A multiple segment factorial vignette was used with a probability sample of 857 U.S. households to assess the effects of contextual variables on attitudes toward posthumous reproduction using the cryopreserved gametes of a deceased partner. Attitudes were affected in predictable directions by marital status, gender of the deceased individual, disposition of the deceased's parents, and the deceased's wishes. In addition, respondents who identified more closely with their chosen religion tended to perceive posthumous conception as less appropriate and those who had never had children attributed a greater degree of obligation to assist on the part of medical professionals. PMID:25010854
Hans, Jason D; Dooley, Brigitte
In flowering plants, double fertilization is normally accomplished by the first pollen tube, with the fertilized ovule subsequently inhibiting the attraction of a second pollen tube. However, the mechanism of second-pollen-tube avoidance remains unknown. We discovered that failure to fertilize either the egg cell or the central cell compromised second-pollen-tube avoidance in Arabidopsis thaliana. A similar disturbance was caused by disrupting the fertilization-independent seed (FIS) class polycomb-repressive complex 2 (FIS-PRC2), a central cell- and endosperm-specific chromatin-modifying complex for gene silencing. Therefore, the two female gametes have evolved their own signaling pathways. Intriguingly, second-pollen-tube attraction induced by half-successful fertilization allowed the ovules to complete double fertilization, producing a genetically distinct embryo and endosperm. We thus propose that each female gamete independently determines second-pollen-tube avoidance to maximize reproductive fitness in flowering plants. PMID:23673333
Maruyama, Daisuke; Hamamura, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hidenori; Susaki, Daichi; Nishimaki, Moe; Kurihara, Daisuke; Kasahara, Ryushiro D; Higashiyama, Tetsuya
The gamete-competition model is an application of the Bradley-Terry model for ranking of sports teams. If allele i of a marker locus is assigned parameter taui>0, then the probability that a parent with heterozygous genotype i/j transmits allele i is Pr(i/j-->)=tau(i)/(tau(i) + tau(j). Mendelian segregation corresponds to the choice tau(i)=1 for all i. To test whether Mendelian segregation is true, one can estimate the tau(i) from pedigree data and perform a likelihood-ratio test under the constraint that one tau(i) equals 1. Although this procedure generates an interesting method for performance of segregation analysis with a marker locus, its real promise lies in generalization of the transmission/disequilibrium test. Quantitative as well as qualitative outcomes can be considered. The gamete-competition model uses full pedigree data and gives an estimate of the strength of transmission distortion to affected children for each allele. Covariates are incorporated by rewriting of tau(i)=exp(beta(t)x(k)), where beta is a parameter vector and xk is a covariate vector for the kth transmitted gamete. Examples of covariates include disease-severity indicators for the child, sex of the child, or repeat number for tandem-repeat alleles. PMID:10712230
Sinsheimer, J S; Blangero, J; Lange, K
Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used to investigate associations between, and variations in, ejaculatory control and ejaculation latency time (ELT) over repeated measurements of sexual activities. Differences between measures recorded in partnered or non-partnered settings were also investigated. The sample consisted of 21 male Finns aged 18 years or above, contributing a total of 158 reports of partnered and non-partnered sexual activities over a six-week period. In the context of non-partnered sexual activities, after controlling for within-subjects dependence, ELTs between events were predictive of one another, but ELT did not predict ejaculatory control when measured simultaneously, nor at subsequent events. Also, ejaculatory control could not predict simultaneously measured ELT or ejaculatory control at subsequent events. During partnered sexual activities, both ejaculatory control and ELT could be accurately predicted by observing ejaculatory control at prior events. In this context, ejaculatory control could also reliably predict simultaneously measured ELT. ELT or ejaculatory control during partnered sexual activity could not be predicted by observing ELT at prior events. Between-event correlations were generally low, indicating considerable variation in ejaculatory functioning over time. EMA is a thrifty assessment method for studying variations in ejaculatory function, and is likely suitable for studying sexual dysfunctions in general. PMID:20924943
Jern, Patrick; Gunst, Annika; Sandqvist, Felicia; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka
Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...
This study sought to determine how power and control in intimate relationships influenced women's exposure to sexual violence.\\u000a Multilevel modeling was used to determine the risk of partner sexual violence in the past 12 months among 2240 women aged\\u000a 15–49 years who were currently married or cohabiting. The data were drawn from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey.\\u000a Strong
Anastasia J. Gage; Paul L. Hutchinson
In sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest at diplotene or diakinesis and resume meiosis (meiotic maturation) in response to hormones. In Caenorhabditis elegans, major sperm protein triggers meiotic resumption through a mechanism involving somatic G?s–adenylate cyclase signaling and soma-to-germline gap-junctional communication. Using genetic mosaic analysis, we show that the major effector of G?s–adenylate cyclase signaling, protein kinase A (PKA), is required in gonadal sheath cells for oocyte meiotic maturation and dispensable in the germ line. This result rules out a model in which cyclic nucleotides must transit through sheath-oocyte gap junctions to activate PKA in the germ line, as proposed in vertebrate systems. We conducted a genetic screen to identify regulators of oocyte meiotic maturation functioning downstream of G?s–adenylate cyclase–PKA signaling. We molecularly identified 10 regulatory loci, which include essential and nonessential factors. sacy-1, which encodes a highly conserved DEAD-box helicase, is an essential germline factor that negatively regulates meiotic maturation. SACY-1 is a multifunctional protein that establishes a mechanistic link connecting the somatic control of meiotic maturation to germline sex determination and gamete maintenance. Modulatory factors include multiple subunits of a CoREST-like complex and the TWK-1 two-pore potassium channel. These factors are not absolutely required for meiotic maturation or its negative regulation in the absence of sperm, but function cumulatively to enable somatic control of meiotic maturation. This work provides insights into the genetic control of meiotic maturation signaling in C. elegans, and the conserved factors identified here might inform analysis in other systems through either homology or analogy.
Kim, Seongseop; Govindan, J. Amaranath; Tu, Zheng Jin; Greenstein, David
Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the motivator for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of 762 divorcing
Marieh Tanha; Connie J. A. Beck; Aurelio José Figueredo; Chitra Raghavan
Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…
Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra
The birth of Louise Brown, the first IVF baby, in 1978 marked a breakthrough in infertility treatment. In recent decades, several important new techniques have been introduced. One limiting factor has been the requirement to use reproductive cells (gametes) for fertilization and for embryonic development. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) has been successful in mammals, opening a potential new approach
Zsolt Peter Nagy; Ching-Chien Chang
Background Previous studies offer a limited perspective on the dynamic course of distress in cancer patients and their partners, owing\\u000a to a restricted number of assessment points and the absence of comparison controls drawn from the general population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose This study investigated the course of distress among breast cancer patients and their partners (N?=?92 couples) in comparison to matched control couples (N?=?64).
Chris Hinnen; Adelita V. Ranchor; Robbert Sanderman; Tom A. B. Snijders; Mariët Hagedoorn; James C. Coyne
Background Comparison of the associations of maternal and mother's partner smoking with offspring outcomes is, in theory, a useful method for assessing whether there may be an intrauterine effect of tobacco exposure on these outcomes. However, this approach assumes that the effects of passive smoking from exposure to partner smoking during pregnancy are minimal. We evaluated this assumption using a biochemical measure of tobacco exposure in pregnant women. Methods Cotinine levels taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were measured in a sample of 3928 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Median cotinine values were compared across categories of smoking heaviness (cigarettes per day) of the women during the first trimester and in non-smoking women by the smoking heaviness of their partner. Results Cotinine levels were substantially higher in women who smoked compared to non-smokers (range of medians across smoking heaviness categories: 900–5362 ng/ml versus 20 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) (0–63) for non-smokers). In contrast, cotinine levels in non-smoking women were only very weakly related to partner smoking status (range of medians in women with smoking partners: 34–69 ng/ml versus 12 ng/ml, IQR (0–48) in women with non-smoking partners). Conclusions Levels of tobacco exposure from partner smoking, as assessed by cotinine, were low in non-smoking pregnant women. This suggests that using mother's partner's smoking as a negative control for investigating intrauterine effects is valid.
Taylor, Amy E.; Davey Smith, George; Bares, Cristina B.; Edwards, Alexis C.; Munafo, Marcus R.
In recent years, concerns have been raised regarding the potentially negative consequences of gamete donation for parent-child relationships. Findings are presented of a study of families with an infant conceived by gamete donation. Fifty donor insemination families and 51 egg donation families were compared with 80 natural conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of
Susan Golombok; Emma Lycett; Fiona MacCallum; Vasanti Jadva; Clare Murray; John Rust; Hossam Abdalla; Julian Jenkins; Raoul Margara
One key objective in evolutionary ecology is to understand the magnitude of inbreeding depression expressed across sex-specific components of fitness. One major component of male fitness is fertilization success, which depends on male gametic performance (sperm and pollen performance in animals and plants, respectively). Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could create sex-specific inbreeding depression in fitness, increase the benefit of inbreeding avoidance and reduce the efficacy of artificial insemination and pollination. However, there has been no assessment of the degree to which inbreeding generally depresses male gametic performance and hence post-copulatory or post-pollination fertilization success. Because inbreeding depression is understood to be a property of diploid entities, it is not clear what degree of inbreeding depression in haploid gametic performance should be expected. Here, we first summarize how inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could potentially arise through gene expression in associated diploid cells and/or reduced genetic diversity among haploid gametes. We then review published studies that estimate the magnitude of inbreeding depression in traits measuring components of sperm or pollen quantity, quality and competitiveness. Across 51 published studies covering 183 study traits, the grand mean inbreeding load was approximately one haploid lethal equivalent, suggesting that inbreeding depresses male gametic performance across diverse systems and traits. However, there was an almost complete lack of explicit estimates from wild populations. Future studies should quantify inbreeding depression in systematic sets of gametic traits under naturally competitive and noncompetitive conditions and quantify the degree to which gamete phenotypes and performance reflect haploid vs. diploid gene expression. PMID:24820115
Losdat, S; Chang, S-M; Reid, J M
To date, research identifying moderators of the alcohol-intimate partner aggression (IPA) relationship has focused almost exclusively on male-perpetrated aggression, without accounting for the dyadic processes of IPA. The current study examined hazardous alcohol use and impulse control difficulties as predictors of IPA among a sample of 73 heterosexual dating couples. Both actor and partner effects of these risk factors on physical and psychological aggression were examined. Results indicated that impulse control difficulties were an important actor and partner predictor of both physical and psychological aggression. Findings supported the multiple threshold model such that the interaction between impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use significantly predicted physical aggression severity. These results suggest the importance of targeting impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use in IPA treatment, as well as the advantages of examining risk factors of IPA within a dyadic rather than individual framework. Aggr. Behav. 40:369-381, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24464403
Watkins, Laura E; Maldonado, Rosalita C; DiLillo, David
A study of mouse gamete processing for in vitro fertilization (IVF) under various conditions showed that it is necessary to control the atmosphere if the temperature is raised from 22 degrees C to 37 degrees C. The data suggest that maximum IVF success is attained by processing the gametes at 37 degrees C, under an atmosphere of 5% O2 and 5% CO2, and overlaying the medium with silicone oil. PMID:2499526
Gwatkin, R B; Quigley, M M; Collins, R L
Objective: “Expressed emotion” (EE) refers to a set of valid and reliable measures of family emotional attitudes, which are robust predictors of illness course in several psychiatric conditions and which have recently been studied in some medical conditions. We hypothesised that high EE in partners of diabetes patients would be associated with poorer glucose control, management of and adaptation to
Alison J Wearden; Nicholas Tarrier; Rob Davies
Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.
Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.
Objective: This study examined the interactive effects of locus of control and heavy episodic drinking on men's physical assault and sexual coercion against intimate partners. Method: Participants were 151 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of locus of control, alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and intimate-partner aggression during the past 12 months. Results: An internal locus of control was associated with a lower frequency of physical assault and sexual coercion toward intimate partners among men who reported lower quantities of alcohol consumption. However, data suggested that the protective qualities of an internal locus of control for both forms of partner aggression diminished among men who reported higher quantities of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: These results support alcohol myopia theory and extend this theory by suggesting how alcohol consumption may affect the relation between locus of control and different forms of intimate-partner aggression toward women.
Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N?=?1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077
Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John
We aimed to evaluate the total costs to patients and their partners of sleep apnoea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and their treatment, as this is poorly described in families. Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry and other public databases, all patients and their partners with a diagnosis of sleep apnoea (n=30,278) or OHS (n=1562) were included. They were compared with age-, sex- and community location-matched citizens at a ratio 1:4 (120,506 and 6241 control subjects, respectively). Direct and indirect costs were evaluated for patients and their partners. Sleep apnoea and OHS patients and their partners had higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and unemployment, and lower income levels. Excess yearly direct net health and foregone earnings (indirect costs) were €2174 and €7981 prior to diagnosis, and €3988 and €12,022 after diagnosis for sleep apnoea and OHS, respectively. The comparable annual mean excess health-related costs for spouses were €1965 and €2862 before diagnosis, and €2307 and €3079 after diagnosis, for sleep apnoea and OHS patients, respectively. These socioeconomic consequences were present up to 12 years before first diagnosis, and increased as the disease advanced. Sleep-disordered breathing has major socioeconomic consequences for patients and their spouses years before and after diagnosis. PMID:23563260
Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob
Apomixis, the formation of asexual seeds in plants, leads to populations that are genetically uniform maternal clones. The transfer of apomixis to crop plants holds great promise in plant breeding for fixation of heterozygosity and hybrid vigour because it would allow the propagation of hybrids over successive generations. Apomixis involves the production of unreduced (diploid) female gametes that retain the genotype of the parent plant (apomeiosis), followed by parthenogenetic development of the egg cell into an embryo and the formation of functional endosperm. The molecular mechanisms underlying apomixis are unknown. Here we show that mutation of the Arabidopsis gene DYAD/SWITCH1 (SWI1), a regulator of meiotic chromosome organization, leads to apomeiosis. We found that most fertile ovules in dyad plants form seeds that are triploid and that arise from the fertilization of an unreduced female gamete by a haploid male gamete. The unreduced female gametes fully retain parental heterozygosity across the genome, which is characteristic of apomeiosis. Our results show that the alteration of a single gene in a sexual plant can bring about functional apomeiosis, a major component of apomixis. PMID:18272967
Ravi, Maruthachalam; Marimuthu, Mohan P A; Siddiqi, Imran
Gamete production for both males and females can be energetically expensive such that selection should maximize fertilization opportunities while minimizing fertilization costs. In laboratory studies of Drosophila reproduction, however, the failure of eggs to yield adult progeny can be quite high, suggesting that female control over gamete utilization is surprisingly inefficient. We examined gamete utilization in D. pseudoobscura from nature and compared our observations to those for laboratory populations. In natural populations 100% of oviposited eggs effectively produce adult progeny, and fertilization is exclusively monospermic, indicating that in nature, D. pseudoobscura females maintain a very strict control over their reproduction such that gamete usage is extremely efficient. The potential reasons for the inefficient gamete utilization in the laboratory, as well as the potential impact on laboratory studies of sperm competition, sexual conflict, and the evolution of reproductive barriers are discussed. Furthermore, in this sperm-heteromorphic species, our observations show definitively that in nature, as well as in the laboratory, only the long sperm morph participates in fertilization.
Snook, Rhonda R; Markow, Therese Ann
Fertilization requires recognition, attachment, and membrane fusion between gametes. In metazoans, rapidly evolving surface proteins contribute to gamete recognition and adhesion. Flowering plants evolved a double fertilization process wherein two immotile sperm cells are delivered to female gametes by the pollen tube, guided by elaborate communications between male and female reproductive organs. Once released, the sperm cells contact female gametes directly prior to gamete fusion. It remains unclear whether active gamete recognition and attachment mechanisms are required for double fertilization. Here, we provide functional characterization of Arabidopsis GAMETE EXPRESSED 2 (GEX2), which encodes a sperm-expressed protein of unknown function. GEX2 is localized to the sperm membrane and contains extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, similar to gamete interaction factors in algae and mammals. Using a new in vivo assay, we demonstrate that GEX2 is required for gamete attachment, in the absence of which double fertilization is compromised. Ka/Ks analyses indicate relatively rapid evolution of GEX2, like other proteins involved in male and female interactions. We conclude that surface proteins involved in gamete attachment and recognition exist in plants with immotile gametes, similar to algae and metazoans. This conservation broadens the repertoire of research for plant reproduction factors to mechanisms demonstrated in animals. PMID:24388850
Mori, Toshiyuki; Igawa, Tomoko; Tamiya, Gen; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Berger, Frédéric
Two million women and one million men experience rape, stalking, or physical assault by a current or former romantic partner each year in the U.S. Not only do women report twice the incidents, but intimate partner violence (IPV) that women experience is typically more severe. Explanations for IPV gender asymmetry include male dominance attitudes, hostile sexism, and men's control-seeking. There are gaps in our knowledge of how attitudes and control-seeking co-relate to influence IPV. This study demonstrates a mediation analysis to investigate these relationships. Data were from a cross-sectional online survey of male undergraduate students from a public Southeastern university. The survey measured attitudes of male dominance and hostile sexism, desire for control, and IPV perpetration. After including age and academic level in the model, male dominance remained a significant predictor of likelihood of physical IPV (OR?=?1.16, p?=?.004) but not psychological IPV. The addition of control-seeking (physical OR?=?1.65, p?.001) mediated the influence of male dominance on the likelihood of physical IPV perpetration (OR?=?1.018, p?=?.753). Hostile sexism was a significant predictor of psychological and physical IPV (psychological IPV OR?=?1.31, p?.001; physical IPV OR?=?1.54, p?.001), over and above age and academic level. The addition of control-seeking (psychological IPV OR?=?1.27, p?.001; physical OR?=?1.53, p?.001) partially mediated the influence of hostile sexism on IPV (psychological IPV OR?=?1.21, p?=?.001; physical OR?=?1.34, p?.001). Results suggest control-seeking mediates the relationship between male dominance and physical IPV and partially mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and IPV. Practical implications for IPV prevention programs and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23400847
Whitaker, M Pippin
The dramatic increase of gamete donations, as a result of technological advances in assisted reproduction, has raised considerable legal and halachic issues. This article raises reader awareness about problems involved in gamete donation within Jewish law (halacha), particularly in Israel. Two core problems with gamete donation are: deciding the mother of the child (donor or birthing mother) and genetic lineage. The former is important in establishing the child's religious status and the latter for matters of consanguinity and incest. Anonymous gamete donation increases the probability of incest. Persons unaware of their biological heritage could unintentionally cohabit with a close family member and progeny of this union would be considered mamzerim. These problems may be prevented by legislation, registration, and greater openness by the donor and the intended parents of the donor conceived child. This article focuses on the halachic perspective of gamete donation. Since consanguinity is prohibited by most cultures, the implications of gamete donation are universally relevant. PMID:21877469
Fertilization is one of the most important processes in all organisms utilizing sexual reproduction. In a previous study, we succeeded in identifying a novel male gametic transmembrane protein GCS1 (GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1), also called HAP2 (HAPLESS 2) in the male-sterile Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, as a factor critical to gamete fusion in flowering plants. Interestingly, GCS1 is highly conserved among various eukaryotes covering plants, protists and invertebrates. Of these organisms, Chlamydomonas (green alga) and Plasmodium (malaria parasite) GCS1s similarly show male gametic expression and gamete fusion function. Since it is generally believed that protein factors controlling gamete fusion have rapidly evolved and different organisms utilize species-specific gamete fusion factors, GCS1 may be an ancient fertilization factor derived from the common ancestor of those organisms above. And therefore, its molecular structure and function are important to understanding the common molecular mechanics of eukaryotic fertilization. In this study, we tried to detect the central functional domain(s) of GCS1, using complementation assay of ArabidopsisGCS1 mutant lines expressing modified GCS1. As a result, the positively-charged C-terminal sequence of this protein is dispensable for gamete fusion, while the highly conserved N-terminal domain is critical to GCS1 function. In addition, in vitro fertilization assay of Plasmodium berghei (mouse malaria parasite) knock-in lines expressing partly truncated GCS1 showed similar results. Those findings above indicate that the extracellular N-terminus alone is sufficient for GCS1-based gamete fusion.
Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya
The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete’s positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D.
Guerrero, Adan; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto
INTRODUCTION Operating the International Space Station ISS involves an indefinite continuous series of long-duration international missions and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites organizations and nations Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work but neither have had systematic training in how to do so The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples METHODS Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies RESULTS The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies
Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.
For couples for whom assisted reproduction is the only way to have genetically related offspring, the donation of gametes by others makes available enhanced reproductive options. There has been an increasing demand for such services, as evidenced by the Web site launched by fashion photographer Ron Harris in the fall of 1999. Although the sale of such gametes is not
Toby L. Schonfeld
This study investigated meiotic segregation in spermatozoa to determine if severe teratozoospermia should prevent the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of the high production of gametes with chromosomal aneuploidies and analysed DNA fragmentation in gametes from the same semen to determine if DNA integrity was worse in patients with severe teratozoospermia. Sperm samples from 12 infertile patients were studied by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 and by TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling. Four patients with a majority of macrocephalic forms with multiple flagella had more than 99% spermatozoa with abnormal chromosomal content. The other patients (globozoospermia or other abnormalities concerning sperm heads) had no increased aneuploidy or a slightly significant increase (P<0.05). The rate of DNA fragmentation was significantly higher in infertile patients than in the controls (P<0.001; 14.3% versus 1.20%, respectively) but presented important variability. Therefore, ICSI should not be attempted if men have macrocephalic gametes with multiple flagella but morphology is not always a good predictor of chromosomal content, depending upon the kind of teratozoospermia. Evaluation of the rate of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia is recommended. PMID:21233018
Perrin, A; Louanjli, N; Ziane, Y; Louanjli, T; Le Roy, C; Gueganic, N; Amice, V; De Braekeleer, M; Morel, F
Data are presented from a pilot study that tested the initial effectiveness of the Dialectical Psychoeducational Workshop\\u000a (DPEW) in reducing the potential risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an experimental\\u000a intervention (DPEW), and a control condition, the first session of an eight-week anger management program (AMW), was employed.\\u000a Differences between experimental and control groups
Mary M. Cavanaugh; Phyllis L. Solomon; Richard J. Gelles
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein organizes PML nuclear bodies (NBs), which are stress-responsive domains where many partner proteins accumulate. Here, we clarify the basis for NB formation and identify stress-induced partner sumoylation as the primary NB function. NB nucleation does not rely primarily on intermolecular interactions between the PML SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) and SUMO, but instead results from oxidation-mediated PML multimerization. Oxidized PML spherical meshes recruit UBC9, which enhances PML sumoylation, allow partner recruitment through SIM interactions, and ultimately enhance partner sumoylation. Intermolecular SUMO-SIM interactions then enforce partner sequestration within the NB inner core. Accordingly, oxidative stress enhances NB formation and global sumoylation in vivo. Some NB-associated sumoylated partners also become polyubiquitinated by RNF4, precipitating their proteasomal degradation. As several partners are protein-modifying enzymes, NBs could act as sensors that facilitate and confer oxidative stress sensitivity not only to sumoylation but also to other post-translational modifications, thereby explaining alterations of stress response upon PML or NB loss. PMID:24637324
Sahin, Umut; Ferhi, Omar; Jeanne, Marion; Benhenda, Shirine; Berthier, Caroline; Jollivet, Florence; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Faklaris, Orestis; Setterblad, Niclas; de Thé, Hugues; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie
The small Maf basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins MafF, MafG and MafK, while modest in size, have emerged as crucial regulators of mammalian gene expression. Intriguingly, small Mafs do not contain an obvious transcriptional activation domain. However, previously perceived as "mere" partner molecules conferring DNA binding specificity to complexes with larger bZIP proteins, such as the CNC family member Nrf2, it has become clear that small Maf proteins are essential and dynamically regulated transcription factors. Current data suggest stringent control of small Maf protein function through transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Initial gene targeting experiments revealed considerable functional redundancy among small Maf proteins in vivo. This was not unexpected, due to the high level of homology among the three small Mafs. Nevertheless, further studies showed that these transcription factors have critical roles in various cellular processes, including stress signaling, hematopoiesis, CNS function and oncogenesis. Recent data provide a possible link between small Maf-mediated transcription and the inflammatory response. PMID:18201722
Our theoretical understanding of abusive intimate partner relationships has ignored relationships that have become non-violent.\\u000a We interviewed a community convenience sample of 27 women whose relationships had become non-violent. Using the constant comparative\\u000a analysis of grounded theory, we generated a substantive theory, shifting the pattern of abusive control with three sub-processes, counteracting abuse, taking control, and living differently. Women’s acquisition
Judith Wuest; Marilyn Merritt-Gray
New techniques have been developed to both objectively assess the action of cilia in the motion of intralumenal materials and also to assess the direction and speed of propagation of contractions in the oviduct and correlate these measurements with gamete...
R. J. Blandau
To a high demand for donated gametes, sperm and oocytes, centers often face difficulties in recruiting enough donors. To increase the number of donors are needed financial and human resources to accommodate them in good conditions, information and a strong promotion to motivate approaches donations, diversify recruitment methods. In France, the gametes donation comes from couples with children and is free. The opening of the gift for men and women without children and remuneration of these gifts are discussed. PMID:24268325
Le Lannou, D
Partner notification is an essential part of case management for sexually transmitted infections. Done correctly it reduces persistent or recurrent infection in the index patient, identifies previously undiagnosed infections, and may thus contribute to reduced transmission in the population. The effectiveness of patient referral of partners can be enhanced through the provision of written information and easy access to tests and medication. A recent systematic review of partner notification found that enhanced partner therapy (helping get treatment to partners more rapidly) reduced re-infection in the index case by almost 30% compared with simple patient referral. Provider referral, where the healthcare worker contacts partners directly, can also be effective, and provides an important service for patients who are wary of informing partners themselves. Partner notification services should be available for all patients found to have a sexually transmitted infection, whether the diagnosis is made in specialist settings, or in primary or community-based care. For patients with HIV, partner notification should be addressed when the infection is first diagnosed and revisited for subsequent partners. Access to specialist partner notification services is an important part of any sexual healthcare system. The professional competencies required to undertake partner notification have now been clearly defined.
Ward, Helen; Bell, Gill
Background: Communication disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are difficult to modify due to the cognitive limitation imposed by frontal lobe damage. As an alternative approach, this paper describes a training programme designed to improve communication partners' responsiveness to people with TBI during routine service inquiries with a community agency. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a training programme aimed
Leanne Togher; Skye McDonald; Chris Code; Susan Grant
There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691
Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J
Women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) are consistently found to have poor sexual and reproductive health when compared to non-abused women, but the mechanisms through which such associations occur are inadequately defined. Through face-to-face, semi-structured in-depth interviews, we gathered full reproductive histories of 71 women aged 18–49 with a history of IPV recruited from a family planning clinic,
Ann M. Moore; Lori Frohwirth; Elizabeth Miller
Background Assessing the non-random associations of alleles at different loci, or gametic disequilibrium, can provide clues about aspects of population histories and mating behavior and can be useful in locating disease genes. For gametic data which are available from several strata with different allele probabilities, it is necessary to verify that the strata are homogeneous in terms of gametic disequilibrium. Results Using the likelihood score theory generalized to nuisance parameters we derive a score test for homogeneity of gametic disequilibrium across several independent populations. Simulation results demonstrate that the empirical type I error rates of our score homogeneity test perform satisfactorily in the sense that they are close to the pre-chosen 0.05 nominal level. The associated power and sample size formulae are derived. We illustrate our test with a data set from a study of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Conclusion We propose a large-sample homogeneity test on gametic disequilibrium across several independent populations based on the likelihood score theory generalized to nuisance parameters. Our simulation results show that our test is more reliable than the traditional test based on the Fisher's test of homogeneity among correlation coefficients.
Yin, Xiaolin; Ma, Wenqing; Tang, Manlai; Guo, Jianhua
Fertilization is a complex and fascinating biological process. The interactions between gametes transform two differentiated cells on a totipotent zygote. A few cell surface proteins in both gametes have been identified as essential for binding and fusion of gametes. At the zona pellucida level the binding is initiated by species-restricted binding of the sperm to the zona pellucida and is facilitated by the protein SED1 and or by the binding of sperm surface beta1/4-galactosyltransferase I (GaIT-I) to glycoside chains of the ZP3. This binding triggers the acrosome reaction. Among the molecules that participate on binding and fusion of gametes are included disintegrins on the sperm (ADAM1 and ADAM2) which interact with integrins (alpha6/beta-1, CD9, GPI-protein) in the egg plasma membrane, while cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) and the proteins named as Izumo participate in the fusion. The knowledge of the molecules and mechanisms involved in these processes will allow us not only a better understanding of the events underlying mammalian sperm-egg interaction, but also the development of new methods for both fertility regulation and diagnosis and clinic treatment of human and animal infertility. PMID:19227438
Cánovas, Sebastián; Coy, Pilar
It is known that information that is not contained in the DNA sequence — epigenetic information — can be inherited from the parent to the offspring. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the extent and mechanisms of such inheritance. In this Review, we consider the evidence for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes, including cases of environmentally induced epigenetic changes.
Lucia Daxinger; Emma Whitelaw
Embryogenesis and larval development were documented in 19 species of hermatypic scleractinians which release gametes during the summer coral spawning season on the Great Barrier Reef. Cleavage of fertilized eggs began approximately 2 h after spawning in all species, and gave rise to blastulae after 7–10 h. Endoderm formation in Platygyra sinensis was by invagination, and this appeared to occur
R. C. Babcock; A. J. Heyward
In marine green algae, isogamous or slightly anisogamous species are taxonomically widespread. They produce positively phototactic gametes in both sexes. We developed a new numerical simulator of gamete behavior using C++ and pseudo-parallelization methods to elucidate potential advantages of phototaxis. Input parameters were set based on experimental data. Each gamete swimming in a virtual rectangular test tank was tracked and
Tatsuya TOGASHI; John L. BARTELT; Paul Alan COX
...forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section...forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition...forces of the United States and their coalition partners present in Iraq and...
