matter from Beijing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Su, Shu; Jin, Wenjie; Wang, Bin; Li, Ning; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2014-08-01

    In vitro tests using human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and small mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1 were conducted to test toxicity of six PM (particulate matter) samples from Beijing. The properties of the samples differ significantly. The production of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α for J774A.1) and chemokine (IL-8 for A549) and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used as endpoints. There was a positive correlation between water soluble organic carbon and DTT-based redox activity. Both cell types produced increased levels of inflammatory mediators and had higher level of intracelllar ROS, indicating the presence of PM-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which were dose-dependent and significantly different among the samples. The releases of IL-8 from A549 and TNF-α from J774A.1 were significantly correlated to PM size, Zeta potential, endotoxin, major metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No correlation between ROS and these properties was identified. PMID:24811947

  1. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  2. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  3. Ambient fine particulate matter and ozone exposures induce inflammation in epicardial and perirenal adipose tissues in rats fed a high fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of inhaled air pollutant-mediated metabolic disease. Inflammation in the adipose tissues niches are widely believed to exert important effects on organ dysfunction. Recent data from both human and animal models suggest a role for inflammation and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inhalational exposure to concentrated ambient fine particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) exaggerates inflammation and oxidative stress in EAT and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT). Methods Eight- week-old Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high fructose diet (HFr) for 8 weeks, and then exposed to ambient AIR, CAPs at a mean of 356 μg/m3, O3 at 0.485 ppm, or CAPs (441 μg/m3) + O3 (0.497 ppm) in Dearborn, MI, 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 9 days over 2 weeks. Results EAT and PAT showed whitish color in gross, and less mitochondria, higher mRNA expression of white adipose specific and lower brown adipose specific genes than in brown adipose tissues. Exposure to CAPs and O3 resulted in the increase of macrophage infiltration in both EAT and PAT of HFr groups. Proinflammatory genes of Tnf-α, Mcp-1 and leptin were significantly upregulated while IL-10 and adiponectin, known as antiinflammatory genes, were reduced after the exposures. CAPs and O3 exposures also induced an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, and decrease in mitochondrial area in EAT and PAT. We also found significant increases in macrophages of HFr-O3 rats. The synergetic interaction of HFr and dirty air exposure on the inflammation was found in most of the experiments. Surprisingly, exposure to CAPs or O3 induced more significant inflammation and oxidative stress than co-exposure of CAPs and O3 in EAT and PAT. Conclusion EAT and PAT are both white adipose tissues. Short

  4. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  5. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  6. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 μm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. PMID:19617562

  7. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  8. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  9. Establishing the origin of particulate matter across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Martijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. In this paper we like to provide an overview of recent source apportionment studies aimed at PM and its precursors carried out at TNO. The source apportionment module that tracks the origin of modelled particulate matter distributions throughout a LOTOS-EUROS simulation will be explained. To optimally apply this technology dedicated emission inventories, e.g. fuel type specific, need to be generated. Applications to Europe shows that in northwestern Europe the contribution of transport and agricultural emissions dominate the PM mass concentrations, especially during episodic events. In eastern Europe, the domestic and energy sector are much more important. In southern Europe the picture is more mixed, although the frequent high levels of desert dust stand out. Evaluation of the source allocation against experimental data and PMF analyses is challenging as there is only a limited availability of source specific tracers or factors that can be used for direct comparison. Nonetheless, for the available tracers such as vanadium for heavy fuel oil combustion an evaluation is very well possible. The source apportionment technique can also be used to interpret particulate matter formation efficiencies. It will be shown that the conversion rates for the secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (NOx, NH3 and SO2) have changed during the last 20 years. A particular problem is related to the fact that CTMs systematically underestimate observed PM levels, which means that the contribution of certain source categories (natural, agriculture, combustion) are underestimated. Future developments needed to improve the source apportionment information concerning process knowledge, data assimilation as well as model implementation will be discussed. Specific challenges concerning the

  10. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  11. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

  12. Spatial statistics of atmospheric particulate matter in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shenghui; Wang, Yangjun; Huang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Quan; Lu, Zhiming; Shi, Xiang; Liu, Yulu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the spatial dynamics of the atmospheric particulate matters (resp. PM10 and PM2.5) are studied using turbulence methodologies. It is found experimentally that the spatial correlation function ρ(r) shows a log-law on the mesoscale range, i.e., 50 ≤ r ≤ 500 km, with an experimental scaling exponent β = 0.45. The spatial structure function shows a power-law behavior on the mesoscale range 90 ≤ r ≤ 500 km. The experimental scaling exponent ζ(q) is convex, showing that the intermittent correction is relevant in characterizing the spatial dynamic of particulate matter. The measured singularity spectrum f(α) also shows its multifractal nature. Experimentally, the particulate matter is more intermittent than the passive scalar, which could be partially due to the mesoscale movements of the atmosphere, and also due to local sources, such as local industry activities.

  13. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  14. [Particulate matter adsorption capacity of 10 evergreen species in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Zhang Wei-kang; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Xiao-yan

    2015-02-01

    In the atmosphere, high concentrations of air particles PM (Particulate matter) cause not only environmental pollution, but also serious harm to human body. Green plants as an air filter, can effectively improve the air quality in urban and suburb, and protect human health. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the adsorption capacity of air particulate matter of different species. Based on aerosol generator (QRJZFSQ-I), the leaf surface of ten plants including six evergreen trees and four evergreen shrubs were measured to determine the atmosphere adsorption (TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM10) capacity in Beijing, the results showed that: (1) There was obvious difference in the PM adsorption capacity of the leaf surface of different species, the highest were Cedrus deodara and Pinus tabuliformis, which were (18.95 ± 0.71) μg x cm(-2) and (14.61 ± 0.78) μg x cm(-2) respectively, while Abiesfabri was the minimum, which was (8.02 ± 0.4) μg x cm(-2); (2) There was also difference in the per unit leaf area particulate adhesion ability among different tree species, the tree species with the strongest leaf PM10 adhesion ability were Pinus tabulformis and Cedrus deodara, those with the strongest leaf PM2.5 adhesion ability were Cedrus deodara, Juniperus procumbens , Juniperus chinensis cv. kaizuka and Pinus tabuliformis, while those with the strongest leaf PM10 adhesion ability were Cedrus deodara, Juniperus procumbens, Abies fabri and Pinus tabuliformis; (3) The proportions of particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) in TSP were different. PM10 had mainly two kinds of trends in April-June, one was firstly decreasing and then increasing, with the main tree type of the shrub species; and the other was increasing, with the main tree type of the tree species. But this change trend was not obvious in PM2.5. PMID:26031064

  15. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  16. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  17. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient. PMID:23914523

  18. Particulate Matter Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso During 2002-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, N.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-05-01

