Huiling Xu; Ines Swoboda; Prem L. Bhalla; Mohan B. Singh
The role of the male gamete--the sperm cell--in the process of fertilization is to recognize, adhere to, and fuse with the female gamete. These highly specialized functions are expected to be controlled by activation of a unique set of genes. However, male gametic cells traditionally have been regarded as transcriptionally quiescent because of highly condensed chromatin and a very reduced
Testa, Giuseppe; Harris, John
The recent in vitro derivation of gamete-like cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells is a major breakthrough and lays down several challenges, both for the further scientific investigation and for the bioethical and biolegal discourse. We refer here to these cells as gamete-like (sperm-like or oocyte-like, respectively), because at present there is still no evidence that these cells behave fully like bona fide sperm or oocytes, lacking the fundamental proof, i.e. combination with a normally derived gamete of the opposite sex to yield a normal individual. However, the results published so far do show that these cells share some defining features of gametes. We discuss these results in the light of the bioethical and legal questions that are likely to arise would the same process become possible with human embryonic stem (hES) cells. PMID:15943023
Laurentino, Eliane C; Taylor, Sonya; Mair, Gunnar R; Lasonder, Edwin; Bartfai, Richard; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Kroeze, Hans; Ramesar, Jai; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Khan, Shahid M; Janse, Chris J; Waters, Andrew P
Human FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) consists of the proteins SPT16 and SSRP1 and acts as a histone chaperone in the (dis)assembly of nucleosome (and thereby chromatin) structure during transcription and DNA replication. We identified a Plasmodium berghei protein, termed FACT-L, with homology to the SPT16 subunit of FACT. Epitope tagging of FACT-L showed nuclear localization with high expression in the nuclei of (activated) male gametocytes. The gene encoding FACT-L could not be deleted indicating an essential role during blood-stage development. Using a 'promoter-swap' approach whereby the fact-l promoter was replaced by an 'asexual blood stage-specific' promoter that is silent in gametocytes, transcription of fact-l in promoter-swap mutant gametocytes was downregulated compared with wild-type gametocytes. These mutant male gametocytes showed delayed DNA replication and gamete formation. Male gamete fertility was strongly reduced while female gamete fertility was unaffected; residual ookinetes generated oocysts that arrested early in development and failed to enter sporogony. Therefore FACT is critically involved in the formation of fertile male gametes and parasite transmission. 'Promoter swapping' is a powerful approach for the functional analysis of proteins in gametocytes (and beyond) that are essential during asexual blood-stage development. PMID:21899698
Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel
The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn.
A. Stephen Georgiou; Edita Sostaric; Chi H. Wong; Ambrosius P. L. Snijders; Phillip C. Wright; Harry D. Moore; Alireza Fazeli
The mammalian oviduct provides an optimal environment for the maturation of gametes, fertilization, and early em- bryonic development. Secretory cells lining the lumen of the mammalian oviduct synthesize and secrete proteins that have been shown to interact with and influence the activities of gametes and embryos. We hypothesized that the presence of gametes in the oviduct alters the oviduc- tal
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee
Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems. PMID:24923886
...of control of Petermann Partners, Inc. (PPI), a noncarrier, and the passenger motor carriers PPI controls: Beck Bus Transportation Corp...charter passenger services to the public.\\1\\ PPI is a noncarrier holding company...
Anderson, Kristin L.
M. P. Johnson's (1995) proposal that there are two qualitatively distinct types of intimate partner violence--intimate terrorism and situational couple violence--has been an influential explanation for disparate findings on sex symmetry in domestic violence. This study examines whether this typology increases our ability to explain variations in…
Rose, John M.; Townsend, Julie S.; Fonseka, Jamila; Richardson, Lisa C.; Chovnick, Gary
Introduction National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are encouraged to work with partners (eg, nonprofit organizations) to develop and implement plans to reduce the cancer burden in their jurisdictions using evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, the extent of EBP use among awardees and their partners is not well understood. Methods From March through July 2012, we conducted a web-based survey of program partners referred by NCCCP program directors who were involved in implementation of cancer control plans. Results Approximately 53% of referred partners (n = 83) completed surveys, 91.6% of whom represented organizations. Most partners reported involvement in helping to identify (80.5%), adapt (81.7%), implement (90.4%), and evaluate (81.9%) EBPs. The factors rated most frequently as very important when selecting EBPs were “consistent with our organization’s mission” (89.2%) and “cost-effective” (81.9%). Although most respondents said that their organizations understood the importance of using EBPs (84.3%) and had adequate access to cancer registry data (74.7%), few reported having sufficient financial resources to develop new EBPs (7.9%). The most frequently mentioned benefit of using EBPs was that they are proven to work. Resource limitations and difficulty adapting EBPs for specific populations and settings were challenges. Conclusions Our findings help indicate how NCCCP partners are involved in using EBPs and can guide ongoing efforts to encourage the use of EBPs for cancer control. The challenges of using EBPs that partners identified highlight the need to improve strategies to translate cancer prevention and control research into practice in real-world settings and for diverse populations. PMID:26182148
Cook, J. D.
contractor handles customer inquiries, applications, switch installations, and tracking of participants. Cycling strategies, load control, marketing and other administrative duties are handled by HL&P staff. A FM, VHF, radio transmission system is being used...