Introduction “Partners in Dementia Care” (PDC) tested the effectiveness of a care-coordination program integrating healthcare and community services and supporting veterans with dementia and their caregivers. Delivered via partnerships between Veterans Affairs medical centers and Alzheimer’s Association chapters, PDC targeted both patients and caregivers, distinguishing it from many non-pharmacological interventions. Hypotheses posited PDC would improve five veteran self-reported outcomes: 1) unmet need, 2) embarrassment about memory problems, 3) isolation, 4) relationship strain and 5) depression. Greater impact was expected for more impaired veterans. A unique feature was self-reported research data collected from veterans with dementia. Methods and Findings Five matched communities were study sites. Two randomly selected sites received PDC for 12 months; comparison sites received usual care. Three structured telephone interviews were completed every 6 months with veterans who could participate. Results Of 508 consenting veterans, 333 (65.6%) completed baseline interviews. Among those who completed baseline interviews, 263 (79.0%) completed 6-month follow-ups and 194 (58.3%) completed 12-month follow-ups. Regression analyses showed PDC veterans had significantly less adverse outcomes than those receiving usual care, particularly for more impaired veterans after 6 months, including reduced relationship strain (B?=??0.09; p?=?0.05), depression (B?=??0.10; p?=?0.03), and unmet need (B?=??0.28; p?=?0.02; and B?=??0.52; p?=?0.08). PDC veterans also had less embarrassment about memory problems (B?=??0.24; p?=?0.08). At 12 months, more impaired veterans had further reductions in unmet need (B?=??0.96; p?0.01) and embarrassment (B?=??0.05; p?=?0.02). Limitations included use of matched comparison sites rather than within-site randomization and lack of consideration for variation within the PDC group in amounts and types of assistance provided. Conclusions Partnerships between community and health organizations have the potential to meet the dementia-related needs and improve the psychosocial functioning of persons with dementia. Trial Registry NCT00291161
Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39±1.61 s in females and for 5.20±0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a ?-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.
Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi
Murine embryonic stem cells have recently been shown to be capable of differentiating in vitro into oocytes or sperm. Should these findings be duplicated using human embryonic stem cells, this would raise a number of social and ethical concerns, some specific to these particular developments, others shared with other aspects of stem cell research. This review outlines the properties of stem cells and their conversion to gametes. Concerns raised include embryo destruction, quality of gametes derived in this way, possibility for children with two male biological parents, movement towards germ line gene therapy and 'designer babies', and the future impacts on health service provisions. It is important that public discussion of some of these issues should take place. PMID:17454202
A nonradioactive in situ hybridization technique was applied to human gametes and abnormally fertilized or developed zygotes. Using haptenized chromosome-specific probes, visualization was obtained using immunocytochemistry to achieve a fluorescent stain on specific hybrids. Using a chromosome 1-specific DNA probe, almost all spermatozoa gave a positive result, i.e., one hybridization signal per cell could be observed. Furthermore, it was possible
M. H. E. C. Pieters; J. P. M. Geraedts; H. Meyer; J. C. M. Dumoulin; J. L. H. Evers; R. J. E. Jongbloed; P. M. Nederlof; S. van der Flier
This report details the assessment and intervention carried out with a couple, "Paula" and "Bob", who both had a moderate learning disability. Paula was referred to the Psychology Service for some work focussing on difficulties in controlling her responses to anger. This report discusses the assessment and offers a formulation from a cognitive…
The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Cancer Center (LCC) partnership establish a planning U56 funded Partnership that build upon their successes in a funded P20 Partnership. The U56 Partnership will focus exclusively on Cancer Prevention and Control.
Sexuality in the marine araphid diatom Tabularia involves an unusual type of gamete, not only among diatoms but possibly in all of nature. The non-flagellated male gamete is free and vigorously motile, propelled by pseudopodia. However, the cues (if any) in their search for compatible female gametes and the general search patterns to locate them are unknown. We tracked and compared male gamete movements in the presence and absence of receptive female gametes. Path linearity of male movement was not affected by presence of female gametes. Male gametes did not move towards female gametes regardless of their proximity to each other, suggesting that the detection range for a compatible mate is very small compared to known algal examples (mostly spermatozoids) and that mate recognition requires (near) contact with a female gamete. We therefore investigated how male gametes move to bring insight into their search strategy and found that it was consistent with the predictions of a random-walk model with changes in direction coming from an even distribution. We further investigated the type of random walk by determining the best-fit distribution on the tail of the move length distribution and found it to be consistent with a truncated power law distribution with an exponent of 2.34. Although consistent with a Lévy walk search pattern, the range of move lengths in the tail was too narrow for Lévy properties to emerge and so would be best described as Brownian motion. This is somewhat surprising because female gametes were often outnumbered by male gametes, thus contrary to the assumption that a Brownian search mode may be most optimal with an abundant target resource. This is also the first mathematically analysed search pattern of a non-flagellated protistan gamete, supporting the notion that principles of Brownian motion have wide application in biology.
Edgar, Robyn; Drolet, David; Ehrman, James M.; Kaczmarska, Irena
Several recent reports have identified TET1 as the main enzyme modulating DNA methylation and gene transcription via hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine. However, little is known about the protein network that controls TET1 activity. By using a new proximity ligation in situ assay, we identified MeCP2, HDAC1/6/7, EZH2, mSin3A, PCNA, and LSD1 as TET1-interacting proteins. We also discerned that TET1/PCNA acts as a demethylator of the cyclical methylation/demethylation process, the perturbation of which promotes the aberrant methylation hallmarks frequently observed in cancer cells.
Nadaradjane, Arulraj; LePape, Fiona; Lalier, Lisenn; Gardie, Betty; Vallette, Francois M.
Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB, complexed with nucleotide, reveals a newly discovered conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an autoregulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to both nucleotide and replication initiation/elongation factors. PMID:24373746
Strycharska, Melania S; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Erzberger, Jan P; O'Shea, Valerie L; Bustamante, Carlos J; Berger, James M
Although the active digestion of mating-type minus (mt?) chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in young zygotes is considered to be the basis for the uniparental inheritance of cpDNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. One model of active digestion proposes that nucleases are either synthesized or activated to digest mt? cpDNA. We used a native-PAGE/in gelo assay to investigate nuclease activities in chloroplasts from young zygotes, and identified a novel Ca2+-dependent nuclease activity. The timing of activation (?60–90 min after mating) and the localization of the nuclease activity (in mt? chloroplasts) coincided with the active digestion of mt? cpDNA. Furthermore, the activity of the nuclease was coregulated with the maturation of mating-type plus (mt+) gametes, which would enable the efficient digestion of mt? cpDNA. Based on these observations, we propose that the nuclease (designated as Mt+-specific DNase, MDN) is a developmentally controlled nuclease that is activated in mt+ gametes and participates in the destruction of mt? cpDNA in young zygotes, thereby ensuring uniparental inheritance of chloroplast traits.
Nishimura, Yoshiki; Misumi, Osami; Kato, Ko; Inada, Noriko; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Momoyama, Yu; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi
It may be possible to avoid inadequate in vitro culture conditions by incubating gametes or embryos in the oviducts for a short time. Ideally, an optimized procedure should be devised, combining in vitro and in vivo systems, in order to achieve synchronization in cattle. We transferred gametes as well as embryos in various stages of development and placed them into the oviducts. Embryos were recovered on Day 7 by flushing of oviducts and uterine horns. Blastocyst rates were determined on Day 7 and on Day 8. Experimental designs included transfer of in vitro matured cumulus oocyte complexes into previously inseminated heifers (COCs group), transfer of in vitro matured COCs simultaneously with capacitated spermatozoa (GIFTs group), transfer of four to eight cell stage embryos developed in vitro after IVM/IVF (Cleaved Stages group) and a group of solely in vitro produced embryos (IVP control group). Our results indicate that in vivo culture of IVM/IVF embryos in the homologous bovine oviduct has a positive influence on subsequent pre-implantation development. In addition, we have evidence that in vitro maturation and in vivo fertilization cannot be synchronized. PMID:15935840
Wetscher, F; Havlicek, V; Huber, T; Gilles, M; Tesfaye, D; Griese, J; Wimmers, K; Schellander, K; Müller, M; Brem, G; Besenfelder, U
Plant germ cells develop in specialized haploid structures, termed gametophytes. The female gametophyte patterns of flowering plants are diverse, with often unknown adaptive value. Here we present the Arabidopsis fiona mutant, which forms a female gametophyte that is structurally and functionally reminiscent of a phylogenetic distant female gametophyte. The respective changes include a modified reproductive behavior of one of the female germ cells (central cell) and an extended lifespan of three adjacent accessory cells (antipodals). FIONA encodes the cysteinyl t-RNA synthetase SYCO ARATH (SYCO), which is expressed and required in the central cell but not in the antipodals, suggesting that antipodal lifespan is controlled by the adjacent gamete. SYCO localizes to the mitochondria, and ultrastructural analysis of mutant central cells revealed that the protein is necessary for mitochondrial cristae integrity. Furthermore, a dominant ATP/ADP translocator caused mitochondrial cristae degeneration and extended antipodal lifespan when expressed in the central cell of wild-type plants. Notably, this construct did not affect antipodal lifespan when expressed in antipodals. Our results thus identify an unexpected noncell autonomous role for mitochondria in the regulation of cellular lifespan and provide a basis for the coordinated development of gametic and nongametic cells.
Kagi, Christina; Baumann, Nadine; Nielsen, Nicola; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Gross-Hardt, Rita
The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield (DeltaF/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC(50)s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC50s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6h, as opposed to more than 50h for the germination bioassay. PMID:16143437
Seery, Cliff R; Gunthorpe, Leanne; Ralph, Peter J
Marital estrangement, positive feelings toward spouses, and locus of control among a national sample of 323 female counselors who were either married or formerly married to alcohol-abusing or to non-alcohol-abusing male partners were examined. Statistically significant differences between groups were found. (Contains 36 references.) (Author)
Carroll, Jane J.; Robinson, Bryan E.; Flowers, Claudia
In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.
Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.
The Sec1-related proteins bind to syntaxin family t-SNAREs with high affinity, thus controlling the interaction of syntaxins with their cognate SNARE partners. Munc18-2 is a Sec1 homologue enriched in epithelial cells and forms a complex with syntaxin 3, a t-SNARE localized to the apical plasma membrane. We generated here a set of Munc18-2 point mutants with substitutions in conserved amino acid residues. The mutants displayed a spectrum of different syntaxin binding efficiencies. The in vitro and in vivo binding patterns were highly similar, and the association of the Munc18-2 variants with syntaxin 3 correlated well with their ability to displace SNAP-23 from syntaxin 3 complexes when overexpressed in Caco-2 cells. Even the Munc18-2 mutants that do not detectably bind syntaxin 3 were membrane associated in Caco-2 cells, suggesting that the syntaxin interaction is not the sole determinant of Sec1 protein membrane attachment. Overexpression of the wild-type Munc18-2 was shown to inhibit the apical delivery of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). Interestingly, mutants unable to bind syntaxin 3 behaved differently in the HA transport assay. While one of the mutants tested had no effect, one inhibited and one enhanced the apical transport of HA. This implies that Munc18-2 function in apical membrane trafficking involves aspects independent of the syntaxin 3 interaction. PMID:10788461
Riento, K; Kauppi, M; Keranen, S; Olkkonen, V M
Successful fertilization heralds the onset of development and requires both gamete recognition and a definitive block to polyspermy. Sperm initially bind and penetrate the extracellular zona pellucida (ZP) that surrounds ovulated eggs, but are unable to bind the zona surrounding preimplantation embryos. The ZP of humans is composed of four (ZP1–4) and that of mouse three (ZP1–3) glycoproteins. Models for gamete recognition developed in mice had proposed that sperm bind to ZP3 glycans. However, phenotypes observed in genetically engineered mice are not consistent with this widely accepted model. More recently, taking advantage of the observation that human sperm do not bind to mouse eggs, human ZP2 was defined as the zona ligand in transgenic mouse models using gain-of-function assays. The sperm-binding site is an N-terminal domain of ZP2 that is cleaved by ovastacin, a metalloendoprotease released from egg cortical granules following fertilization. Proteolysis of this docking site provides a definitive block to polyspermy as sperm bind to uncleaved, but not cleaved ZP2 even after fertilization and cortical granule exocytosis. While progress has been made in defining the ZP ligand, less headway has been made in identifying the cognate sperm receptor. Although a number of sperm receptor candidates have been documented to interact with specific proteins in the ZP in vitro, continued fertility after genetic ablation of the cognate gene indicates that none are essential for gamete recognition. These on-going investigations inform reproductive medicine and suggest new therapies to improve fertility and/or provide contraception, thus expanding reproductive choices for human couples.
Avella, Matteo A.; Xiong, Bo; Dean, Jurrien
While cancer rates continue to increase, therapy has dramatically decreased the mortality rates. The increased efficacy of current therapies may unfortunately have profound toxic effects on gamete function in both adolescent and reproductive age groups, with infertility as an expected consequence of cancer therapy. Significant progress in the advancement of fertility preservation therapies provides realistic options for future fertility in cancer survivors. However, a number of challenging issues need to be considered when presenting fertility preservation options. This overview highlights some of these considerations including religious-cultural-ethical values, access to care and cost of services, developmental capacity and consent, and posthumous reproduction. PMID:24088162
Ayensu-Coker, Leslie; Essig, Ellen; Breech, Lesley L; Lindheim, Steven
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are self-renewal and pluripotent cells that are able to differentiate in vitro into several cell types in favourable conditions. Technical protocols for in vitro gametes production have been developed in mice and human species. The functionality of such differentiated cells is not always analysed and an early meiotic arrest is a current observation. These kinds of experimentations have also been tested from human induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC). However, differentiation ends shortly at the primordial germ cell stage. PMID:22027424
Tosca, Lucie; Courtot, Anne-Marie; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Tachdjian, Gérard
The cytoskeleton of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gametes has been studied by electron microscopy. The microtubular system, consisting of four flagellar roots inserted into the basal apparatus, is shown to include two daughter basal bodies and two striated fibres, newly described in this report. One new fibre associates with the 3-over-1 root and is similar to its counterpart, the striated fibre of the 2-member root. These similar root fibres connect each daughter basal body to the V-shaped microtubular root pair. The other new striated fibre joins the daughter basal body to both flagellar roots and is similar to the proximal striated fibre. In mt+ gametes, the conventional root microtubules make direct contact with the doublet zone of the non-activated mating structure. During activation, doublet zone microfilaments associate with the daughter basal body and the finely striated fibre of the 3-over-1 root. These observations suggest that the cytoskeleton acts as a scaffolding for membrane extension by the mt+ mating structure microfilaments. PMID:6746768
Weiss, R L
During the past 12 years, ruminants have provided a focus for some significant advances in mammalian reproductive biotechnologies. Lambs were the first offspring generated after nuclear transfer of fetal or adult cells to enucleated oocytes, and many calves of pre-determined gender are today the result of commercialized semen sexing. In 1990, the birth of one calf provided living proof that even 'dead' spermatozoa can be paternal, whereas, more recently, a short-lived gaur calf and viable mouflon lamb represented a novel option for conservation of endangered species. As well as highlights, hazards have emerged, resulting in setbacks or developmental anomalies, such as those associated with the large offspring syndrome which encompasses a range of adverse fetal, placental and post-natal phenomena expressed in ruminants. In this review, the developmental and other consequences of applying manipulative procedures, such as assisted fertilization, semen sexing, cloning and gene transfer, to gametes and embryos from bovine, ovine and caprine species are considered. Although assisted fertilization techniques can overcome mammalian infertility, they also usurp natural gamete selection safeguards, but not always with impunity. In the case of manipulations such as cloning, and to a lesser extent gene transfer, it is evident that nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions and nuclear-mitochondrial DNA interdependences are at least partially damaged or destroyed with a view to reconstruction. Therefore, among surviving zygotes and embryos it is inevitable that the legacy is frequently one of altered genetic, epigenetic or cellular programmes and processes. PMID:14635934
McEvoy, T G; Ashworth, C J; Rooke, J A; Sinclair, K D
Proteomic analysis occupies an increasingly important place in gamete and embryo biology as an independent tool of discovery and as a means of follow-up to transcriptional profiling. Proteomics have been and will be increasingly helpful in many areas of reproductive biology, including applied science and technology development. Areas likely to be impacted most rapidly by proteomic knowledge include fertility evaluation in male farm animals, male infertility diagnostics in humans, assessment and optimization of oocyte and embryo culture protocols, selection of fittest oocytes for assisted fertilization and selection of most competent embryos for embryo transfer. Oocyte proteomics will help us understand the process of oogenesis and oocyte maturation, and to discover non-invasive markers of oocyte quality. Sperm proteomics correlate with normal sperm structure and function and can be applied to discover novel biomarkers of farm animal fertility and diagnostic markers of human male infertility. Putative receptors participating in fertilization, as well as proteins acquired onto sperm surface from epididymal fluid and seminal plasma, have been discovered by proteomic analysis. An added level of information is provided by advanced proteomic approaches, capable of identifying posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation and ubiquitination which play important functions in gametogenesis, fertilization and embryo development. By no means exhaustive, the present paper reviews some of the most interesting proteomic studies of mammalian gametes and embryos published in the last decade. PMID:19848273
Trichomonas vaginalis infection in men is an important cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Effective detection of the parasite in men using culture requires examination of multiple specimens. We compared culture and PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in urethral swabs, urine, and semen for T. vaginalis detection in male sexual partners of women with trichomoniasis identified by wet mount and culture. Trichomonads were detected by at least one positive test in 205/280 men (73.2%) who submitted at least one specimen for culture and PCR. Whereas InPouch TV culture detected only 46/205 cases (22.5%), PCR detected 201/205 (98.0%). Urethral swab cultures from men with urethritis were more likely to be positive with shorter incubation than specimens from men without urethritis. T. vaginalis was detected more often in men with wet-mount-positive partners. Even with a sensitive PCR assay, reliable detection of T. vaginalis in male partners required multiple specimens. The majority of male sexual partners in this study were infected, emphasizing the importance of partner evaluation and treatment.
Hobbs, Marcia M.; Lapple, Dana M.; Lawing, Lisa F.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Cohen, Myron S.; Swygard, Heidi; Atashili, Julius; Leone, Peter A.; Miller, William C.; Sena, Arlene C.
Trichomonas vaginalis infection in men is an important cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Effective detection of the parasite in men using culture requires examination of multiple specimens. We compared culture and PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in urethral swabs, urine, and semen for T. vaginalis detection in male sexual partners of women with trichomoniasis identified by wet mount and culture. Trichomonads were detected by at least one positive test in 205/280 men (73.2%) who submitted at least one specimen for culture and PCR. Whereas InPouch TV culture detected only 46/205 cases (22.5%), PCR detected 201/205 (98.0%). Urethral swab cultures from men with urethritis were more likely to be positive with shorter incubation than specimens from men without urethritis. T. vaginalis was detected more often in men with wet-mount-positive partners. Even with a sensitive PCR assay, reliable detection of T. vaginalis in male partners required multiple specimens. The majority of male sexual partners in this study were infected, emphasizing the importance of partner evaluation and treatment. PMID:16971646
Hobbs, Marcia M; Lapple, Dana M; Lawing, Lisa F; Schwebke, Jane R; Cohen, Myron S; Swygard, Heidi; Atashili, Julius; Leone, Peter A; Miller, William C; Seña, Arlene C
Antibodies to the sexual-stage surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs230 and Pfs48\\/45, can abolish the infectivity of gametes to mosquitoes; these antigens have been proposed as candidates for inclusion in a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine. One possible mechanism of antibody-mediated transmission blocking is complement-mediated gamete lysis. We have used a panel of human sera from geographically distinct regions where malaria is
JULIE HEALER; DAVID MCGUINNESS; PHILIP HOPCROFT; SUSAN HALEY; RICHARD CARTER; ELEANOR RILEY
The microtubule system associated with the Chlamydomonas reinhardi flagellar apparatus is shown to differ from previous descriptions; two of the four flagellar "roots" possess only two microtubules and are associated with a finely striated fiber. In gametic cells this fiber underlies the gametic mating structure and makes contact with it. Functional interpretations are offered. PMID:10605448
Goodenough, U W; Weiss, R L
BACKGROUND: Although the donation and receipt of gametes has become an integral part of infertility management, previous research in the field of social attitudes and intention to use medical technologies is limited. This study aimed to investigate attitudinal indicators and their potential relationship with the public's intention to have recourse to gamete donation and surrogacy. METHODS: A total of 365
Joannes E. Chliaoutakis; Sophia Koukouli; Maria Papadakaki
It may be possible to avoid inadequate in vitro culture conditions by incubating gametes or embryos in the oviducts for a short time. Ideally, an optimized procedure should be devised, combining in vitro and in vivo systems, in order to achieve synchronization in cattle. We transferred gametes as well as embryos in various stages of development and placed them into
F. Wetscher; V. Havlicek; T. Huber; M. Gilles; D. Tesfaye; J. Griese; K. Wimmers; K. Schellander; M. Müller; G. Brem; U. Besenfelder
Gametes and zygotes of Acetabularia have been studied with the electron microscope. The two flagella of the gamete enter the cell obliquely and the roots run near the surface of the organism. No connexion between the eyespot and the flagella was found nor was there regular relationship between the two eyespots of the zygote. When zygotes were fixed some hours
J. C. W. Crawley
The relative energetic investment in reproduction between the sexes forms the basis of sexual selection and life history theories in evolutionary biology. It is often assumed that males invest considerably less in gametes than females, but quantifying the energetic cost of gamete production in both sexes has remained a difficult challenge. For a broad diversity of species (invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, birds, and mammals), we compared the cost of gamete production between the sexes in terms of the investment in gonad tissue and the rate of gamete biomass production. Investment in gonad biomass was nearly proportional to body mass in both sexes, but gamete biomass production rate was approximately two to four orders of magnitude higher in females. In both males and females, gamete biomass production rate increased with organism mass as a power law, much like individual metabolic rate. This suggests that whole-organism energetics may act as a primary constraint on gamete production among species. Residual variation in sperm production rate was positively correlated with relative testes size. Together, these results suggest that understanding the heterogeneity in rates of gamete production among species requires joint consideration of the effects of gonad mass and metabolism.
Hayward, April; Gillooly, James F.
This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…
Emery, Clifton R.
Trichomonas vaginalis infection in men is an important cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Effective detection of the parasite in men using culture requires examination of multiple specimens. We compared culture and PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in urethral swabs, urine, and semen for T. vaginalis detection in male sexual partners of women with trichomoniasis identified by wet mount and culture. Trichomonads were detected
Marcia M. Hobbs; Dana M. Lapple; Lisa F. Lawing; Jane R. Schwebke; Myron S. Cohen; Heidi Swygard; Julius Atashili; Peter A. Leone; William C. Miller; Arlene C. Sena
A central statement of the theory of natural trading partners is that preferential trading with regional trading partners is less likely to be trade diverting and therefore geographically proximate partners are to be considered \\
Marine invertebrate gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) are classic examples of rapid adaptive evolution of reproductive proteins, and hybridizing Mytilus blue mussels allow us to study the evolution of GRPs during speciation following secondary contact. Even with frequent hybridization, positive selection drives divergence of M7 lysin, one of the three Mytilus egg vitelline envelope (VE) lysins. Mytilus trossulus and M. edulis form a broad hybrid zone in the Canadian Maritimes and eastern Maine, isolated by strong (but partial) gamete incompatibility. M7 lysin, however, is an unlikely GRP controlling this gametic incompativility, as earlier studies showed either weak or no positive selection and extensive introgression between the two species. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and cloned several alleles of M3 lysin, a potent VE lysin encoded by a nonhomologous gene whose evolution has not been studied. McDonald-Kreitman and HKA tests reveal strong positive selection, which PAML branch-site models detect in 19.7% of the codons. Protein structure predictions show that replacements map exclusively to one face of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of this C-type lectin, with codons under positive selection localizing to CRD regions known to control ligand specificity. Polymorphism/divergence analyses show that selective sweep has purged M. edulis but not M. trossulus of polymorphism, and unique to M3 is an absence of fixed substitutions and broad haplotype sharing between M. edulis and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. Taken together, these results suggest that different lysins serve as GRPs in different Mytilus hybrid zones, with M3 likely co-opted to play this role in the western Atlantic. PMID:24048587
Lima, Thiago G; McCartney, Michael A
GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711...
Summary Induction of cleavage of the cytoplasm in the gametangium of a predominantly male strain of the aquatic PhycomyceteAllomyces under conditions of oxygen starvation, in the presence of dilute lactic acid, or dilute phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, resulted in multinucleate-multi-flagellate gametes. Under certain conditions the frequency for such abnormal gametes approached 70%. Phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at a concentration of
Lauritz W. Olson; Mogens Rønne
Delayed parenting affects fertility in women and in men, and cryopreservation of oocytes and sperm is becoming the latest trend as a solution for those who want or need to postpone procreation, in an attempt to avoid the damage medical conditions or time itself produces in gametes. Although "social freezing" is considered legitimate, its ethical and social aspects are in need of an overdue medical, public and legal debate. Assisted reproduction and cryopreservation, in combination with womb outsourcing, have opened the door to biological ectogenesis and the subsequent question of whether delayed childbearing means we should formally separate procreation from sexual activity. This article briefly summarizes what cryotechniques are capable of presently and in the near future, to separate fact from fiction. It names the implications for and discusses the practically virgin subject of the underlying responsibilities of delayed parenting techniques towards the child-to-be-not only the unborn but also the not-yet-conceived child. Considering the medical, economic, legal and social consequences of these rapidly growing developments in reproduction, several reasons point at the need to formally separate procreation from sexual activity, specifying responsibilities in the first while respecting personal choice in the second. PMID:24568049
Campagne, Daniel M
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133
Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian
Objective The use of donor sperm or ova becomes an option for some infertile couples. We sought to determine the views towards donor sperm and eggs of both men and women. Design Prospective cohort of infertile couples Setting Eight California reproductive endocrinology practices Patients Infertile couples (n=377) were recruited after initial infertility clinic visit. Main Outcome Measures From questionnaires administered at recruitment, ratings concerning the impact of the use of donor gametes were assessed. Differences between men and women in attitudes toward donor gametes were compared with ANOVA. Linear regression was used to identify independent predictors of attitudes towards gametes. Results Female's attitudes towards donor sperm were significantly more negative than their attitudes towards donor eggs (5.1±1.4 vs 4.7±1.6*). Similarly, male donor gamete attitude scores were higher for donor sperm compared to donor eggs (4.9±1.6 vs 4.1±1.6*). Both men and women agreed that the use of donor sperm was more likely to have negative effects on their relationship and negative societal ramifications. Female donor gamete attitude scores were predicted by marital status, race, and education while men's scores were independent of all measured factors.* p<0.0001 Conclusions Both men and women view the use of donor sperm with more skepticism compared to the use of donor eggs suggesting a unique underlying perception regarding the use of male donor gametes.
Eisenberg, Michael L.; Smith, James F.; Millstein, Susan G.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Katz, Patricia P.
Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population.
Weir, Brian W.; O'Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.
Hybrid sterility frequently occurs in crosses between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice. In this study, we investigated the cytological processes involved in formation and development of male and female gametes as well as their interactions in fertilization, using an indica\\/japonica hybrid in comparison with an indica\\/indica hybrid. It was found that more than 50% of the microspores
H. Y. Liu; C. G. Xu; Qifa Zhang
Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, threatens 40% of the world's population. Transmission between vertebrate and insect hosts depends on the sexual stages of the life-cycle. The male gamete of Plasmodium parasite is the only developmental stage that possesses a flagellum. Very little is known about the identity or function of proteins in the parasite's flagellar biology. Here, we characterise a Plasmodium PF16 homologue using reverse genetics in the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. PF16 is a conserved Armadillo-repeat protein that regulates flagellar structure and motility in organisms as diverse as green algae and mice. We show that P. berghei PF16 is expressed in the male gamete flagellum, where it plays a crucial role maintaining the correct microtubule structure in the central apparatus of the axoneme as studied by electron microscopy. Disruption of the PF16 gene results in abnormal flagellar movement and reduced fertility, but does not lead to complete sterility, unlike pf16 mutations in other organisms. Using homology modelling, bioinformatics analysis and complementation studies in Chlamydomonas, we show that some regions of the PF16 protein are highly conserved across all eukaryotes, whereas other regions may have species-specific functions. PF16 is the first ARM-repeat protein characterised in the malaria parasite genus Plasmodium and this study opens up a novel model for analysis of Plasmodium flagellar biology that may provide unique insights into an ancient organelle and suggest novel intervention strategies to control the malaria parasite. PMID:20886115
Straschil, Ursula; Talman, Arthur M; Ferguson, David J P; Bunting, Karen A; Xu, Zhengyao; Bailes, Elizabeth; Sinden, Robert E; Holder, Anthony A; Smith, Elizabeth F; Coates, Juliet C; Rita Tewari
Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, threatens 40% of the world's population. Transmission between vertebrate and insect hosts depends on the sexual stages of the life-cycle. The male gamete of Plasmodium parasite is the only developmental stage that possesses a flagellum. Very little is known about the identity or function of proteins in the parasite's flagellar biology. Here, we characterise a Plasmodium PF16 homologue using reverse genetics in the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. PF16 is a conserved Armadillo-repeat protein that regulates flagellar structure and motility in organisms as diverse as green algae and mice. We show that P. berghei PF16 is expressed in the male gamete flagellum, where it plays a crucial role maintaining the correct microtubule structure in the central apparatus of the axoneme as studied by electron microscopy. Disruption of the PF16 gene results in abnormal flagellar movement and reduced fertility, but does not lead to complete sterility, unlike pf16 mutations in other organisms. Using homology modelling, bioinformatics analysis and complementation studies in Chlamydomonas, we show that some regions of the PF16 protein are highly conserved across all eukaryotes, whereas other regions may have species-specific functions. PF16 is the first ARM-repeat protein characterised in the malaria parasite genus Plasmodium and this study opens up a novel model for analysis of Plasmodium flagellar biology that may provide unique insights into an ancient organelle and suggest novel intervention strategies to control the malaria parasite.