    Time-series sediment trap data were collected between 2002 and 2005 from Cuenca Alfonso, a 400m-deep basin in Bahía de La Paz, a large embayment on the southwestern coast of the Gulf of California. Despite the lack of significant land drainage in this semi-dessert environment, terrigenous material, probably wind-born, dominates the sinking particulate matter. Peak lithogenic fluxes appear to be associated with higher frequencies of wind gusts stronger than 5 ms-1. Total mass flux fluctuated from week to week, and between years, averaging 277 gm-2y-1, essentially the same as radiometrically-determined accumulation rates of about 0.4 mmy-1 in cores of the underlying sediment. In 2003, the passage of 2 hurricanes induced high winds and flash flooding and the total mass flux offshore remained very high for two weeks following each event. This unusual sedimentation was equivalent to that of a full year without hurricanes and such events may account for some of the laminations found in cores. During most of 2005, on the other hand, sedimentation rates were lower than average. Although fluxes of all components tended to be highest during late fall and early winter, biogenic fluxes displayed peaks during all seasons of the year in Cuenca Alfonso. This is in contrast to the strong seasonal alternation between terrigenous sedimentation and diatom blooms observed in Guaymas Basin in the central Gulf. Furthermore, calcium carbonate dominated over biogenic silica within the marine component. Average annual fluxes of CaCO3, biogenic silica and POC were 52.5, 32.5 and 13.9 gm-2y-1, respectively.

  19. An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

    The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (<10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) fractions of ambient bioaerosols was undertaken for a six month period to evaluate the potential for long-term concentrations. These airborne bioaerosols can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-β- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

  20. Bromination of marine particulate organic matter through oxidative mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Ravel, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Although bromine (Br) is considered conservative in seawater, it exhibits a well established correlation with organic carbon in marine sediments. This carbon-bromine association was recently attributed to covalent bonding, with organobromine in sinking particulates providing a putative link between sedimentary organobromine and organic matter cycling in surface waters. We hypothesized that phytoplankton detritus, a major precursor of sedimentary organic matter, would be susceptible to bromination through oxidative attack. Through a series of model experiments, we demonstrate incorporation of Br into algal particulate detritus through peroxidative and photochemical mechanisms. Peroxidative bromination was enhanced by addition of exogenous bromoperoxidase, but the enzyme was not required for the reaction. Fenton-like reaction conditions also promoted bromination, especially under solar irradiation, implicating radical mechanisms in the euphotic zone as another abiotic source of brominated particulates. These reactions produced aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine, suggesting that lipid- and protein-rich components of algal membranes provide suitable substrates for bromination. Biogenic organobromines in certain genera of phytoplankton also appeared in both aliphatic and aromatic forms. Experimental evidence and samples from oceanic midwater sediment traps imply that the aromatic fraction is more stable than the aliphatic. These experiments establish Br as a versatile oxidant in the transformation of planktonic organic matter through both enzymatic and abiotic mechanisms. Organobromine may serve as a marker of oxidative breakdown of marine organic detritus, with the metastable component providing a short-lived indicator of early-stage oxidation. By altering the stability of aliphatic and aromatic moieties, bromination may affect the availability of organic matter to organisms, with consequences for the preservation and degradation of marine organic carbon.

  1. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  2. A study of suspended particulate matter in Lahore (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, K.; Riffat, Ruby; Shaukat, A.; Siddiqui, M. Ashraf

    1990-05-01

    The results obtained from an investigation of suspended particulate matter in the metropolitan city of Lahore (Pakistan) are reported and analysed in this paper. X-ray diffraction studies of the airborne matter collected from various urban and suburban sites show that non-clay minerals such as quartz, calcite and albite are contained in most of the samples in almost comparable amounts. Chemical analysis of some samples was carried out for complementing the x-ray diffraction data. The amount of quartz in the samples of dusty areas was found to be an order of magnitude more than in the samples of relatively cleaner areas. As the dust particles of these compounds are poor substrate for promoting nucleation of ice in the atmospheric clouds, they are liable to stay steadily in the atmosphere as pollutants. A comparison of the results of the airborne particulates and the soil samples collected from various sites show that the sources of quartz, calcite and albite in the airborne matter are both local and remote.

  3. Chemical composition of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Masataka; Matsui, Ichiro; Batdorj, Dashdondog; Jugder, Dulam; Mori, Ikuko; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Katsuyuki

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric pollution caused by airborne particulate matter in the winter season in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is a very serious problem. However, there is a complete lack of scientific observation data to define the situation prior to any remediation. PM10 and PM2.5 average monthly values obtained by continuous monitoring showed the concentrations of particles of both size categories exceeded 100 μg m-3 during November to February (winter). PM10 particles were sampled with filters in January (i.e. during the heating period) and June (i.e.non-heating period) of 2008 in central Ulaanbaatar. To determine the composition of urban airborne particulate matter we analyzed a range of ionic components, multiple elements including heavy metals, and organic and inorganic carbon (soot). We also measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of the soot. Total carbon (sum of organic carbon and inorganic carbon) accounted for 47% of the mass of the PM10 during the heating period and 33% during the non-heating period, and was the largest component of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C) of soot generated during the heating period (-23.4 ± 0.2‰) approximated the ratios for coal used in Ulaanbaatar (-21.3 to -24.4‰), while the ratios during the non-heating period (-27.1 ± 0.4‰) were clearly different from the coal values. In the heating period, a very high correlation was observed between soot and organic carbon, SO42-, NO3-, F-, Zn, As, and Pb, and we concluded that they were derived from coal combustion along with soot. In addition, the concentrations and their ratios relative to each other of Al, Fe, Ca, K, Na, Mg, and Mn hardly differed between the heating period and the non-heating period, and it was concluded that they were derived from soil dust.

  4. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  5. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (<5% of total concentrations). When we focused on PAHs bound to PM from tunnel-wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  6. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  7. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  8. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  9. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  10. Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Peyton L.; Morse, John C.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

  11. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  12. Correlation study between suspended particulate matter and DOAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Xie, Pinghua; Zhang, Yujun; Liu, Wenqing; Kuze, Hiroaki; Lagrosas, Nofel; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2006-05-01

    Continuous data of aerosol optical thickness monitored using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) are correlated with the concentration of ground-measured suspended particulate matter (SPM). A high correlation is found between the DOAS and the ground SPM data, making it possible to calculate the mass extinction efficiency of the aerosols in the atmosphere. It is found that the value of mean mass extinction efficiency (MEE) varies over a range of 2.6 13.7 m2 g-1, with smaller and larger values occurring for size distributions dominated by coarse and fine particles, respectively.

  13. Mineralogy of Particulate Matter Suspended in Sea Water.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M B; Ewing, M

    1965-07-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis of the particulate matter of water samples from the Caribbean Sea, one from the surface and one from a depth of 768 meters, shows that the material has a mineral composition comparable to that found in deep-sea sediments of the area. The minerals found in the water samples include illite, the most abundant clay; kaolinite; chlorite; talc; mixed-layer clay; quartz; feldspar; and amphibole. Kaolinite and chlorite are more abundant relative to illite in the sediments than in the suspended material. PMID:17734497

  14. Fe, Ni and Zn speciation, in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiodjio Sendja, Bridinette; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Vassura, Ivano; Giorgetti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The study of elemental speciation in atmospheric particulate matter is important for the assessment of the source of the particle as well for the evaluation of its toxicity. XANES data at Fe, Ni, and Zn K-edges are recorded on a sample of urban dust (from the Rimini area of Emilia Romagna region, Italy) deposited on a filter and on the NIST standard reference material 1648. Using linear combination fitting we give an indication of the chemical species of the three metals present in the samples.