Through gamete and embryo donation have successively emerged new ways of designing individuals who, in turn, have generated mutations in the concept of parenthood. A debate is open to the society, which often raises ideological cleavages. Indeed, donation practices mobilize the conflicting interests of donor of gametes, the recipient couple, child, whose origins are complex, although his filiation is legally clear. Its place in the family genealogy can be examined in relation to other societies, which admit plural concepts called "classificatory" kinship. They set up role partition between parents and educators. Setting anthropological perspective provides a broadening of the reflection to answer questions from the donation practices, including genealogical questions of revelation to the child of his conception, his incorporation in family and social group and the importance of compensation of donation. PMID:25153433
Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ?3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ?2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated. PMID:20701806
Liu, Yanjie; Tewari, Rita; Ning, Jue; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Garbom, Sara; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.; Steele, Robert E.; Sinden, Robert E.; Snell, William J.; Billker, Oliver
The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie species-specific membrane fusion between male and female gametes remain largely unknown. Here, by use of gene discovery methods in the green alga Chlamydomonas, gene disruption in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, and distinctive features of fertilization in both organisms, we report discovery of a mechanism that accounts for a conserved protein required for gamete fusion. A screen for fusion mutants in Chlamydomonas identified a homolog of HAP2, an Arabidopsis sterility gene. Moreover, HAP2 disruption in Plasmodium blocked fertilization and thereby mosquito transmission of malaria. HAP2 localizes at the fusion site of Chlamydomonas minus gametes, yet Chlamydomonas minus and Plasmodium hap2 male gametes retain the ability, using other, species-limited proteins, to form tight prefusion membrane attachments with their respective gamete partners. Membrane dye experiments show that HAP2 is essential for membrane merger. Thus, in two distantly related eukaryotes, species-limited proteins govern access to a conserved protein essential for membrane fusion. PMID:18367645
Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John
The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N?=?1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077
Veronesi, F; Mariani, A; Bingham, E T
In the genus Medicago, it is known that 2n gametes have been important in the evolution and breeding of cultivated alfalfa, which is a natural polysomic polyploid (2n=4x=32), however little is known on the frequency of male and female 2n gametes in diploid relatives of alfalfa. To obtain data on the frequency of 2n gametes, more than 12,000 2x-4x and 4x-2x crosses were made in 1982 at Madison (USA). Diploid parents in crosses were from four populations of M. coerulea, two of M. falcata and one diploid population of cultivated M. sativa which was derived by haploidy. The tetraploid seed parent in the crosses was a male-sterile M. sativa clone and vigorous tetraploid M. sativa plants were used as pollen parents. Each of 274 diploid plants was utilized both as male and as female. Of the 548 cross combinations, 266 crosses produced variable quantities of seeds which were sown in 1983 in a greenhouse at Perugia (Italy); the plants were subsequently space transplanted in the field in 1984. The identification of ploidy level of these genotypes was made on the basis of morphological characters, plant fertility, pollen stainability and chromosome counts.Of the 515 plants analyzed, the majority behaved as normal tetraploids indicating that many diploid plants produced 2n gametes. Diplogynous and diplandrous gamete production was not correlated with each other, which indicated a different genetic control of 2n sporogenesis in the 2 sexes. Only 4 F1 triploid plants confirmed the presence of a very effective triploid block in alfalfa. In consequence, bilateral sexual polyploidization is a more likely alternative for the origin of tetraploid alfalfa than triploid bridges. The present study showed that it is possible to efficiently identify genotypes able to produce high frequencies of 2n gametes within natural populations of diploids Medicago that are useful in alfalfa breeding. PMID:24247768
Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia
How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…
Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto
The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete’s positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645
SHORT REVIEW Speciation and the evolution of gamete recognition genes: pattern and process SR, accelerated coalescence and, sometimes, extensive polymorphism. Careful analysis of the behavior of sperm mating based on gamete type, rare allele advantage and hetero- zygote superiority. Models suggest
Gamete Selection is a plant breeding selection methodology that has been traditionally shown to be effective in the development of a wide array of plant species. Widely utilized in corn, wheat, rye and legumes, a gamete selection approach has not been applied toward tall fescue germplasm developmen...
Rhoades, Kimberly A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Kim, Hyoun; Chamberlain, Patricia
Trajectories of drug use were examined in a sample of women with prior juvenile-justice system involvement. One hundred fifty-three young women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) in adolescence were assessed on five occasions over a 24-month period in young adulthood (mean age = 22.29 years at T1). Participants assigned to the MTFC condition during adolescence reported greater decreases in drug use than girls assigned to the treatment as usual (TAU) condition. Partner drug use was significantly associated with women’s concurrent drug use, although participants in the MTFC condition were more resilient to partner drug use than in the TAU condition. Implications for drug use prevention and intervention programs during adolescence are discussed. PMID:24729667
Ravel, C; Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Cretet, J; Roynard, P; Sibony, M; Maurin, N; Belaud-Rotureau, M-A; Berthaut, I
Klinefelter syndrome is defined by the presence of a supernumerary X chromosome in a phenotypic male. It is the most frequent gonosomic anomaly in infertile men with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.2% in newborn males. The presence of an additional X chromosome induces spermatogenic failure but when gametes are present, they are usually normal. The risk of transmission of the chromosomal anomaly remains low. In the literature, only one 47,XXY foetus resulting from more than a hundred births from fathers with Klinefelter syndrome, has been reported. One can estimate, that a TESE performed in half of the patients with non-mosaic 47,XXY will be positive and may enable IVF/ICSI to be achieved. PMID:21835669
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.; Blair, Clancy
The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parenting behaviors fully mediate this relationship. Although higher levels of IPV were associated with both higher levels of harsh-intrusive parenting and lower levels of sensitive supportive parenting, only sensitive supportive parenting was associated with later effortful control when both parenting indices were considered in the same model. PMID:22142253
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Unreduced gametes and neopolyploids in natural populations of Achillea borealis of Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), an autopolyploid complex consisting of tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes borealis (Asteraceae), a taxonomic species consisting of tetraploid and hexaploid populatio
P. Harrison; S. Ward
Spawned gametes were collected from colonies of Acropora longicyathus at One Tree Island and Goniastrea aspera at Magnetic Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for use in fertilisation trials. Mean fertilisation rates were significantly reduced compared with controls (PA. longicyathus were exposed to elevated ammonium concentrations at 1 µM and above in one cross (60-64% reduction), and at 100 µM in
Minireview Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner pro- ceeds via a transient biofilm formed by the bacterium. The production of this bacterial biofilm) gene locus. In addition to this transcriptional control, biofilm formation is regulated by two proteins
Parker, Geoff A; Lehtonen, Jussi
Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models in sperm economics. We show quite generally for the intensity model (where N males compete for each set of eggs) that however severe the degree of SL, if there is at least one competitor for fertilization (N - 1 ? 1), the marginal gains through SC exceed those for SL, provided that the relationship between the probability of fertilization (F) and increasing sperm numbers (x) is a concave function. In the risk model, as fertility F increases from 0 to 1.0, the threshold SC risk (the probability q that two males compete for fertilization) for SC to be the dominant force drops from 1.0 to 0. The gamete competition and gamete limitation theories for the evolution of anisogamy rely on very similar considerations: our results imply that gamete limitation could dominate only if ancestral reproduction took place in highly isolated, small spawning groups. PMID:25100694
Rebecca J. Cabral; Samuel F. Posner; Maurizio Macaluso; Lynn M. Artz; Christopher Johnson; LeaVonne Pulley
This study assessed hypotheses that measures of power and control over male condom (MC) use would predict use of the female condom (FC) among women with main partners from two public STD clinics (n = 616). The women (mean age 24 years, 87% African American) were enrolled in an intervention study to promote barrier contraceptive use and were interviewed at