Ferguson, David J. P.; Bunting, Karen A.; Xu, Zhengyao; Bailes, Elizabeth; Sinden, Robert E.; Holder, Anthony A.; Smith, Elizabeth F.; Coates, Juliet C.; Rita Tewari
To investigate the effect of water temperature on gamete maturation and gamete quality, European grayling (Thymalus thymallus) were held under different temperature regimes prior to spawning. Maturation of males and females and their gamete quality depended strongly on temperature regime. The highest percentages of maturing fish and highest gamete quality were obtained under a creek water temperature regime with natural seasonal fluctuations. In warmed creek water (3-4°C), at a constant temperature of 8-9°C, and under an abruptly increasing temperature, regime maturation rates and gamete quality were reduced. The effect was more pronounced in females than in males. The spawning dates of different wild Austrian grayling populations were also correlated with water temperature data collected during the last 10-15 years. The mean spawning date expressed as the number of days from 21 December until spawning ranged from 98 to 111 days for lower elevation populations, while it was considerably delayed for an alpine population. All populations spawned at water temperatures of 5.5-7.2°C. Regression analysis indicated that spawning date correlated with (1) the overall mean water temperature from 21 December until spawning, (2) the mean water temperature during both the last 10 days and 15 days before spawning, and (3) the difference between mean January temperature and that of the last 15 days before spawning. The regression functions indicate that an increase in water temperature from 21 December to spawning of 1°C advances spawning by 5½ days, and an increase of 1°C in the last 10-15 days advances spawning by 3½ days. PMID:21701820
Lahnsteiner, Franz; Kletzl, Manfred
Background Relaxin is a small peptide also known as pregnancy hormone in many mammals. It is synthesized by both male and female tissues, and its secretions are found in various body fluids such as plasma serum, ovarian follicular fluid, utero-oviduct secretions, and seminal plasma of many mammals, including pigs. However, the presence and effects of relaxin in porcine gametes and embryos are still not well-known. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in pig gametes and embryos. Methods Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from sows' ovaries collected at the abattoir. After in vitro-maturation, COCs were in vitro-fertilized and cultured. For studies, immature and mature COCs were separately collected, and oocytes were freed from their surrounding cumulus cells. Denuded oocytes, cumulus cells, mature boar spermatozoa, zygotes, and embryos (cleaved and blastocysts) were harvested for temporal and spatial gene expression studies. Sections of ovary, granulosa and neonatal porcine uterine cells were also collected to use as controls. Results Using both semi-quantitative and quantitative PCRs, relaxin transcripts were not detected in all tested samples, while RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA were present. Both receptor gene products were found at higher levels in oocytes compared to cumulus cells, irrespective of the maturation time. Cleaved-embryos contained higher levels of RXFP2 mRNA, whereas, blastocysts were characterized by a higher RXFP1 mRNA content. Using western-immunoblotting or in situ immunofluorescence, relaxin and its receptor proteins were detected in all samples. Their fluorescence intensities were consistently more important in mature oocytes than immature ones. The RXFP1 and RXFP2 signal intensities were mostly located in the plasma membrane region, while the relaxin ones appeared homogeneously distributed within the oocytes and embryonic cells. Furthermore, spermatozoa displayed stronger RXFP2 signal than RXFP1 after western-immunoblotting. Conclusion All together, our findings suggest potential roles of relaxin and its receptors during oocyte maturation, early embryo development, and beyond.
Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.
Extracts prepared from tissues containing buccal ring nerve or longitudinal radial nerve of sea cucumber induce oocyte maturation and ovulation from ovarian tissues. We purified two small peptides, a pentapeptide and a heptapeptide, from the buccal tissues of Japanese common sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas. Both peptides induced oocyte maturation and gamete spawning. The pentapeptide was identified as NGIWYamide. This peptide induced in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown and ovulation of fully-grown oocytes at less than 1 pM and in vivo spawning at 10 nM. A synthetic derivative of the pentapeptide, NGLWYamide, was 10-100 times more potent compared to the natural NGIWYamide. The heptapeptide was less potent, inducing ovulation at 1 muM. NGIWYamide and NGLWYamide induced a characteristic spawning behavior when injected into sexually matured individuals. Mature eggs artificially spawned were fertilized, and developed normally and metamorphosed into young sea cucumbers. The details of the production and the mechanism of action of NGIWYamide are still unclear, but the high biopotency of the peptide will aid understanding of the neuronal and hormonal control of reproduction of sea cucumber. PMID:19059232
Kato, Shinichi; Tsurumaru, Saori; Taga, Makoto; Yamane, Tomoki; Shibata, Yasushi; Ohno, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yamano, Keisuke; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu
Gametic disequilibria between allozyme loci were related to spatial variation of the environment in caged populations of Drosophila melanogaster . Two experiments, one with flies collected at "Chateau Tahbilk," South Australia, and the other with flies from "Groningen," The Netherlands, were sampled at generations 16 and 32. Spatial variation of the environment was stimulated using three food media. Eight polymorphic allozyme loci were used to estimate gametic disequilibria from digenic combinations of allotypes. All populations were duplicated within an environment and maintained at about 2500 adults. Standardized gametic disequilibria were compared by a weighted least squares analysis of the z-transformed statistical correlation of allele frequencies. Gametic disequilibria were strongly dependent upon food niche and food-niche interactions. The effects also varied with sampling time and were similar in duplicate populations. Gametic disequilibria were most often detected in the "Groningen"-derived populations and their strength was not strongly associated with recombination fraction. Many of the disequilibria concerned unlinked loci. The strength of selection was probably considerable and populations were evolving genetic architectures which reflected niche selection by the different foods without marked genetic isolation between foods; gene frequencies did not vary between niches within a population cage.
Birley, A. J.; Haley, C. S.
By harboring male and female functions in the same genome and expressing them in every individual, simultaneous hermaphrodites may incur sexual conflict unless both sex functions can evolve phenotypic optima independently of each other. The first step toward understanding their capacity to do so lies in understanding whether sex functions are phenotypically correlated within individuals, but remarkably few data address this issue. We tested the potential for intra- and intersex covariation of gamete phenotypes to mediate sexual conflict in broadcast-spawning hermaphrodites (the ascidians Ciona intestinalis and Pyura praeputialis), for which sex-specific selection acts predominantly on sperm–egg interactions in the water column. In both species, gamete phenotypes covaried within and across sex functions, implying that selection may be unable to target them independently because its direct effects on male gametes translate into correlated effects on female gametes and vice versa. This alone does not preclude the evolution of a different phenotypic optimum for each sex function, but imposes the more restrictive requirement that selection – which ultimately sorts among whole individuals, not sex functions – aligns with the direction in which gamete phenotypes covary at this level.
Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue in Japan. In order to start effective interventions for abused women, the appropriate method of screening for IPV in healthcare settings needs clarifying. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a face-to-face interview with a self-administered questionnaire. We used the Violence Against Women Screen (VAWS), a Japanese screening instrument for intimate partner violence (IPV), for identifying pregnant women who have experienced abuse. Methods We conducted a randomised controlled trial to screen participants at three points in time in a prenatal clinic in Tokyo, Japan. There were 328 consenting women between 14 and 25 weeks of pregnancy who were consecutively selected and randomly assigned to either the interview or self-administered questionnaire group. Both groups completed the same screening instrument three times during their pregnancy. The primary outcome was the total number of women identified by each screening method and the secondary outcome was the effect of the screening as measured by the women's comfort level and their expressed need to consult with the nurse. Results For all three screenings, the identification rate in the interview group was significantly lower than that for the self-administered questionnaire group (relative risk 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.97), even after controlling for smoking (adjusted odds ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98). The two groups did not differ for secondary outcomes. Conclusions The self-administered questionnaire identified more IPV than the face-to-face interview when screening pregnant women in a Japanese prenatal clinic. Trial Registration UMIN-CTRC000000353
Ovarian tissue transplantation is an experimental procedure that can be used to treat both infertility and premature menopause. Working within the current legal framework in the USA, I examine whether ovarian tissue should be legally treated like gametes or organs in the case of ovarian tissue transplantation between two women. One option is to base classification upon its intended use: ovarian tissue used to treat infertility would be classified like gametes, and ovarian tissue used to treat premature menopause would be classified like organs. In the end, however, I argue that this approach will not work because it engenders too many legal, cultural and logistical concerns and that, at least for the near future, we should treat ovarian tissue like gametes.
Ovarian tissue transplantation is an experimental procedure that can be used to treat both infertility and premature menopause. Working within the current legal framework in the USA, I examine whether ovarian tissue should be legally treated like gametes or organs in the case of ovarian tissue transplantation between two women. One option is to base classification upon its intended use: ovarian tissue used to treat infertility would be classified like gametes, and ovarian tissue used to treat premature menopause would be classified like organs. In the end, however, I argue that this approach will not work because it engenders too many legal, cultural and logistical concerns and that, at least for the near future, we should treat ovarian tissue like gametes. PMID:21245477
Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in patients with lung cancer and their partners: the MILON study
Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and characterized by a poor prognosis. It has a major impact on the psychological wellbeing of patients and their partners. Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is effective in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer patients. The generalization of these results is limited since most participants were female patients with breast cancer. Moreover, only one study examined the effectiveness of MBSR in partners of cancer patients. Therefore, in the present trial we study the effectiveness of MBSR versus treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Methods/Design A parallel group, randomized controlled trial is conducted to compare MBSR with TAU. Lung cancer patients who have received or are still under treatment, and their partners are recruited. Assessments will take place at baseline, post intervention and at three-month follow-up. The primary outcome is psychological distress (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (only for patients), caregiver appraisal (only for partners), relationship quality and spirituality. In addition, cost-effectiveness ratio (only in patients) and several process variables are assessed. Discussion This trial will provide information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBSR compared to TAU in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01494883.
This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th–8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and partners were significantly alike on popularity, physical attraction, and depressive symptoms. Controlling for initial similarity, partners' popularity, depressive symptoms, relational aggression and relational victimization significantly predicted changes in adolescents' functioning in these areas over time. However, the magnitude and direction of change varied according to adolescents' and partners' pre-relationship functioning. In general, adolescents who dated high-functioning partners changed more than those who dated low-functioning partners, and partner characteristics predicted greater change among low versus high-functioning adolescents. Results were consistent even when controlling for best friend characteristics. The current findings are among the first to demonstrate unique contributions of romantic partner characteristics to adolescents' psychosocial functioning.
Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).
Young, William; Kucera, Paul
Several experiments were performed to evaluate the fertilization capability of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin gametes, which are usually used in fertilization tests, but which, until now, were employed only for few hours after spawning.The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of performing the bioassay for longer periods, employing ‘conserved' gametes. As far as the method, the sperm
S. Lera; D. Pellegrini
The inverse of the gametic covariance matrix between relatives, G-1, for a marked quantitative trait locus (QTL) is required in best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) of breeding values if marker data are available on a QTL. A rapid method for computing the inverse of a gametic relationship matrix for a marked QTL without building G itself is presented. The algorithm
Gamal Abdel-Azim; Albert E. FREEMAN
This study established the first protocol for collection of gametes from live axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, by gentle abdominal massage and in vitro fertilization. To stimulate spermiation and ovulation, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and Ovopel pellets, which are commercially used to stimulate spawning in fish, were tested. The hCG was more effective than Ovopel pellets and yielded a higher semen volume
N. Mansour; F. Lahnsteiner; R. A. Patzner
Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.
Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)
Animal fertilization is governed by the interaction (binding) of proteins on the surfaces of sperm and egg. In many examples presented herein, fertilization proteins evolve rapidly and show the signature of positive selection (adaptive evolution). This review describes the molecular evolution of fertilization proteins in sea urchins, abalone, and oysters, animals with external fertilization that broadcast their gametes into seawater. Theories regarding the selective forces responsible for the rapid evolution driven by positive selection seen in many fertilization proteins are discussed. This strong selection acting on divergence of interacting fertilization proteins might lead to prezygotic reproductive isolation and be a significant factor in the speciation process. Since only a fraction of all eggs are fertilized and only an infinitesimal fraction of male gametes succeed in fertilizing an egg, gametes are obviously a category of entities subjected to intense selection. It is curious that this is never mentioned in the literature dealing with selection, perhaps because we know so little about fitness differences among gametes.(ErnstMayr, 1997)
Vacquier, Victor D.; Swanson, Willie J.
Several threads of research towards developing artificial gametes are ongoing in a number of research labs worldwide. The development of a technology that could generate gametes in vitro has significant potential for human reproduction, and raises a lot of interest, as evidenced by the frequent and extensive media coverage of research in this area. We have asked researchers involved in work with artificial gametes, ethicists, and representatives of potential user groups, how they envisioned the use of artificial gametes in human reproduction. In the course of three focus groups, the participants commented on the various aspects involved. The two recurring themes were the strength of the claim of becoming a parent genetically, and the importance of responsible communication of science. The participants concurred that (a) the desire or need to have genetic offspring of one's own does not warrant the investment of research resources into these technologies, and that (b) given the minefield in terms of moral controversy and sensitivity that characterises the issues involved, how information is communicated and handled is of great importance. PMID:24357153
Cutas, Daniela; Dondorp, Wybo; Swierstra, Tsjalling; Repping, Sjoerd; de Wert, Guido
A retrospective analysis was carried out to assess the outcome of gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) in cycles when more than 10 oocytes were retrieved (superhigh responders) from October 1987 through June 1989. There were 276 (13%) cycles with more than 10 oocytes retrieved among all GIFT cycles initiated during the period. Clomiphene citrate and gonadotropin were employed for ovarian stimulation
Talha Al-Shawaf; Aonghus Nolan; Prashant Nadkarni; Joyce Harper; Janet Brown; Rifki Guirgis; Geraldine Emerson; Meryl Bayly; Ian Craft
In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to
Neal R. Foster; Daniel V. OConnor; Carl B. Schreck
Objective:The purpose of this study was to test a two-phased nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training, and exercise intervention program for overweight or obese low-income ethnic minority 2nd to 4th grade children and their parents in rural North Carolina, USA.Methods:A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out with 358 children (7-10 years) and a parent for each child (n=358). General linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of the intervention on weight, adiposity, health behaviors, and eating and exercise self-efficacy by examining changes in children and parents from baseline to completion of the study (18 months).Results:At 18 months, children in the experimental group did not have a significantly decreased body mass index (BMI) percentile (P=0.470); however, they showed a reduction in the growth rate of their triceps (P=0.001) and subscapular skinfolds (P<0.001) and an improvement in dietary knowledge (P=0.018) and drank less than one glass of soda per day (P=0.052) compared with the control group. Parents in the experimental group had decreased BMI (P=0.001), triceps (P<0.001) and subscapular skinfolds (P<0.001) and increased nutrition (P=0.003) and exercise (P<0.001) knowledge and more often drank water or unsweetened drinks (P=0.029). At 18 months, children in the experimental group did not show significant improvement in eating (P=0.956) or exercise self-efficacy (P=0.976). Experimental parents demonstrated improved socially acceptable eating self-efficacy (P=0.013); however, they did not show significant improvement in self-efficacy pertaining to emotional eating (P=0.155) and exercise (P=0.680).Conclusion:The results suggest that inclusion of children and parents in the same intervention program is an effective way to decrease adiposity and improve nutrition behaviors in both children and parents and improve weight and eating self-efficacy in parents. PMID:24418827
Berry, D C; Schwartz, T A; McMurray, R G; Skelly, A H; Neal, M; Hall, E G; Aimyong, N; Amatuli, D J; Melkus, G
The antibody response to an epitope on gamete antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in persons naturally exposed to malaria has been investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The assay detects antibodies to an epitope on the 48/45-kilodalton (kDa) gamete surface antigen by competition with horseradish peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody IIC5-B10. Five sera previously shown to immunoprecipitate the 230- and 48/45-kDa antigens significantly inhibited IIC5-B10 binding to an average of 24.2% of control. The one serum which precipitated only the 48/45-kDa antigen did not inhibit IIC5-B10 binding. For 26 sera which were negative by immunoprecipitation, mean binding in the assay was 112.7% of control (pooled London nonimmune sera). Recognition of both 230-kDa and 48/45-kDa antigens was associated with a titer of 1:9 or greater (reciprocal geometric mean titer, 27.6) for inhibition to more than 2 standard deviations from the mean of the negative sera. The results show that the IIC5-B10 binding site is a naturally immunogenic epitope recognized by the majority of persons who had antibodies to the 48/45-kDa protein. An additional finding was enhancement of binding of IIC5-B10 to an average of 154.4% of control by five sera which recognized only the 230-kDa antigen, presumably due to conformational alteration of the gamete antigen complex.
Graves, P M; Wirtz, R A; Carter, R; Burkot, T R; Looker, M; Targett, G A
Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRC) modulate the epigenetic status of key cell fate and developmental regulators in eukaryotes. The chromo domain protein LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1) is a subunit of a plant PRC1-like complex in Arabidopsis thaliana and recognizes histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, a silencing epigenetic mark deposited by the PRC2 complex. We have identified and studied an LHP1-Interacting Factor2 (LIF2). LIF2 protein has RNA recognition motifs and belongs to the large hnRNP protein family, which is involved in RNA processing. LIF2 interacts in vivo, in the cell nucleus, with the LHP1 chromo shadow domain. Expression of LIF2 was detected predominantly in vascular and meristematic tissues. Loss-of-function of LIF2 modifies flowering time, floral developmental homeostasis and gynoecium growth determination. lif2 ovaries have indeterminate growth and produce ectopic inflorescences with severely affected flowers showing proliferation of ectopic stigmatic papillae and ovules in short-day conditions. To look at how LIF2 acts relative to LHP1, we conducted transcriptome analyses in lif2 and lhp1 and identified a common set of deregulated genes, which showed significant enrichment in stress-response genes. By comparing expression of LHP1 targets in lif2, lhp1 and lif2 lhp1 mutants we showed that LIF2 can either antagonize or act with LHP1. Interestingly, repression of the FLC floral transcriptional regulator in lif2 mutant is accompanied by an increase in H3K27 trimethylation at the locus, without any change in LHP1 binding, suggesting that LHP1 is targeted independently from LIF2 and that LHP1 binding does not strictly correlate with gene expression. LIF2, involved in cell identity and cell fate decision, may modulate the activity of LHP1 at specific loci, during specific developmental windows or in response to environmental cues that control cell fate determination. These results highlight a novel link between plant RNA processing and Polycomb regulation.
Houba-Herin, Nicole; Dubois, Emeline; Bui-Prodhomme, Duyen; Hourcade, Delphine; Juul-Jensen, Trine; Le Roux, Clementine; Majira, Amel; Simoncello, Nathalie; Granier, Fabienne; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Gaudin, Valerie
Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase.
Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.
Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase. PMID:23577245
Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M; Ciliska, Donna; Macmillan, Harriet L
Partner-assisted emotional disclosure is a couple-based intervention designed to help patients disclose cancer-related concerns to their spouses-partners. We previously found that, compared with an education/support control condition, partner-assisted emotional disclosure led to significant improvements in relationship quality and intimacy for…
Porter, Laura S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Keefe, Francis J.; Patterson, Emily S.
Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854
Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.
Objectives To estimate whether home visitation beginning after child birth was associated with changes in average rates of mothers' intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration, as well as rates of specific IPV types (physical assault, verbal abuse, sexual assault, injury) during the 3-years of program implementation and during 3-years of long-term follow-up. Design Randomized controlled trial Setting Oahu, Hawaii Participants 643 families with an infant at high-risk for child maltreatment born between November 1994 and December 1995. Intervention Home visitors provided direct services and linked families to community resources. Home visits were to initially occur weekly and to continue for at least three years. Outcome Measures Women's self-reports of past year IPV victimization and perpetration using the Conflict Tactics Scale. Blinded research staff conducted maternal interviews following the child's birth, and annually when children were 1–3 years and then 7–9 years old. Results During program implementation, intervention mothers as compared to control mothers reported lower rates of IPV victimization (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73,1.01) and significantly lower rates of perpetration (IRR, 0.83; 95% CI 0.72,0.96). Considering specific IPV types, intervention women reported significantly lower rates of physical assault victimization (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI 0.71,1.00) and perpetration (IRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70,0.96). During long-term follow-up, rates of overall IPV victimization and perpetration decreased with non-significant between-group differences. Verbal abuse victimization rates (IRR, 1.14, 95% CI 0.97,1.34) may have increased among intervention mothers. Conclusions Early childhood home visitation may be a promising strategy for reducing IPV.
Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Jennings, Jacky M; Chen, Rusan; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Duggan, Anne K.
Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients. PMID:21568249
Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard
In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation.
Maeda, Hiroki; Okamoto, Takashi
DNA methylation patterns and functions are variable across invertebrate taxa. In order to provide a better understanding of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), we characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in male gamete cells using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to examine the relationship between DNA methylation and transcript expression. Methylation status of over 7.6 million CpG dinucleotides was described with a majority of methylated regions occurring among intragenic regions. Overall, 15% of the CpG dinucleotides were determined to be methylated and the mitochondrial genome lacked DNA methylation. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data revealed a positive association between methylation status, both in gene bodies and putative promoter regions, and expression. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the distribution of DNA methylation in the oyster male gamete tissue and suggests that DNA methylation is involved in gene regulatory activity.
Olson, Claire E.; Roberts, Steven B.
Freshwater mussels are one of the most threatened faunas in North America and worldwide, but little research has examined\\u000a factors leading to successful reproduction (gamete development and fertilization success) in these species. We combined field\\u000a and laboratory studies to determine the environmental factors influencing successful reproduction in three closely related\\u000a species of freshwater mussels in a south central U.S. river.
Heather S. Galbraith; Caryn C. Vaughn
The process of fertilization is critically dependent on the mutual recognition of gametes and in Plasmodium, the male gamete surface protein P48/45 is vital to this process. This protein belongs to a family of 10 structurally related proteins, the so called 6-cys family. To identify the role of additional members of this family in Plasmodium fertilisation, we performed genetic and functional analysis on the five members of the 6-cys family that are transcribed during the gametocyte stage of P. berghei. This analysis revealed that in addition to P48/45, two members (P230 and P47) also play an essential role in the process of parasite fertilization. Mating studies between parasites lacking P230, P48/45 or P47 demonstrate that P230, like P48/45, is a male fertility factor, consistent with the previous demonstration of a protein complex containing both P48/45 and P230. In contrast, disruption of P47 results in a strong reduction of female fertility, while males remain unaffected. Further analysis revealed that gametes of mutants lacking expression of p48/45 or p230 or p47 are unable to either recognise or attach to each other. Disruption of the paralog of p230, p230p, also specifically expressed in gametocytes, had no observable effect on fertilization. These results indicate that the P. berghei 6-cys family contains a number of proteins that are either male or female specific ligands that play an important role in gamete recognition and/or attachment. The implications of low levels of fertilisation that exist even in the absence of these proteins, indicating alternative pathways of fertilisation, as well as positive selection acting on these proteins, are discussed in the context of targeting these proteins as transmission blocking vaccine candidates.
Khan, Shahid M.; van Dooren, Maaike W.; Ramesar, Jai; Kaczanowski, Szymon; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Kroeze, Hans; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Eling, Wijnand M.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Waters, Andrew P.; Janse, Chris J.
Best linear unbiased prediction of genetic merits for a marked quantitative trait locus (QTL) using mixed model methodology includes the inverse of conditional gametic relationship matrix (G-1) for a marked QTL. When accounting for inbreeding, the conditional gametic relationships between two parents of individuals for a marked QTL are necessary to build G-1 directly. Up to now, the tabular method and its adaptations have been used to compute these relationships. In the present paper, an indirect method was implemented at the gametic level to compute these few relationships. Simulation results showed that the indirect method can perform faster with significantly less storage requirements than adaptation of the tabular method. The efficiency of the indirect method was mainly due to the use of the sparseness of G-1. The indirect method can also be applied to construct an approximate G-1 for populations with incomplete marker data, providing approximate probabilities of descent for QTL alleles for individuals with incomplete marker data. PMID:16635448
Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki; Colleau, Jean-Jacques
'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005
Inhorn, Marcia C
The Social Health Intervention Project (SHIP): Protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a brief motivational intervention for problem drinking and intimate partner violence in an urban emergency department
Background There is a strong reciprocal association between two highly prevalent public health problems: intimate partner violence and heavy drinking, both of which remain major sources of morbidity and mortality. Brief interventions in the Emergency Department setting have been found to be effective in reducing alcohol-related injury but neither classic intimate partner violence nor substance abuse interventions have adequately integrated assessment and treatment for these co-occurring conditions. The overall goal of this study is to determine whether a motivational intervention delivered at the time of an Emergency Department visit will reduce heavy drinking and improve the safety of women experiencing intimate partner violence. Methods and design We are completing data collection for a randomized controlled trial enrolling 600 female patients, age 18–64, presenting to one of two urban Emergency Departments, who self-disclose both problem drinking and intimate partner violence. Eligible patients are randomized to a brief manual-guided motivational intervention, and a phone booster at 10 days. The intervention, which is delivered by masters-level therapists during the Emergency Department visit, is recorded and monitored for fidelity. Primary outcomes are episodes of heavy drinking and incidents of intimate partner violence, assessed weekly by Interactive Voice Response System for 12 weeks and at 3, 6 and 12 months by interviewers blinded to group assignment. To identify the impact of assessment alone, we included a no-contact control group assessed only once at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include violence severity, changes in the Composite Abuse Scale and alcohol quantity/frequency, along with other health-related behaviors. The analysis will also explore the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. Discussion While screening and intervention for intimate partner violence is now recommended for women of child bearing age in health care settings, there is a need for rigorous evaluations of what works for whom. Upon completion, we will have high-quality evidence regarding the effectiveness of a low-intensity, brief motivational intervention, delivered by social workers in the Emergency Department setting, for decreasing episodes of heavy drinking and intimate partner violence. Ultimately, this is a model could be generalizable to other acute health care settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number: NCT01207258
Background Evidence from armed conflict settings points to high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Current knowledge on how to prevent IPV is limited—especially within war-affected settings. To inform prevention programming on gender-based violence in settings affected by conflict, we evaluated the impact of adding a targeted men’s intervention to a community-based prevention programme in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods We conducted a two-armed, non-blinded cluster randomized trial in Côte d’Ivoire among 12 pair-matched communities spanning government-controlled, UN buffer, and rebel–controlled zones. The intervention communities received a 16-week IPV prevention intervention using a men’s discussion group format. All communities received community-based prevention programmes. Baseline data were collected from couples in September 2010 (pre-intervention) and follow-up in March 2012 (one year post-intervention). The primary trial outcome was women’s reported experiences of physical and/or sexual IPV in the last 12 months. We also assessed men’s reported intention to use physical IPV, attitudes towards sexual IPV, use of hostility and conflict management skills, and participation in gendered household tasks. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis was used to compare outcomes between intervention and control communities at follow-up. Results At follow-up, reported levels of physical and/or sexual IPV in the intervention arm had decreased compared to the control arm (ARR 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-1.51, not significant). Men participating in the intervention reported decreased intentions to use physical IPV (ARR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.06) and improved attitudes toward sexual IPV (ARR 1.21, 95% CI 0.77-1.91). Significant differences were found between men in the intervention and control arms’ reported ability to control their hostility and manage conflict (ARR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.58), and participation in gendered household tasks (ARR 2.47, 95% CI 1.24-4.90). Conclusions This trial points to the value of adding interventions working with men alongside community activities to reduce levels of IPV in conflict-affected settings. The intervention significantly influenced men’s reported behaviours related to hostility and conflict management and gender equitable behaviours. The decreased mean level of IPV and the differences between intervention and control arms, while not statistically significant, suggest that IPV in conflict-affected areas can be reduced through concerted efforts to include men directly in violence prevention programming. A larger-scale trial is needed to replicate these findings and further understand the mechanisms of change. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01803932
For decades, battered women’s advocates have placed coercive control squarely at the center of their analysis of intimate partner violence. Yet, little work has been done to conceptualize and measure the key construct of coercive control. In this article, we apply French and Raven’s social power model to a conceptualization of coercive control in intimate partner violence relationships. Central elements
Mary Ann Dutton; Lisa A. Goodman
This report describes Partners in Accomplished Teaching, a project of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) designed to help increase the number of teachers achieving National Board Certification. It focuses on efforts in St. Paul, Minnesota; Mississippi; North Carolina; and San Antonio, Texas. The St. Paul program is a…
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Arlington, VA.
In this paper, based on the bionic study on dolphin, a philosophy of dolphin Partner Optimization (DPO) was formulated and a so-called ldquoNucleusrdquo was introduced to predict the best position according to the positions and fitness of the team members. After that, we test the DPO algorithm on several benchmark functions and the experiment result show it has rapid and
Yang Shiqin; Jiang Jianjun; Yan Guangxing
Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…
In response to alarming drop-out rates among high school students and indications that the emerging workforce will be predominantly minority and disadvantaged, the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) developed the Partners program to encourage minority students from as early as seventh grade to remain and succeed…
Raughton, Jim L.
In this activity, learners identify the reproductive parts of plants and the animal (bee) structures involved in pollination. Learners then use this information to role play or act out the process of pollination. Use this activity to introduce learners to the importance of pollination partners and how plant and animals interact to accomplish pollination.
Background The present article presents the protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a group-based self-management support programme for recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (one to three years post-diagnosis) and their partners. The course aims to support T2DM patients and their partners in successfully integrating diabetes care into their daily lives and hereby enhance self-management and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life. The content of the course is based on the Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM). Furthermore, principles from the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and social support theories are integrated. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 160 recently diagnosed T2DM patients and their partners from general practices in six different regions in the Netherlands. Patients need to be diagnosed with T2DM for one to three years and have to experience some degree of diabetes-related difficulties, as measured with a three-item screener. Participating patients and their partners are randomly allocated to the intervention or control condition. Participants in the intervention condition receive three monthly group sessions and a booster session three months later. Participants in the control condition receive a single information meeting. Data will be collected at baseline (T0), directly after the programme (T1) and six months post-programme (T2), including: self-management, diabetes-specific health-related quality of life, illness perceptions, attitudes, social support and empowerment. A three-level multilevel model will be used to compare change-scores between the conditions (intervention/control) on each outcome. Discussion Our study will be the first to determine whether a group-based support programme based on the CSM is effective in enhancing self-management and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life in recently diagnosed T2DM patients. The important role of patients’ partners in effective diabetes care is also acknowledged in the study. Trial registration Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR) NTR3302.