  15. Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J; Walker, Larry R; Yapaulo, Renato A; Orita, Tetsuo; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai; Foster, David; Akard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

  16. Photoinduced particulate matter in a parenteral formulation for bisnafide, an experimental antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Rubino, J T; Chan, L L; Walker, J T; Segretario, J; Everlof, J G; Hussain, M A

    1999-08-01

    This paper assesses the cause of particulate formation in vials of the experimental antitumor agent bisnafide and investigates pharmaceutical techniques to reduce the number of particulates in the product. Solution preparation and particulate isolation were performed under Class 100 laminar air flow. Reversed-phase HPLC and infrared microscopy were used to characterize drug and isolated particulate matter, whereas a Hiac particle counter was used to quantify the particulate matter. Particulate matter was observed following agitation of the drug solutions and was found to be associated with specific lots of drug substance. HPLC of the isolated particulate matter indicated that the particulates consisted largely of bisnafide and impurities that were identified as the products of photodegradation, confirmed to be the result of the photolytic cleavage of bisnafide to form a poorly soluble aldehyde. The aldehyde may, in turn, interact with bisnafide molecules to form the particulate matter as suggested by the observed pH-dependent reversibility of the particulate phenomenon. The particulate matter could be reduced by protecting solutions of bisnafide from light during chemical synthesis and production of the dosage form and, alternatively, by reducing the solution pH to 3.0 or less, addition of surfactants below their critical micelle concentration, and removal of impurities by froth flotation of the bisnafide solutions. PMID:10434290

  17. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment. PMID:27310460

  18. Personal coarse particulate matter exposures in an adult cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ron; Case, Martin; Yeatts, Karin; Chen, Fu-Lin; Scott, James; Svendsen, Erik; Devlin, Robert

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM 10-2.5, PM 2.5). Data from these personal measurements were then compared to community-based measures that might typically represent surrogate measurements of exposure often used in epidemiological assessments. To determine personal exposures to various particulate matter (PM) size fractions, a recently evaluated personal PM monitor capable of direct PM 10-2.5 size fraction collection was used. Participants living in the central region of North Carolina and enrolled in the NCAAES were asked to wear the monitor attached to a supporting backpack for 24-h collection periods. These volunteers were monitored for 2 to 4 days with subsequent gravimetric analysis of their PM samples. Personal PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations were observed to be highly variable and ranged from 7.6 to 40.2 μg/m 3 over an 8-month period. The median for this measurement from all participants (50th percentile) was 13.7 μg/m 3. A coefficient of determination ( r2) of 0.02 was established for community-based PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations versus personal exposures. Similar coefficients established for PM 2.5 mass revealed only a modest improvement in agreement ( r2 = 0.12). Data from the exposure findings are reported here.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p < 0.01, it was demonstrated that all individual PAHs, including their totals, were bound to the PM2.5 fraction. Exceptions were seen in the cases of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, the concentrations of which fluctuated around the detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  20. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  1. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yixing; Xu, Xiaohan; Chu, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is now becoming an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous epidemiological, biomedical and clinical studies indicate that ambient particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms for PM-caused cardiovascular disease include directly toxicity to cardiovascular system or indirectly injury by inducing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in peripheral circulation. Here, we review the linking between PM exposure and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the observed PM induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26904258

  2. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  3. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  5. Effect of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Age on the Signaling Pathway of Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Murine Aorta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ultrafine particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure. Advanced age is one ...

  6. 77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base...

  7. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  8. Urban-scale variability of ambient particulate matter attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M. T.; Hirshel, N.; Broday, D. M.

    Real-time sampling of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the size range 0.23-10 μm and of carbonaceous matter concentrations has been carried out in a carefully designed field campaign in proximate paired neighborhoods in Haifa, Israel. The paired sites are characterized by a similar population density and neighborhood-wise socioeconomic (deprivation) index but show distinct canopy coverage. The data indicate clear sub-urban (neighborhood) scale variations in any measured PM attribute, such as concentrations, size distribution, and carbonaceous matter content. Mean ambient PM levels were comparatively higher than in other urban studies whereas carbonaceous airborne PM concentrations were lower. On top of the diurnal and seasonal variability and in spite of the significant regional effect of the semi-arid climate, local emissions and removal processes affect the PM concentrations to which people residing in urbanized regions are exposed. Analysis of possible mechanisms that could affect the observed spatial sub-urban PM differences, including local meteorology and emissions, reveal that sub-urban variability of removal processes has a major influence on ambient PM levels. Observations suggest that on top of the regional air masses which affect the city air quality and emissions from local sources, a normally unnoticed removal process, showing urban scale variability, is interception by trees and dense vegetation. In particular, the observed sub-urban variability in ambient PM concentrations is attributed, in part, to local variation of removal processes, among them the neighborhood-wise deposition on available surfaces, including canopy.

  9. Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Heavily Industrial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarini, Simone; Ynoue, Rita Yuri

    2011-01-01

    A characterization of PM aerosols collected in Cubatão, Brazil is presented. Throughout 2009, 5 sampling campaings were carried out at CEPEMA (Centro de Capacitação e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente da Universidade de São Paulo), in the vicinity of PETROBRAS oil refinery. Mini-vol portable air sampler was deployed to collect coarse and fine particles. Size-fractionated particle samples were collected by a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) device. Gravimetric analysis showed three peaks for mass size distributions: the After-Filter stage (cut point diameter of less than 0,1μm), stage 7A (d=0,32μm) and stage 3A (d= 3,2μm). Fine particle matter (FPM) concentrations were almost always lower than coarse particle matter (CPM) concentrations. Comparison between the PM2.5 (particulate matter lower than 2.5μg.m-3) measurements by the MOUDI and Mini-Vol sampler reveals good agreement. However, MOUDI underestimates CPM. Reflectance analysis showed that almost all the Black Carbon is found in the Mini-Vol FPM and lower stages of the MOUDI, with higher concentrations at the After-Filter. The atmospheric loading of PM 2.5 was elevated at night, mainly due to more stable atmospheric conditions. Aerosol samples were analyzed for water- soluble ions, black carbon (BC), and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques.