Fraley, Stephanie I.; Feng, Yunfeng; Giri, Anjil; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis
Spontaneous molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. But to our knowledge, periodic cell migratory patterns have not been observed. Here we report the highly regular, periodic migration of cells along rectilinear tracks generated inside three-dimensional matrices, with each excursion encompassing several cell lengths, a phenotype that does not occur on conventional substrates. Short hairpin RNA depletion shows that these one-dimensional oscillations are uniquely controlled by zyxin and binding partners ?-actinin and p130Cas, but not vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and cysteine-rich protein 1. Oscillations are recapitulated for cells migrating along one-dimensional micropatterns, but not on two-dimensional compliant substrates. These results indicate that although two-dimensional motility can be well described by speed and persistence, three-dimensional motility requires two additional parameters, the dimensionality of the cell paths in the matrix and the temporal control of cell movements along these paths. These results also suggest that the zyxin/?-actinin/p130Cas module may ensure that motile cells in a three-dimensional matrix explore the largest space possible in minimum time. PMID:22395610
Murphy, Timothy F
Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this topic for discussion, it also wades into the ethical fray over the practice. Several possible lines of objection can be raised against this practice, but these accounts are by and large insufficient as an ethical analysis of this possible, future way of conceiving human children. PMID:23966423
Sahin, Umut; Ferhi, Omar; Jeanne, Marion; Benhenda, Shirine; Berthier, Caroline; Jollivet, Florence; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Faklaris, Orestis; Setterblad, Niclas; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein organizes PML nuclear bodies (NBs), which are stress-responsive domains where many partner proteins accumulate. Here, we clarify the basis for NB formation and identify stress-induced partner sumoylation as the primary NB function. NB nucleation does not rely primarily on intermolecular interactions between the PML SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) and SUMO, but instead results from oxidation-mediated PML multimerization. Oxidized PML spherical meshes recruit UBC9, which enhances PML sumoylation, allow partner recruitment through SIM interactions, and ultimately enhance partner sumoylation. Intermolecular SUMO–SIM interactions then enforce partner sequestration within the NB inner core. Accordingly, oxidative stress enhances NB formation and global sumoylation in vivo. Some NB-associated sumoylated partners also become polyubiquitinated by RNF4, precipitating their proteasomal degradation. As several partners are protein-modifying enzymes, NBs could act as sensors that facilitate and confer oxidative stress sensitivity not only to sumoylation but also to other post-translational modifications, thereby explaining alterations of stress response upon PML or NB loss. PMID:24637324
Sahin, Umut; Ferhi, Omar; Jeanne, Marion; Benhenda, Shirine; Berthier, Caroline; Jollivet, Florence; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Faklaris, Orestis; Setterblad, Niclas; de Thé, Hugues; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein organizes PML nuclear bodies (NBs), which are stress-responsive domains where many partner proteins accumulate. Here, we clarify the basis for NB formation and identify stress-induced partner sumoylation as the primary NB function. NB nucleation does not rely primarily on intermolecular interactions between the PML SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) and SUMO, but instead results from oxidation-mediated PML multimerization. Oxidized PML spherical meshes recruit UBC9, which enhances PML sumoylation, allow partner recruitment through SIM interactions, and ultimately enhance partner sumoylation. Intermolecular SUMO-SIM interactions then enforce partner sequestration within the NB inner core. Accordingly, oxidative stress enhances NB formation and global sumoylation in vivo. Some NB-associated sumoylated partners also become polyubiquitinated by RNF4, precipitating their proteasomal degradation. As several partners are protein-modifying enzymes, NBs could act as sensors that facilitate and confer oxidative stress sensitivity not only to sumoylation but also to other post-translational modifications, thereby explaining alterations of stress response upon PML or NB loss. PMID:24637324
Paul H. Wessels; Daniel R. Franken; Elize Pretorius; Hendrik S. Cronjé; Henry J. Burchell
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) has been described by Asch et al. (1,2) as an alternative technique in the treatment of infertile couples. At the University of the Orange Free State, the GIFT technique was introduced in July 1985, and during phase I, 31 patients were treated by means of GIFT. All patients had had at least six cycles of ovulation
Cutas, Daniela; Smajdor, Anna
In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from nonreproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised—and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow, geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs.
Parrish, Audrey E.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.
There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one’s social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees’ self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691
Leanne Togher; Skye McDonald; Chris Code; Susan Grant
Background: Communication disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are difficult to modify due to the cognitive limitation imposed by frontal lobe damage. As an alternative approach, this paper describes a training programme designed to improve communication partners' responsiveness to people with TBI during routine service inquiries with a community agency. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a training programme aimed
Pattinson, Shaun D
The UK is facing increasing demand for sperm and eggs for use in medical treatment and research. The disparity between supply and demand has led a number of UK bodies to recommend the adoption of a national donation system, at least with regard to gamete donation for treatment. This article argues that a national gamete donation system would have benefits beyond those articulated by bodies such as the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, the British Fertility Society, and the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, because a system of this type could facilitate the legal and ethical implementation of donor incentives. Three types of incentive are explored and it is argued that a national donation system could and should be utilised to implement a mirror exchange scheme or, preferably, an indirect mirror exchange scheme. PMID:22469855
Ball, Mary Virginia Uhrich
- able ;opulai:ion. The technique has the advantage of ;ncreas~ng the probability of detecting exceptional gcnotypes, as compared to direct isolation of lines from varietal sources. Stadler's Gamete Selection scheme was based on early- Lesting, a... in which gamctes , , ere sampled from three complex hybrid populations and evaluated using an inbred tester. He concluded that the var- ibiiity obse. ved in the Lest-cross populations was a reflection of the vari ability of the source populations...
Eduardo F. Tizzano; Ivón Cuscó; Mar??a Jesús Barceló; Juan Parra; Montserrat Baiget
Objective: To report two cases of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) after artificial insemination and to discuss why genetic screening of the disease may be justified in gamete donors.Design: Case report.Setting: Academic departments of genetics and obstetrics.Patient(s): A 32-year-old woman with two successive assisted pregnancies.Intervention(s): Molecular studies of the SMN1 (survival motor neuron), the determining gene of the disease.Main Outcome Measure(s):
Eduardo F. Tizzano; Ivon Cusco; Jesus Barcelo ´; Juan Parra; Montserrat Baiget
Objective: To report two cases of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) after artificial insemination and to discuss why genetic screening of the disease may be justified in gamete donors. Design: Case report. Setting: Academic departments of genetics and obstetrics. Patient(s): A 32-year-old woman with two successive assisted pregnancies. Intervention(s): Molecular studies of the SMN1 (survival motor neuron), the determining gene of
This paper explores problems associated with using altruism as the central value in gamete donation, and in doing so draws on empirical data that sheds light on why gamete donors choose to donate. Donation of bodily material is, arguably, supposed to be motivated by altruism, and this is the view taken by many European governments. Other values are often ignored or rejected as morally inappropriate. This paper analyses some conceptual and practical problems with the use of altruism as the motivation to determine moral acceptability-drawing on empirical data that suggests gamete donors are not motivated purely by altruism, and that motivations are in fact quite complex. Two problems are first analysed: (1) how do we distinguish altruistic from non-altruistic donations and (2) how do we distinguish between removing barriers and providing incentives. A final question, triggered by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report, is whether the meaning of the payment should be decided on the basis of an a priori definition or on the basis of the donors' subjective experience. It is concluded that there are different legitimate core values in donation, which should be balanced. In order to value the good generated by donation, donors with mixed motives should be accepted, as long as helping others is an important motive and also features in their motivation. PMID:25743052
Emery, Clifton R; Nguyen, Hai Trung; Kim, Jaeyop