T-cell responses (proliferation, intracellular cytokine synthesis and IFN? ELISPOT) against human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E2 peptides were tested during 18 months in a longitudinal study in eight women presenting with HPV16-related usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and their healthy male partners. In six women, anti-E2 proliferative responses and cytokine production (single IFN? and\\/or dual IFN?\\/IL2 and\\/or single IL2) by CD4+
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue in Japan. In order to start effective interventions for abused women, the appropriate method of screening for IPV in healthcare settings needs clarifying. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a face-to-face interview with a self-administered questionnaire. We used the Violence Against Women Screen (VAWS), a
Yaeko Kataoka; Yukari Yaju; Hiromi Eto; Shigeko Horiuchi
Metal and alloy nanoparticles are increasingly developed for biomedical applications, while a firm understanding of their biocompatibility is still missing. Various properties have been reported to influence the toxic potential of nanoparticles. This study aimed to assess the impact of nanoparticle size, surface ligands and chemical composition of gold, silver or gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on mammalian gametes. An in vitro assay for porcine gametes was developed, since these are delicate primary cells, for which well-established culture systems exist and functional parameters are defined. During coincubation with oocytes for 46 h neither any of the tested gold nanoparticles nor the gold-silver alloy particles with a silver molar fraction of up to 50% showed any impact on oocyte maturation. Alloy nanoparticles with 80% silver molar fraction and pure silver nanoparticles inhibited cumulus-oocyte maturation. Confocal microscopy revealed a selective uptake of gold nanoparticles by oocytes, while silver and alloy particles mainly accumulated in the cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte. Interestingly sperm vitality parameters (motility, membrane integrity and morphology) were not affected by any of the tested nanoparticles. Only sporadic association of nanoparticles with the sperm plasma membrane was found by transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, mammalian oocytes were sensitive to silver containing nanoparticles. Likely, the delicate process of completing meiosis in maternal gametes features high vulnerability towards nanomaterial derived toxicity. The results imply that released Ag(+)-ions are responsible for the observed toxicity, but the compounding into an alloy seemed to alleviate the toxic effects to a certain extent. PMID:24171189
Tiedemann, Daniela; Taylor, Ulrike; Rehbock, Christoph; Jakobi, Jurij; Klein, Sabine; Kues, Wilfried A; Barcikowski, Stephan; Rath, Detlef
Morphology of gametes is used to understand the physiological processes in reproduction among domestic and wild animals. These gametes are used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and conservation programs. In the case of Artibeus jamaicensis and Sturnira lilium, few studies have been conducted related to these issues. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of spermatozoa, semen characteristics and also the morphology and quality of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) of A. jamaicensis and S. lilium. Semen characteristics were: A. jamaicensis had a sperm concentration of 4.26×10(6)sperm/ml, progressive motility of 34.55%; viability of 73.23%; head, tail and mid-piece abnormalities of 12.50%. Head length was 6.26?m, mid-piece 18.61?m and tail 70.92?m. S. lilium, had a sperm concentration of 5.15×10(6)sperm/ml, progressive motility of 60.00%, viability of 83.82%; abnormalities in head, tail and mid-piece of 13.77%. Head length was 7.01?m, mid-piece 20.33?m and tail 70.50?m. On average 12.8 of right ovarian oocytes and 9.9 of left ovarian oocytes of A. jamaicensis were recovered. For S. lilium on average 10.7 oocytes from the right ovary and 10.9 oocytes from the left ovary were recovered, ranging in quality from excellent to poor. Sperm morphology and quality of COC were similar to those for other domestic and wild animals. Bat gametes can be used for the study of reproductive biology, in conservation programs and assisted reproductive technology (ART) among domestic and wild animals. PMID:24576400
Álvarez-Guerrero, Alma; Medrano, Alfredo; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma
We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed.
Kranz, E; Lorz, H
Background Reproductive control including pregnancy coercion (coercion by male partners to become pregnant) and birth control sabotage (partner interference with contraception) may be associated with partner violence and risk for unintended pregnancy among young adult females utilizing family planning clinic services. Study Design A cross-sectional survey was administered to females ages 16–29 years seeking care in five family planning clinics in Northern California (N=1278). Results Fifty-three percent of respondents reported physical or sexual partner violence, 19% reported experiencing pregnancy coercion, and 15% reported birth control sabotage. One third of respondents reporting partner violence (35%) also reported reproductive control. Both pregnancy coercion and birth control sabotage were associated with unintended pregnancy (AOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.36, 2.46, and AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.14, 2.20, respectively). In analyses stratified by partner violence exposure, associations of reproductive control with unintended pregnancy persisted only among women with a history of partner violence. Conclusions Pregnancy coercion and birth control sabotage are common among young women utilizing family planning clinics, and in the context of partner violence, are associated with increased risk for unintended pregnancy.
Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwal, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.
Patient- and family-centred care (PFCC) concepts are increasingly cited in the critical care literature and are a welcome addition to the vernacular of the intensive care unit (ICU). The implementation and maintenance of a supportive PFCC environment is challenging, however, and usual strategies for knowledge translation using guidelines and policies, no matter how articulate, have not yet resulted in sustained practice change at the point of care delivery. In this article, co-authored by community partners, the physician director and nurse leader of one tertiary care ICU, we describe an initiative in which patient and family representatives were included in the ICU interdisciplinary team membership. After two years and now, at the conclusion of the assignment, options for community partner participation in various activities related to unit governance are shared. PMID:18416356
Hynes, Patricia; Conlon, Patrick; O'Neill, Jim; Lapinsky, Stephen
The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success.
Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth
The Problem: Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare.Purpose: We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care (CPIC), a large, cluster-randomized, controlled, trial (RCT) that uses community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) principles.Key Points: Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership.Conclusions: As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106
Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth
This study established the first protocol for collection of gametes from live axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, by gentle abdominal massage and in vitro fertilization. To stimulate spermiation and ovulation, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and Ovopel pellets, which are commercially used to stimulate spawning in fish, were tested. The hCG was more effective than Ovopel pellets and yielded a higher semen volume in the injected males and a shorter response time in the females. Collected semen by this method was already motile and fertile. Fertile eggs could be collected in 3-4 successive collection times after the female has started the typical spawning behaviour. The fertilization condition that yielded the highest hatching rate was mixing semen with eggs before the addition of a fertilization saline solution (20 mmol/l NaCl, 1 mmol/l KCl, 1 mmol/l Mg(2)SO(4), 1 mmol Ca(2)Cl, 3 mmol NaHCO(3), 10 mmol/l Tris, pH 8.5 - Osmolality = 65 mosmol/kg). When the pH of the fertilization solution was increased to ? 10, the hatching rate was significantly increased. The use of fertilization solutions with osmolalities of ? 150 and ? 182 were accompanied with a significant decrease in hatching rates and the appearance of deformed larvae, respectively. In conclusion, a reliable protocol for gamete collection from live axolotl is established as a laboratory model of in vitro fertilization for urodele amphibians. This protocol may be transferable to endangered urodeles. PMID:20965554
Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A
The aim of this brief review is to clarify the role of melatonin in the production and preservation of mammalian gametes and embryos. Melatonin is an indoleamine synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and other organs that operates as a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis modulator and regulates the waxing and waning of seasonal reproductive competence in photoperiodic mammals. A major function of the melatonin rhythm is to transmit information about the length of the daily photoperiod to the circadian and circannual systems in order to provide time-of-day and time-of-year information, respectively, to the organism. Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent, which is due to its direct scavenging of toxic oxygen derivatives and its ability to reduce the formation of reactive species. Mammalian gametes and embryos are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to the presence of high lipid levels; during artificial breeding procedures, these structures are exposed to dramatic changes in the microenvironment, which have a direct bearing on their function and viability. Free radicals influence the balance between oxidation-reduction reactions, disturb the transbilayer-phospholipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane and enhance lipid peroxidation. Melatonin, due to its amphiphilic nature, is undoubtedly useful in tissues by protecting them from free radical-mediated oxidative damage and cellular death. The supplementation of melatonin to semen extender or culture medium significantly improves sperm viability, oocyte competence and blastocyst development in vitro. PMID:24559971
Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; da Cruz, Jurandir Ferreira; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J
The leading cause of infertility in men and women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ-cell (oocyte and sperm) development. Yet, it has not been possible to examine the unique developmental genetics of human germ-cell formation and differentiation owing to inaccessibility of germ cells during fetal development. Although several studies have shown that germ cells can be differentiated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells, human germ cells differentiated in these studies generally did not develop beyond the earliest stages. Here we used a germ-cell reporter to quantify and isolate primordial germ cells derived from both male and female human embryonic stem cells. By silencing and overexpressing genes that encode germ-cell-specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins (not transcription factors), we modulated human germ-cell formation and developmental progression. We observed that human DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) functions in primordial germ-cell formation, whereas closely related genes DAZ and BOULE (also called BOLL) promote later stages of meiosis and development of haploid gametes. These results are significant to the generation of gametes for future basic science and potential clinical applications. PMID:19865085
Kee, Kehkooi; Angeles, Vanessa T; Flores, Martha; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Reijo Pera, Renee A
Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24°C and an irradiance of 60-100 ?mol photons/(m2·s). Under ambient conditions (12-25°C and 60-125 ?mol photons/(m2·s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.
Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng
Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417
Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori
Protocols were developed for the generation of haploid or doubled haploid plants from developing microspores and ovules of Gentiana triflora. Plant regeneration was achieved using flower buds harvested at the mid to late uninucleate stages of microspore development and then treated at 4°C for 48 h prior to culture. Anthers and ovaries were cultured on modified Nitsch and Nitsch medium supplemented with a combination of naphthoxyacetic acid and benzylaminopurine. The explants either regenerated new plantlets directly or produced callus that regenerated into plantlets upon transfer to basal media supplemented with benzylaminopurine. Among seven genotypes of different ploidy levels used, 0-32.6% of cultured ovary pieces and 0-18.4% of cultured anthers regenerated plants, with all the genotypes responding either through ovary or anther culture. Flow cytometry confirmed that 98% of regenerated plants were either diploid or haploid. Diploid regenerants were shown to be gamete-derived by observing parental band loss using RAPD markers. Haploid plants were propagated on a proliferation medium and then treated with oryzalin for 4 weeks before transfer back to proliferation medium. Most of the resulting plants were diploids. Over 150 independently derived diploidised haploid plants have been deflasked. The protocol has been successfully used to regenerate plants from developing gametes of seven different diploid, triploid and tetraploid G. triflora genotypes. PMID:21293862
Pathirana, Ranjith; Frew, Tonya; Hedderley, Duncan; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Morgan, Ed
Unintended pregnancy is common, disproportionately affects younger women and is associated with intimate partner violence. Forced sex, fear of negotiating condom and contraceptive use, inconsistent condom use and partner interference with access to healthcare all contribute to this association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence. A growing body of literature on male partner influences on contraception and pregnancy decision-making has identified a range of male partner pregnancy-controlling behaviors which we have termed reproductive coercion, defined as male partners’ attempts to promote pregnancy in their female partners through verbal pressure and threats to become pregnant (pregnancy coercion), direct interference with contraception (birth-control sabotage), and threats and coercion related to pregnancy continuation or termination (control of pregnancy outcomes). This article examines recent studies on male partner reproductive coercion, underscores the link between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence and highlights future directions for research as well as implications for clinical practice.
Miller, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G
This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514
Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P
The relationship between love styles and lifetime number of sexual partners was explored using survey data from 507 college students. Love styles significantly (p less than 0.001) contributed to the prediction of number of lifetime sex partners after controlling for demographic characteristics and attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections.…
Hans, Jason D.
Differential use of cellular and molecular components shapes immune responses, but understanding of how these are regulated to promote defense and health during infections is still incomplete. Examples include signaling from members of the Janus activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) cytokine family. Following receptor stimulation, individual JAK-STAT cytokines have preferences for particular key STAT molecules to lead to specific cellular responses. Certain of these cytokines, however, can conditionally activate alternative STATs as well as elicit pleiotropic and paradoxical effects. Studies examining basal and infection conditions are revealing intrinsic and induced cellular differences in various intracellular STAT concentrations to control the biological consequences of cytokine exposure. The system can be likened to changing partners at a dance based on competition and relative availability, and sets a framework for understanding the particular conditions promoting subset biological functions of cytokines as needed during evolving immune responses to infections.
Kallal, Lara E.; Biron, Christine A.
Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2001, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU). Two large freezer tanks are located at each university. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, an emphasis on cryopreserving wild unmarked fish, continued fertility trials, and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.
Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul
STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous donors' needs and desires are not homogeneous; policy and practice should be sensitive and responsive to a wide range of circumstances and preferences. Decisions made to restrict or facilitate contact or the exchange of information have ramifications for donors as well as for donor-conceived people. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was funded by the Victorian Department of Health. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable.
Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin
We have studied the antibodies to sexual stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in human sera from Papua New Guinea where intense transmission of P. falciparum occurs as well as the less prevalent P. malariae and P. vivax. In extracts of gametes of P. falciparum we have studied the reactivity of serum antibodies with antigens labeled with 125I on the surface of the gametes as well as intracellular gamete antigens. A prominent 27-kD sexual stage-specific intracellular protein was recognized more or less in proportion to the general antibody response to gamete proteins. The response to the gamete surface proteins, however, was quite unrepresentative of the general antibody response to the intracellular gamete proteins. No antibodies were detected against Pfs25, a 21-kD protein expressed on zygotes and ookinetes of P. falciparum and known to be a sensitive target of malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. The antibody response to two other target antigens of transmission-blocking antibodies on the surface of gametes of P. falciparum, a 230- and a 48- and 45-kD protein doublet, was very variable and independent of the response to the internal protein antigens. Several possibilities are discussed that may account for the variable response to these gamete surface antigens in individuals with otherwise good antibody responses to internal sexual stage proteins. Among these is the possibility that there is MHC restriction of the immune response to the gamete surface antigens in the human population. This interpretation accords well with evidence for MHC-restricted immune response to the same P. falciparum gamete surface antigens in studies with H-2 congenic mice (24).
In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed.
Bernier, L; Gregoire, D
This research is part of an attempt to establish an in vitro fertilization system in tobacco to aid in understanding mechanisms of fertilization. Fusions of isolated male and female gametes were induced in a polyethylene glycol solution. Fusion appears similar to that in maize. One nuclear division of both an unfertilized egg cell and a synergid was induced in KM8p
H. Q. Tian; S. D. Russell
Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.
Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)
The Arabidopsis thaliana central cell, the companion cell of the egg, undergoes DNA demethylation before fertilization, but the targeting preferences, mechanism, and biological significance of this process remain unclear. Here, we show that active DNA demethylation mediated by the DEMETER DNA glycosylase accounts for all of the demethylation in the central cell and preferentially targets small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements. The vegetative cell, the companion cell of sperm, also undergoes DEMETER-dependent demethylation of similar sequences, and lack of DEMETER in vegetative cells causes reduced small RNA–directed DNA methylation of transposons in sperm. Our results demonstrate that demethylation in companion cells reinforces transposon methylation in plant gametes and likely contributes to stable silencing of transposable elements across generations.
Uzawa, Rie; Rodrigues, Jessica A.; Zemach, Assaf; Chumak, Nina; Machlicova, Adriana; Nishimura, Toshiro; Rojas, Denisse; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi; Zilberman, Daniel
The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984
Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich
The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures.
Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich
In the last few decades, farm animal genetic diversity has rapidly declined, mainly due to changing market demands and intensification of agriculture. But, since the removal of single species can affect the functioning of global ecosystems, it is in the interest of international community to conserve the livestock genetics and to maintain biodiversity. Increasing awareness on the reduction of breed diversity has prompted global efforts for conservation of farm animal breeds. The goals of conservation are to keep genetic variation as gene combinations in a reversible form and to keep specific genes of interest. For this purpose two types of strategies are usually proposed: in situ and ex situ conservation. In situ conservation is the breed maintaining within the livestock production system, in its environment through the enhancement of its production characteristics. Ex situ in vivo conservation is the safeguard of live animals in zoos, wildlife parks, experimental farms or other specialized centres. Ex situ in vitro conservation is the preservation of genetic material in haploid form (semen and oocytes), diploid (embryos) or DNA sequences. In the last few years, ex situ in vitro conservation programs of livestock genetic resources have focused interest on cryopreservation of gametes, embryos and somatic cells as well as testis and ovarian tissues, effectively lengthening the genetic lifespan of individuals in a breeding program even after the death. However, although significant progress has been made in semen, oocytes and embryo cryopreservation of several domestic species, a standardized procedure has not been established yet. The aim of the present review is to describe the cryobanking purposes, the collection goals, the type of genetic material to store and the reproductive biotechnologies utilized for the cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos. PMID:23477753
Mara, L; Casu, Sara; Carta, A; Dattena, M
ObjectiveTo explore oocyte and sperm donors' emotional stress, experiences of care and satisfaction after donation. DesignProspective multicenter study. SettingsAll fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden during the period 2005 to 2008. PopulationOf 220 eligible oocyte donors who were approached, 181 agreed to complete the first questionnaire and 165 completed the second questionnaire 2?months after oocyte donation. Of 156 eligible sperm donors 119 accepted to complete the first questionnaire before donation. Eighty-nine participants completed the second questionnaire 2?months after sperm donation. MethodsStandardized and study-specific questionnaires. Main outcome measuresSatisfaction with the donation, respondents' mental health and overall care. ResultsA larger percentage of sperm donors (97.8%) were satisfied with their overall experience of being a donor than oocyte donors (85.9%, p?=?0.003). Some oocyte and sperm donors did not receive sufficient information about practical issues (9.1% and 13.5%, respectively) and future consequences (12.8% and 3.4%, respectively, p?=?0.014). The donors' symptoms of anxiety and depression did not show any differences in relation to negative or positive perceptions of satisfaction. The donors who did not indicate ambivalence before treatment were on average almost five times more satisfied compared with those who did indicate ambivalence (odds ratio 4.71; 95% CI 1.34–16.51). ConclusionsMost donors were satisfied with their contribution after the donation. Oocyte and sperm donors who expressed ambivalence before donation were less satisfied after donation. In vitro fertilization staff fulfilled most of the donors' needs for information and care. Please cite this article as: Skoog Svanberg A, Lampic C, Gejerwall A-L, Gudmundsson J, Karlström P-O, Solensten N-G, Sydsjö G. Gamete donors’ satisfaction; gender differences and similarities among oocyte and sperm donors in a national sample. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2013; 92:1049–1056.
Svanberg, Agneta Skoog; Lampic, Claudia; Gejerwall, Ann-Louise; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Karlstrom, Per-olof; Solensten, Nils-Gunnar; Sydsjo, Gunilla
In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May.
Polyploidization has played a major role in the origin and evolution of polyploid species. In this article we outline the unique characteristics of 2n gametes and implications of their participation in the evolution of polyploid Solanum species. The genetic consequences of 2n gametes indicate that sexual polyploidization results in greater variability, fitness, and heterozygosity than does somatic doubling. Further, the mechanisms of 2n gamete formation and the frequency of 2n gamete-forming genes in present polyploids and their ancestral species provide additional evidence of their involvement. Equally important is the endosperm, via the endosperm balance number (EBN) incompatibility system, in complementing the role of 2n gametes. In fact, the EBN system acts as a screen for either 1n or 2n gametes, depending on the EBN and chromosome numbers of parental species. EBN in combination with 2n gametes maintains the ploidy integrity of diploid ancestral species, while providing the flexibility for either unilateral or bilateral sexual polyploidization.
Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Peloquin, Stanley J
Indonesia has participated in cooperative technical programs with the IAEA since 1957, and has cooperated with regional partners in all of the traditional areas where nuclear science is employed: in medicine, public health (such as insect control and erad...
M. Bissani S. Tyson
... might mean for you. IPV, also known as domestic violence, is physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a ... Disease Control and Prevention) Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults
For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under…
Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline
Fertilization is a calcium-dependent process that involves sequential cell-cell adhesion events of spermatozoa with oviduct epithelial cells (OECs) and with cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) participates in calcium-dependent somatic cell adhesion; the adaptor protein ?-catenin binds to the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain and links the adhesion protein to the cytoskeleton. The study was conducted to immunodetect E-cadherin and ?-catenin in bovine gametes and oviduct (tissue sections and OEC monolayers), and to assess E-cadherin participation in fertilization-related events. Epithelial cadherin was found in spermatozoa, oocytes, cumulus cells, and OEC. In acrosome-intact noncapacitated spermatozoa, E-cadherin was mainly localized in the apical ridge and acrosomal cap (E1-pattern; 84 ± 9%; mean ± standard deviation of the mean). After sperm treatment with heparin to promote capacitation, the percentage of cells with E1-pattern (56 ± 12%) significantly decreased; concomitantly, the percentage of spermatozoa depicting an E-cadherin staining pattern similar to E1-pattern but showing a signal loss in the acrosomal cap (E2-pattern: 40 ± 11%) increased. After l-?-lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction, E-cadherin signal was mainly localized in the inner acrosomal membrane (E3-pattern: 67 ± 22%). In IVM COC, E-cadherin was immunodetected in the plasma membrane of cumulus cells and oocytes, but was absent in the polar body. The 120 KDa mature protein form was found in protein extracts from spermatozoa, oocytes, cumulus cells, and OEC. ?-Catenin distribution followed E-cadherin's in all cells evaluated. Epithelial cadherin participation in cell-cell interaction was evaluated using specific blocking monoclonal antibody DECMA-1. Sperm incubation with DECMA-1 impaired sperm-OEC binding (the number of sperm bound to OEC: DECMA-1 = 6.7 ± 6.1 vs. control = 29.6 ± 20.1; P < 0.001), fertilization with COC (% fertilized COC: DECMA-1 = 68.8 ± 10.4 vs. control = 90.7 ± 3.1; P < 0.05) or denuded oocytes (% fertilized oocytes: DECMA-1 = 57.0 ± 15.2 vs. control = 89.2 ± 9.8; P < 0.05) and binding to the oolemma (the number of sperm bound to oolemma: DECMA-1 = 2.2 ± 1.1 vs. control = 11.1 ± 4.8; P < 0.05). This study describes, for the first time, the presence of E-cadherin in bovine spermatozoa, COC, and OEC, and shows evidence of its participation in sperm interaction with the oviduct and the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:24629593
Caballero, Julieta N; Gervasi, María G; Veiga, María F; Dalvit, Gabriel C; Perez-Martínez, Silvina; Cetica, Pablo D; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica H
Background The relationship between passive smoking exposure (PSE) and breast cancer risk is of major interest. Objective To evaluate the relationship between PSE from partners and breast cancer risk stratified by hormone-receptor (HR) status in Chinese urban women population. Design Hospital-based matched case control study. Setting Chinese urban breast cancer patients without current or previous active smoking history in China Medical University 1st Hospital, Liaoning Province, China between Jan 2009 and Nov 2009. Patients Each breast cancer patient was matched 1?1 with healthy controls by gender and age (±2 years) from the same hospital. Measurements The authors used unconditional logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratio for women with PSE from partners and breast cancer risk. Results 312 pairs were included in the study. Women who endured PSE had significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.05–2.03; P?=?0.027), comparing with unexposed women. Women who exposed to >5 cigarettes/day also had significant increased risk (adjusted OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.28–3.10; P?=?0.002), as were women exposed to passive smoke for 16–25 years (adjusted OR: 1.87 95% CI: 1.22–2.86; P?=?0.004), and those exposed to > 4 pack-years (adjusted OR: 1.71 95% CI: 1.17–2.50; P?=?0.004). Similar trends were significant for estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) double positive subgroup(adjusted OR: 1.71; 2.20; 1.99; 1.92, respectively), but not for ER+/PR?, ER?/PR+, or ER?/PR? subgroups. Limitations limitations of the hospital-based retrospective study, lack of information on entire lifetime PSE and low statistical power. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that PSE from partners contributes to increased risk of breast cancer, especially for ER/PR double positive breast cancer, in Chinese urban women.
Shi, Jing; Li, He-ming; Wang, Yan; Fu, Ling-yu; Liu, Yun-peng
Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.
Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)
Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs.
Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J
In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17beta (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17alpha-hydroxy-20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. Strain had no effect on any hormones in females and only on T and F in males. The lack of pronounced interstrain differences in gamete ripening dates and reproductive endocrinology and the similarity of the temporal patterns and relative concentrations of hormones to those reported for other salmonids suggest nothing unusual or dysfunctional about these reproductive traits that would impede lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes.
Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.
Transmission of malaria parasites to mosquitoes is initiated by the obligatory sexual reproduction of the parasite within the mosquito bloodmeal. Differentiation of specialized transmission stages, the gametocytes, into male and female gametes is induced by a small mosquito molecule, xanthurenic acid (XA). Using a Plasmodium berghei strain expressing a bioluminescent calcium sensor, we show that XA triggers a rapid rise in cytosolic calcium specifically in gametocytes that is essential for their differentiation into gametes. A member of a family of plant-like calcium dependent protein kinases, CDPK4, is identified as the molecular switch that translates the XA-induced calcium signal into a cellular response by regulating cell cycle progression in the male gametocyte. CDPK4 is shown to be essential for the sexual reproduction and mosquito transmission of P. berghei. This study reveals an unexpected function for a plant-like signaling pathway in cell cycle regulation and life cycle progression of a malaria parasite. PMID:15137943
Billker, Oliver; Dechamps, Sandrine; Tewari, Rita; Wenig, Gerald; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Brinkmann, Volker
Eggs spawned from Lake Michigan lake trout contain a number of xenobiotic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To assess whether this contamination is sufficient to induce hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activity during early development, the hepatic MO systems of laboratory-cultured offspring of Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and Marquette Hatchery lake trout were compared. Additionally, the induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 systems in developing lake trout by the commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), was characterized. During late embryonic development and at the swim-up stage, the hepatic MO systems of the feral lake trout offspring appeared induced, based on levels of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity that were 3.5- to 8.6-fold higher than the hatchery control levels. Furthermore, at the swim-up stage the feral trout offspring resembled A1254-treated hatchery fry with regard to the degree of inhibition of hepatic AHH activity by alpha-naphthoflavone, and the presence of an inducible Mr = 58,000 polypeptide in hepatic microsomes. The levels of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, which was relatively unresponsive to inducers, were moderately lower in the Lake Michigan and Green Bay swim-up fry compared to the hatchery control levels. After 7 months of posthatching laboratory culture, when residues of xenobiotics present at fertilization were greatly diluted by growth, the hepatic MO systems of the Lake Michigan and hatchery trout offspring appeared essentially indistinguishable with regard to a number of parameters. These results indicate that the differences observed between the hatchery and feral trout offspring at earlier stages were not likely to have a genetic basis, but rather were due to a xenobiotic-type induction. Dose-response experiments and residue analysis data indicated that residues of commercial PCB mixtures were at least partially responsible for the effects described here. Overall, these data provide very strong evidence that contamination of Lake Michigan lake trout gametes by PCBs and possibly other xenobiotics caused induction of hepatic MO activity in their progeny. Fish embryos and fry with induced MO systems may have an increased sensitivity to the toxicity of certain environmental contaminants that are metabolically activated by cytochrome P-450. PMID:6542891
Binder, R L; Lech, J J
The toxicity of the main Gymnodinium cf. mikimotoi polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been investigated using the sea urchin gamete and embryo bioassays. The 18:5n3 fatty acid delays or inhibits first cleavage of Paracentrotus lividus eggs and provokes abnormalities in the embryonic development. These effects were compared with those of other polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18:4n3, 20:5n3 and 22:6n3, which are also
Fériel Sellem; Danielle Pesando; Guy Bodennec; Amor El Abed; Jean-Pierre Girard
Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17?-HSD-11 and 17?-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis.
Reproductive isolation--the key event in speciation--can evolve when sexual conflict causes selection favoring different combinations of male and female adaptations in different populations. Likely targets of such selection include genes that encode proteins on the surfaces of sperm and eggs, but no previous study has demonstrated intraspecific coevolution of interacting gamete recognition genes under selection. Here, we show that selection drives coevolution between an egg receptor for sperm (OBi1) and a sperm acrosomal protein (bindin) in diverging populations of a sea star (Patiria miniata). We found positive selection on OBi1 in an exon encoding part of its predicted substrate-binding protein domain, the ligand for which is found in bindin. Gene flow was zero for the parts of bindin and OBi1 in which selection for high rates of amino acid substitution was detected; higher gene flow for other parts of the genome indicated selection against immigrant alleles at bindin and OBi1. Populations differed in allele frequencies at two key positively selected sites (one in each gene), and differences at those sites predicted fertilization rate variation among male-female pairs. These patterns suggest adaptively evolving loci that influence reproductive isolation between populations. PMID:24410379
Hart, Michael W; Sunday, Jennifer M; Popovic, Iva; Learning, Kevin J; Konrad, Christine M
In the course of 280 consecutive gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) attempts, supernumerary oocytes in excess of those transferred were inseminated in vitro. Pregnancy resulted in 31.1% of patients following the GIFT treatment. The overall in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of supernumerary oocytes was significantly higher in those who became pregnant (41.2%) than in patients who did not (34.9%). However, the failure to fertilize any supernumerary oocytes was not significantly different between those becoming pregnant (27.6%) and those in whom the treatment failed (37.3%). Failure to fertilize any supernumerary oocytes in vitro was of a higher rate if suboptimal sperm preparation was used or if only one oocyte was left over for in vitro insemination following the GIFT treatment. We concluded that the in vitro fertilization rate was higher in the pregnant group, but the total failure to fertilize or the fertilization of any supernumerary oocytes does not predict the outcome of GIFT. Embryos resulting following fertilization of excess oocytes may be cryopreserved for subsequent use. PMID:2358733
al-Shawaf, T; Ah-Moye, M; Junk, S; Brinsden, P; Craft, I
Sexual polyploidization through the formation and functioning of 2n gametes is considered a major route for plant speciation and diversification. The cellular mechanism underlying 2n gamete formation mostly involves a restitution of the meiotic cell cycle, generating dyads and triads instead of tetrad meiotic end-products. As an alternative mechanism, the tomato mutant pmcd1 (for pre-meiotic cytokinesis defect 1), which generates diploid gametes through the ectopic induction of pre-meiotic endomitosis, is presented here. Using cytological approaches, it is demonstrated that male pmcd1 meiocyte initials exhibit clear alterations in cell cycle progression and cell plate formation, and consequently form syncytial cells that display different grades of cellular and/or nuclear fusion. In addition, it was found that other somatic tissue types (e.g. cotyledons and petals) also display occasional defects in cell wall formation and exhibit alterations in callose deposition, indicating that pmcd1 has a general defect in cell plate formation, most probably caused by alterations in callose biosynthesis. In a broader perspective, these findings demonstrate that defects in cytokinesis and cell plate formation may constitute a putative route for diplogamete formation and sexual polyploidization in plants. PMID:23580753
De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny
Whole-genome duplication through the formation of diploid gametes is a major route for polyploidization, speciation, and diversification in plants. The prevalence of polyploids in adverse climates led us to hypothesize that abiotic stress conditions can induce or stimulate diploid gamete production. In this study, we show that short periods of cold stress induce the production of diploid and polyploid pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using a combination of cytological and genetic analyses, we demonstrate that cold stress alters the formation of radial microtubule arrays at telophase II and consequently leads to defects in postmeiotic cytokinesis and cell wall formation. As a result, cold-stressed male meiosis generates triads, dyads, and monads that contain binuclear and polynuclear microspores. Fusion of nuclei in binuclear and polynuclear microspores occurs spontaneously before pollen mitosis I and eventually leads to the formation of diploid and polyploid pollen grains. Using segregation analyses, we also found that the majority of cold-induced dyads and triads are genetically equivalent to a second division restitution and produce diploid gametes that are highly homozygous. In a broader perspective, these findings offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate male gametogenesis in plants and demonstrate that their sensitivity to environmental stress has evolutionary significance and agronomic relevance in terms of polyploidization. PMID:23096158
De Storme, Nico; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Geelen, Danny
Colchicine treatment of G. biloba microsporocytes results in a low mutation rate in the diploid (2n) male gamete. The mutation rate is significantly lower as compared to other tree species and impedes the breeding of new economic varieties. Proteomic analysis was done to identify the proteins that influence the process of 2n gamete formation in G. biloba. The microsporangia of G. biloba were treated with colchicine solution for 48 h and the proteins were analyzed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and compared to protein profiles of untreated microsporangia. A total of 66 proteins showed difference in expression levels. Twenty-seven of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the 27 proteins, 14 were found to be up-regulated and the rest 13 were down-regulated. The identified proteins belonged to five different functional classes: ATP generation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism; protein metabolism; ROS scavenging and detoxifying enzymes; cell wall remodeling and metabolism; transcription, cell cycle and signal transduction. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins and their function could help in analysing the mechanism of lower mutation rate of diploid male gamete when the microsporangium of G. biloba was induced by colchicine.