  10. Characterisation of particulate matter in different types of archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mašková, Ludmila; Smolík, Jiří; Vodička, Petr

    2015-04-01

    To determine the composition of particulate matter (PM) in the indoor environments of four different types of archives (three naturally ventilated and one filtered), intensive size-resolved sampling was performed for four seasons of the year. For reconstituting indoor PM, nine aerosol components were considered. Organic matter was the dominant component of both fine and coarse fractions and represented approximately 50-80% of the PM. In the fine fraction, the next most abundant components were elemental carbon and sulphate, and in the coarse fraction the next most abundant were crustal matter, sulphate and nitrate. The resulting mass closure explained 95(±13)% and 115(±38)% of the gravimetric indoor PM in the fine and coarse size fractions, respectively. The results revealed that all the particles found indoors can be considered to be potentially threatening to the stored materials. The results also showed that the most important source of indoor PM in the naturally ventilated archives was penetration from the outdoor air, whereas in the filtered archive, the concentrations of particles were strongly reduced. In naturally ventilated archives the influence of domestic heating, road traffic and local sources (industrial pollution, camp fires) was observed. Furthermore, activities of the staff were identified as an indoor source of coarse particles in all archives.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  12. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  13. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  16. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.2276 Section 52.2276 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2276 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The Texas... approved until the State satisfactorily completes the following items: (1) Draft SIP revision...

  18. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  20. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  2. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  4. 75 FR 45075 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... the proposed rule ``Federal Implementation Plans to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone'' (Transport Rule) which is published elsewhere in today's issue of the Federal...

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from animal operations have been identified as a major air pollutant source with health and environmental impacts. Nearly 600 million broilers are produced annually on the Delmarva Peninsula, making it a hot spot for particulate matter emissions from poultry houses....

  6. 77 FR 25164 - Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for..., Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Limited Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of Alaska on September 20,...

  7. SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Particulate Matter Panel Studies were a series of longitudinal human exposure studies used to characterize personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants to that of pollutants of ambient origin. Participants were monitored over time (28 d...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  9. 40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated May 29, 1987, the Alabama Department...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  12. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.578 Section 52.578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 26, 1987, the Georgia Department...

  13. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  14. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency performed a particulate matter (PM) exposure assessment based on data from the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study was a one-year investigation of PM ...

  15. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January...

  18. Particulate matter dynamics in naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E. L.

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) concentrations and ventilation rates, in two naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns, were continuously monitored for two years. The first barn (B1) housed 400 fresh lactating cows, while the second barn (B2) housed 835 non-fresh lactating cows and 15 bulls. The relationships between PM concentrations and accepted governing parameters (environmental conditions and cattle activity) were examined. In comparison with other seasons, PM concentrations were lowest in winter. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations in spring and autumn were relatively higher than those in summer. Overall: the concentrations in the barns and ambient air, for all the PM categories (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP), exhibited non-normal positively skewed distributions, which tended to overestimate mean or average concentrations. Only concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 increased with ambient air temperature (R2 = 0.60-0.82), whereas only concentrations of TSP increased with cattle activity. The mean respective emission rates of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP for the two barns ranged between 1.6-4.0, 11.9-15.0, and 48.7-52.5 g d-1 cow-1, indicating similar emissions from the two barns.

  19. Particulate Matter Concentration Analysis over Europe and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Vountas, Marco; Xue, Yong; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    PM2.5 is particulate matter (PM) with diameter less than 2.5 micrometers, which is a significant indicator for air quality. Both ground based measurement and satellite-derived PM concentration can provide valuable information to policy-maker, scientist and citizen. van Donkelaar et al. (2006) developed the first approach which provides a potential of obtaining global PM2.5 concentration. And the main idea of Van Donkelaar et al. (2006) follows a simple and efficient way for converting AOD to PM concentration by a converting-factor calculated from chemical transport model named GEOS-Chem. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics PM concentration over Europe and East China will be analyzed utilizing both ground-based measurements and satellite-derived results. Some extreme atmospheric cases like Beijing haze in 2013 will also be included and analyzed.

  20. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  1. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    SciTech Connect

    Branis, Martin; Safranek, Jiri

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school

  2. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  3. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  4. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  5. Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan E; Smith, Benjamin W; Winefordner, James D

    2002-05-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was explored as a means to measure atmospheric optical extinction. Ambient air was sampled through a window on the campus of the University of Florida and transported to a ring-down cell fashioned from standard stainless steel vacuum components. When a copper vapor laser operating at 10 kHz is employed, this arrangement allowed for nearly continuous monitoring of atmospheric extinction at 510 and 578 nm. We have characterized the system performance in terms of detection limit and dynamic range and also monitored a change in atmospheric extinction during a nearby wildfire and fireworks exhibition. The sensitivity and compatibility with automation of the technique renders it useful as a laboratory-based measurement of airborne particulate matter. PMID:12033292

  6. Discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter sources with magnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, S.; Egli, R.; Heller, F.; Nourgaliev, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    The harmful effects of anthropogenically derived particulate matter (PM) on human health have attracted the attention of environmental research in recent years. Particles < 10 μ m (PM10) are of special interest because they can be inhaled deeply into the lung. Since magnetic minerals are common in natural and anthropogenic PM, magnetic bulk properties have been used to characterise urban pollution. Bulk magnetic properties, however, do not always correlate well with the total PM mass because of the variability of different dust sources (Muxworthy, 2001). The magnetic contribution of the different PM10 sources may be quantified using a linear unmixing model (Egli, in press). The sources are identified by analysing magnetic remanence demagnetisation curves of samples collected in characteristic sites (rural regions, sub-urban areas and city centres with high traffic frequencies) with variable degree of pollution (< 1 % to 80 % of the total PM10 mass). Additional samples documenting specific dust contamination have been taken in a motorway tunnel and in an underground railway station. The magnetic results are compared with a detailed source analysis based on extensive chemical measurements (Hüglin, 2000). The main pollution sources are combustion products of motor vehicles and waste incineration. The correlation between individual magnetic components and the mass contribution of different PM10 sources suggests the use of appropriate magnetic methods as a valuable and rapid tool for monitoring pollution sources. Egli, R., Analysis of the field dependence of remanent magnetization curves, Journal of Geophysical Research, in press. Hüglin, C., Anteil des Strassenverkehrs an den PM10 und PM2.5 Immissionen, Bericht C4, NFP 41, BUWAL, Bern, 2000. Muxworthy, A. R., J. Matzka and N. Petersen, Comparison of magnetic parameters of urban atmospheric particulate matter with pollution and meteorological data, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 4379-4386, 2001.

  7. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  8. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; van Gijlswijk, René; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands for 2007-2009 at the source sector level, distinguishing between national and foreign sources. The results suggest that 70-80% of modeled PM10 and 80-95% of PM2.5 in the Netherlands is of anthropogenic origin. About 1/3 of anthropogenic PM10 is of Dutch origin and 2/3 originates in foreign countries. Agriculture and transport are the Dutch sectors with the largest contribution to PM10 mass in the Netherlands, whereas the foreign contribution is more equally apportioned to road transport, other transport, industry, power generation and agriculture. For the PM2.5 fraction, a larger share is apportioned to foreign and anthropogenic origin than for PM10, but the same source sectors are dominant. The national contribution to PM levels is significantly higher in the densely populated Randstad area than for the country on average and areas close to the borders. In general, the Dutch contribution to the concentration of primary aerosol is larger than for secondary species. The sectoral origin varies per component and is location and time dependent. During peak episodes, natural sources are less important than under normal conditions, whereas especially road transport and agriculture become more important.