This study aimed to understand the role of low self-control, stress, depression, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse, and social support and child care support in the etiology of child abuse and neglect in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in a randomly selected, representative cluster sample of 269 Hanoi families. Among these families, 21% reported severe abuse of their children in the past year, 12% reported neglect. Low self-control was found to be strongly associated with child abuse. Life stressors were found to be strongly associated with neglect, but only indirectly with child abuse. Counter-intuitively, a positive interaction between social support and low self-control was found, suggesting that social support of parents low in self-control is associated with more maltreatment. Implications for research, intervention, and criminological theory are discussed. PMID:24368676
Groß-Hardt, Rita; Kägi, Christina; Baumann, Nadine; Moore, James M; Baskar, Ramamurthy; Gagliano, Wendy B; Jürgens, Gerd; Grossniklaus, Ueli
In flowering plants, the egg and sperm cells form within haploid gametophytes. The female gametophyte of Arabidopsis consists of two gametic cells, the egg cell and the central cell, which are flanked by five accessory cells. Both gametic and accessory cells are vital for fertilization; however, the mechanisms that underlie the formation of accessory versus gametic cell fate are unknown. In a screen for regulators of egg cell fate, we isolated the lachesis (lis) mutant which forms supernumerary egg cells. In lis mutants, accessory cells differentiate gametic cell fate, indicating that LIS is involved in a mechanism that prevents accessory cells from adopting gametic cell fate. The temporal and spatial pattern of LIS expression suggests that this mechanism is generated in gametic cells. LIS is homologous to the yeast splicing factor PRP4, indicating that components of the splice apparatus participate in cell fate decisions. PMID:17326723
F. Veronesi; A. Mariani; E. T. Bingham
In the genus Medicago, it is known that 2n gametes have been important in the evolution and breeding of cultivated alfalfa, which is a natural polysomic polyploid (2n=4x=32), however little is known on the frequency of male and female 2n gametes in diploid relatives of alfalfa. To obtain data on the frequency of 2n gametes, more than 12,000 2x–4x and
Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D
The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. PMID:25801423
tx H2O | pg. 5 Panhandle AgriPartners Story by Kathy Wythe After 33 years in agribusiness, Dennis Beiluefound he wasn?t ready to hang up hisagricultural hat when he retired in 2000.Three years later he was back in the busi- ness as a Texas..., and pest and disease control to help farmers make good farming decisions. Panhandle AgriPartners Program helps farmers manage farms, water more efficiently #2; (Top) Dennis Beilue, a Panhandle AgriPartner farm demonstration assistant, checks...
Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew
While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301
Gamete selection as originally defined by Stadler is based on the principal that selection exerted at the gametophytic level can increase desirable allelic frequencies detectable at the sporophytic level. If superior gametes can be recognized with certainty through a selection cycle, then such a sy...
A Screen for Recessive Speciation Genes Expressed in the Gametes of F1 Hybrid Yeast Duncan Greig not play a major role in yeast speciation. Citation: Greig D (2007) A screen for recessive speciation genes expressed in the gametes of F1 hybrid yeast. PLoS Genet 3(2): e21. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030021
Membrane adhesions between the flagella of mating-type "plus" and "minus" gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardi are shown to stimulate a rapid change in the ultrastructure of the flagellar tips, designated as flagellar tip activation (FTA). A dense substance, termed fibrous tip material (FTM), accumulates between the flagellar membrane and the nine single A microtubules of the tip. The A microtubules then elongate, growing into the distal region of the tip, increasing tip length by 30%. This study describes FTA kinetics during normal and mutant matings, presents experiments designed to probe its role in the mating reaction, and offers the following conclusions: (a) FTA is elicited by agents that cross-link flagellar membrane components (including natural sexual agglutinins, antiflagellar antisera, and concanavalin A) but not by flagellar adherence to polylysine-coated films. (b) FTA is reversed by flagellar disadhesion. (c) Gametes can undergo repeated cycles of FTA during successive rounds of adhesion/disadhesion. (d) FTA, flagellar tipping, and sexual signaling are simultaneously blocked by colchicine and by vinblastine, suggesting that tubulinlike molecules, perhaps exposed at the membrane surface, are involved in all three responses. (e) FTA is not blocked by short exposure to chymotrypsin, by cytochalasins B and D, nor by concanavalin A, even though all block cell fusion; the response is therefore autonomous and experimentally dissociable from later stages in the mating reaction. (f) Under no experimental conditions is mating-structure activation observed to occur unless FTA also occurs. This study concludes that FTA is a necessary event in the sexual signaling sequence, and presents a testable working model for its mechanism. PMID:7358792
Introduction “Partners in Dementia Care” (PDC) tested the effectiveness of a care-coordination program integrating healthcare and community services and supporting veterans with dementia and their caregivers. Delivered via partnerships between Veterans Affairs medical centers and Alzheimer’s Association chapters, PDC targeted both patients and caregivers, distinguishing it from many non-pharmacological interventions. Hypotheses posited PDC would improve five veteran self-reported outcomes: 1) unmet need, 2) embarrassment about memory problems, 3) isolation, 4) relationship strain and 5) depression. Greater impact was expected for more impaired veterans. A unique feature was self-reported research data collected from veterans with dementia. Methods and Findings Five matched communities were study sites. Two randomly selected sites received PDC for 12 months; comparison sites received usual care. Three structured telephone interviews were completed every 6 months with veterans who could participate. Results Of 508 consenting veterans, 333 (65.6%) completed baseline interviews. Among those who completed baseline interviews, 263 (79.0%) completed 6-month follow-ups and 194 (58.3%) completed 12-month follow-ups. Regression analyses showed PDC veterans had significantly less adverse outcomes than those receiving usual care, particularly for more impaired veterans after 6 months, including reduced relationship strain (B?=??0.09; p?=?0.05), depression (B?=??0.10; p?=?0.03), and unmet need (B?=??0.28; p?=?0.02; and B?=??0.52; p?=?0.08). PDC veterans also had less embarrassment about memory problems (B?=??0.24; p?=?0.08). At 12 months, more impaired veterans had further reductions in unmet need (B?=??0.96; p?0.01) and embarrassment (B?=??0.05; p?=?0.02). Limitations included use of matched comparison sites rather than within-site randomization and lack of consideration for variation within the PDC group in amounts and types of assistance provided. Conclusions Partnerships between community and health organizations have the potential to meet the dementia-related needs and improve the psychosocial functioning of persons with dementia. Trial Registry NCT00291161 PMID:24764496
Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido
A lot of interest has been generated by the possibility of deriving gametes from embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stem cells. These stem cell derived gametes may become useful for research and for the treatment of infertility. In this article we consider prospectively the ethical issues that will arise if stem cell derived gametes are used in the clinic, making a distinction between concerns that only apply to embryonic stem cell derived gametes and concerns that are also relevant for gametes derived from adult stem cells. At present, it appears preferable to use non-embryonic stem cells for the derivation of gametes. Adult stem cell derived gametes do not present any problems with regard to the moral status of the human embryo, bypass the safety risks linked to SCNT and do not present any ambiguity or novel problems with regard to informed consent, psychological consequences for the child or genetic parenthood. A remaining ethical concern, however, regards the safety of the procedure in terms of the welfare of the resulting children. This should spark a thorough reflection on how far one must go to accommodate a person's wish to have a genetically related child. PMID:19813094
Antisera raised against vegetative and gametic flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardi have been used to probe dynamic properties of the flagellar membranes. The antisera, which agglutinate cells via their flagella, associate with antigens that are present on both vegetative and gametic membranes and on membranes of both mating types (mt+ and mt-). Gametic cells respond to antibody presentation very differently from vegetative cells, mobilizing even high concentrations of antibody towards the flagellar tips; the possibility is discussed that such "tipping" ability reflects a differentiated gametic property relevant to sexual agglutinability. Gametic cells also respond to antibody agglutination by activating their mating structures, the mt+ reaction involving a rapid polymerization of microfilaments. Several impotent mt+ mutant strains that fail to agglutinate sexually are also activated by the antisera and procede to form zygotes with normal mt- gametes. Fusion does not occur between activated cells of like mating type. Monovalent (Fab) preparations of the antibody fail to activate mt+ gametes, suggesting that the cross-linking properties of the antisera are essential for their ability to mimic, or bypass, sexual agglutination. PMID:730766
- tion reached 100,000 in 2005 and is expected to eventually top 350,000.? According to both city officials, partnering with the Dallas center provided the city with a way to develop long-term water conservation strategies. Story by Emilie Lowe...