Yang, Nina; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Yaru; Long, Cui; Li, Yingyue; Li, Yun
Successful materials management extends far beyond the hospital walls. More than ever, effective materials managers are partnering with suppliers, distributors, manufacturers and group purchasing organizations to reduce costs, improve inventory control and increase operational efficiency. This requires partners who are intimately familiar with both the unique requirements of individual health care settings and best practices throughout the industry. Beyond achieving better balance-sheet results, this consultative approach ultimately leads to standardized, proven processes that help ensure quality care is delivered safely. Health Forum convened a group of health care executives and industry vendors Nov. 4, 2005, in Chicago to discuss hospital-vendor partnerships. The closed-door dialogue focused on how hospitals can work with vendors to improve operations. Health Forum would like to thank all of the participants for their open and candid discussion, as well as the sponsors for supporting this event. PMID:16583613
Anderson, Alan; Baker, Gary; Carmody, Martin; Demien, Kent; DeRoo, Todd; Inacker, Stephen; Jacobson, Tim; Markoski, David; Solovy, Alden
Allozyme loci are frequently found non randomly associated to the chromosomal inversions in which they are included in Drosophila. Two opposite views compete to explain strong allozyme-by-inversion gametic disequilibria: they result from natural selection or, conversely, merely represent remnants of associations accidentally established at the origin of inversions. Empirical efforts aimed at deciding between adaptive and historical scenarios have focused on the spatial distribution of disequilibria. Yet, the evolutionary significance of these associations remains uncertain. I report here the results of a time-series analysis of the seasonal variation of alleles at six allozyme loci (Acph, Lap, Pept-1, Ao, Mpi, and Xdh) in connection with the O chromosomal polymorphisms of D. subobscura. The findings were: (1) in the segment I of the O chromosome, Lap and Pept-1 allozymes changed seasonally in a cyclical fashion within the ST gene arrangement, but they changed erratically within the 3 + 4 gene configuration; (2) the frequencies of Lap1.11 and Pept-1(0.40) within ST dropped to their lowest values in early and late summer, respectively, when the seasonal level of the ST arrangement is lowest. Furthermore, Lap1.11 and Pept-1(0.40) covary with ST only within these seasons, yet in a fashion inconsistent with these alleles having a major influence on the dynamics of the inversion; (3) seasonal cycling of alleles within inversions were not detected at Acph, Ao, Mpi, and Xdh, yet these loci are nearly monomorphic at the study population, and/or their sampled series were shorter than those for Lap and Pept-1; and (4) simply monitoring allozyme frequencies separately for each inversion proved to be superior, for evidencing the seasonal cycles of the disequilibria, to the use of the D' coefficient of association. Observed seasonal cycles of allozymes within inversions likely reflect natural selection. PMID:12778553
Background The ability of Plasmodium falciparum to undergo antigenic variation, by switching expression among protein variants encoded by multigene families, such as var, rif and stevor, is key to the survival of this parasite in the human host. The RIFIN protein family can be divided into A and B types based on the presence or absence of a 25 amino acid motif in the semi-conserved domain. A particular type B RIFIN, PF13_0006, has previously been shown to be strongly transcribed in the asexual and sexual stages of P. falciparum in vitro. Methods Antibodies to recombinant PF13_0006 RIFIN were used in immunofluorescence and confocal imaging of 3D7 parasites throughout the asexual reproduction and sexual development to examine the expression of PF13_0006. Furthermore, reactivity to recombinant PF13_0006 was measured in plasma samples collected from individuals from both East and West African endemic areas. Results The PF13_0006 RIFIN variant appeared expressed by both released merozoites and gametes after emergence. 7.4% and 12.1% of individuals from East and West African endemic areas, respectively, carry plasma antibodies that recognize recombinant PF13_0006, where the antibody responses were more common among older children. Conclusions The stage specificity of PF13_0006 suggests that the diversity of RIFIN variants has evolved to provide multiple specialized functions in different stages of the parasite life cycle. These data also suggest that RIFIN variants antigenically similar to PF13_0006 occur in African parasite populations.
The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the MEN1 gene encoding menin, with tissue-specific tumors of the parathyroids, anterior pituitary, and enteropancreatic endocrine tissues. Also, 30-40% of sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors show somatic MEN1 gene inactivation. Although menin is expressed in all cell types of the pancreas, mouse models with loss of menin in either pancreatic ?-cells, or ?-cells, or total pancreas develop ?-cell-specific endocrine tumors (insulinomas). Loss of widely expressed tumor suppressor genes may produce tissue-specific tumors by reactivating one or more embryonic-specific differentiation factors. Therefore, we determined the effect of menin overexpression or knockdown on the expression of ?-cell differentiation factors in a mouse ?-cell line (MIN6). We show that the ?-cell differentiation factor Hlxb9 is posttranscriptionally upregulated upon menin knockdown, and it interacts with menin. Hlxb9 reduces cell proliferation and causes apoptosis in the presence of menin, and it regulates genes that modulate insulin level. Thus, upon menin loss or from other causes, dysregulation of Hlxb9 predicts a possible combined mechanism for ?-cell proliferation and insulin production in insulinomas. These observations help to understand how a ubiquitously expressed protein such as menin might control tissue-specific tumorigenesis. Also, our findings identify Hlxb9 as an important factor for ?-cell proliferation and insulin regulation. PMID:23419452
Shi, Kerong; Parekh, Vaishali I; Roy, Swarnava; Desai, Shruti S; Agarwal, Sunita K
This article makes four major points in response to Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rolling’s (2010) review of the intimate partner\\u000a violence literature. First, the evidence is clear that there is more than one type of intimate partner violence. Second, the\\u000a feminists are right. Gender is central to the analysis of intimate partner violence, and the coercive controlling violence\\u000a that most people associate with
Michael P. Johnson
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General Â§ 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...
Rising costs and the need to increase patient satisfaction are driving hospitals to restructure care delivery. At one hospital, housekeeping, food service and nurse technician duties are combined to form one nurse-extender role: the Patient Service Partner (PSP). Findings about patient and nurse satisfaction before and after implementation show that nurses agreed that the PSP program improved patient care delivery and helped control costs. Patients reported the same or higher rating of satisfaction with various aspects of their hospitalization. Call lights were answered more quickly and attitudes of personnel answering the lights were more positive. Nurses are finding more time for patient education and documentation. PMID:8932107
We present gene prioritization system (GPSy), a cross-species gene prioritization system that facilitates the arduous but critical task of prioritizing genes for follow-up functional analyses. GPSy’s modular design with regard to species, data sets and scoring strategies enables users to formulate queries in a highly flexible manner. Currently, the system encompasses 20 topics related to conserved biological processes including male gamete development discussed in this article. The web server-based tool is freely available at http://gpsy.genouest.org.
Britto, Ramona; Sallou, Olivier; Collin, Olivier; Michaux, Gregoire; Primig, Michael; Chalmel, Frederic
Since the introduction of the Infertility Treatment Act 1995 (Vic), it has been illegal to import into or export from Victoria a gamete or embryo outside the human body without the approval of the Infertility Treatment Authority. But is s 56 unconstitutional and therefore invalid by reason of contravening the freedom of interstate trade guarantee by s 92 of the Commonwealth Constitution? By exploring the nature and effect of s 56 this article demonstrates that s 56 may impose a "discriminatory" and "protectionist" burden that renders s 56 invalid. PMID:14655587
Purpose To compare attitudes towards gamete donation between IVF doctors in the Nordic countries, and to determine whether attitudes\\u000a are in correspondence with national legislation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods A study-specific questionnaire was used to study attitudes of 108 IVF doctors (92% response). Participants constituted 78%\\u000a of all IVF doctors in Sweden, Denmark and Norway and 15% of IVF doctors in Finland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Despite
Claudia Lampic; Agneta Skoog Svanberg; Gunilla Sydsjö
A study evaluated Macomb Reading Partners (MRP), the tutoring program of the Macomb Literacy Project. It researched the effectiveness of literacy training and its impact on the lives of a target group of 30 automotive workers. Data sources were a structured interview, the Word Opposites Test of the Botel Reading Inventory (1962), and participant…
Snoddy, James E.
The survey was conducted for and on behalf of Rural Speed to complete the Poverty Assessment Tool for Rural SPEED program partners receiving financial support. The aim of the survey is to determine the level of financial aid that reaches the very poor acc...
The normative folk model of kinship in the US continues to attach great significance to "blood" relationships. These implicit genetic links are commonly reinforced through observations about a child's physical similarity to parents or other family members, i.e., "resemblance talk". This paper explores the meanings of resemblance and resemblance talk for parents drawing on semi-structured interviews with 148 heterosexual couples who had used a donor gamete to conceive at least one living child. For parents of children conceived with donor eggs or sperm, resemblance talk represents the ongoing threat that comments about physical appearance could stigmatize their children or cast doubt on the legitimacy of their family structure. Furthermore, these concerns were present regardless of whether a sperm or egg donor had been used and irrespective of the parents' disclosure decision, i.e., whether or not their children were told of the true nature of their conception. Parents found that resemblance talk was not only ubiquitous, unavoidable, and uncontrollable, but it also had the capacity to exacerbate ongoing uncertainties about their disclosure decision (or lack of one), worries about establishing their child within the extended family, and apprehension that insensitive remarks could make the child feel different from other family members. As a result, many couples spent considerable energy developing a variety of strategies for managing resemblance talk that included genetic plausibility arguments, "passing", and strategic silence. We conclude that parents of children conceived with a donor address and contest normative definitions of kinship and family, including stigma and otherness, resist challenges to the family they have created, and, to some extent, rework their allegiance to cultural norms to suit their own needs. Because resemblance talk and disclosure decisions are frequently tied to each other, it is likely that if the public were more accepting of difference, parents would likely feel more comfortable with disclosure. Yet resemblance talk may make it more difficult for parents to disclose, not easier, as long as attitudes about the implicit primacy of genetic connectedness prevail. PMID:15970239
Becker, Gay; Butler, Anneliese; Nachtigall, Robert D
The occurrence and effects of a gametic disequilibrium (DSE) in the first generation of a theoretical two-population synthetic variety were investigated. Theoretical development was limited to the genetics at a single locus with two alleles in an autotetraploid species with random chromosome inheritance. Algebraic expressions were developed for the differences between the mean genotypic values of the two-population synthetic variety at generation one and in random mating equilibrium (RME). For the situation where both parents of the synthetic were in RME, a numerical analysis was performed for all possible allele frequencies assuming the following types of genic action: monoplex dominance, partial monoplex dominance, duplex dominance, partial duplex dominance, and additive. The result indicated that with non-additive genic action the DSE could, in some cases, greatly depress or inflate the mean genotypic value of the first generation (Syn-1(RME)). Thus, any change of means over advancing generations with loss of DSE could be positive or negative. When additive genic action was assumed, there was no effect associated with DSE and when both parents had the same allele frequencies there was no DSE. The DSE, with only a minor exception, decreased the genetic variance and in numerous cases forced it near zero. Expressions were developed for mean genotypic values of a first generation synthetic with DSE in one parent (Syn-1(DSE/RME)) or both parents (Syn-1(DSE)). The deviation of these means from those of Syn-1(RME) was a function of digenic and quadragenic population effects. An inspection of the response equations for Syn-1(RME) indicated that in a series of crosses with one common parent the rankings of first generation means would be the same as the ranking of populations at equilibrium though the individual means would be biased. More importantly with DSE of one or both parents there are situations when a ranking of first generation mean genotypic values would not reflect relative frequency of desirable alleles in the populations. These results indicate that statistical analyses and selections based on means of the Syn-1 generation can have an error which is not avoidable by improvement in precision of evaluation. PMID:24258945
Rowe, D E; Hill, R R
The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013: ? 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered. ? 797 new participants installed a HAN. ? Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components. ? Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program. ? On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly. ? An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant survivors who are 1-3 years post-transplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities—a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant survivors who receive adequate social support from their spouse or intimate partner experience lower distress. Effects of receiving a greater quantity of partner support (a common approach to studying enacted support) were compared with effects of receiving more effective partner support (i.e., support that more closely matches their needs in terms of its quantity and quality). Men and women (N = 230) who were 1-3 years post-transplant completed measures of partner support quantity (Manne & Scholl, 2001), partner social support effectiveness (Rini & Dunkel Schetter, 2010), and psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory; Derogatis & Spencer, 1982). Potential medical and sociodemographic confounds were controlled in analyses. As hypothesized, survivors reported less distress when they received more effective partner support (p < .001). Quantity of partner support was not associated with distress (p = .23). An interaction revealed that when partner support was effective, the quantity of support survivors received was not associated with their distress (p=.90); however, when partner support was ineffective, receiving a greater quantity of partner support was associated with substantially elevated distress (p = .002). Findings suggest that clinical approaches to addressing or preventing enduring distress after HSCT should target features of partner support related to its appraised effectiveness.
Rini, Christine; Redd, William H.; Austin, Jane; Mosher, Catherine E.; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Isola, Luis; Scigliano, Eileen; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Labay, Larissa E.; Rowley, Scott; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; DuHamel, Katherine N.
Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.
THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.
The Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population is a resource for genetics research and instruction. Prior reports are based on a population of doubled haploid (DH) lines developed by the Hordeum bulbosum (H.b.) method, which samples female gametes. We developed new DH lines from the same cross using anther culture (A.C.), which samples male gametes. Linkage maps were generated in each of the two subpopulations using the same 1,328 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The linkage maps based on DH lines derived from the products of megasporogeneis and microsporogenesis revealed minor differences in terms of estimated recombination rates. There were no differences in locus ordering. There was greater segregation distortion in the A.C.-derived subpopulation than in the H.b.-derived subpopulation, but in the region showing the greatest distortion, the cause was more likely allelic variation at the ZEO1 plant height locus rather than to DH production method. The effects of segregation distortion and pleiotropy had greater impacts on estimates of quantitative trait locus effect than population size for reproductive fitness traits assayed under greenhouse conditions. The Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) population and data are community resources. Seed is available from three distribution centers located in North America, Europe, and Asia. Details on ordering seed sets, as well as complete genotype and phenotype data files, are available at http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/maps/OWB/ . PMID:21311855
Cistué, L; Cuesta-Marcos, A; Chao, S; Echávarri, B; Chutimanitsakun, Y; Corey, A; Filichkina, T; Garcia-Mariño, N; Romagosa, I; Hayes, P M
Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149
Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo
This study aimed to produce fertile zebrafish (Danio rerio) possessing germ cells (gametes) that originated from cryopreserved primordial germ cells (PGCs). First, to improve the vitrification procedure of PGCs in segmentation stage embryos, dechorionated yolk-intact and yolk-removed embryos, the PGCs of which were labeled with green fluorescent protein, were cooled rapidly after serial exposures to equilibration solution (ES) and vitrification solution (VS), which contained ethylene glycol, DMSO, and sucrose. Yolk removal well prevented ice formation in the embryos during cooling and improved the viability of cryopreserved PGCs. The maximum recovery rate of live PGCs in the yolk-removed embryos vitrified after optimum exposure to ES and VS was estimated to be about 90%, and about 50% of the live PGCs showed pseudopodial movement. Next, to elucidate the ability of cryopreserved PGCs to differentiate into functional gametes, PGCs recovered from the yolk-removed embryos (striped-type) that were vitrified under the optimum exposure to ES and VS were transplanted individually into 218 sterilized recipient blastulae (golden-type). Two days after the transplantation, 7.5% (14/187) of morphologically normal embryos had PGC(s) in the genital ridges. Six (5 males and 1 female) of the 14 recipient embryos developed into mature fish and generated progeny with characteristics inherited from PGC donors. In conclusion, we demonstrated the successful cryopreservation of PGCs by vitrification of yolk-removed embryos and the production of fertile zebrafish possessing germ cells that originated from the PGCs in vitrified embryos. PMID:20154175
Higaki, Shogo; Eto, Yoshiki; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yamaha, Etsuro; Kagawa, Noriko; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki
The inverse of the gametic covariance matrix between relatives, G(-1), for a marked quantitative trait locus (QTL) is required in best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) of breeding values if marker data are available on a QTL. A rapid method for computing the inverse of a gametic relationship matrix for a marked QTL without building G itself is presented. The algorithm is particularly useful due to the approach taken in computing inbreeding coefficients by having to compute only few elements of G. Numerical techniques for determining, storing, and computing the required elements of G and the nonzero elements of the inverse are discussed. We show that the subset of G required for computing the inbreeding coefficients and hence the inverse is a tiny proportion of the whole matrix and can be easily stored in computer memory using sparse matrix storage techniques. We also introduce an algorithm to determine the maximum set of nonzero elements that can be found in G(-1) and a strategy to efficiently store and access them. Finally, we demonstrate that the inverse can be efficiently built using the present techniques for very large and inbred populations. PMID:11333832
Abdel-Azim, G; Freeman, A E
STUDY QUESTION Can amino acid profiling differentiate between human oocytes with differing competence to mature to metaphase II (MII) in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocytes which remained arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM) displayed differences in the depletion/appearance of amino acids compared with oocytes which progressed to MII and patient age, infertile diagnosis and ovarian stimulation regime significantly affected oocyte amino acid turnover during IVM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Amino acid profiling has been proposed as a technique which can distinguish between human pronucleate zygotes and cleavage stage embryos with the potential to develop to the blastocyst stage and implant to produce a pregnancy and those that arrest. Most recently, the amino acid turnover by individual bovine oocytes has been shown to be predictive of oocyte developmental competence as indicated by the gamete's capacity to undergo fertilization and early cleavage divisions in vitro. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was conducted between March 2005 and March 2010. A total of 216 oocytes which were at the GV or metaphase I (MI) stages at the time of ICSI were donated by 67 patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS The research was conducted in university research laboratories affiliated to a hospital-based infertility clinic. Oocytes were cultured for 24 h and the depletion/appearance of amino acids was measured during the final 6 h of IVM. Amino acid turnover was analysed in relation to oocyte meiotic progression, patient age, disease aetiology and controlled ovarian stimulation regime. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The depletion/appearance of key amino acids was linked to the maturation potential of human oocytes in vitro. Oocytes which arrested at the GV stage (n = 9) depleted significantly more valine and isoleucine than those which progressed to MI (n = 32) or MII (n = 107) (P < 0.05). Glutamate, glutamine, arginine and valine depletion or appearance differed in MII versus degenerating oocytes (n = 20) (P < 0.05). Glutamine, arginine, methionine, phenylalanine, total depletion and total turnover all differed in oocytes from patients aged < 35 years versus patients ?35 years (P < 0.05). MII oocytes obtained following ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH depleted more isoleucine (P < 0.05) and more alanine and lysine (P < 0.05) appeared than oocytes from hMG-stimulated cycles. MII oocytes from patients with a polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology (n = 33) depleted more serine (P < 0.05) than oocytes from women with normal ovaries (n = 61). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Immature oocytes collected at the time of ICSI were used as the model for human oocyte maturation. These oocytes have therefore failed to respond to the ovulatory hCG trigger in vivo (they are meiotically incompetent), and have limited capacity to support embryo development in vitro. The lack of cumulus cells and stress of the conditions in vitro may have influenced turnover of amino acids, and owing to the small sample sizes further studies are required to confirm these findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The findings provide support for the hypothesis that oocyte metabolism reflects oocyte quality. Longitudinal studies are required to link these functional metabolic indices of human oocyte quality with embryo developmental competence. Oocyte amino acid profiling may be a useful tool to quantify the impact of new assisted reproduction technologies (ART) on oocyte quality. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This project was funded by the UK Biology and Biotechnology Research Council (BB/C007395/1) and the Medical Research Council (G 0800250). K.E.H was in receipt of a British Fertility Society/Merck Serono studentship. H.J.L. is a shareholder in Novocellus Ltd, a company which seeks to devise a non-invasive biochemical test of embryo health.
Hemmings, K.E.; Maruthini, D.; Vyjayanthi, S.; Hogg, J.E.; Balen, A.H.; Campbell, B.K.; Leese, H.J.; Picton, H.M.
This thesis presents an analysis of the impact of partnering in construction contracts administered by the Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Partnering was developed as a method to change the adversarial climate and costly disputes associate...
J. R. Eckstein
This study examines motives for intimate partner violence (IPV) among a community sample of 412 women who used IPV against male partners. A “Motives and Reasons for IPV scale” is proposed, and exploratory factor analyses identified five factors: expression of negative emotions, self-defense, control, jealousy, and tough guise. To our knowledge, the study is the first to investigate the relationship between women’s motives for IPV and their perpetration of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression, as well as coercive control, toward partners. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed participants’ aggression was driven by complex, multiple motives. All five motives were related to a greater frequency of perpetrating IPV. Treatment programs focusing on women’s IPV perpetration should address both defensive and proactive motives.
Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Allen, Christopher T.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L.
Introduction Between 10% and 70% of women may have been physically or sexually assaulted by a partner at some stage, with assault rates against men reported at about one quarter of the rate against women. In at least half of people studied, the problem lasts for 5 years or more. Women reporting intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely than other women to complain of poor physical or mental health, and of disability. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions initiated by healthcare professionals aimed at female victims of intimate partner violence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other relevant databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advocacy; career counselling plus critical consciousness awareness; cognitive behavioural counselling; cognitive trauma therapy; counselling; nurse support and guidance; peer support groups; safety planning; and shelters.
OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13 years of age reported a substantial amount of bullying and victimization; a large majority were bully-victims and female. Regression analyses did not show that children who were exposed to intimate partner violence were more likely to engage in relational bullying. However, children who are exposed to intimate partner violence have a higher likelihood of internalizing behaviors and physical aggression.
Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
Objectives Despite evidence that patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and their partners report significant psychological distress, and suggestions that involving partners in interventions alleviates such distress, no systematic reviews have examined this. The objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners. Methods CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched through October 2012. Randomized controlled trials evaluating psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners were included. Selection of studies, study appraisal, data extraction and analysis were undertaken using standard methods. Results Seven studies comprising 673 dyads (patient and partner) were included. Psychological interventions result in modest improvements in patients' health-related quality of life, blood pressure, knowledge of disease and treatment, and satisfaction with care, and in partners' anxiety, knowledge and satisfaction. There was a non-significant trend for improvements in anxiety for patients, and depressive symptoms for both patients and partners. There was no evidence of a significant effect on mortality, morbidity or other cardiovascular risk factors for patients, or social support for patients and partners. Conclusions Psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners were found to improve health-related quality of life, blood pressure, knowledge, and satisfaction with care for patients, and anxiety, knowledge, and satisfaction with care for partners. However, as the overall quality of the evidence was low, these results should be interpreted with caution.
Reid, Jane; Ski, Chantal F.; Thompson, David R.
A laboratory study of older adults with osteoarthritis and their spouses was conducted to examine the unique influence of exposure to suffering on caregivers’ risk for impaired psychological and physical health. Spouses’ blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored during 2 tasks designed to capture their partners’ suffering. First, spouses watched their partners (and a stranger) carry heavy logs across an 8-ft space for 3 min, a task that elicited pain expression. Second, spouses spoke about their partners’ suffering (and also about a typical meal with their partners). Results showed that spouses’ BP and HR increased when watching and talking about their partners’ suffering, and exposure to a partner’s suffering was more physiologically stressful than to a stranger’s suffering. These findings suggest that heightened physiological stress caused by exposure to a loved one’s suffering may be one pathway to caregivers’ increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
Schulz, Richard; Martire, Lynn M.; Jennings, J. Richard; Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Greenberg, Martin S.
Abstract Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected “source partner” and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point (+0.44 log10 copies/ml per log10 source partner plasma HIV-1, p<0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters (+0.49 log10, p=0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision (?0.63 log10, p=0.03) and assignment to acyclovir (?0.44 log10, p=0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners' genital compartment.
Thomas, Katherine K.; Hughes, James P.; Baeten, Jared M.; Wald, Anna; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Fife, Kenneth H.; Campbell, Mary S.; Kapiga, Saidi; Mullins, James I.; Celum, Connie
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083
Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew Jg
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape.
Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG
We examined the longitudinal relationships among work–family conflict, general life stress, social isolation, and psychological distress of partners of deployed military personnel. Regression analyses revealed that psychological distress experienced in early stages of deployment predicted psychological distress at later stages of deployment. After controlling for the effects of earlier psychological distress, partners who reported higher levels of work–family conflict and
Manon Andres; René Moelker; Joseph Soeters
Cluster analysis of 139 partner violent men's self-reports on the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory identified profiles reflecting pathological anger (PA), low anger control (LAC), and normal anger (NA). The PA group self-reported higher pretreatment partner abuse, interpersonal dysfunction, distress, and substance abuse and had lower…
Murphy, Christopher M.; Taft, Casey T.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20×10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals. PMID:24933287
Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M
Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility. PMID:18388488
With the advent of accountable care organizations, bundled payments, value-based purchasing, and penalties for preventable hospital readmission, tight connections and collaboration across the care continuum will become critical to achieve successful patient outcomes and to reduce the cost of care delivery. Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN), the largest provider of health services in eastern Pennsylvania, set out on a journey to build collaborative relationships with skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in their eastern Pennsylvania community. LVHN desired SNF partners with mutual interests in improving quality of care and lowering costs of delivery where possible. Recognizing that not all SNFs are alike, LVHN developed a Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool to assess and prioritize skilled nursing facilities in an effort to determine those that would make the best collaborators. SNFs were reviewed based on their volume of mutual patients, quality of care delivery, and their perceived willingness to align with LVHN. Six variables were used to assess these facilities, including (1) patient discharge destination volume by SNF; (2) 30-day all-cause readmission rate to an LVHN hospital; (3) Medicare's Nursing Home Compare 5-Star Overall Rating; (4) the health network affiliation of the SNF's medical director; (5) the level of LVHN-employed or -affiliated physician presence at the SNF; and (6) the SNF's current participation in LVHN-sponsored programs and meetings. Through use of the Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool, it was discovered that roughly 70% of LVHN patients who required skilled nursing care following their inpatient stay received care at 1 of 20 SNFs. Of these, 5 facilities performed well on the 6-variable assessment, deeming them the "Tier 1 Facilities" to initially focus collaborative efforts. LVHN has strategically deployed physician resources and has increased physician presence at these "Tier 1 SNFs." These facilities have also gained remote read-only access to LVHN's inpatient electronic medical record and have had opportunity to participate in LVHN-sponsored programs. Special projects have been co-developed with several SNFs, including a telemedicine-based Parkinson's disease program to increase patient access to a neurologist specially trained in movement disorders. The Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool has become a powerful tool when used for prioritization of relationships and allocation of LVHN physicians and resources. Collaboration with strong SNF partners has offered a shared opportunity to improve quality of care, reduce costs, and prepare for the many policies affecting the health care industry. Future outcomes of this work will include quality metrics, such as readmissions, patient satisfaction with care, time for decision to admit, and overall costs of care. The data and metrics used to define the prioritization tool will continue to be adapted as the post-acute market and hospital-SNF relationships continue to evolve. PMID:23018039
Maly, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Susan; Jordan, M Kim; Davies, William J; Weiss, Michael J; Deitrick, Lynn; Salas-Lopez, Debbie
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD. PMID:21329439
Trepagnier, Cheryl Y; Olsen, Dale E; Boteler, Laura; Bell, Corinne A
A laboratory study of older adults with osteoarthritis and their spouses was conducted to examine the unique influence of exposure to suffering on caregivers' risk for impaired psychological and physical health. Spouses' blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored during 2 tasks designed to capture their partners' suffering. First, spouses watched their partners (and a stranger) carry heavy logs across an 8-ft space for 3 min, a task that elicited pain expression. Second, spouses spoke about their partners' suffering (and also about a typical meal with their partners). Results showed that spouses' BP and HR increased when watching and talking about their partners' suffering, and exposure to a partner's suffering was more physiologically stressful than to a stranger's suffering. These findings suggest that heightened physiological stress caused by exposure to a loved one's suffering may be one pathway to caregivers' increased risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:20067977
Monin, Joan K; Schulz, Richard; Martire, Lynn M; Jennings, J Richard; Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Greenberg, Martin S
The EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO) is a clearinghouse of spatial and temporal metadata, inclusive of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data holdings, that enables the science community to more easily exchange NASA data and information. Currently, ECHO has metadata descriptors for over 55 million individual data granules and 13 million browse images. The majority of ECHO's holdings come directly from data held in the NASA DAACs. The science disciplines and domains represented in ECHO are diverse and include metadata for all of NASA's Science Focus Area data. As middleware for a service-oriented enterprise, ECHO offers access to its capabilities through a set of publicly available Application Program Interfaces (APIs). More information about ECHO is available at http://eos.nasa.gov.echo. The presentation will discuss the status of the ECHO Partners, holdings, and activities, including the transition from the EOS Data Gateway to the Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST)
Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff
Research findings of sex-symmetry in the perpetration of intimate partner assaults have sparked vigorous debate about the appropriate definition and measurement of intimate violence. A neglected but central issue in this debate is the conceptualization and measurement of gender. This article first examines the often unstated theoretical perspective on gender that underlies the research on sex-symmetry in intimate partner violence.
Kristin L. Anderson
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a context dependent, multi perspective multilevel trust measurement instrument to measure supply chain members' trust. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Since trust is a context dependent phenomenon and the level of trust between partners cannot be measured easily, a conceptual framework is developed to measure supply chain partners' trust from risk perspective (i.e.