  9. Fetal growth and maternal exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Dejmek, J; Selevan, S G; Benes, I; Solanský, I; Srám, R J

    1999-01-01

    Prior studies reported an association between ambient air concentrations of total suspended particles and SO2 during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined the possible impact of particulate matter up to 10 microm (PM10) and up to 2.5 microm (PM2. 5) in size on intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) risk in a highly polluted area of Northern Bohemia (Teplice District). The study group includes all singleton full-term births of European origin over a 2-year period in the Teplice District. Information on reproductive history, health, and lifestyle was obtained from maternal questionnaires. The mean concentrations of pollutants for each month of gestation were calculated using continuous monitoring data. Three intervals (low, medium, and high) were constructed for each pollutant (tertiles). Odds ratios (ORs) for IUGR for PM10 and PM2.5 levels were generated using logistic regression for each month of gestation after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Adjusted ORs for IUGR related to ambient PM10 levels in the first gestational month increased along the concentration intervals: medium 1.62 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-2.46], high 2.64 (CI, 1.48-4.71). ORs for PM2.5 were 1.26 (CI, 0.81-1.95) and 2.11 (CI, 1. 20-3.70), respectively. No other associations of IUGR risk with particulate matter were found. Influence of particles or other associated air pollutants on fetal growth in early gestation is one of several possible explanations of these results. Timing of this effect is compatible with a current hypothesis of IUGR pathogenesis. Seasonal factors, one of the other possible explanations, is less probable. More investigation is required to examine these findings and alternative explanations. Images Figure 1 PMID:10339448

  10. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land. PMID:22866575

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

  12. Evaluation of particulate matter abatement strategies for almond harvest.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, William B; Downey, Daniel; Giles, D Ken; Capareda, Sergio C

    2011-04-01

    Almond harvest accounts for substantial PM10 (particulate matter [PM] < or =10 microm in nominal aerodynamic diameter) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper evaluates the effects of using reduced-pass sweepers and lower harvester separation fan speeds (930 rpm) on lowering PM emissions from almond harvesting operations. In-canopy measurements of PM concentrations were collected along with PM concentration measurements at the orchard boundary; these were used in conjunction with on-site meteorological data and inverse dispersion modeling to back-calculate emission rates from the measured concentrations. The harvester discharge plume was measured as a function of visible plume opacity during conditioning operations. Reduced-pass sweeping showed the potential for reducing PM emissions, but results were confounded because of differences in orchard maturity and irrigation methods. Fuel consumption and sweeping time per unit area were reduced when comparing a reduced-pass sweeper to a conventional sweeper. Reducing the separation fan speed from 1080 to 930 rpm led to reductions in PM emissions. In general, foreign matter levels within harvested product were nominally affected by separation fan speed in the south (less mature) orchard; however, in samples conditioned using the lower fan speed from the north (more mature) orchard, these levels were unacceptable. PMID:21516936

  13. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  14. Photochemical production of singlet oxygen from particulate organic matter.

    PubMed

    Appiani, Elena; McNeill, Kristopher

    2015-03-17

    Dissolved organic matter is established as one of the most relevant photosensitizers in aquatic environments, producing singlet oxygen (1O2) alongside other photochemically produced reactive intermediates. While the production of 1O2 from DOM has been well studied, the relative importance of particulate organic matter (POM) to the overall 1O2 production is less well understood. POM is known to play an important role in pollutant fate through the sorption and transport of hydrophobic pollutants. If POM is directly involved in 1O2 production, sorbed molecules would be expected to undergo enhanced photodegradation. In this work, synthetic POM was prepared by coating silica particles with commercial humic acid. The photochemical behavior of these POM samples was compared to dissolved commercial humic acids (DOM). Suspended natural sediment was also studied to test the environmental relevance of the synthetic POM model. Synthetic POM particles appear to simulate well the 1O2-production of suspended sediment. The 1O2 concentrations experienced by POM-sorbed probe molecules was up to 30% higher than experienced by DOM-sorbed ones, even though the aqueous concentration of 1O2 in irradiated POM suspensions was much lower than the analogous DOM solutions. These results were interpreted with a reaction-diffusion model, which suggested that the production rate of 1O2 by POM is lower than DOM, but the loss of 1O2 from the POM-phase is also lower than DOM. Based on the experimental results of this study, calculations were conducted to estimate the impact of removing POM on 1O2-mediated processes. These calculations indicate that compounds with a log Koc value near 4 will be most affected by removal of POM and that the magnitude of the effect is proportional to the fraction of the total organic matter represented by POM. This study demonstrates that particles can play an important role in the degradation of organic compounds via aquatic photochemistry. PMID:25674663

  15. Noise Pollution and How it Can Indirectly Affect the Amounts of Particulate Matter in the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, S.; Power, J.; Pham, D.; Preston, K. B.; Iqbal, A.

    2007-12-01

    Human and animal activity that occurs on gravel and dirt roads tends to contribute to high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Birds molt their feathers, automobiles emit unused residues, and humans and animals stir up debris on the ground. Not only do these activities generate particulate matter, but they also generate noise. The aim of our study was to determine if a direct correlation exists between the amount of particulate matter and the noise levels in select areas within the Lake Merritt Park region of downtown Oakland, California. In addition, our research was aimed at determining if the level of noise at various locations conforms to City of Oakland regulations. Over a four-week period we measured noise levels and particulate matter concentrations at 27 different sites within the Park region. Preliminary results indicate that at a construction site and a residential area near the lake a direct correlation between our two variables existed; high noise level accompanied high particulate matter while low noise level accompanied low particulate matter, respectively. However, at the majority of the areas around the lake either indirect or no correlation was observed. Based on our results thus far, we conclude that noise levels are not indicative of particulate matter levels and that noise levels around Lake Merritt do conform to the city's regulations.

  16. Airborne Particulate Matter Inhibits Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption in Mice via Oxidant Generation

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Snyder, Colleen; Bellmeyer, Amy; Wang, Helena; Hawkins, Keenan; Soberanes, Saul; Welch, Lynn C.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Kamp, David; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G. R. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveolar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambient air in Düsseldorf, Germany through a single intratracheal instillation, and alveolar fluid clearance and measurements of lung injury were made. Exposure to even very low doses of particulate matter (10 μg) resulted in a significant reduction in alveolar fluid clearance that was maximal 24 h after the exposure, with complete resolution after 7 d. This was paralleled by a decrease in lung Na,K-ATPase activity. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we measured plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase abundance in A549 cells and Na,K-ATPase activity in primary rat alveolar type II cells after exposure to particulate matter in the presence or abscence of the combined superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic EUK-134 (5 μM). Membrane but not total protein abundance of the Na,K-ATPase was decreased after exposure to particulate matter, as was Na,K-ATPase activity. This decrease was prevented by the combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134. The intratracheal instillation of particulate matter results in alveolar epithelial injury and decreased alveolar fluid clearance, conceivably due to downregulation of the Na,K-ATPase. PMID:16439801