- tion reached 100,000 in 2005 and is expected to eventually top 350,000.? According to both city officials, partnering with the Dallas center provided the city with a way to develop long-term water conservation strategies. Story by Emilie Lowe...
Talking to Your Partner About Condoms KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Birth Control > Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Print A A A Text Size It's much smarter to talk about condoms before having ...
Lorch, Patrick D.
., 1989; Ritchie et al., 1989; Butlin, 1998; ladybird beetles: Nakano, 1985, and striped-ground crickets gamete precedence have been found primarily in insects (such as flour beetles: e.g. Wade et al., 1993
Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.
In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.
Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia
Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4 ± 4.8 ?g L(-1) and 75.4 ± 6.4 ?g L(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220 ?g Cu L(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity. PMID:25462298
Stoops, M A; O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L
Mortality rates are high among captive African black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), due to increased susceptibility to disease. The ability to rescue genetic material from individuals that die unexpectedly represents a practical approach to assist ex situ conservation efforts. The objectives of the present study were to attempt postmortem oocyte recovery from ovaries of African black rhinoceroses (N = 6) and to test the efficacy of equine protocols for rhinoceros oocyte IVM and IVF using cryopreserved rhinoceros sperm. The interval from ovary removal to oocyte recovery was 25.3 ± 13.9 h (mean ± SD). Ovaries were transported at 4 °C or 22 °C and effects of temperature on postmortem oocyte competence was evaluated. Numbers of oocytes collected per female averaged 15.8 ± 6.9. In total, 95 oocytes were recovered. Of these, 85 were inseminated using homologous sperm and 10 were inseminated using heterologous sperm. Overall, substantial numbers of viable oocytes were retrieved from African black rhinoceros ovaries 1 to 2 days postmortem from ovaries stored at ambient temperature. A proportion of these oocytes matured and underwent penetration and fertilization by heterologous or homologous frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm. The reproductive competence of postmortem oocytes was further demonstrated by development of a single two-cell embryo. Despite the need for further refinements, gamete rescue in the rhinoceros has promise for producing rhinoceros embryos, as well as testing sperm functions in vitro. PMID:21752452
Background Geneticists who look beyond single locus disease associations require additional strategies for the detection of complex multi-locus effects. Epistasis, a multi-locus masking effect, presents a particular challenge, and has been the target of bioinformatic development. Thorough evaluation of new algorithms calls for simulation studies in which known disease models are sought. To date, the best methods for generating simulated multi-locus epistatic models rely on genetic algorithms. However, such methods are computationally expensive, difficult to adapt to multiple objectives, and unlikely to yield models with a precise form of epistasis which we refer to as pure and strict. Purely and strictly epistatic models constitute the worst-case in terms of detecting disease associations, since such associations may only be observed if all n-loci are included in the disease model. This makes them an attractive gold standard for simulation studies considering complex multi-locus effects. Results We introduce GAMETES, a user-friendly software package and algorithm which generates complex biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) disease models for simulation studies. GAMETES rapidly and precisely generates random, pure, strict n-locus models with specified genetic constraints. These constraints include heritability, minor allele frequencies of the SNPs, and population prevalence. GAMETES also includes a simple dataset simulation strategy which may be utilized to rapidly generate an archive of simulated datasets for given genetic models. We highlight the utility and limitations of GAMETES with an example simulation study using MDR, an algorithm designed to detect epistasis. Conclusions GAMETES is a fast, flexible, and precise tool for generating complex n-locus models with random architectures. While GAMETES has a limited ability to generate models with higher heritabilities, it is proficient at generating the lower heritability models typically used in simulation studies evaluating new algorithms. In addition, the GAMETES modeling strategy may be flexibly combined with any dataset simulation strategy. Beyond dataset simulation, GAMETES could be employed to pursue theoretical characterization of genetic models and epistasis. PMID:23025260
Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Junxia; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Wei; Xiong, Shun; Huang, Guoning
Failed fertilization after conventional IVF is one of the most frustrating experiences in assisted reproductive technology. "Late" rescue ICSI may be not an optimal strategy for treating unfertilized oocytes. Short co-incubation of gametes combined with early rescue ICSI has some advantages for complete fertilization failure after IVF. We evaluate the strategy and the optimal time for early rescue ICSI. A total of 180 patients underwent short co-incubation of gametes combined with early rescue ICSI treatment for complete fertilization failure after IVF (study group). A total of 494 ICSI patients with male factor infertility served as a control group. Clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, and live birth rate in the two groups were compared. The study group was divided into three different rescue time intervals (?6 h, 6-8 h, and ?8 h). Clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, and live birth rate were comparable between the study group and the control group. There was a negative correlation between clinical outcomes and rescue time interval. PMID:24313679
Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragán, Guillermina
Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7-10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete lack of recruitment. PMID:25658586
Gamete fusion activates the egg in animals and plants, and the gamete fusion site on the zygote might provide a possible cue for zygotic development and/or embryonic patterning. In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into a two-celled proembryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell with different cell fates. This is a putative step in the formation of the apical-basal axis of the proembryo. We observed the positional relationship between the gamete fusion site and the division plane formed by zygotic cleavage using an in vitro fertilization system with rice gametes. There was no relationship between the gamete fusion site and the division plane leading to the two-celled proembryo. Thus, the gamete fusion site on the rice zygote does not appear to function as a determinant for positioning the zygote division plane, and the zygote apparently possesses autonomous potential to establish cell polarity along the apical-basal axis for its first cleavage. PMID:21051936
Nakajima, Keisuke; Uchiumi, Takao; Okamoto, Takashi