Mohammed Laeequddin; B. S. Sahay; Vinita Sahay; K. Abdul Waheed
Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity. PMID:23921210
Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M
The creation of haploid gametes in yeast, termed spores, requires the de novo formation of membranes within the cytoplasm. These membranes, called prospore membranes, enclose the daughter nuclei generated by meiosis. Proper growth and closure of prospore membranes require the highly conserved Vps13 protein. Mutation of SPO71, a meiosis-specific gene first identified as defective in spore formation, was found to display defects in membrane morphogenesis very similar to those seen in vps13? cells. Specifically, prospore membranes are smaller than in the wild type, they fail to close, and membrane vesicles are present within the prospore membrane lumen. As in vps13? cells, the levels of phophatidylinositol-4-phosphate are reduced in the prospore membranes of spo71? cells. SPO71 is required for the translocation of Vps13 from the endosome to the prospore membrane, and ectopic expression of SPO71 in vegetative cells results in mislocalization of Vps13. Finally, the two proteins can be coprecipitated from sporulating cells. We propose that Spo71 is a sporulation-specific partner for Vps13 and that they act in concert to regulate prospore membrane morphogenesis.
Park, Jae-Sook; Okumura, Yuuya; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki
The primary purpose of this study was to compare patient's and communication partner's perceptions of handicap secondary to dysphonia. A secondary purpose was to compare patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL) to that of speakers with normal voice. Participants were 20 adults (mean age=69.15 years) with dysphonia and their communication partners. Patients completed the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), a questionnaire of self-perceived voice handicap, and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), a general health questionnaire. Partners completed the Voice Handicap Index-Partner (VHI-P), a questionnaire derived from the VHI for this pilot study, to gauge partner perception of voice handicap. Patients in this study viewed themselves as only moderately handicapped by their dysphonia and their partners were in close agreement. Patients and their partners were also in close agreement on each of three VHI subscales (physical, functional, and emotional), and in all cases the physical domain was perceived by both patients and their partners to be most handicapped. Patients had lower SF-36 mean scores than those of persons with normal voice from the general U.S. population on scales assessing physical functioning, physical role, general health, vitality, social functioning, emotional role, and mental health. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies examining patient-partner agreement, which consider proxy ratings to be a useful alternative or collaborative source of patient's self-perception. Further research regarding the reliability of patient and partner agreement is necessary to most effectively assess and manage patients with dysphonia. PMID:16950601
Zraick, Richard I; Risner, Brandy Y; Smith-Olinde, Laura; Gregg, Brent A; Johnson, Felicia L; McWeeny, Elizabeth K
Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner’s desire to not cohabit trumped their partner’s more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad.
Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.
Two proteins that resemble core histones and might be specific to the male gametic (generative) nucleus within the pollen of Lilium longiflorum Thumb, (originally designated p22.5 and p18.5; K. Ueda and I. Tanaka, 1994, Planta, 192, 446–452) were characterized biochemically and immunochemically. Patterns of digestion of p22.5 and p18.5 by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease closely resembled those of somatic histones
Kenji Ueda; Ichiro Tanaka
Objectives Patient-initiated partner STI notification, i.e., patients informing their sexual partners of diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner STI notification, and experiences of partner STI notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Methods Females patients ages 16–29 years in five family planning clinics in Northern California (n=1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results History of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner STI notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to STI notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Conclusions Current findings suggest that STI partner notification may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner STI notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification.
Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.
Due to the Embryo Protection Act, creation of supernumerary embryos, as well as egg and embryo donation, is prohibited in Germany. Human stem cell research is regulated through the Act on stem cells that came into force in 2002. A cross-sectional survey of 101 IVF couples (n=202) in two fertility centres, and representative samples of healthcare professionals and ethicists (n=879), was carried out, and their attitudes towards embryonic stem cell research and donation of gametes and embryos compared. A clear majority of IVF couples favoured legalization of egg and embryo donation and embryonic stem cell research for various purposes. The willingness of couples to donate was related to purpose and to other independent influences. The majority of physicians voted for legalization of embryonic stem cell production from surplus embryos. Most human geneticists and obstetricians approved egg, but not embryo, donation to other couples. Ethicists and midwives were opposed to every kind of donation and research on surplus embryos. The IVF couples surveyed have positive attitudes towards donation and research using surplus embryos, whereas the healthcare professionals and ethicists are predominantly sceptical about most research activities destroying human embryos. This difference should be considered carefully in legal and ethical discussions on reprogenetics. PMID:17169169
Krones, T; Neuwohner, E; Bock, K; Manolopoulos, K; Tinneberg, H R; Richter, G
Twenty-four lesbian mothers (12 African American, 9 White, and 3 Latina) who had experienced physical abuse by a same-sex partner were interviewed. Three types of IPV were found: intimate terrorism, situational violence, and mutual violent control. Further, relationships between mothers\\/abusers, mothers\\/children, and abusers\\/children were examined. Regarding relationships with abusers, 71% of mothers reported lengthy sagas, 17% had worked it out,
Jennifer L. Hardesty; Ramona Faith Oswald; Lyndal Khaw; Carol Fonseca; Grace H. Chung
The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women.
Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M.; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Gunturkun, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, Rene
The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women. PMID:24277856
Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René
Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24635647
McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G
Current in vitro culture systems may not be adequate to support maturation, fertilization and embryo development of calf oocytes. Thus, we initiated a study to investigate an alternative method of assessing oocyte competence in vivo, initially using oocytes from adults. Experiment 1 was done to determine if follicle puncture would alter subsequent follicle development, ovulation and CL formation. In control
D. R Bergfelt; G. M Brogliatti; G. P Adams
Objective To characterize patterns of Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partner familiarity in three Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies. Study Design/Data Sources We utilized a case study design and retrospective review of administrative data from three EMS agencies and 182 EMTs over 12 months. We used the Kruskal–Wallis test and Bonferroni corrected p-values to compare measures of partner familiarity. Measures included the annual mean number of partners, rate of partners per 10 shifts, mean shifts per EMT, and proportion of shifts worked with same partner. We standardized select measures by size of agency to account for a greater number of possible partnerships in larger agencies. Principal Findings Across all agencies, the mean number of shifts worked annually by EMTs was (mean [SD]) 77.3 (59.8). The unstandardized mean number of EMT partnerships was 19.3 (12.4) and did not vary across EMS agencies after standardizing by agency size (p = .328). The unstandardized mean rate of EMT partnerships for every 10 shifts worked was 4.0 (2.7) and varied across agencies after standardizing (p<.001). The mean proportion of shifts worked with the same partner was 34.8 percent and varied across agencies (p<.001). Conclusions There was wide variation in select measures of EMT partner familiarity.
Daniel Patterson, P; Arnold, Robert M; Abebe, Kaleab; Lave, Judith R; Krackhardt, David; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D; Yealy, Donald M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as an actual or threatened abuse by an intimate partner that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional in nature. Each year approximately 1.5 million women in the United States report some form of sexual or physical assault by an intimate partner; it is estimated that approximately 324,000 women are pregnant when violence occurs. Pregnancy may present a unique opportunity to identify and screen for patients experiencing IPV. This article provides health care practitioners and clinicians with the most current valid assessment and screening tools for evaluating pregnant women for IPV.
Deshpande, Neha A; Lewis-O'Connor, Annie
Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.
BACKGROUND: Smoking by both male and female partners may play a significant role in the success rates of assisted reproductive technologies. The objective of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the influence of cigarette smoking by the wife, husband, and couple at various time points (e.g. lifetime, week prior, or during the procedures) on different biological parameters of IVF
Hillary Klonoff-Cohen; Loki Natarajan; Richard Marrs; Bill Yee
A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system’s response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2?) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P?=?0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.
Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E.; Moreno, Juan F.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Randel, Ronald D.; Lammoglia, Miguel A.; Perez-Martinez, Mario; Lara-Sagahon, Alma V.; Esperon-Sumano, A. Enrique; Romo, Salvador
A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2?) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P?=?0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288
Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E; Moreno, Juan F; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Lammoglia, Miguel A; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V; Esperón-Sumano, A Enrique; Romo, Salvador
Abstract The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a valuable bird as both an experimental animal, for a wide range of scientific disciplines, and an agricultural animal, for the production of eggs and meat. Cryopreservation of PGCs would be a feasible strategy for the conservation of both male and female fertility cells in Japanese quail. However, the effects of freeze-thaw treatment on viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of quail PGCs still remain unclear. In the present study, male and female PGCs were isolated from the blood of 2-day-old embryos, which were cooled by slow freezing and then cryopreserved at –196 C for 77–185 days, respectively. The average recovery rate of PGCs after freeze-thawing was 47.0%. The viability of PGCs in the frozen group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) (85.5% vs. 95.1%). Both fresh and Frozen-thawed PGCs that were intravascularly transplanted into recipient embryos migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, although the number of PGCs settled in the gonads was 48.5% lower in the frozen group than in the unfrozen control group (P<0.05). Genetic cross analysis revealed that one female and two male recipients produced live progeny derived from the frozen-thawed PGCs. The frequency of donor-derived offspring was slightly lower than that of unfrozen controls, but the difference was not significant (4.0 vs. 14.0%). These results revealed that freeze-thaw treatment causes a decrease in viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of PGCs in quail.
NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki; TASAI, Mariko; TAKEDA, Kumiko; NIRASAWA, Keijiro; TAGAMI, Takahiro
The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a valuable bird as both an experimental animal, for a wide range of scientific disciplines, and an agricultural animal, for the production of eggs and meat. Cryopreservation of PGCs would be a feasible strategy for the conservation of both male and female fertility cells in Japanese quail. However, the effects of freeze-thaw treatment on viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of quail PGCs still remain unclear. In the present study, male and female PGCs were isolated from the blood of 2-day-old embryos, which were cooled by slow freezing and then cryopreserved at -196 C for 77-185 days, respectively. The average recovery rate of PGCs after freeze-thawing was 47.0%. The viability of PGCs in the frozen group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) (85.5% vs. 95.1%). Both fresh and Frozen-thawed PGCs that were intravascularly transplanted into recipient embryos migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, although the number of PGCs settled in the gonads was 48.5% lower in the frozen group than in the unfrozen control group (P<0.05). Genetic cross analysis revealed that one female and two male recipients produced live progeny derived from the frozen-thawed PGCs. The frequency of donor-derived offspring was slightly lower than that of unfrozen controls, but the difference was not significant (4.0 vs. 14.0%). These results revealed that freeze-thaw treatment causes a decrease in viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of PGCs in quail. PMID:24077020
Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Tasai, Mariko; Takeda, Kumiko; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Tagami, Takahiro
For nearly fifty years the US held a dominant position in research and development in the free world. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade. Countries around the world realize that to foster sustainable economic growth, they must build and maintain a foundation in science and technology. The time in which a country could base its gross national product solely on extraction of raw materials or on people-intensive manufacturing is drawing to a close. The funding for research and development has been growing in the rest of the world, while US expenditures have not kept pace. In 1961, the United States funded 71 `?40 of the world's R&D. It is estimated that the US contribution to research and development fimding today has reached the 3 3o/0 level, and will drop to 26o/0 of the world's total by 2003.1 In 1981 US government spending per capita on non-defense research and development was nearly fifty percent above our major competitors; by 2002 it is projected to be f@ percent below them.2 This trend has a profound impact on how research and development institutions in the United States plan for their future technical growth. Sandia National Laboratories, as one of the largest US-government tided research establishments, has been watching this trend for some time. %ndi~ focusing on the Laboratories' missions in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, environmental integrity, and emerging national challenges, is committed to bringing the best in world-class technology to bear on the nation's problems. We realize maintaining our state-of-the-art technolo=~ base requires we look not only to domestic sources in universities, industries and other laboratories, but also to sources overseas. The realization that we must be "worldwide gatherers of technology" has led Sandia National Laboratories to consider the question of international partnering in some detaiI. As a national laboratory with a national security mission we are well aware of the issues that we face in pursuing international collaborations. In order to make the proper decisions, we are interested in understanding the history of such partnerships, when they are appropriate, why we expect them to be important, the risks they present and what we can do to mitigate those risks.
Eagan, R.J.; Gauster, W.B.; Hartley, D.L.; Jones, G.J.
Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ratios to these extended Higgs sector states. In fact, top partner decays may provide the most promising discovery mode for such scalars, especially given the large backgrounds to direct and associated production. In this paper, we present a search strategy for top partner decays to a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark, focusing on the case where the charged Higgs dominantly decays to third-generation quarks to yield a multi- b final state. We also discuss ways to extend this search to exotic neutral scalars decaying to bottom quark pairs.
Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron; Thaler, Jesse
Little Higgs models often give rise to top partners beyond the minimal ones necessary for the cancellation of quadratic divergences. We review how this occurs and discuss the phenomenology of these exotic states. We emphasize the possible importance of new pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in top partner decays. Indeed, cascade decays of exotic top partners may be the best way to discover these new bosons. We illustrate these points with a new Little Higgs construction based on an SO(10)/SO(5)2 coset structure, which fills a gap in the model building literature. These observations motivate new search strategies for top partners at the LHC, including for final states with b-jets and a large multiplicity of electroweak bosons.
Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron; Thaler, Jesse
Developing statistical literacy for older school students includes recognizing and interpreting conditional statements in the media. Data on couples' success in predicting whether their partners have cheated provides a motivating context for teachers to lead their students through this process.
Watson, Jane M.
The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) undertook this project to develop a methodology for systematically matching research interests of private sector organizations with its own in order to identify potential research partners. The method...
Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted.
AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW
Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes' locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider-based notification strategies are potentially cost-effective for identifying new cases of HIV. These strategies offer a simple, effective and easily implementable opportunity to control HIV transmission. PMID:23325584
Rutstein, Sarah E; Brown, Lillian B; Biddle, Andrea K; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kamanga, Gift; Mmodzi, Pearson; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mofolo, Innocent; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C
The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.
Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, dura- tion, frequency, and severity of intimate partner vio- lence (''partner violence'') in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross- sectional telephone interview. Using 5 questions from theBehavioralRisk FactorSurveillanceSystem (BRFSS) and
Amy E. Bonomi; Melissa L. Anderson; Robert J. Reid; David Carrell; Paul A. Fishman; Frederick P. Rivara; Robert S. Thompson
This article presents a review of literature describing intimate partner violence (IPV) in same-sex relationships. The authors present definitions and the prevalence of the main forms of violence-physical, sexual, and emotional-that can occur within same-sex intimate partner relationships, an overview of the existing research that examines the dynamics and broader social context of same-sex IPV, and implications for counseling affected
Christine E. Murray; A. Keith Mobley; Anne P. Buford; Megan M. Seaman-DeJohn
In reviews of US and Canadian population-based surveys during 1985-98, between 8 and 14% of women of all ages reported physical assault in the previous year by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-partner; the lifetime prevalence was between 25 and 30%. 1,2 Such assault is most often termed intimate partner violence in North America, with the definition usually including acts of
Jacquelyn C Campbell
Objective Previous randomized trial data have demonstrated that male circumcision reduces Mycoplasma genitalium prevalence in men. We assessed whether male circumcision also reduces M. genitalium infection in female partners of circumcised men. Methods HIV-negative men were enrolled and randomized to either male circumcision or control. Female partners of male trial participants from the intervention (n=437) and control (n=394) arms provided interview information and self-collected vaginal swabs that were tested for M. genitalium by APTIMA transcription-mediated-amplification-based assay. Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of M. genitalium prevalence in intervention versus control group were estimated using Poisson regression. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. An as-treated analysis was conducted to account for study-group crossovers. Results Male and female partner enrollment sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and symptoms of STIs were similar between study arms. Female M. genitalium prevalence at year-two was 3.2% (14/437) in intervention arm and 3.6% (14/394) in control arm (PRR=0.90, 95%CI 0.43–1.89, p=0.78). In an as-treated analysis, the prevalence of M. genitalium was 3.4% in female partners of circumcised men and 3.3% in female partners of uncircumcised men (PRR= 1.01, 95%CI 0.48–2.12, p=0.97). Conclusions Contrary to findings in men, male circumcision did not affect Mycoplasma genitalium infection in female partners.
Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Gaydos, Charlotte; Gray, Ronald H.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Nicole; Grabowski, Mary K.; Musoke, Richard; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Nalugoda, Fred; Wawer, Maria J.; Quinn, Thomas C.
Over the past ten years, the advances that have turned HIV into a chronic illness have also highlighted the importance of integrating prevention and care in the fight against the epidemic. This integration involves not only the creation of new programs, but also a reexamination of the process through which services and supports are provided. In this article, HIV partner notification is used as a case example; the discussion includes: the shifting time frame within which partner notification occurs; the expanding role of HIV-positive individuals in effecting both disease management and prevention goals; the connection between partner-notification and behaviorally-based risk reduction; and the ethical implications of advances on the partner notification process. The authors argue that partner notification services must be located in the context of overall treatment for infected individuals, and demonstrate how a redefinition of the partner notification process can serve as a spring-board for ongoing prevention counseling and support. PMID:16687384
Golub, Sarit A; Indyk, Debbie
This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. PMID:21995611
Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy
Research has shown that when women and/or their partners are involved in substance use, women’s risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) is higher. Prior research has not examined whether substance use by both women and their partners contributes independently or interactively to women’s risk of victimization and has not identified factors moderating the effect of substance use by victim or partner. Mental health and social support are explored as moderators of the association between women’s victimization and substance use by victim or partner in a study of 590 impoverished women residing in the Los Angeles area. This study found that substance use by both the woman and her partner independently predicted IPV and that social support moderated the effect of women’s substance use. These findings clarify the relevance of substance use in the context of intimate relationships and that of social support as a buffer against IPV among impoverished women.
Golinelli, Daniela; Longshore, Douglas; Wenzel, Suzanne L.
There is increasing concern that paternal exposure to toxic chemicals impacts negatively on progeny outcome. Exposure of male rats to a model male-mediated developmental toxicant and anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss, as well as in malformations. We hypothesize that the stage specificity of the effects of paternal cyclophosphamide exposure on progeny depends on the ability of germ cells to respond to stress, repair DNA or undergo apoptosis. Acute high dose exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide increased the expression of heat shock proteins and DNA repair genes, predominantly in round spermatids. In contrast, chronic low dose treatment dramatically decreased the expression of stress response genes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in elongated spermatids; this reduced ability to respond to stress may allow damage to accumulate, resulting in altered sperm function. Increased DNA damage was maximal 3 weeks after drug exposure, during spermiogenesis, a key point in sperm chromatin remodelling. Drug exposure for 9 weeks increased the frequency of spermatozoa with chromosome 4 disomy and nullisomy. DNA damage found in cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa was imparted to the newly fertilized zygote. Drug-exposed spermatozoa decondensed more rapidly than control spermatozoa and male pronuclear formation was earlier. RNA synthesis was higher in 1-cell embryos sired by drug-treated fathers than in controls. Significantly, the profile of gene expression was altered in embryos sired by drug-treated males as early as the 1-cell stage. Thus, exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide altered male germ cell quality with a consequent temporal and spatial disruption of the zygotic genome activation.
Hales, Barbara F. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Robaire, Bernard [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)
Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution.
Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W
Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076
Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W
This exploratory study used the theory of reasoned action and the theory of gender and power to guide elicitation of partner-related impediments to condom use among 64 adolescent girls living in poor urban areas with high rates of HIV and partner abuse. About 53% indicated that they had experienced unwanted, unprotected vaginal sex and 25% indicated that they were unable to discuss condom use with a partner. Novel qualitative findings related to condom coercion, condom sabotage, and self-silencing of condom negotiation are discussed in the context of connecting partner abuse to interpersonal control over condom use. Implications for intervention design are discussed. PMID:21822072
Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia M; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B
Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship.
ABSTRACT Glucose-specific enzyme IIA (EIIAGlc) is a central regulator of bacterial metabolism and an intermediate in the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS), a conserved phosphotransfer cascade that controls carbohydrate transport. We previously reported that EIIAGlc activates transcription of the genes required for Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. While EIIAGlc modulates the function of many proteins through a direct interaction, none of the known regulatory binding partners of EIIAGlc activates biofilm formation. Therefore, we used tandem affinity purification (TAP) to compare binding partners of EIIAGlc in both planktonic and biofilm cells. A surprising number of novel EIIAGlc binding partners were identified predominantly under one condition or the other. Studies of planktonic cells revealed established partners of EIIAGlc, such as adenylate cyclase and glycerol kinase. In biofilms, MshH, a homolog of Escherichia coli CsrD, was found to be a dominant binding partner of EIIAGlc. Further studies revealed that MshH inhibits biofilm formation. This function was independent of the Carbon storage regulator (Csr) pathway and dependent on EIIAGlc. To explore the existence of multiprotein complexes centered on EIIAGlc, we also affinity purified the binding partners of adenylate cyclase from biofilm cells. In addition to EIIAGlc, this analysis yielded many of the same proteins that copurified with EIIAGlc. We hypothesize that EIIAGlc serves as a hub for multiprotein complexes and furthermore that these complexes may provide a mechanism for competitive and cooperative interactions between binding partners.
Pickering, Bradley S.; Smith, Daniel R.; Watnick, Paula I.
Routine activities (RA) theory posits that changes in people's typical daily activities covary with increases or decreases in criminal behaviors, including, but not limited to, partner maltreatment. Using a large clinical database, we examined temporal variations among 24,460 incidents of confirmed partner maltreatment across an 11-year period within the U.S. Air Force (USAF). Specifically, we created regression models that predicted the number of partner maltreatment incidents per day. In addition to several control variables, we coded temporal variables for days of the week, month, year, and several significant days (e.g., holidays, Super Bowl Sunday), which allowed us to examine the independent influence of these variables on partner maltreatment prevalence. While accounting for the influence of all other study variables, we observed significant increases in partner maltreatment for weekend days, New Year's Day, Independence Day, and Super Bowl Sunday. Similar results were found for partner maltreatment incidents involving offender alcohol/drug use. Furthermore, the proportion of incidents involving offender alcohol/drug use increased on New Year's Day and Independence Day. Consistent with RA theory and data from civilian samples, the current results indicate that certain days are associated with increased incidents of partner maltreatment within the USAF. These findings should be used to inform future preventive efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24798815
McCarthy, Randy J; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Collins, Pamela S
Introduction We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol use within 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-American and Latino emergency department (ED) patients. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all ED patients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcohol use and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variable negative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion of interaction terms. Results The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error = 0.11) sexual partners in the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol before sex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number of sexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners in the past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol before sex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio = 3.2; confidence interval [CI] =1.9–5.6). The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partners is dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months. Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of this effect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers. Conclusion Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were more likely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences of risky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and risky sexual behaviors. EDs should strive to institute a system for regular screening, brief intervention, and referral of at-risk patients to reduce negative consequences of alcohol misuse, including those of risky sexual behaviors.
Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Gaines, Tommi; Bazargan, Mohsen; Seddighzadeh, Bobak; Ahmadi, Alireza
This study examined the association between organization of knowledge about a romantic partner (partner structure) and relationship status (ongoing or ended) 1 year later. Ironically, partner structures that were associated with more positive feel- ings about one's partner at Time 1 were associated with greater rates of breakup by Time 2. These results are interpreted in terms of the vulnerability
Carolin J. Showers; Virgil Zeigler-Hill
Although orgasm can be experienced in many ways with or without a partner, partner involvement continues to be a noted preference for many women. In order to examine the timing of partner orgasm in relationship to female sexual response, women who usually experience orgasm before, simultaneously, or after their male partner's first orgasm were examined in the context of their
Carol Anderson Darling; J. Kenneth Davidson; Ruth P. Cox
This paper conceptually integrates the antecedents and consequences of strategic and operational partnering. We suggest a continuum exists from strategic to operational partnering depending on the level of antecedents, orientation, and implementation. This paper, thus, expands the theory of partnering by providing an inclusive picture of the “partnering” phenomenon with the environmental pressures, antecedents, orientation, implementation, and consequences of strategic
John T Mentzer; Soonhong Min; Zach G Zacharia
In a wide range of taxa, including baboons, close social bonds seem to help animals cope with stress and enhance long-term reproductive success and longevity. Current evidence suggests that female baboons may benefit from establishing and maintaining highly individuated relationships with a relatively small number of partners. Here, we extend previous work on the stability of female baboons’ social relationships in three different ways. First, we assess the stability of females’ social relationships in two distinct and geographically distant sites using the same method. Second, we conduct simulations to determine whether females’ social relationships were more stable than expected by chance. Third, we examine demographic sources of variance in the stability of close social bonds. At both sites, females’ relationships with their most preferred partners were significantly more stable than expected by chance. In contrast, their relationships with less preferred partners were more ephemeral, often changing from year to year. While nearly all females experienced some change in their top partners across time, many maintained relationships with top partners for several years. Females that lived in smaller groups and had more close kin available had more stable social relationships than those that lived in larger groups and had fewer close kin available.
Silk, Joan B.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Seyfarth, Robert M.
Background: This study examined the effects of maternal anger, partner transitions and partner conflict on later oppositional and angry behavior of the children of teenage mothers. Methods: One hundred and twenty-one teenage women were interviewed prior to the birth of the baby and at 3 points subsequently, when children were newborn, 7 years old…
Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Sorenson, Ann M.
There is a growing research base focusing on intimate partner aggression (IPA) in combat veterans, although little work has focused on IPA assessment. In the current study, the authors investigated IPA assessment among 65 male Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) combat veterans and their female partners. Specifically, we compared overall levels of veteran- and partner-perpetrated IPA, conducted concordance analyses to examine the degree of interpartner agreement on IPA occurrence and frequency, and investigated both veterans' and partners' relationship satisfaction and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as correlates of concordance. Results indicated that female partners perpetrated higher levels of physical IPA than did the male veterans, according to both veteran and combined reports. Concordance analyses revealed low to moderate levels of agreement between veterans and their partners on the perpetration of physical and psychological IPA, with particularly low agreement on the veterans' physical IPA. Female partners' relationship satisfaction was associated with reporting less of the veterans' and their own IPA relative to the veterans' reports, and their PTSD symptoms were associated with reporting more of the veterans' and their own IPA. In contrast, the veterans' PTSD symptoms were associated with reporting less of their own IPA relative to their partners' reports. The findings emphasize the need for those researching and treating IPA among military couples to assess IPA perpetrated by both members of the relationship and to consider possible factors that might impact the accuracy of IPA reporting. PMID:24079959
LaMotte, Adam D; Taft, Casey T; Weatherill, Robin P; Scott, Jillian Panuzio; Eckhardt, Christopher I
While transgender individuals receive increasing attention in both academia and the social services, their partners remain a hidden population. This study was undertaken to examine the experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and queer identified partners of transgender men through the transition process. Nine subjects were interviewed. Major themes included the impact of transition on identity, community, caretaking, peer support, the relationship
Emily Joslin-Roher; Darrell P. Wheeler
The 3D-partner is a web tool to predict interacting partners and binding models of a query protein sequence through structure complexes and a new scoring function. 3D-partner first utilizes IMPALA to identify homologous structures (templates) of a query from a heterodimer profile library. The interacting-partner sequence profiles of these templates are then used to search interacting candidates of the query from protein sequence databases (e.g. SwissProt) by PSI-BLAST. We developed a new scoring function, which includes the contact-residue interacting score (e.g. the steric, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic interactions) and the template consensus score (e.g. couple-conserved residue and the template similarity scores), to evaluate how well the interfaces between the query and interacting candidates. Based on this scoring function, 3D-partner provides the statistic significance, the binding models (e.g. hydrogen bonds and conserved amino acids) and functional annotations of interacting partners. The correlation between experimental energies and predicted binding affinities of our scoring function is 0.91 on 275 mutated residues from the ASEdb. The average precision of the server is 0.72 on 563 queries and the execution time of this server for a query is ?15?s on average. These results suggest that the 3D-partner server can be useful in protein-protein interaction predictions and binding model visualizations. The server is available online at: http://3D-partner.life.nctu.edu.tw.
Lo, Yu-Shu; Hsu, Wen-Chang; Yang, Jinn-Moon
Intimate partner violence is a serious violation of human rights and a significant global health problem. As the largest health workforce worldwide, nurses are well positioned to address this health issue. Based on literature from various countries, this article presents a summary of the literature on health consequences, costs, prevalence, risk factors, perceptions, and manifestations of intimate partner violence, and women's responses to it. Next, building on the author's program of research on intimate partner violence, the article highlights a number of implications for nursing: intersectionality; micro, meso, and macro levels; social violence; violence throughout a woman's lifespan; and the migration context and process. Finally, the article presents research and practice recommendations for nurses and proposes North-South collaborations and capacity-building to address the complex nature of this global health problem. PMID:23448074
We provide a systematic effective lagrangian description of the phenomenology of the lightest top-partners in composite Higgs models. Our construction is based on symmetry, on selection rules and on plausible dynamical assumptions. The structure of the resulting simplified models depends on the quantum numbers of the lightest top partner and of the operators involved in the generation of the top Yukawa. In all cases the phenomenology is conveniently described by a small number of parameters, and the results of experimental searches are readily interpreted as a test of naturalness. We recast presently available experimental bounds on heavy fermions into bounds on top partners: LHC has already stepped well inside the natural region of parameter space.
De Simone, Andrea; Matsedonskyi, Oleksii; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Wulzer, Andrea
Genomic selection requires a large reference population to accurately estimate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects. In some Canadian dairy breeds, the available reference populations are not large enough for accurate estimation of SNP effects for traits of interest. If marker phase is highly consistent across multiple breeds, it is theoretically possible to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction for one or all breeds by pooling several breeds into a common reference population. This study investigated the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 5 major dairy breeds using a 50,000 (50K) SNP panel and 3 of the same breeds using the 777,000 (777K) SNP panel. Correlation of pair-wise SNP phase was also investigated on both panels. The level of LD was measured using the squared correlation of alleles at 2 loci (r(2)), and the consistency of SNP gametic phases was correlated using the signed square root of these values. Because of the high cost of the 777K panel, the accuracy of imputation from lower density marker panels [6,000 (6K) or 50K] was examined both within breed and using a multi-breed reference population in Holstein, Ayrshire, and Guernsey. Imputation was carried out using FImpute V2.2 and Beagle 3.3.2 software. Imputation accuracies were then calculated as both the proportion of correct SNP filled in (concordance rate) and allelic R(2). Computation time was also explored to determine the efficiency of the different algorithms for imputation. Analysis showed that LD values >0.2 were found in all breeds at distances at or shorter than the average adjacent pair-wise distance between SNP on the 50K panel. Correlations of r-values, however, did not reach high levels (<0.9) at these distances. High correlation values of SNP phase between breeds were observed (>0.94) when the average pair-wise distances using the 777K SNP panel were examined. High concordance rate (0.968-0.995) and allelic R(2) (0.946-0.991) were found for all breeds when imputation was carried out with FImpute from 50K to 777K. Imputation accuracy for Guernsey and Ayrshire was slightly lower when using the imputation method in Beagle. Computing time was significantly greater when using Beagle software, with all comparable procedures being 9 to 13 times less efficient, in terms of time, compared with FImpute. These findings suggest that use of a multi-breed reference population might increase prediction accuracy using the 777K SNP panel and that 777K genotypes can be efficiently and effectively imputed using the lower density 50K SNP panel. PMID:24582440
Larmer, S G; Sargolzaei, M; Schenkel, F S
Lab directions for part of one 50 min period (part of the core lab, can be done with fertilization in 50 minutes). Includes set up information, materials, procedure, things to observe, math possibilities, experiments to mimic environmental problems, thought-provoking questions and an assessment.