  17. In-stack condensible particulate matter measurements and issues.

    PubMed

    Corio, L A; Sherwell, J

    2000-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emitted from fossil fuel-fired units can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM typically is not measured because federal and most state regulations do not require sources to do so. To determine the magnitude of condensible PM emissions relative to filterable PM emissions and to better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 202 (for in-stack condensible PM10) and EPA Method 201/201A (for in-stack filterable PM10) results were conducted. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises approximately three-fourths (76%) of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil- and natural gas-fired boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 50% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil-, natural gas-, and kerosene-fired combustion turbines showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 69% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Based on these limited measurements, condensible PM can make a significant contribution to total PM10 emissions for fossil fuel-fired units. A positive bias (indicating more condensible PM than is actually emitted) may exist in the measured data due to the conversion of dissolved sulfur dioxide to sulfate compounds in the sampling procedure. In addition, these Method 202 results confirm that condensible PM, on average, is composed mostly of inorganic matter, regardless of the type of fuel burned. PMID:10680350

  18. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nina A.; Allen, Ryan W.; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D.; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration. PMID:20948956

  19. Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.

    PubMed

    Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality. PMID:17537480

  20. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. PMID:26024349

  1. Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

  2. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Alters Antimycobacterial Respiratory Epithelium Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Santiago, César E.; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J.; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Torres, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB. PMID:25847963

  3. Air pollution particulate matter alters antimycobacterial respiratory epithelium innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, César E; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Torres, Martha; Schwander, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB. PMID:25847963

  4. Hormesis for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5).

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis of hormesis - that substances that harm health at high exposures can reduce risks below background at low exposures, e.g., if they activate defenses without overwhelming them - becomes important for practical policy making if it holds for regulated substances. Recently, the U.S. EPA concluded that reductions in ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air caused trillions of dollars worth of human health benefits for a compliance cost of only about $65 billion per year. This conclusion depends on an unverified assumption of a positive, causal, straight-line relation between PM2.5 concentrations and mortality risks. We review empirical data on PM2.5 and mortality risks (and their precursors, inflammatory responses) and conclude that the PM2.5 concentration-response relation may be J-shaped, rather than linear. This possibility implies that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment may well have produced no (or negative) human health benefits, rather than the trillions of dollars worth of reduced mortalities ascribed to it by EPA; and that attempts to achieve further risk-reduction benefits by further reducing PM2.5 concentrations may be counterproductive. This creates a very high value for scientific information that better reveals the true shape of the PM2.5 concentration-response function at and below current ambient levels. PMID:22740783

  5. Molecular composition of organic fine particulate matter in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. P.; Yue, Z. W.; Tropp, R. J.; Kohl, S. D.; Chow, J. C.

    Organic fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX between March 1997 and March 1998 was analyzed to determine the concentration of individual organic compounds. Samples from four sites were analyzed including two industrial locations (Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM-3) site in Channelview and Clinton Drive site near the Ship Channel Turning Basin), one suburban location (Bingle Drive site in Northwest Houston) and one background site (Galveston Island). At the three urban locations, samples were divided into three seasonal sample aggregates (spring, summer and winter), while at the background site a single annual average sample pool was used. Between 10 and 16 individual samples were pooled to get aggregate samples with enough organic carbon mass for analysis. Overall, 82 individual organic compounds were quantified. These include molecular markers which are compounds unique to specific fine particle sources and can be used to track the relative contribution of source emissions to ambient fine particle levels. The differences both spatially and temporally in these tracers can be used to evaluate the variability in emission source strengths.

  6. Occurrence of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in indoor particulate matter.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, U; Schweizer, E; Schweinsberg, F; Wodarz, R; Rettenmeier, A W

    1996-01-01

    In the course of a routine investigation concerned with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of dust collected in classrooms of a junior high school, a group of electron capture detector (ECD)-sensitive compounds with high boiling points were found in addition to PCBs. Using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, these compounds were identified as polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs). Additional measurements indicated that the PCTs were present only in particulate matter collected from the tops of fluorescent light frames but not in air samples obtained concomitantly in the classrooms. Attempts to identify the PCT emission source were unsuccessful. A survey of the literature revealed that PCTs are ubiquitously distributed environmental contaminants, although no data on their indoor occurrence have been reported to date. In view of the toxic effects of PCTs, which seem to be as important as those of PCBs, further attention should be given to the possible presence of PCTs in indoor environments. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8959406

  7. Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity

    PubMed Central

    Godri, Krystal J.; Duggan, Sean T.; Fuller, Gary W.; Baker, Tim; Green, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Mudway, Ian S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory health is associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective Our goal was to quantify the contribution of WTS emissions to ambient PM mass concentrations and oxidative potential. Methods PM with a diameter < 10 μm (PM10) samples were collected daily close to a WTS. PM10 mass concentrations measurements were source apportioned to estimate local versus background sources. PM oxidative potential was assessed using the extent of antioxidant depletion from a respiratory tract lining fluid model. Total trace metal and bioavailable iron concentrations were measured to determine their contribution to PM oxidative potential. Results Elevated diurnal PM10 mass concentrations were observed on all days with WTS activity (Monday–Saturday). Variable PM oxidative potential, bioavailable iron, and total metal concentrations were observed on these days. The contribution of WTS emissions to PM at the sampling site, as predicted by microscale wind direction measurements, was correlated with ascorbate (r = 0.80; p = 0.030) and glutathione depletion (r = 0.76; p = 0.046). Increased PM oxidative potential was associated with aluminum, lead, and iron content. Conclusions PM arising from WTS activity has elevated trace metal concentrations and, as a consequence, increased oxidative potential. PM released by WTS activity should be considered a potential health risk to the nearby residential community. PMID:20368130

  8. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2015-07-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. PMID:25795175

  9. Monitoring of airborne particulate matter at mountainous urban sites.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Dutta, Tanushree; Park, Wha Me; Hong, Jong-Ki; Jung, Kweon; Brown, Richard J C

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of various size fractions (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0) of particulate matter (PM) were measured at two mountainous sites, Buk Han (BH) and Gwan AK (GA), along with one ground reference site at Gwang Jin (GJ), located in Seoul, South Korea for the 4 years from 2010 to 2013. The daily average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 at BH were 47.9 ± 32.5, 37.0 ± 24.6, 20.6 ± 12.9, and 15.3 ± 9.53 μg m(-3), respectively. These values were slightly larger than those measured at GA while much lower than those measured at the reference site (GJ). Seasonal variations in PM concentrations were consistent across all locations with a relative increase in concentrations observed in spring and winter. Correlation analysis showed clear differences in PM concentrations between the mountainous sites and the reference site. Analysis of these PM concentrations indicated that the distribution of PM in the mountainous locations was affected by a number of manmade sources from nearby locations, including both traffic and industrial emissions. PMID:27468848

  10. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  11. TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

  12. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  13. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  14. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  15. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  16. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  17. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) for elderl...