In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into a two-celled proembryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell that possess different cell fates. This first division of the zygote is a putative step in the formation of the apical–basal axis of the proembryo. The gamete fusion activates the egg, and the gamete fusion site on the zygote has been reported to provide a possible cue for subsequent zygotic development and/or embryonic patterning in animals and plants. In this study, the gamete fusion site on the rice zygote was labelled by in vitro fertilization of a rice egg cell with a fluorescence-stained sperm cell. The positional relationship between the gamete fusion site and the division plane formed by zygotic cleavage was monitored using a fixed culture of the fusion site-labelled zygote until the two-celled proembryo stage. The results indicate that gamete fusion sites exist on two-celled proembryos with no relation to the position of the first division plane, and that the gamete fusion site on the rice zygote does not function as a determinant for positioning the zygote division plane. PMID:20462944
Straschil, Ursula; Talman, Arthur M; Ferguson, David J P; Bunting, Karen A; Xu, Zhengyao; Bailes, Elizabeth; Sinden, Robert E; Holder, Anthony A; Smith, Elizabeth F; Coates, Juliet C; Rita Tewari
Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, threatens 40% of the world's population. Transmission between vertebrate and insect hosts depends on the sexual stages of the life-cycle. The male gamete of Plasmodium parasite is the only developmental stage that possesses a flagellum. Very little is known about the identity or function of proteins in the parasite's flagellar biology. Here, we characterise a Plasmodium PF16 homologue using reverse genetics in the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. PF16 is a conserved Armadillo-repeat protein that regulates flagellar structure and motility in organisms as diverse as green algae and mice. We show that P. berghei PF16 is expressed in the male gamete flagellum, where it plays a crucial role maintaining the correct microtubule structure in the central apparatus of the axoneme as studied by electron microscopy. Disruption of the PF16 gene results in abnormal flagellar movement and reduced fertility, but does not lead to complete sterility, unlike pf16 mutations in other organisms. Using homology modelling, bioinformatics analysis and complementation studies in Chlamydomonas, we show that some regions of the PF16 protein are highly conserved across all eukaryotes, whereas other regions may have species-specific functions. PF16 is the first ARM-repeat protein characterised in the malaria parasite genus Plasmodium and this study opens up a novel model for analysis of Plasmodium flagellar biology that may provide unique insights into an ancient organelle and suggest novel intervention strategies to control the malaria parasite. PMID:20886115
Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes
This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.
Meerdo, Lora N; Reed, William A; White, Kenneth L
In 1997, Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell, was born. It was announced in 1999 that Dolly might be aging faster than normal because her telomeres were shorter than age-matched control sheep. Telomeres, a repeated DNA sequence located at the ends of linear chromosomes, allow for base pair loss during DNA replication. Telomere shortening acts as a "mitotic clock," leading to replicative senescence. By using whole cell lysate and slot-blot analysis, we determined the telomere-to-centromere ratio (T/C) for bovine gametes, embryos, fetal tissues (brain, heart, lung, kidney, uterus, ovary, and skin), adult donor cells, and cloned embryos. Our data indicates a consistency in T/C among the various fetal tissues. The T/C of sperm is significantly lower than in oocytes. The T/C decreases from the oocyte to the 2-8-cell stage embryo, increases dramatically at the morula stage, and decreases at the blastocyst stage. Our data shows no significant difference in T/C between cloned embryos and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos, but there is a significant difference between cloned embryos and adult donor cells. In conclusion, the enucleated bovine oocyte has the ability to reestablish the telomere length of adult somatic cell donor nuclei. PMID:15996118
Singh, Manjit; Goel, Shalendra; Meeley, Robert B.; Dantec, Christelle; Parrinello, Hugues; Michaud, Caroline; Leblanc, Olivier; Grimanelli, Daniel
Apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction through seeds in angiosperms. Apomictic plants bypass meiosis and fertilization, developing offspring that are genetically identical to their mother. In a genetic screen for maize (Zea mays) mutants mimicking aspects of apomixis, we identified a dominant mutation resulting in the formation of functional unreduced gametes. The mutant shows defects in chromatin condensation during meiosis and subsequent failure to segregate chromosomes. The mutated locus codes for AGO104, a member of the ARGONAUTE family of proteins. AGO104 accumulates specifically in somatic cells surrounding the female meiocyte, suggesting a mobile signal rather than cell-autonomous control. AGO104 is necessary for non-CG methylation of centromeric and knob-repeat DNA. Digital gene expression tag profiling experiments using high-throughput sequencing show that AGO104 influences the transcription of many targets in the ovaries, with a strong effect on centromeric repeats. AGO104 is related to Arabidopsis thaliana AGO9, but while AGO9 acts to repress germ cell fate in somatic tissues, AGO104 acts to repress somatic fate in germ cells. Our findings show that female germ cell development in maize is dependent upon conserved small RNA pathways acting non-cell-autonomously in the ovule. Interfering with this repression leads to apomixis-like phenotypes in maize. PMID:21325139
Satish K. Gupta; Pankaj Bansal
Vaccines have been proposed as one of the strategies for population control. Immunocontraceptive vaccines can be designed\\u000a to inhibit: (1) production of gametes (sperm and egg); (2) functions of gametes, leading to blocking of fertilization; and\\u000a (3) gamete outcome (pregnancy). Immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone coupled to different carriers has shown curtailment\\u000a in the production of sperm with concomitant infertility in
Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health and social problem. However, our understanding of how the geographic community or neighborhood influences its distribution is underdeveloped. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence that neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, are…
Low-Beer, Naomi; Gabe, Rhian; McCormack, Sheena; Kitchen, Valerie S; Lacey, Charles J; Nunn, Andrew J
This randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessed the safety and acceptability of vaginally administered 0.125% dextrin sulfate (DS) gel in sexually active women and their male partners. A single 2-mL dose of study gel was self-administered every night over two 14-day periods separated by a 7-day interval, during which menses was expected to occur. Up to two supplementary doses per 24 hours were provided for use before sexual intercourse. Semistructured interview, colposcopy, and laboratory safety studies were used to assess adverse events. Male partners who agreed to participate in a substudy were exposed to gel through sexual intercourse during the second 14-day exposure period. Seventy-three women (36 DS recipients and 37 placebo recipients) used at least one application of gel, of whom 66 (33 DS recipients and 33 placebo recipients) completed follow-up. Eleven women (5 DS recipients and 6 placebo recipients) reported intermenstrual bleeding during gel use, which in most cases was light and resolved within 24 hours. Ten male partners (4 with DS exposure and 6 with placebo exposure) were enrolled in the study and all completed follow-up. There was no evidence of systemic toxicity or genital epithelial disruption attributable to DS gel. PMID:12447009
Young, William; Kucera, Paul
In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).
Meyers, Steven D.