PhD David Epel (Stanford U. Hopkins Marine Station)
Forming synaptic connections of the appropriate strength between specific neurons is crucial for constructing neural circuits to control behavior. A recent paper in Neural Development describes the use of a synapse-specific label in Caenorhabditis elegans to implicate local UNC-6/netrin signaling in this developmental process. Thus, as well as their well known roles in cell migration and axon guidance, UNC-6/netrin signals distinguish an appropriate synaptic partner from other potential targets. See Research article: http://www.neuraldevelopment.com/content/6/1/28
Female superintendents prize spouses who are emotionally secure and supportive and assist with household chores. Partners should communicate priorities, vacation together periodically, keep healthy, stay flexible, avoid guilt, establish family rituals, stay in frequent contact, respect each others' roles, and not strive for perfect balance. (MLH)
Staples, Judith; Neal, Christine
Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…
Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…
Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew
Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners When NASA was created in 1958, it was given a goal of "cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application of the results." As science has become increasingly globalized during the past 50 years, NASA and its many partners in space and Earth science research have benefited enormously from pooling ideas, skills, and resources for joint undertakings. The discoveries made have powerfully advanced public awareness of science and its importance all over the world. Today, the U.S. Administra-tion is encouraging NASA to expand its cooperation with new and emerging partners. NASA space and Earth science cooperation is founded on scientist-to-scientist research collaboration. Space missions are very costly and technically challenging, but there are many other important areas for international cooperation. Areas ripe for expansion with new partners include space data sharing, scientist-to-scientist collaborative research, international research program plan-ning and coordination, Earth applications for societal benefit, ground-based measurements for Earth system science, and education and public outreach. This presentation lays out NASA's general principles for international science cooperation, briefly describes each of these opportu-nity areas, and suggests avenues for initiating new cooperative relationships.
Allen, Marc; Bress, Kent
"That's silly!" "I'm bored!" "I like that!" "Why do I have todo this?" "What is this for?" These are all importantresponses and questions that come from children. As ourdesign partners in developing new technologies, childrencan offer bluntly honest views of their world. They havetheir own likes, dislikes, and needs that are not the same asadults\\
Allison Druin; Ben Bederson; Angela Boltman; Adrian Miura; Debby Knotts-callahan; Mark Platt
Women's experiences of partner violence, both before and during pregnancy, are described using a convenience sample of women recruited from prenatal clinics. Included were an “index group” of women who told their clinicians that they had been physically abused during pregnancy, and a “comparison group” of women who told their clinicians that they had not been physically abused during pregnancy
Sandra L. Martin; April Harris-Britt; Yun Li; Kathryn E. Moracco; Lawrence L. Kupper; Jacquelyn C. Campbell
The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…
Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese
Paul L. Vasey
Past studies of the transition to marriage generally have relied on information about only one individual or have attempted to measure characteristics of potential spouses indirectly. Drawing on data from the two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), we examine the effects of economic circumstances of both partners in cohabiting unions on the transition to marriage.
Pamela Smock; Wendy Manning
Including 66 focused snapshots of outreach in action, this resource reflects the creative solutions of librarians searching for new and innovative ways to build programs that meet customer needs while expanding the library's scope into the community. This contributed volume includes: (1) A huge array of program options for partnering with other…
Smallwood, Carol, Ed.
Because most decisions that affect quality of schools are made in the community, citizens should become school partners in education. This booklet offers the following suggestions for citizen actions: (1) Get informed. As "owners" of the local school board, citizens have a right to know what students are expected to learn. Individuals should…
American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.
Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…
Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.
A model is proposed to describe the genetic value of 4x-2x hybrids resulting from crosses between tetraploid genitors and diploid genitors that produce 2n gametes. The model takes into account the genetic consequences of the First Division Restitution (FDR) and Second Division Restitution (SDR) meiosis, particularly on the homozygosity level that 2n gametes contribute to 4x-2x hybrids. As genes can be identical by descent, numerous parameters are needed in the classical approach to describe the inbreeding effects on the mean and variance of 4x-2x hybrids. Using the concept of test value, the model allows a large decrease in the number of required parameters. The model gives the components of genetic variance and usual covariances between relatives using these synthetic parameters. The model is then used to study the efficiency of a recurrent breeding scheme to improve diploid genitors for their combining ability with tetraploid genitors. It appears that, in presence of dominance, ignoring the meiosis pattern will lead to an overestimation of additive variance and then of genetic advance. Some genetic considerations on the differences between FDR and SDR mechanisms lead us to suggest an experimental comparison of their respective advantages and disadvantages for the type of considered recurrent selection. An experimental crossing design is proposed to obtain estimates of the genetic parameters needed for this comparison.
David, J. L.; Boudec, P.; Gallais, A.
Objective: Partners of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are at risk of experiencing long-term distress and the purpose of this study was to identify its predictors. Design: Using an observational design, 80 partners of ACS patients completed validated questionnaires at three time points. The predictor variables, marital satisfaction and optimism were assessed three weeks after patient hospital discharge (T1). The outcomes, depressive symptoms and physical health status (from a quality of life scale) were measured 6 (T2) and 12 (T3) months post-discharge, and scores were combined to indicate the long-term response. Main outcome measures: Depressive symptoms and physical health status. Results: Partner depressive symptoms increased and physical health status deteriorated over the months following the patients' ACS. After controlling for demographics, clinical severity of ACS and T1 levels of the outcome variable, partners' long-term depressive symptoms were predicted by poor marital satisfaction and low optimism at T1, and poor physical health status was predicted by low T1 optimism. Conclusion: Psychosocial factors are predictors of long-term distress for ACS partners. Partners in an unhappy marriage or with low optimism after ACS are at an increased risk of depression and low physical health status, and should be the target of additional support. PMID:24446713
Leigh, Elizabeth S; Wikman, Anna; Molloy, Gerard J; Randall, Gemma; Steptoe, Andrew
This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages 12 to 15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. More than half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends-and the interaction between parent and friend communication-was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions. PMID:24354655
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Golin, Carol E; Prinstein, Mitchell J
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
In many emergent markets, cross-industry alliances are necessary to develop and market new products and services. The resource-based view suggests that firms form alliances to access or acquire valuable, rare, non-imitable and non-substitutable resources, and that such access determines the level of profits. Hence, firms confronted with the choice between partners with strong versus partners with weak resource endowments should
Mikkel Lucas Overby
Background Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. Methods The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Results Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had significantly more depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships has specific mental health consequences over and above those associated with physical violence. Assessment of partner violence in Chinese relationships should include screening for sexual aggression in order to provide appropriate interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials gov NCT01206192
This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216
Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M
Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women’s psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women’s severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women’s IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV.
Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.
Within a multicellular organism, communication between cells is essential during development to ensure proper execution of cell migration, cell fate decisions, and differentiation events. It is also essential in the adult for the coordination of many physiological functions. Cell-to-cell communications often rely on the interaction of cell surface receptors with soluble or membrane-bound ligands. Receptors or ligands may interact with additional partners to trigger specific signaling cascades inside the cell. In most cases, partners act in a specific configuration, either as a diffusible "co-ligand" or a membrane-bound co-receptor. Here, we examine the case of Cripto, a signaling molecule that has prominent functions during vertebrate development. Conflicting results have suggested that Cripto has the unusual capacity to act both as a secreted ligand and as a cell surface component to control a single signaling pathway. Here, we review the recent experiments that attempt to reconcile those results. Furthermore, three reports have described the fact that Cripto is modified by the addition of sugar residues, including a rare case of fucosylation. These modifications are essential for Cripto function, suggesting that, as is the case for other key developmental or physiological regulators such as Notch or selectins, the activity of Cripto may be controlled by the extent of its glycosylation or fucosylation (or both).
Frederic M. Rosa (Ecole Normale Superieure;Groupe Danio REV)
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem. IPV includes physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression (including coercive tactics) by a current or former intimate partner. In addition to the immedi...
...Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License...October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth...
The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.
Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert
The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.
Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert
Globally, 30% of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa involve injecting drug users (IDU) and in many countries, including Vietnam, HIV epidemics are concentrated among IDU. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, to evaluate whether a peer oriented behavioral intervention could reduce injecting and sexual HIV risk behaviors among IDU and their network members. 419 HIV-negative index IDU aged 18 years or older and 516 injecting and sexual network members were enrolled. Each index participant was randomly assigned to receive a series of six small group peer educator-training sessions and three booster sessions in addition to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) (intervention; n = 210) or HTC only (control; n = 209). Follow-up, including HTC, was conducted at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. The proportion of unprotected sex dropped significantly from 49% to 27% (SE (difference) = 3%, p < 0.01) between baseline and the 3-month visit among all index-network member pairs. However, at 12 months, post-intervention, intervention participants had a 14% greater decline in unprotected sex relative to control participants (Wald test = 10.8, df = 4, p = 0.03). This intervention effect is explained by trial participants assigned to the control arm who missed at least one standardized HTC session during follow-up and subsequently reported increased unprotected sex. The proportion of observed needle/syringe sharing dropped significantly between baseline and the 3-month visit (14% vs. 3%, SE (difference) = 2%, p < 0.01) and persisted until 12 months, but there was no difference across trial arms (Wald test = 3.74, df = 3, p = 0.44). PMID:24034963
Go, Vivian F; Frangakis, Constantine; Le Minh, Nguyen; Latkin, Carl A; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Vu, Pham The; Chen, Yong; Celentano, David D; Quan, Vu Minh
The Nurses Christian Fellowship International Quadrennial Conference was held November 5-10, 2012, in Santiago, Chile. The theme, "Partners in Care: Unity in diversity through Christ" brought together nurses from all over the world for Bible teaching, education, networking, and fellowship. Plenary and session abstracts are available as supplemental digital content through the HTML and PDF versions of this article at journalofchristiannursing.com. PMID:23607156
This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674
Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M
Plants are a ubiquitous piece of the elementary science curriculum. By the time they reach middle school, students have often grown enough bean seeds to feed a small city. Often these lessons don't "grow" deeper ideas from the basic observations of plant germination. To cultivate your students' understanding of plants, this month's column sheds light on a selection of engaging activities in this issue, which is devoted to the theme, "Plants and their Partners."
For this work-in-progress presentation, we report on our experiences working with young children as technology design partners. Our team from the Human-Computer Interaction Lab has extensive participatory design experience in working with 7-11 year old children. Here we describe our first year working with 4-6 year old children and the ways that we altered our methodologies to meet the unique
Allison Farber; Allison Druin; Gene Chipman; Dawn Julian; Sheila Somashekhar
Introduction: Among the many issues confronting a newly spinal cord injured (SCI) person are apprehension about the potential impact of the acquired disability on present or future intimate relationships.Objective: To summarize the research regarding partner relationships and SCI.Method: Medline, Psychlit and Cinahl database researches were undertaken.Results: Several studies have focused on the issue of marital status before and after the
Research indicates that partner placements--pairing two preservice teachers with a mentor teacher--provide a supportive and collaborative context for learning to teach. This qualitative study examines three partner placements in a 100-hour urban field practicum to understand how preservice teachers experience and perceive partner placements, and…
Gardiner, Wendy; Shipley Robinson, Karen
This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn…
DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine
This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…
Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily
This article provides an overview of research on women's partner violence as well as the literature that investigates the developmental pathway to women's aggressive behavior. While women are known to commit partner violence toward their male partners, the prevalence and motivations for such behavior is still debated. Evidence that finds gender symmetry is reviewed and alternative literature discussed. Research challenging
We present 3 studies that examine the process of partner selection in negotiations and the influence that relationships may have on the partner-selection decision. In Study 1, we present a simulated matching market experiment in which we compare the matching process when relationships can influence the partner-selection decision with the matching process when relationships cannot influence this decision. We find
Ann E. Tenbrunsel; Kimberly A. Wade-Benzoni; Joseph Moag; Max H. Bazerman
The connections between variant paths to marital commitment and the degree of joint activity between partners were examined. Newlywed partners were interviewed in order to obtain graphs of changes in commitment to marriage throughout courtship. Data on the performance of affectional, instrumental, and leisure activities with the partner and others also were gathered for different premarital stages of involvement and
Catherine A. Surra
This study examined individual, partner, and community characteristics associated with the occurrence of intimate partner violence among ever-married women of reproductive age, using data from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Separate logistic regressions were analyzed to assess women's risks of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual violence and multiple forms of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months.
Anastasia J. Gage
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…
Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine
Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3) compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The higher the education level of the women the less the likelihood of experiencing PIPV (ptrend?0.001). Similar relationship was found between wealth status and experiencing PIPV. Conclusions Problem drinking among male partners is a strong determinant of PIPV among women in Uganda. PIPV prevention measures should address reduction of problem drinking among men. Longerterm prevention measures should address empowerment of women including ensuring higher education, employment and increased income.
OBJECTIVE: This analysis describes the Outreach-Assisted Model of Partner Notification, an innovative strategy for encouraging seropositive injecting drug users (IDUs) to inform their partners of shared human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure. The analysis focuses on two core components of the notification process: the identification of at-risk partners and preferences for self-tell vs. outreach assistance in informing partners of possible exposure to the virus. METHODS: Using community outreach techniques, 386 IDUs were recruited for HIV pretest counseling, testing, and partner notification over a 12-month period. Of these, 63 tested HIV seropositive, and all but three returned for their test results. The 60 who were informed of their serostatus were randomly assigned to either a minimal or an enhanced intervention condition. Participants assigned to the minimal (self-tell) group were strongly encouraged to inform their partners of possible exposure. Those assigned to the enhanced (outreach-assisted) group had the option of either informing one or more of their partner(s) themselves or choosing to have the project's outreach team do so. RESULTS: Together, the 60 index persons who received their results provided names or at least one piece of locating information for a total of 142 partners with whom they perceived having shared possible exposure to the virus within the past five years. By itself, drug use accounted for half of all partners named. Sexual behavior alone accounted for 25% of named partners. Eighty-two percent of the enhanced group preferred to have the outreach team tell at least one partner; the team was requested to notify 71% of the total number of partners whom this group named. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that IDUs want to notify their partners of shared HIV exposure. Outreach assistance was the preferred mode in the majority of cases. Expanding traditional community-based HIV outreach activities to include delivering street-based counseling, test, a partner notification appears to be a positive and workable prevention strategy.
Levy, J A; Fox, S E
Research had consistently shown that intimate partner homicide rates had been on a steady downward decline over the past two decades; however, a relatively recent movement in intimate partner homicide research had emphasized the need for further dissecting the aggregate trends by factors such as gender, race, victim-offender relationship, and same-sex partners. Taking this a step forward, this study utilized
Wesley G. Jennings; Alex R. Piquero
Irgarol and diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replace organotin compounds in antifouling paints, and metolachlor is one of the most extensively used chloroacetamide herbicides in agriculture. The toxicity of S-metolachlor, irgarol and diuron was evaluated in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes or embryos exposed to concentrations of pesticides ranging from 0.1× to 1000×, with 1× corresponding to environmental concentrations of the three studied pesticides in Arcachon Bay (France). Exposures were performed on (1) spermatozoa alone (2) oocytes alone and (3) both spermatozoa and oocytes, and adverse effects on fertilization success and offspring development were recorded. The results showed that the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was significantly affected after gamete exposure to pesticide concentrations as low as 1× of irgarol and diuron and 10× of metolachlor. The offspring obtained from pesticide-exposed spermatozoa displayed a dose-dependent increase in developmental abnormalities. In contrast, treating oocytes with pesticide concentrations up to 10× did not alter fertilization rate and offspring quality. However, a significant decline in fertilization success and increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence were observed at higher concentrations 10× (0.1 ?g L(-1)) for S-metolachlor and 100× for irgarol (1.0 ?g L(-1)) and diuron (4.0 ?g L(-1)). Irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor also induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence when freshly fertilized embryos were treated with pesticide concentrations as low as concentration of 1× (0.01 ?g L(-1) for irgarol or S-metolachlor, and 0.04 ?g L(-1) for diuron). The two bioassays on C. gigas spermatozoa and embryos displayed similar sensitivities to the studied pesticides while oocytes were less sensitive. Diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor induced spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations and therefore might be a threat to oyster recruitment in coastal areas facing chronic inputs of pesticides. PMID:23727205
Mai, Huong; Morin, Bénédicte; Pardon, Patrick; Gonzalez, Patrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme
During the past year the NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project has been collaborating with various Earth science data and client providers to design and implement the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). ECHO is an open, interoperable metadata clearinghouse and order broker system. ECHO functions as a repository of information intended to streamline access to digital data and services provided by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the extended Earth science community. In a unique partnership, ECHO data providers are working to extend their services in the digital era, to reflect current trends in scientific and educational communications. The multi-organization, inter-disciplinary content of ECHO provides a valuable new service to a growing number of Earth science applications and interdisciplinary research efforts. As such, ECHO is expected to attract a wide audience. In this poster, we highlight the contributions of current ECHO data partners and provide information for prospective data partners on how the project supports the incorporation of new collections and effective long-term asset management that is directly under the control of the organizations who contribute resources to ECHO.
Kendall, J.; Macie, M.
Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
With the exception of identical twins, individuals have different genetic makeup, which results from two key processes. During meiosis, maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes assort randomly to form daughter cells (gametes), thus generating different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Additional variation is generated by recombinations or crossovers, in which parts of homologous chromosomes are exchanged, resulting in a new combination of parental alleles. Parvanov et al., Baudat et al., and Myers et al. report the identification of a mammalian geneÃ¢ÂÂPR domain containing 9 (PRDM9)Ã¢ÂÂthat controls the extent to which crossovers occur in preferred chromosomal locations, known as "hotspots."
Vivian Cheung (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics); Stephanie Sherman (Emory University;Department of Human Genetics); Eleanor Feingold (University of Pittsburgh;)
Introduction: There has been a significant increase in general awareness about Sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) among the general public. However, rates of partner notification and treatment which are an integral part of STD awareness is still questionable. Methodology and Results: We analyzed the statistics for prevalence of partner notification (which is about 52%) as well as the possible reasons for non-compliance. An overview of various ways of partner notification has been given as patient delivered partner medication (PDPM) and patient based partner referral (PBPR) of which PDPM is the most acceptable and effective method worldwide.
Arunkumar, S.; Kamoji, Sushruth Guruputra; Kasatti, Gajendran
Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…
Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.
Sexual conflict between mating partners can give rise to strategies that are advantageous for one sex but harmful to the opposite sex. Usually, sperm donors develop (offensive) traits to enhance their chances in sperm competition, while sperm recipients evolve (defensive) traits that allow them to stay in control of who fathers their offspring. Here, we demonstrate that these processes are
Joris M. Koene; Tina Pförtner; Nico K. Michiels
Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of…
Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy
Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…
Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy
The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…
Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond
Intimate partner violence victimization has been linked to sexual HIV risk behavior among heterosexual women. The unique role of perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in sexual risk behavior among men has not been studied as well. Based on interviews with 518 heterosexual men recruited via street-intercept between 2005 and 2007 in New York City, we assessed the relationship between perpetration of IPV against a main female partner and inconsistent condom use with that same partner, while controlling for condom use-related factors. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that men who perpetrated physical IPV were half as likely to report consistent condom use as compared with men who did not use violence, while controlling for sociodemographic, condom use-related and other factors. Physical IPV perpetration by heterosexual men makes an independent contribution to consistent condom use. Designing interventions for heterosexual men that simultaneously address both IPV and sexual risk behaviors is critical. PMID:20069447
Frye, Victoria; Ompad, Danielle; Chan, Christina; Koblin, Beryl; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David
In our laboratory the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that ?8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurons of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurons constitute a nascent oSDN as early as d 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by d 135 of gestation when it is 2 times larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from d 30 to 90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram fetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving aromatisation.
Roselli, C.E.; Stormshak, F.
NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a unique opportunity for education and public outreach (EPO) as the first research observatory designed to include by educators, journalists and others in research missions. The EPO program will include formal K-12 and undergraduate educational activities, informal education, public outreach, and media relations. SOFIA will carry educators on science flights, enabling them to partner with scientists and see science in action. Up to 200 formal and informal educators will participate in the SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program each year. The AAAs will be sustained as a national network via continued communications and material support from the observatory's EPO program office, and will constitute a wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. Scientists, engineers, and other members of the SOFIA team will partner with local teachers and visit their classrooms as a part of the SOFIA Education Partners Program. Trained via the Project ASTRO network of astronomy education sites, SOFIA team members will work with teachrs and students to forge long-lasting science education partnerships. Participating educators may fly onboard SOFIA with their scientist partners. The professors and instructors at community colleges, small colleges, and minority serving institutions teach astronomy in general education courses that include the majority of future K-12 teachers. SOFIA EPO will provide an opportunity for this important segment of the college/university faculty plus staff of science and technology centers and planetaria to learn about research astronomy through summer workshops at the observatory. Participants will be encouraged to develop partnerships with SOFIA-affiliated scientists and participate in research flights. SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by USRA. The EPO program is being developed and will be operated jointly by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and SETI Institute. For more information please contact the SOFIA EPO program director, Dr. Dana Backman: firstname.lastname@example.org
Backman, D.; DeVore, E.; Bennett, M.
Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49% identified as men; 72% Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160
Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M
Sexually victimized women may make sexual decisions differently than nonvictimized women. This study used an eroticized scenario and laboratory alcohol administration to investigate the roles of victimization history, intoxication, and relationship context in women's perceptions of a male partner and their subsequent intentions for unprotected sex. A community sample of 436 women completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. After random assignment to an alcohol or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into a sexual scenario that depicted the male partner as having high or low potential for a lasting relationship. Participants rated their perceptions of his intoxication, sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk level, and anticipated reactions to insistence on condom use. They then indicated their likelihood of allowing the partner to decide how far to go sexually (abdication) and of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that intoxication predicted greater unprotected sex likelihood indirectly via abdication. CSA and ASA predicted partner perceptions, which in turn predicted unprotected sex likelihood. These findings indicate that, compared to their nonvictimized counterparts, sexually victimized women may respond differently in sexual encounters partly as a function of their perceptions of partners' STI risk and anticipated reactions to condom insistence. PMID:23718552
Masters, N Tatiana; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A
Toward explicating associations and directionality of effects between relationship processes and a fundamental facet of health, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and men and women’s sleep. During two assessments, a diverse community sample of couples reported on their perpetrated acts of psychological and physical IPV and their sleep quality. Cross-sectional associations between IPV and sleep were evident for both partners, in particular between psychological IPV and sleep. A dyadic path analysis controlling for the autoregressive effects and within-time correlations revealed longitudinal links between men’s perpetration of IPV and their sleep quality. Even though high levels of stability in all IPV and sleep measures were observed over time, results indicated that sleep problems predicted increases in the perpetration of psychological IPV over time for both men and women. Cross-partner effects emerged for men, revealing that men’s sleep problems were strongly affected by their partner’s earlier perpetration of IPV and sleep difficulties. Findings illustrate the significance of contemporaneous, dyadic assessments of relationship processes and sleep for a better understanding of both facets of adaptation, and have implications for those wishing to understand the etiology and consequences of the perpetration of IPV for both men and women.
Rauer, Amy J.; El-Sheikh, Mona
We interviewed, and tested for HIV antibody, 117 homosexual men who had been regular sexual partners of men who developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); 85 tested seropositive. Receptive anal intercourse with the index AIDS case and number of different sexual partners with whom subjects were anally receptive were both risk factors. Controlling for the number of partners with whom subjects were anally receptive, we found that the odds ratio of receptive anal intercourse with the case was infinite (95% confidence intervals, 3.3-infinity) if sexual contact continued up to or beyond the time of diagnosis, while the odds ratio was 1.0 (95% CI 0.3-3.2) if contact ceased before the case's AIDS diagnosis. Risk was not associated with the duration or frequency of contact. Our data suggest that the potential for sexual transmission from an HIV-infected person may be greater close to or after the onset of disease.
Osmond, D; Bacchetti, P; Chaisson, R E; Kelly, T; Stempel, R; Carlson, J; Moss, A R
Objectives The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay and bisexual men. Methods Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S). Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence. Results A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90). The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures. Conclusions The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S.
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Objectives To assess the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbidity (cardiovascular disease, CVD) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design Descriptive longitudinal study. Participants 1330 older married couples enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large epidemiologic study of the elderly. Measurements Predictor variables were physical, psychological, and existential/spiritual indicators of suffering. Primary outcomes were prevalent and incident depression and CVD. Results Controlling for known risk factors for depression, we found a dose-response relationship between suffering in a spouse and concurrent depression in their partner as well as a relationship between suffering and the partner’s future risk for depression. With respect to CVD, and controlling for sub-clinical CVD at baseline, husbands whose wives reported high levels of suffering also had higher rates of prevalent CVD, but there were not significant associations between wives suffering and husbands incident CVD. There were no associations between husbands’ suffering and wives’ prevalent or incident CVD. Conclusion Exposure to spousal suffering is an independent and unique source of distress in married couples that contributes to psychiatric and physical morbidity. More attention should be paid to the interpersonal effects of suffering in married couples, and to its role in contributing to morbidity.
Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Hebert, Randy S.; Martire, Lynn M.; Monin, Joan K.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Albert, Steven M.
The high-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) are known to be causative agents of cervical cancer and have recently also been implicated in cancers of the oropharynx. E6 is a potent oncogene of HR-HPVs, and its role in the progression to malignancy has been and continues to be explored. E6 is known to interact with and subsequently inactivate numerous cellular proteins pivotal in the mediation of apoptosis, transcription of tumor suppressor genes, maintenance of epithelial organization, and control of cell proliferation. Binding of E6 to these proteins cumulatively contributes to the oncogenic potential of HPV. This paper provides an overview of these cellular protein partners of HR-E6, the motifs known to mediate oncoprotein binding, and the agents that have the potential to interfere with E6 expression and activity and thus prevent the subsequent progression to oncogenesis.
Tungteakkhun, Sandy S.
Twenty-four lesbian mothers (12 African American, 9 White, and 3 Latina) who had experienced physical abuse by a same-sex partner were interviewed. Three types of IPV were found: intimate terrorism, situational violence, and mutual violent control. Further, relationships between mothers/abusers, mothers/children, and abusers/children were examined. Regarding relationships with abusers, 71% of mothers reported lengthy sagas, 17% had worked it out, and 13% made a clean break from the abuser. Regarding relationships with their children, 48% of mothers hid the violence, 26% minimized it, and 26% openly communicated about the situation. Relationships between abusers and the mothers' children were found to be either co-parental (29%), playmate (21%), abusive (21%), or non-parental (21%). Correlations among relational and demographic variables were also examined. PMID:19042732
Hardesty, Jennifer L; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Khaw, Lyndal; Fonseca, Carol; Chung, Grace H
Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.
Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc
We used Latent Class Analysis to investigate rules guiding non-monogamy in partnered gay and bisexual men. Data are from a 2010 survey (n = 463) from which those in relationships (n = 191) were analyzed. Over half (56%) were non-monogamous and these men responded to 13 rules about sex outside of their relationship. The Safe Anonymous Sex group (34%) included
Christian Grov; Tyrel J. Starks; H. Jonathon Rendina; Jeffrey Parsons
Latinas experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) often avoid formal resources due to fear, distrust, and cultural and language barriers, yet little research addresses culturally appropriate interventions for abused Latinas. To develop effective interventions, we must include abused Latinas' voices in research and collaborate with the…
Bloom, Tina; Wagman, Jennifer; Hernandez, Rebecca; Yragui, Nan; Hernandez-Valdovinos, Noelia; Dahlstrom, Marie; Glass, Nancy
Women (N=171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632
Rychtarik, Robert G; McGillicuddy, Neil B
The social networking site (SNS) Facebook is becoming increasingly recognized as a medium through which individuals can investigate and monitor others' activities. However, little is known about whether Facebook monitoring behavior occurs within romantic relationships and, accordingly, the psychological predictors of this behavior. The present study employed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework including self-esteem, partner trust, and demographic characteristics, to predict frequent Facebook partner-monitoring. Facebook users (N=244) in romantic relationships completed measures assessing the standard TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control), additional predictor variables (self-esteem and partner trust), and demographic characteristics (age, gender, relationship length, daily Facebook logins, and time spent per login). One week later, participants reported their level of Facebook partner-monitoring during the previous week. Regression analyses supported the standard TPB constructs of attitude and subjective norm in predicting intentions to engage in frequent Facebook partner-monitoring, with intention, in turn, predicting behavior. Partner trust, but not self-esteem, significantly predicted frequent Facebook partner-monitoring intentions. Of the demographic characteristics, daily Facebook logins significantly predicted both intention and behavior and, unexpectedly, relationship length directly affected behavior. Overall, the current study revealed that frequent Facebook partner-monitoring is influenced by attitudinal, normative, and relational factors and, potentially, increased visits to Facebook. These findings provide a new understanding of an individual's use of the world's leading SNS to monitor their partner's activities and provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the potential negative implications this activity may have for those in romantic relationships. PMID:21790274
Darvell, Millie J; Walsh, Shari P; White, Katherine M
The authors examined interpersonal correlates of emotional intelligence (EI) in a sample of individuals with a history of depression. The authors focused on potentially adaptive relationship dynamics associated with EI that may help protect these vulnerable individuals from further distress. Participants with high EI, as measured with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, saw their partners as less hostile, critical, and rejecting in their support styles than did participants with low EI. Partners' own reports mostly corroborated these findings. Unexpectedly, although partners of high EI participants reported offering less active and directive support than did partners of low EI participants, high EI participants perceived their partners as more supportive than did low EI participants. Partners of emotionally intelligent participants also reported being more conscientious and open to experiences, offering some evidence of the stress-buffering hypothesis associated with higher EI. PMID:17955747
Amitay, Oren Aaron; Mongrain, Myriam
This study explores the intimate relationship experiences of cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners’ self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified.
Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L.