  18. Peculiarities of the formation of suspended particulate matter fields in the Eastern Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Sergienko, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of perennial studies, the features of formations of suspended particulate matter fields were revealed depending on the evolution of synoptic processes and the river runoff. The variability in the content and distribution structure of suspended particulate matter during the ice-free period depends on variable mobilization and the contribution of terrigenous material under conditions of the Eastern Arctic periglacial lithogenesis. The northern winds and storms activate erosion of the coastal thermoabrasion benches and resuspension of sediments of the submarine coastal slope, resulting in an anomalous amount of suspended particulate matter in the coastal-shelf waters. Insignificant waves and dominant weak southern winds lead to other sedimentation conditions caused by suspended particulate matter accumulation.

  19. Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

  20. Soluble Components of Ultraflne Particulate Matter Stimulate Endothelial H202 Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of evidence shows a strong association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular health effects such as atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia. The mechanisms by which PM causes cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown, but there is increasi...

  1. THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

  2. EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Several hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem from PM transitio...

  3. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  4. Trueness, Precision, and Detectability for Sampling and Analysis of Organic Species in Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recovery. precision, limits of detection and quantitation, blank levels, calibration linearity, and agreement with certified reference materials were determined for two classes of organic components of airborne particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes usin...

  5. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  6. PEROXIDES AND MACROPHAGES IN THE TOXICITY OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators will test the hypothesis that oxidants in ambient air, such as hydrogen peroxide, may be transported by fine particulate matter into the lungs and thus contribute to lung tissue injury.

  7. Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

  8. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  9. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  11. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AMONG U.S. VETERANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter (PM) can result in increased mortality and morbidity. The susceptible population, the nature of morbidity and cause of death, however, have not been clearly identified. To accomplish these ...

  12. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  13. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health Effects and Ecological Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous...

  14. RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DATA USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION REVIEW OF EXISTING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for apportioning sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm are reviewed. Numerous procedural decisions must be made and algorithmic parameters selected when analyzing PM data with PMF. However, few publications docu...

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

  16. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  17. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  19. MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION PLATFORM (MAQSIP): INITIAL APPLICATIONS AND PERFORMANCE FOR TROPOSPHERIC OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides an overview of the formulation, process considerations, and performance for simulating tropospheric ozone and particulate matter distributions of the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP). MAQSIP is a comprehensive atmospheric chemistry/tran...

  20. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM A HIGHWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between proximity to highway traffic and increased respiratory symptoms. This study was initiated to determine the contribution of ambient particulate matter (PM) to these observed effects. Ambient PM was collected for 2 weeks ...

  1. REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM UPON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT AND ATTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent personal exposure panel studies and monitoring programs addressing fine particulate matter (PM) and associated co-pollutants have elucidated the physical and statistical relationships between personal exposures, residential indoor concentrations (and sources), concentratio...

  3. AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

  4. SYSTEMIC TRANSLOCATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS FOLLOWING A SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL INSTILLATION IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM associated metals from the lungs into systemic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured elemental content of lungs, pla...

  5. Theoretical study of the impact of particulate matter gravitational settling on ambient coarse particulate matter monitoring for agricultural emissions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingjuan; Parnell, Calvin B; Buser, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    The particle size distributions (PSDs) of particulate matter (PM) in the downwind plume from simulated sources of a cotton gin were analyzed to determine the impact of PM settling on PM monitoring. The PSD of PM in a plume varies as a function of gravitational settling. Gravitational settling has a greater impact on the downwind PSD from sources with PSDs having larger mass median diameters (MMDs). The change in PSD is a function of the source PSD of emitted PM, wind speed, and downwind distance. Both MMD and geometric standard deviation (GSD) in the downwind plume decrease with an increase in downwind distance and source MMD. The larger the source MMD, the greater the change in the downwind MMD and GSD. Also, the greater the distance from the source to the sampler, the greater the change in the downwind MMD and GSD. Variations of the PSD in the downwind plume significantly impact PM10 sampling errors associated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) PM10 samplers. For the emission sources with MMD > 10 microm, the PM10 oversampling rate increases with an increase in downwind distance caused by the decrease of GSD of the PSD in the downwind plume. Gravitational settling of particles does not help reduce the oversampling problems associated with the EPA PM10 sampler. Furthermore, oversampling rates decrease with an increase of the wind speed. PMID:17269236

  6. In vitro particulate matter exposure causes direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on cardiomyocyte function.

    PubMed

    Gorr, Matthew W; Youtz, Dane J; Eichenseer, Clayton M; Smith, Korbin E; Nelin, Timothy D; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Wold, Loren E

    2015-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure induces a pathological response from both the lungs and the cardiovascular system. PM is capable of both manifestation into the lung epithelium and entrance into the bloodstream. Therefore, PM has the capacity for both direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on the heart. In the present studies, we exposed isolated rat cardiomyocytes to ultrafine particulate matter (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) and examined their contractile function and calcium handling ability. In another set of experiments, lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o- or Calu-3) were cultured on permeable supports that allowed access to both the basal (serosal) and apical (mucosal) media; the basal media was used to culture cardiomyocytes to model the indirect, lung-mediated effects of PM on the heart. Both the direct and indirect treatments caused a reduction in contractility as evidenced by reduced percent sarcomere shortening and reduced calcium handling ability measured in field-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with various anti-oxidants before culture with DEP was able to partially prevent the contractile dysfunction. The basal media from lung epithelial cells treated with PM contained several inflammatory cytokines, and we found that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was a key trigger for cardiomyocyte dysfunction. These results indicate the presence of both direct and indirect effects of PM on cardiomyocyte function in vitro. Future work will focus on elucidating the mechanisms involved in these separate pathways using in vivo models of air pollution exposure. PMID:25957217

  7. Analysis of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Christian Mark; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2014-10-01

    The mass fraction of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated at a subtropical urban aerosol observatory (TARO, 25.0 °N, 121.5 °E) in Taipei, Taiwan during August 2013. In particular, an integrated Denuder-FDMS-TEOM system was employed to study the effectiveness of the coupling of FDMS and TEOM instruments. The charcoal and MgO denuders used in this study performed a removal efficiency of 89 and 95% for positive interferences in OC and nitrate measurements, respectively, and did not induce a significant particle loss during the field campaign, suggesting that denuders should be considered as a standard device in PM2.5 instrumentation. Analysis on the mass concentration and speciation data found that, as a result of SVM loss, FRM-based measurement underestimated PM2.5 by 21% in our case. Coupling FDMS to TEOM significantly improved the bias in PM2.5 mass concentration from -25% to -14%. The negative bias in FDMS-TEOM was attributed to the failure of FDMS in recovering the mass of lost SVOMs in PM2.5. The results of this study highlight the significance of SVM in a subtropical urban environment, give a warning of underestimated health risk relevant to PM2.5 exposure, and necessitate further development of instrument and/or technique to provide accurate ambient levels of fine particulate matters.