Community Partner Resource Guide 2013-2014 #12;Welcome Community Partners! Thank you for agreeing more aware of issues facing our community and provide them with the opportunity to serve. As a community partner, you are the essential element for the success of our civic engagement programs. We
De Melo-Martín, Inmaculada
A growing number of jurisdictions hold that gamete donors must be identifiable to the children born with their eggs or sperm, on grounds that being able to know about one's genetic origins is a fundamental moral right. But the argument for that belief has not yet been adequately made. PMID:24532424
Niels Geijsen; Melissa Horoschak; Kitai Kim; Joost Gribnau; Kevin Eggan; George Q. Daley
Egg and sperm cells (gametes) of the mouse are derived from a founder population of primordial germ cells that are set aside early in embryogenesis. Primordial germ cells arise from the proximal epiblast, a region of the early mouse embryo that also contributes to the first blood lineages of the embryonic yolk sac. Embryonic stem cells differentiate in vitro into
Yasui, G S; Senhorini, J A; Shimoda, E; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O; Fujimoto, T; Arias-Rodriguez, L; Silva, L A
In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) - mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1 ± 4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5 ± 5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6 ± 27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4 ± 7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1 ± 26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization. PMID:25391393
Hédouin, Laetitia; Pilon, Rosanne; Puisay, Antoine
The life cycle of coral is affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations occurring in the marine environment. In the context of global changes, it is likely that rainfall events will be more intense and that coastal reefs will be exposed to sudden drops in salinity. Therefore, a better understanding of how corals-especially during the pelagic life stages-are able to deal with declines in salinity is crucial. To fill this knowledge gap, this work investigated how gametes and larva stages of two species of Acropora (Acropora cytherea and Acropora pulchra) from French Polynesia cope with drops in salinity. An analysis of collected results highlights that both Acropora coral gametes displayed the same resistance to salinity changes, with 4h30-ES50 (effective salinity that decrease by 50% the fertilization success after 4h30 exposure) of 26.6 ± 0.1 and 27.5 ± 0.3‰ for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively. This study also revealed that coral gametes were more sensitive to decreases in salinity than larvae, for which significant changes are only observed at 26‰ for A. cytherea after 14 d of exposure. Although rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are often perceived as the main threat for the survival of coral reefs, our work indicates that 70% of the gametes could be killed during a single night of spawning by a rainfall event that decreases salinity to 26‰. This suggests that changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events associated with climate changes should be taken seriously in efforts to both preserve coral gametes and ensure the persistence and renewal of coral populations. PMID:25562765
Tang, Z X; Wang, X F; Zhang, M Z; Zhang, Y H; Deng, D X; Xu, C W
Segregation distortion is the phenomenon whereby the observed genotypic frequencies of a locus fall outside the expected Mendelian segregation ratio, and it is increasingly recognised as a potentially powerful evolutionary force. The main reason for segregation distortion is a difference in the viability of gametes and zygotes caused by viability loci in the segregating progeny. However, the maternal cytoplasm may also be involved in the viability selection of gametes and zygotes. The objectives of this study were to map the segregation distortion loci (SDL) in maize and to test the hypothesis that the viability of gametes and zygotes may also be associated with the maternal cytoplasmic environment. In the present study, a reciprocal mating design was conducted to generate an F2-segregating population. A linkage map was constructed with 126 microsatellite markers. A whole-genome scan was performed to detect the SDL in segregating populations with different maternal cytoplasm environments. Altogether, 14 SDL with strong LOD (logarithm (base 10) of odds) supports were identified in the specifically designed F2 populations. Interestingly, we found dramatic changes in the genotypic frequencies of the SDL in the two maternal cytoplasmic backgrounds, which indicated a change in the viability of gametes and zygotes in different cytoplasmic environments. Furthermore, in the JB cytoplasmic background, most of the detected SDL and complete distortion markers exhibited similar bias patterns favouring the Y53 alleles. These results suggested that selfish cytoplasmic elements may have an important role in shaping the patterns of segregation distortion in F2 populations through selective viability of gametes and zygotes. PMID:23169560
Roberts, Lisa; Pickering, Ruth; Roberts, Helen Clare; Wiles, Rose; Kunkel, Dorit; Hulbert, Sophia; Robison, Judy; Fitton, Carolyn
Background Self-help and physical leisure activities has become increasingly important in the maintenance of safe and functional mobility among an increasingly elderly population. Preventing the cycle of deterioration, falling, inactivity, dependency, and secondary complications in people with Parkinson disease (PD) is a priority. Research has shown that people with PD are interested in dance and although the few existing trials are small, initial proof of principle trials from the United States have demonstrated beneficial effects on balance control, gait, and activity levels. To our knowledge, there has been no research into long-term effects, cost effectiveness, the influence on spinal posture and turning, or the personal insights of dance participants. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the methodological feasibility of conducting a definitive phase III trial to evaluate the benefits of dance in people with PD. We will build on the proof of principle trials by addressing gaps in knowledge, focusing on areas of greatest methodological uncertainty; the choice of dances and intensity of the program; for the main trial, the availability of partners, the suitability of the currently envisaged primary outcomes, balance and spinal posture; and the key costs of delivering and participating in a dance program to inform economic evaluation. Methods Fifty participants (mild-to-moderate condition) will be randomized to the control (usual care) or experimental (dance plus usual care) groups at a ratio of 15:35. Dance will be taught by professional teachers in a dance center in the South of England. Each participant in the experimental group will dance with his or her spouse, a friend, or a partner from a bank of volunteers. A blinded assessor will complete clinical measures and self-reported ability at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. A qualitative study of a subgroup of participants and partners will examine user’s views about the appropriateness and acceptability of the intervention, assessment protocol, and general trial procedures. Procedures for an economic evaluation of dance for health care will be developed for the main trial. Results Recruitment began in January 2013 and the last participant is expected to complete the trial follow-up in June 2014. Conclusions Findings from our study may provide novel insights into the way people with PD become involved in dance, their views and opinions, and the suitability of our primary and secondary outcomes. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 63088686; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN63088686/63088686 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6QYyjehP7). PMID:25051989
Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; McElduff, Patrick; Turner, Jane; Levesque, Janelle V; Kayser, Karen; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy T F; Barker, Daniel
Introduction Coping skills training interventions have been found to be efficacious in helping both patients and their partners manage the physical and emotional challenges they face following a cancer diagnosis. However, many of these interventions are costly and not sustainable. To overcome these issues, a self-directed format is increasingly used. The efficacy of self-directed interventions for patients has been supported; however, no study has reported on the outcomes for their partners. This study will test the efficacy of Coping-Together—a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners. Methods and analysis The proposed three-group, parallel, randomised controlled trial will recruit patients diagnosed in the past 4?months with breast, prostate, colorectal cancer or melanoma through their treating clinician. Patients and their partners will be randomised to (1) a minimal ethical care (MEC) condition—selected Cancer Council New South Wales booklets and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline, (2) Coping-Together generic—MEC materials, the six Coping-Together booklets and DVD, the Cancer Council Queensland relaxation audio CD and login to the Coping-Together website or (3) Coping-Together tailored—MEC materials, the Coping-Together DVD, the login to the website and only those Coping-Together booklet sections that pertain to their direct concerns. Anxiety (primary outcome), distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed before receiving the study material (ie, baseline) and again at 3, 6 and 12?months postbaseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the relevant local area health and University ethics committees. Study findings will be disseminated not only through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations but also through educational outreach visits, publication of lay research summaries in consumer newsletters and publications targeting clinicians. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000491763 (03/05/2013) PMID:23883890
Peter R. Kilmann; Holmes Finch; Michele M. Parnell; Jason T. Downer
This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 non-clinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater “anxiety over abandonment” or “discomfort with closeness” endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the “anxiety over abandonment” dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, while wives with higher scores
Maeda, Hiroki; Okamoto, Takashi
In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation. PMID:23570690
Recently, several requests have emerged in which women wished to be impregnated with donor eggs fertilized with spermatozoa of their brother. An important argument advanced against such applications is that it is a kind of incest. Four definitions of incest are reviewed in this article to evaluate the acceptability of these demands. The first three (sexual intercourse, reproduction with gametes of first-degree relatives and symbolic incest) do not apply to the cases. However, when the sister and her brother intend to raise the child as social mother and father, these requests should be considered as "intentional incest". If the brother only functions as an uncle, the request of the woman resembles the currently accepted practice of oocyte donation from sister to sister. In that case, the wish to receive gametes from a first-degree relative is motivated by the wish to establish as far as possible a genetic link with the child. PMID:12470346
Olson, Claire E.; Roberts, Steven B.