SUMMARY Aire induces the expression of a battery of periph- eral-tissue self-antigens (PTAs) in thymic stromal cells, promoting the clonal deletion of differentiating Tcellsthatrecognizethem.Just howAiretargetsand induces PTA transcripts remains largely undefined. Screening via Aire-targeted coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, and validating by multiple RNAi-mediated knockdown approaches, we identified a large set of proteins that associate with Aire. They fall into
Jakub Abramson; Matthieu Giraud; Christophe Benoist; Diane Mathis
Living alone is associated with adverse outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). One potential mediator of the relationship between partner status and outcomes after an ACS is physical activity. To evaluate the association of partner status with physical activity after an ACS we analyzed data from 107 participants enrolled in the Prescription Use, Lifestyle, and Stress Evaluation Study, a prospective observational study of post-ACS patients. Accelerometers were employed to measure physical activity following hospital discharge. The primary outcome measure was maximum 10 hours of daytime activity one month after discharge. One month after discharge from an ACS hospitalization, participants without a partner or spouse exhibited 24.4% lower daytime activity than those with a partner or spouse (p=0.003). After controlling for age, gender, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, and traditional psychosocial and clinical cardiovascular correlates of post-ACS physical activity, partner status remained an independent predictor of post-ACS physical activity (20.5% lower daytime activity among those without partner or spouse, p=0.008). In conclusion, in this study of accelerometer-measured physical activity after an ACS hospitalization, those without a partner or spouse exhibit significantly less physical activity than those with a partner or spouse one month after discharge from the hospital. Low physical activity may be an important mediator of the prognosis associated with partner status after an ACS.
Green, Philip; Newman, Jonathan D.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Davidson, Karina W.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Schwartz, Joseph E.
PURPOSE We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on both locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). METHODS AND MATERIALS Patients from RTOG 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered/non-partnered), race (white/non-white), and sex (female/male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values. RESULTS 1736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS to partnered females (adjusted HR=1.22, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.36)), partnered males (adjusted HR=1.20, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.28)), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR=1.20, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.32)). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC than partnered males (adjusted HR=1.26, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.46)) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI=(1.05, 1.62)). White females had superior LRC to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC than non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC than partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC than unpartnered non-whites. CONCLUSIONS Race, gender, and partner status impacted on both overall survival and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.
Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian; Movsas, Benjamin
Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.
Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)
In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776
Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M
Little is known about factors associated with healthcare screening of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) for Latinas during pregnancy. This study builds on current research examining IPV-associated outcomes among Latinas by analyzing 210 pregnant Latina responses to a patient survey. A multivariate logistic regression model examined factors associated with being screened for IPV. One-third of pregnant women reported being screened for IPV. Factors related to being screened for IPV are reported and did not match those associated with having experienced IPV. While most pregnant Latinas were not screened for IPV, having systematic processes in place for IPV screening and fostering good patient-provider communication may facilitate identification of IPV. Having a greater awareness of the risk factors associated with IPV may also provide cues for clinicians to better address the issue of IPV.
Rodriguez, Michael; Shoultz, Jan; Richardson, Erin
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to human infertility and to define screening and counselling procedures for couples asking for assisted reproduction treatment. Extended CFTR mutation screening was performed in 310 infertile men (25 with congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD), 116 with non-CAVD azoospermia, 169 with severe oligospermia), 70 female partners and 96 healthy controls. CFTR mutations were detected in the majority (68%) of CAVD patients and in significant proportions in azoospermic (31%) and oligospermic (22%) men. Carrier frequency among partners of infertile men was 16/70, exceeding that of controls (6/96) significantly (P = 0.0005). Thus, in 23% of infertile couples both partners were carriers, increasing the risk for their offspring to inherit two mutations to 25% or 50%. This study emphasizes the necessity to offer extended CFTR mutation screening and counselling not only to patients with CAVD but also to azoospermic and oligozoospermic men and their partners before undergoing assisted reproduction techniques. The identification of rare and/or mild mutations will not be a reason to abstain from parenthood, but will allow adequate treatment in children at risk for atypical or mild cystic fibrosis as soon as they develop any symptoms. PMID:20021716
Gallati, Sabina; Hess, Simone; Galié-Wunder, Dorothea; Berger-Menz, Elisabeth; Böhlen, Dominik
In a context of high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), trials of female-controlled technologies for HIV prevention such as microbicides may increase the possibility of social harms. Seeking to explore the relationship between IPV and microbicide use further, this paper documents women's narratives of participating in the Microbicide Development Program (MDP) trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, and experiences of partner violence and conflict. A social science sub-study, nested within the trial, was conducted between September 2005 and August 2009, and 401 serial in-depth-interviews were undertaken with 150 women. Using coded interview transcripts, we describe the distribution of IPV and the possible association thereof with microbicide gel use and trial participation. More than a third of these 150 women reported IPV, of which half the cases were related to involvement in the trial. In their narratives, those women reporting IPV cast their partners as authoritarian, controlling and suspicious and reported verbal abuse, abandonment, and in some cases, beatings. Shared experiences of everyday violence shaped women's feelings of unease about revealing their participation in the trial to intimate partners and attempted concealment further contributed to strains and conflict within relationships. Our findings point to the role of social scientific enquiry in identifying the less obvious, hidden negative impacts of participation in a clinical trial therefore exposing limitations in the biomedical construction of 'social harms', as well as the implications thereof for potential future use outside the clinical trial setting. PMID:24721447
Stadler, Jonathan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Palanee, Thesla; Rees, Helen
Background Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ?50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%). Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters. Conclusions/Significance In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage determination process.
Campbell, Mary S.; Mullins, James I.; Hughes, James P.; Celum, Connie; Wong, Kim G.; Raugi, Dana N.; Sorensen, Stefanie; Stoddard, Julia N.; Zhao, Hong; Deng, Wenjie; Kahle, Erin; Panteleeff, Dana; Baeten, Jared M.; McCutchan, Francine E.; Albert, Jan; Leitner, Thomas; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Lingappa, Jairam R.
This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract–level, couples’ perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of couples 18 years of age and older who were first interviewed in 1995. The path analysis shows that poverty is associated with perceived social cohesion and perceived social control as hypothesized. However, there is no significant mediation effect for social control or social cohesion on any type of violence. In the path analysis, Black ethnicity is associated with social cohesion, which is associated with MFPV. Intimate partner violence (IPV), as a form of domestic violence, may not be as concentrated in high-poverty neighborhoods as criminal violence. IPV may be more determined by personal and dyadic characteristics than criminal violence.
Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert
Heterosexual men and women with several partners are at risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases and\\u000a HIV. Risk depends on parameters such as the sexual practices themselves which may vary according to the type of partner (regular\\u000a vs. casual). It is therefore important to describe the sexual practices and identify the correlations between the type of\\u000a partner and
Antoine Messiah; Agnès Pelletier
IMPORTANCE The period immediately after bereavement has been reported as a time of increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, this risk has not been well quantified, and few large population studies have examined partner bereavement. OBJECTIVE To compare the rate of cardiovascular events between older individuals whose partner dies with those of a matched control group of individuals whose partner was still alive on the same day. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Matched cohort study using a UK primary care database containing availale data of 401 general practices from February 2005 through September 2012. In all, 30?447 individuals aged 60 to 89 years at study initiation who experienced partner bereavement during follow-up were matched by age, sex, and general practice with the nonbereaved control group (n?=?83 588) at the time of bereavement. EXPOSURES Partner bereavement. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was occurrence of a fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke within 30 days of bereavement. Secondary outcomes were non-MI acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. All outcomes were compared between the groups during prespecified periods after bereavement (30, 90, and 365 days). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from a conditional Poisson model were adjusted for age, smoking status, deprivation, and history of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS Within 30 days of their partner's death, 50 of the bereaved group (0.16%) experienced an MI or a stroke compared with 67 of the matched nonbereaved controls (0.08%) during the same period (IRR, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.52-3.15]). The increased risk was seen in bereaved men and women and attenuated after 30 days. For individual outcomes, the increased risk was found separately for MI (IRR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.20-3.81]) and stroke (2.40 [1.22-4.71]). Associations with rarer events were also seen after bereavement, including elevated risk of non-MI acute coronary syndrome (IRR, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.12-4.29]) and pulmonary embolism (2.37 [1.18-4.75]) in the first 90 days. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study provides further evidence that the death of a partner is associated with a range of major cardiovascular events in the immediate weeks and months after bereavement. Understanding psychosocial factors associated with acute cardiovascular events may provide opportunities for prevention and improved clinical care. PMID:24566983
Carey, Iain M; Shah, Sunil M; Dewilde, Stephen; Harris, Tess; Victor, Christina R; Cook, Derek G
This study focuses on psychological distress and coping strategies in partners of tested persons 5 years after predictive testing for Huntington's disease. A total of 16 carrier-couples and 17 noncarrier-couples participated in the study. Self-report questionnaires were used, assessing depression level, anxiety, intrusive and avoidance thoughts and coping strategies. Partners of carriers have as much distress as carriers, and for some distress variables even more (P<0.05-0.001). They clearly experience more psychological distress than noncarriers' partners, as expected (P<0.05-0.001). Regarding coping strategies, carriers' partners adopt more passive strategies (passive-regressive and avoiding reactions; P<0.05) and less active strategies (social support seeking and problem solving; P<0.05-0.001), compared to carriers. For both carriers and partners, the adoption of more passive strategies for coping was associated with more distress and the use of more active strategies with less distress (for carriers: P<0.05-0.001; for carriers' partners: P<0.05). The presence of children before predictive testing was an additional result-specific distress factor in carriers and their partners. In conclusion, carriers' partners have at least as much psychological distress as carriers, but partners have the tendency to draw back. The results suggest that the grief of carriers' partners may be 'disenfranchised', or not socially recognised, as if they have no right to mourn. We moreover interpreted the results referring to concepts such as anticipatory grief, psychological defences, dissonance processes and imbalanced partner relationship. Finally, we formulated some implications for genetic counselling. PMID:15999117
Decruyenaere, Marleen; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Boogaerts, Andrea; Demyttenaere, Koen; Dom, René; Fryns, Jean-Pierre
Background Over the past 30 years, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and its health consequences has become a well established research area and is recognized worldwide as a significant public health issue. Studies on IPV directed at men are less explored, however recently women’s use of IPV and men’s victimization is gaining growing attention. Earlier population-based studies performed in Sweden have primarily investigated men’s violence against women, while women’s use of violence and men’s exposure as well as the existence of controlling behaviours have been neglected research areas This explorative study investigated the exposure to and perpetration of intimate partner violence, the use of control behaviours and the associated risk factors among a sample of Swedish men and women. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 173 men and 251 women of age 18–65 randomly selected among the Swedish population. A questionnaire based on the revised Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the subscale ‘isolating control’ from the Controlling Behaviour Scale (CBS) was used to collect data on violence exposure and perpetration. Regression analyses were used for risk factor assessment. Results More men (11%) than women (8%) reported exposure to physical assault in the past year, while more women reported exposure to sexual coercion. Duration of present relationship ? 3 years was identified as a significant risk factor for men’s exposure. Young age, lack of social support and being single, constituted risk factors for women’s exposure. Surprisingly many men (37%) and women (41%) also reported exposure to controlling behaviours. Conclusions In partner violence research, both men’s and women’s exposure should be explored however findings need to be interpreted with caution. This first study in a Swedish sample establishes the basis for future investigations on partner violence and coercive control tactics.
"I don't use a condom (with my regular partner) because I know that I'm faithful, but with everyone else I do": The cultural and socioeconomic determinants of sexual partner concurrency in young South Africans.
Finding ways to reduce the high rates of sexual partner concurrency is increasingly believed to be vital to controlling HIV spread in southern Africa. We describe the frequency and correlates of sexual partner concurrency in a representative sample of 3 324 young South Africans aged 14-25. Of the 2 468 individuals who were sexually active 21% had engaged in concurrent sexual partnerships. Multivariate analysis revealed that concurrency was more common with males, Africans, those who knew their partner had another partner, early age of sexual debut, four or more lifetime sexual partners, alcohol consumption, and self-perception of being at high risk for acquisition of HIV. If the respondent's partner knew his or her friends (termed high structural embeddedness) this was associated with a 52% reduction in concurrency rates. There are significant differences in both the rates of concurrency and the risk factors underpinning these in the different racial/ethnic groups. Analysis of these underlying determinants suggests that cultural rather than socioeconomic factors predominate, which has important implications for the design and targeting of prevention efforts. PMID:21409303
Kenyon, Chris; Boulle, Andrew; Badri, Motasim; Asselman, Valerie
Postmating, prezygotic phenotypes are a common mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here, we describe the dynamics of a noncompetitive gametic isolation phenotype (namely, the ability of a male to induce a female to lay eggs) in a group of recently diverged crickets that are primarily isolated from each other by this phenotype. We not only show that heterospecific males are less able to induce females to lay eggs but that there are male by female incompatibilities in this phenotype that occur within populations. We also identify a protein in the female reproductive tract that correlates with the number of eggs that she was induced to lay. Functional genetic tests using RNAi confirm that the function of this protein is linked to egg-laying induction. Moreover, the dysfunction of this protein appears to underlie both within-population incompatibilities and between-species divergence—thus suggesting a common genetic pathway underlies both. However, this is only correlative evidence and further research is needed to assess whether or not the same mutations in the same genes underlie variation at both levels.
Marshall, Jeremy L.; DiRienzo, Nicholas
Studies of macrophytes in the coastal zone of the Artic Seas, including the White Sea, have shown the essential role of these algae in the activity of the coastal half-latitude ecosystems. In summer, during the macrophyte reproduction period, a great number of reproduction products are released into the water. For a short time, this considerably affects the ratio of the nanoplankton in the populations that inhibit the vast and shallow coastal areas. At different coastal sites in Chernorechenskaya Inlet, Kadalaksha Bay, during the period of intensive reproduction of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, 42 plankton samples were collected in 2005. During this period the concentration of antherozoids in the water reached 55000 cells/ml (216 mg C/m3). The number of eggs was within the range of 0.05-0.7 cells/ml. The proportion of antherozoids in the total biomass of nanoplankton varied at different coastal sites from 0.37 to 99%, with a mean of 46% for the reproduction period of A. nodosum, and only 7% for the reproduction period of F. vesiculosus. As was shown by counts of F. vesiculosus female gametes in sedimentation traps, 1 m2 of the macrophyte bed (assuming 100% coverage) produces 18000-108000 eggs per day (0.33-2 mg C). The calculated flux of the reproductive material from the brown algae beds to the coastal water shows good agreement with the sample counts.
Maximova, O. V.; Sazhin, A. F.
This experiment examined the effects of epistemic vs. relational conflicts on the relationship with a partner. Students participated to a fictitious computer-mediated interaction about a text with a bogus partner who introduced either an epistemic conflict (a conflict that referred to the content of the text), or a relational conflict (a conflict…
Darnon, Celine; Doll, Sebastien; Butera, Fabrizio
This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…
McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.
This study examined the relationship between middle-school aggressive behaviors and young adults' experiences as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner physical violence. As part of the Reach for Health longitudinal study, surveys were conducted with 977 8th graders who were resurveyed as young adults, when lifetime partner violence was…
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Agronick, Gail; Wilson-Simmons, Renee
Describes how one English teacher developed an approach to teaching writing that pairs student writers with writers in the community outside the school. Outlines the features of this writing partners project, including the responsibilities of each partner. Argues that such programs foster writer skill and self-esteem. (HB)
Who do you partner with in your outreach efforts? Are there groups in your area that can provide the infrastructure you need to deliver your content to a larger audience? In this session we will explore the possibilities of partnering with out of school time networks to disseminate science education materials and content. We will use, as examples, the partnerships
H. Gibbons; J. Lutz
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale—Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on the scale. In Study 2 (N = 687), the
Frank D. Fincham; Ming Cui; Scott Braithwaite; Kay Pasley
Overview Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem in the United States. Nearly three of 10 women and one of 10 men have experienced rape, physical violence and/or stalking by a partner (Black et al., 2011). IPV victims are at ris...
A. A. Gerlock C. Warshaw M. Thornton
We examined the effects of positive and negative experiences with the partner (absorption in joint activities and conflict with the partner) during the weekend on affective states at the beginning of the following work week and tested whether recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences) mediated these…
Hahn, Verena C.; Binnewies, Carmen; Haun, Sascha
Purpose: The primary goal of this study was to test the reliability of the Partner Violence Interview and examine validity by measuring differential correlates of partner violence.Methods: Sixty young adults (30 males and 30 females) housed in an urban shelter participated in this study. All participants were between the ages of 18 and 21 years and the majority were African-American.
Neil W Boris; Sherryl Scott Heller; Tonya Sheperd; Charles H Zeanah
Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…
Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander
This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and…
Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as well…
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
We examine how small and medium enterprises manage their international partners across different market servicing modes, namely exporting, joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries. The international business literature has placed emphasis on soft issues of international partner management (such as trust, cultural sensitivity etc.) in each mode category independently. Since network arrangements and knowledge sharing are involved in all these
Pavlos Dimitratos; Spyros Lioukas; Kevin I. N. Ibeh; Colin Wheeler
The objectives to form car logistics alliance are confirmed and the factors affecting the partner selection for Chinese car industry logistics alliance have been analyzed. Considering the interdependence and feedback between the factors, we build an ANP model of partner selection for car industry logistics alliance. The elements priorities of the model are obtained by applying the super decisions system
Zhang Bixi; Li Jing; Song Jing; Liu Hongwei
Individual businesses no longer compete as autonomous entities but rather by joining a supply chain alliance due to the highly competitive business situation. Supply chain coordination is truly a transformational business strategy that has a profound effect on competitive success and strategic partnering. This paper conceptually integrates supply chain coordination and strategic partnering. In this paper, we describe a generic
Mohammad Reza Khaji; Rasoul Shafaei
The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-6-000] Seneca Power Partners, L.P. v. New York Independent System Operator...Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Seneca Power Partners, L.P. (Complainant) filed a complaint...
Religious leaders from Jewish, Christian, and Islamic faiths were interviewed about their understanding of the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and religion, and a grounded-theory analysis was conducted. The present manuscript explored the leaders' beliefs about the partners' responsibility for IPV and the role of divorce. Although…
Levitt, Heidi M.; Ware, Kimberly N.
We consider a family of quantum communication protocols involving N partners. We demonstrate the existence of a link between the security of these protocols against individual attacks by the eavesdropper, and the violation of some Bell's inequalities, generalizing the link that was noticed some years ago for two-partners quantum cryptography. The arguments are independent of the local hidden variable debate.
Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
Using path analysis and hierarchical linear modeling, the authors evaluated the associations between both partners' level of depression and anxiety, as measured by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) content scales, and both partners' level of marital satisfaction among married couples (N = 774) that participated in the MMPI…
Whisman, Mark A.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…
Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Although most primates live in groups, experiments on reciprocity usually test individuals in dyads. This could hide the processes emerging in richer social settings, reducing the ecological validity of the results. We run an experiment on reciprocal food transfers testing capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in triads, so that subjects could choose to allow access to their food to either of their two partners. We tested the hypothesis that partner choice was related to a comparison of long-term social bonds with the two partners, more than to a comparison of recent food transfer events from the two partners. The results confirmed this hypothesis, thus supporting the notion that reciprocal partner preferences are based on long-term accounts of benefits that have been exchanged.
Sabbatini, Gloria; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Schino, Gabriele
Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals’ perceptions of their partner’s alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one’s perception of one’s romantic partner’s drinking as problematic on one’s relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one’s partner’s drinking. Both partners in romantic heterosexual relationships (N = 78 dyads) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and problems, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and the perception that their partner’s drinking was problematic. Analyses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) revealed a partner-moderated actor interaction, such that partner self-reported drinking significantly moderated the association between the actor’s perception of their partner’s drinking as problematic and actor relationship outcomes. Results indicated that when partners drank at higher levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic did not have an effect. These individuals were less satisfied regardless of their perceptions. However, when partners drank at lower levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic was negatively associated with relationship outcomes. Furthermore, for alcohol consumption, three-way interactions with gender emerged, indicating that this effect was stronger for males. Results extend the literature on drinking in relationships and on interpersonal perception. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Overup, Camilla S.; Neighbors, Clayton
Little is known about the patterns and types of intimate partner abuse in same-sex male couples, and few studies have examined the psychosocial characteristics and health problems of gay and bisexual men who experience such abuse. Using a cross-sectional survey sample of 817 men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Chicago area, this study tested the effect of psychological and demographic factors generally associated with intimate partner abuse and examined their relationship to various health problems. Overall, 32.4% (n = 265) of participants reported any form of relationship abuse in a past or current relationship; 20.6% (n = 168) reported a history of verbal abuse ("threatened physically or sexually, publicly humiliated, or controlled"), 19.2% (n = 157) reported physical violence ("hit, kicked, shoved, burned, cut, or otherwise physically hurt"), and 18.5% (n = 151) reported unwanted sexual activity. Fifty-four percent (n = 144) of men reporting any history of abuse reported more than one form. Age and ethnic group were unrelated to reports of abuse. Depression and substance abuse were among the strongest correlates of intimate partner abuse. Men reporting recent unprotected anal sex were more likely to also report abuse, Wald (1, n = 773) = 9.02, p < .05, Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.61, Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.18-2.21. We discuss psychosocial issues faced by gay and bisexual men who experience intimate partner abuse as they may pertain to interventions among this group. PMID:17610158
Houston, Eric; McKirnan, David J
Many insects rely on symbiotic microbes for survival, growth, or reproduction. Over evolutionary timescales, the association with intracellular symbionts is stabilized by partner fidelity through strictly vertical symbiont transmission, resulting in congruent host and symbiont phylogenies. However, little is known about how symbioses with extracellular symbionts, representing the majority of insect-associated microorganisms, evolve and remain stable despite opportunities for horizontal exchange and de novo acquisition of symbionts from the environment. Here we demonstrate that host control over symbiont transmission (partner choice) reinforces partner fidelity between solitary wasps and antibiotic-producing bacteria and thereby stabilizes this Cretaceous-age defensive mutualism. Phylogenetic analyses show that three genera of beewolf wasps (Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus) cultivate a distinct clade of Streptomyces bacteria for protection against pathogenic fungi. The symbionts were acquired from a soil-dwelling ancestor at least 68 million years ago, and vertical transmission via the brood cell and the cocoon surface resulted in host-symbiont codiversification. However, the external mode of transmission also provides opportunities for horizontal transfer, and beewolf species have indeed exchanged symbiont strains, possibly through predation or nest reuse. Experimental infection with nonnative bacteria reveals that-despite successful colonization of the antennal gland reservoirs-transmission to the cocoon is selectively blocked. Thus, partner choice can play an important role even in predominantly vertically transmitted symbioses by stabilizing the cooperative association over evolutionary timescales. PMID:24733936
Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Koehler, Sabrina; Peterson, Ashley; Nechitaylo, Taras Y; Stubblefield, J William; Herzner, Gudrun; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard
In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Native America. As a thirty year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. A recent relationship building endeavor that utilized a recent Executive Order to empower federal agencies to work hand in hand with tribal colleges has resulted in a formal Memorandum of Understanding with the United States Geologic Survey. This relationship has paved the way toward significant progress that is measured in the enhanced educational services and relevant research for Sinte Gleska University and the Lakota Nation. As an institution of higher learning for the region in the Great Plains, SGU's leadership is unparalleled. Sinte Gleska University proposes to share a vision of collaboration with not only sister institutions but with the greater national and global community. This vision is already in place with SGU's leadership in developing and participating in the World Indigenous Higher Education Consortium. As a recent recipient of the NASA REASoN CAN award and ongoing projects with the NSF and NOAA, SGU will exemplify the culmination of these endeavors to illustrate and promote innovative partnerships with Federal Agencies, Industry Partners, mainstream academic institutions and other tribal colleges.
Jhon Goes in Center, . D.
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
From the theory of planned behavior, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were identified as predictors\\u000a of intentions for verbal, physical, and sexual abuse toward romantic partners. Relationships among the three predictors across\\u000a the three types of abuse were examined with responses from undergraduates involved in romantic relationships. The theory of\\u000a planned behavior accounted for substantial variance associated with
Kevin R. Betts; Verlin B. Hinsz; Sarah R. Heimerdinger
Personality disorder features have been an important basis of many batterer typologies (Babcock et al. J Fam Violence 15:391–409,\\u000a 2000; Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart Psychol Bull 116:476–497, 1994), most notably Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders. Aggression that partner violent men commit has also been\\u000a found to be heterogeneous, motivated by the need to control (proactive) or enacted out of emotion (reactive).
Jody M. Ross; Julia C. Babcock
...79-0452] Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P.; Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312...hereby given that Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P. and Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC,...
There are limited empirical data regarding the reasons or motives for the perpetration of intimate partner violence among women arrested for domestic violence and court referred to violence intervention programs. The present study examined arrested women's self-report reasons for partner violence perpetration and investigated whether women who were victims of severe intimate partner violence were more likely than were women who were victims of minor partner violence to report self-defense as a reason for their behavior. In all, 87 women in violence intervention programs completed a measure of violence perpetration and victimization and a questionnaire assessing 29 reasons for violence perpetration. Self-defense, poor emotion regulation, provocation by the partner, and retaliation for past abuse were the most common reasons for violence perpetration. Victims of severe partner violence were significantly more likely than were victims of minor partner violence to report self-defense as a reason for their violence perpetration. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:16777948
Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W
In composite Higgs models, the generation of quark masses requires the standard model-like quarks to be partially or fully composite states which are accompanied by composite quark partners. The composite quark partners decay into a standard model-like quark and an electroweak gauge boson or Higgs boson, which can be searched for at the LHC. In this article, we study the phenomenological implications of composite quarks in the minimal composite Higgs model based on the coset SO(5)/SO(4). We focus on light quark partners which are embedded in the SO(4) singlet representation. In this case, a dominant decay mode of the partner quark is into a Higgs boson and a jet, for which no experimental bounds have been established so far. The presence of SO(4) singlet partners leads to an enhancement of the di-Higgs production cross section at the LHC. This will be an interesting experimental signature in the near future, but, unfortunately, there are no direct bounds available yet from the experimental analyses. However, we find that the currently available standard model-like Higgs searches can be used in order to obtain the first constraints on partially and fully composite quark models with light quark partners in the SO(4) singlet. We obtain a flavor- and composition parameter independent bound on the quark partner mass of > 310 GeV for partially composite quark models and > 212 GeV for fully composite quark models.
Flacke, Thomas; Kim, Jeong Han; Lee, Seung J.; Lim, Sung Hak
A total of 33 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested for proactive and selective prosocial responding in an iterated Prosocial Game with unfamiliar adult partners who were communicatively neutral and alternated their roles as actors and recipients every other trial. When children were actors, they were required to choose, at no cost to themselves, between a selfish option that delivered a reward to them only (1/0) and a prosocial option that delivered identical rewards to both themselves and their partners (1/1). When adult partners were actors, they consistently behaved prosocially (1/1) or selfishly (1/0) over 10 alternating trials, depending on test condition. An additional 17 children were used as a recipient-absent control group to test for self-oriented versus other-oriented prosocial preferences. This study shows that by 2.5 years of age, and in the particular context of the task administered, toddlers can display proactive, other-oriented prosocial behavior, but their prosocial responding is indiscriminate in that they fail to respond contingently to their partners' prosocial or selfish behavior in the previous trials. These findings lend further support to the view that human prosociality is in place early in development as a basic tendency to be nice to others. This inclination may be so strong that not even partners who are communicatively neutral or repeatedly selfish toward children can erode it. They also suggest that this precocious proactive prosociality may be independent of reciprocity in terms of both its developmental schedule and psychological scaffolding. PMID:23800679
Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando
Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed. PMID:23959640
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Messing, Jill T; Amanor-Boadu, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Chris O; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Purpose We present a comprehensive framework of the key determinants of partner opportunism in strategic alliances.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/methodology\\/approach We propose an extended definition of partner opportunism and three categories of the determinants of partner opportunism based\\u000a on a review of the literature. These categories comprise economic factors (equity involvement, asymmetric alliance-specific\\u000a investments, mutual hostages, and payoff inequity), relational factors (cultural diversity and goal
T. K. Das; Noushi Rahman
This study examined the influence of trauma history and PTSD symptoms on the behavior of veterans and their intimate partners (287 couples; N = 574) observed during conflict discussions and coded using the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System (Heyman, 2004). Dyadic structural equation modeling analyses showed that PTSD was associated with more frequent displays of hostility and psychological abuse and fewer expressions of acceptance and humor in both veterans and their partners. Findings provide new insight into the social and emotional deficits associated with PTSD and emphasize the importance of addressing the trauma histories and PTSD of both partners when treating veteran couples with relationship disturbance.
Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Ryabchenko, Karen; Castillo, Diane; Freund, Rachel; Heyman, Richard
This article examines judicial descriptions of and responses to intimate partner sexual assaults in the Canadian context. Drawing on data from sexual assault sentencing judgments, we investigated 186 cases across four categories of perpetrator-victim relationship. Offence and case-related characteristics, as well as sentencing outcomes were analyzed. The data indicated notable similarities between intimate partner and stranger sexual assaults in terms of the occurrence of penetration, force, and injury. At the same time, our analyses revealed that strangers received longer sentences than intimate perpetrators. Some significant differences were also found between intimate partner and authority figure relationship groups across the variables examined. PMID:16681119
Du Mont, J; Parnis, D; Forte, T
This research examines whether parents' intimate partner physical violence (IPV) relates to their preschoolers' explicit memory functioning, whether children's symptoms of hyperarousal mediate this relation, and whether mothers' positive parenting moderates this relation. Participants were 69 mothers and their 4- or 5-year-old child (34 girls). Mothers completed measures of IPV, children's hyperarousal symptoms, parent-child aggression, and positive parenting. Measures of explicit memory functioning were administered to preschoolers. As expected, IPV correlated negatively with preschoolers' performance on explicit memory tasks, even after controlling for parent-child aggression and demographic variables related to preschoolers' memory functioning. Preschoolers' hyperarousal symptoms did not mediate the relation between IPV and explicit memory functioning, but mothers' positive parenting moderated this relation. Specifically, the negative relation between IPV and preschoolers' performance on 2 of the 3 explicit memory tasks was weaker when mothers engaged in higher levels of positive parenting. These findings extend research on IPV and children's adjustment difficulties to explicit memory functioning in preschoolers and suggest that mothers can ameliorate the influence of IPV on preschoolers' memory functioning via their parenting. PMID:18540770
Jouriles, Ernest N; Brown, Alan S; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David; Leahy, Matthew M; Silver, Cheryl
Abstract Background Although there has been much research examining the relationship between pregnancy and abuse, this study is one of the few to investigate whether perinatal status (defined as pregnancy or early postpartum) impacts the help seeking of abused women. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 3 years of prosecutor administrative records, police incident reports, and hospital medical records for a countywide population of adult females (n?=?964) assaulted by an intimate partner in 2000. Perinatal and nonperinatal victims were compared using chi-square and a series of logistic regression models, controlling for all demographic and incident-related factors. Results Compared with women across the county, abused women were twice as likely to become pregnant (p?0.001). Perinatal status did not change the rate of help seeking from police