  8. Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter influences the Earth’s energy balance directly, by altering or absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by influencing cloud formation. Whether organic particulate matter exists in a liquid, semi-solid, or solid state can affect particle growth and reactivity, and hence particle number, size and composition. The properties and abundance of particles, in turn, influence their direct and indirect effects on energy balance. Non-liquid particulate matter was identified over a boreal forest of Northern Europe, but laboratory studies suggest that, at higher relative humidity levels, particles can be liquid. Here we measure the physical state of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 1 μm over the tropical rainforest of central Amazonia in 2013. A real-time particle rebound technique shows that the particulate matter was liquid for relative humidity greater than 80% for temperatures between 296 and 300 K during both the wet and dry seasons. Combining these findings with the distributions of relative humidity and temperature in Amazonia, we conclude that near-surface sub-micrometre particulate matter in Amazonia is liquid most of the time during both the wet and the dry seasons.

  9. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  10. A survey of particulate matter on california dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Johnny; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc B; Mitchell, Diane; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 yr, individual California dairy operations have grown in size; however, little is known about the distribution and determinants of particulate matter (PM) concentrations on these dairies. Elevated exposure to PM is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular health effects, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of PM and all inhalable PM (0-100 µm) on California dairies. Samplers were placed at various locations (e.g., milking parlor, grain storage area, drylot corral, and freestall barns) on 13 different dairies to collect PM and all inhalable PM during the 2008 summer months. The PM and all inhalable PM concentrations varied between different areas on a dairy and from dairy to dairy. Geometric mean concentrations for PM and inhalable PM were 24 µg m (range, 2-116 µg m) and 332 μg m (range, 74-1690 µg m). A key variable for explaining variation in PM concentrations with a mixed effects model was regional background ambient concentrations of PM No significant differences were observed in mean concentrations between upwind and downwind fence line concentrations (adjusted geometric mean ratio [AGMR] = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.3), although significant differences were found between upwind and central location mean values (AGMR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; < 0.01). These results indicate dairy PM sources and, thus, elevated occupational exposure. Covariates, such as the age of the dairy and number of cows in the freestall barn and drylot corral, were important variables in explaining PM concentration variability. Levels of PM were lower compared with dairies in other U.S. states and other countries. PMID:23673737

  11. Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Erin O.; Noonan, Curtis W.; Allen, Ryan W.; Weiler, Emily C.; Ward, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (< 2.5 μm) and PNCs (particles/cm3) in six size fractions (0.30–0.49, 0.50–0.99, 1.00–2.49, 2.5–5.0, 5.0–10.0, 10.0+ μm). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5) μg/m3 during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1) μg/m3 during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd) = 0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings. PMID:25701812

  12. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  13. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P.; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the

  14. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  15. Atmospheric Particulate Matter Pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WENTAO; PRIMBS, TOBY; TAO, SHU; ZHU, TONG; SIMONICH, STACI L. MASSEY

    2009-01-01

    Size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples (including PM2.5 and PM10) were collected at Peking University in Northwestern Beijing, China for a 2 week period prior to the Olympics, during the 2 week period of the Olympics, and for a 4 week period following the 2008 Olympics, during both source control and non-source control period. PM10 concentrations in this study were high correlated with, but a factor of 1.3 times higher than, the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau's PM10 concentrations at near-by sites because of differences in the measurement methods used. The mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were statistically different, and lower by 31 and 35%, during the Olympic period compared to the non-Olympic period. However, the PM concentrations were not statistically different between the source control and non-source control periods. While meteorological parameters (air masses from the south and precipitation) accounted for 40% of the total variation in PM10 concentration, source control accounted for 16%, suggesting that meteorology accounted for more of the variation in PM concentration than source control measures. The PM10 concentrations in Beijing during the Olympic period were 2.9, 3.5, and 1.9 times higher than those in Atlanta, Sydney and Athens. In addition, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations during the Olympic period exceeded the WHO 24-hour guideline 100% and 81% of the time, respectively. Finally, the PM10 concentrations in October, November, and December 2008 were reduced by 9% to 27% compared to the same months in 2007, suggesting that the Olympic source control efforts (and possibly a down turn in the economy) have resulted in lower PM10 concentrations in Beijing. PMID:19708359

  16. Particulate matter assessment of a wetland in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dongdong; Liu, Jiakai; Zhu, Lijuan; Mo, Lichun; Zhang, Zhenming

    2015-10-01

    To increase the knowledge on the particulate matter of a wetland in Beijing, an experimental study on the concentration and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was implemented in Beijing Olympic Forest Park from 2013 to 2014. This study analyzed the meteorological factors and deposition fluxes at different heights and in different periods in the wetlands. The results showed that the mean mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were the highest at 06:00-09:00 and the lowest at 15:00-18:00. And the annual concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in the wetland followed the order of dry period (winter)>normal water period (spring and autumn)>wet period (summer), with the concentration in the dry period significantly higher than that in the normal water and wet periods. The chemical composition of PM2.5 in the wetlands included NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-), which respectively accounted for 12.7%, 1.0%, 0.8%, 0.7%, 46.6%, 33.2%, and 5.1% of the average annual composition. The concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in the wetlands had a significant positive correlation with relative humidity, a negative correlation with wind speed, and an insignificant negative correlation with temperature and radiation. The daily average dry deposition amount of PM10 in the different periods followed the order of dry period>normal water period>wet period, and the daily average dry deposition amount of PM2.5 in the different periods was dry period>wet period>normal water period. PMID:26456611

  17. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  18. Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Sioutas, Constantinos; Cho, Arthur; Schmitz, Debra; Misra, Chandan; Sempf, Joan; Wang, Meiying; Oberley, Terry; Froines, John; Nel, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether differences in the size and composition of coarse (2.5-10 micro m), fine (< 2.5 microm), and ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) particulate matter (PM) are related to their uptake in macrophages and epithelial cells and their ability to induce oxidative stress. The premise for this study is the increasing awareness that various PM components induce pulmonary inflammation through the generation of oxidative stress. Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were collected by ambient particle concentrators in the Los Angeles basin in California and used to study their chemical composition in parallel with assays for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability to induce oxidative stress in macrophages and epithelial cells. UFPs were most potent toward inducing cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and depleting intracellular glutathione. HO-1 expression, a sensitive marker for oxidative stress, is directly correlated with the high organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of UFPs. The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, a quantitative measure of in vitro ROS formation, was correlated with PAH content and HO-1 expression. UFPs also had the highest ROS activity in the DTT assay. Because the small size of UFPs allows better tissue penetration, we used electron microscopy to study subcellular localization. UFPs and, to a lesser extent, fine particles, localize in mitochondria, where they induce major structural damage. This may contribute to oxidative stress. Our studies demonstrate that the increased biological potency of UFPs is related to the content of redox cycling organic chemicals and their ability to damage mitochondria. PMID:12676598

  19. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 1 - COMPARISON OF AMBIENT, RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR, INDOOR AND APARTMENT PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combined epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co...

  20. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...