DNA methylation patterns and functions are variable across invertebrate taxa. In order to provide a better understanding of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), we characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in male gamete cells using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to examine the relationship between DNA methylation and transcript expression. Methylation status of over 7.6 million CpG dinucleotides was described with a majority of methylated regions occurring among intragenic regions. Overall, 15% of the CpG dinucleotides were determined to be methylated and the mitochondrial genome lacked DNA methylation. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data revealed a positive association between methylation status, both in gene bodies and putative promoter regions, and expression. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the distribution of DNA methylation in the oyster male gamete tissue and suggests that DNA methylation is involved in gene regulatory activity. PMID:24987376
Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?.0001). Acceptance of wife beating was significantly reduced among the treatment group (??=?-0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p?=?0.006), while attitudes towards refusal of sex did not significantly change Per protocol analysis suggests that compared to control women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?0.0001; a OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81, p?=?01, respectively). No significant reductions were observed for physical and/or sexual IPV, or sexual IPV alone. Conclusions Results from this pilot RCT suggest the importance of addressing household gender inequities alongside economic programming, because this type of combined intervention has potential to reduce levels of IPV. Additional large-scale intervention research is needed to replicate these findings. Trial registration Registration Number: NCT01629472. PMID:24176132
Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in patients with lung cancer and their partners: the MILON study
Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and characterized by a poor prognosis. It has a major impact on the psychological wellbeing of patients and their partners. Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is effective in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer patients. The generalization of these results is limited since most participants were female patients with breast cancer. Moreover, only one study examined the effectiveness of MBSR in partners of cancer patients. Therefore, in the present trial we study the effectiveness of MBSR versus treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Methods/Design A parallel group, randomized controlled trial is conducted to compare MBSR with TAU. Lung cancer patients who have received or are still under treatment, and their partners are recruited. Assessments will take place at baseline, post intervention and at three-month follow-up. The primary outcome is psychological distress (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (only for patients), caregiver appraisal (only for partners), relationship quality and spirituality. In addition, cost-effectiveness ratio (only in patients) and several process variables are assessed. Discussion This trial will provide information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBSR compared to TAU in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01494883. PMID:24386906
Aubrey Gorbman; Arthur Whiteley; Scott Kavanaugh
The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0mg\\/L) but dilutions to 50?g\\/L
Franklin, Luther E.
Sea urchin gametes predominate in molecular studies of fertilization, yet relatively little is known of the subcellular aspects of sperm entry in this group. Accordingly, it seemed desirable to make a detailed examination of sperm entry phenomena in sea urchins with the electron microscope. Gametes of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus were used in this study. Samples of eggs containing 2 to 8 per cent oocytes were selected and fixed with osmium tetroxide in sea water at various intervals after insemination. Fixed specimens were embedded in Epon 812, sectioned, and examined with an electron microscope. An apical vesicle was observed at the anterior end of the acrosome. The presence of this structure, together with other observations, suggested that initiation of the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm involves dehiscence of the acrosomal region with the subsequent release of the acrosomal granule. Contact and initial fusion of gamete membranes was observed in mature eggs and oocytes and invariably involved the extended acrosomal tubule of the spermatozoon. Only one spermatozoon normally enters the mature egg. The probability of locating such a sperm in ultrathin sections is exceedingly low. Several sperm do normally enter oocytes. Consequently, observations of sperm entry were primarily restricted to the latter. The manner of sperm entry into oocytes did not resemble phagocytosis. Organelles of the spermatozoon were progressively divested of their plasma membrane as they entered the ground cytoplasm of the oocyte fertilization cone. Initiation of the acrosome reaction, contact and initial fusion of gamete membranes, and sperm entry into oocytes of sea urchins conform to the Hydroides-Saccoglossus pattern of early fertilization events as described by Colwin and Colwin (13). PMID:19866669
Inhorn, Marcia C
'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005
de Paula, Wilson B M; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Missirlis, Fanis; Ashworth, Rachel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lucas, Cathy H; Allen, John F
Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals. Mitochondrial DNA mutation then accumulates with age, and may set a limit to the lifespan of individual, multicellular organisms. Why is this mutation not inherited? Here we demonstrate that female gametes-oocytes-have unusually small and simple mitochondria that are suppressed for DNA transcription, electron transport, and free radical production. By contrast, male gametes-sperm-and somatic cells of both sexes transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory electron carriers and produce oxygen free radicals. This germ-line division between mitochondria of sperm and egg is observed in both the vinegar fruitfly and the zebrafish-species spanning a major evolutionary divide within the animal kingdom. We interpret these findings as an evidence that oocyte mitochondria serve primarily as genetic templates, giving rise, irreversibly and in each new generation, to the familiar energy-transducing mitochondria of somatic cells and male gametes. Suppressed mitochondrial metabolism in the female germ line may therefore constitute a mechanism for increasing the fidelity of mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24068653
de Araujo Leite, Jocelmo Cássio; de Castro, Tainá Myra Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando
Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) represents 5% of all solar UV radiation and chronic exposure can induce harmful biological responses, including skin cancer. Prospection of new drugs with photoprotective properties and less toxic effects is constant and natural products have been the main options in this field. Coumarins are a group of natural phenolic compounds that shows several pharmacological activities. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of coumarin and six derivatives in sea urchin gametes and zygotes exposed to UVB. Embryonic development assay was used to monitor UVB embryotoxicity. Firstly, we demonstrated that coumarin inhibited first embryonic cell division from 5 ?M (EC50 = 52.9 ?M) and its derivatives showed an embryotoxic effect ten times higher. Then, gametes or zygotes were treated with coumarin compounds before or after UVB exposure (UVB doses ranged from 0.056 to 0.9 kJm(-2)). Pretreatment of gametes or zygotes with coumarin or 3-hydroxycoumarin (1 ?M, both) decreased UVB embryotoxic effect. Protective effect of the compounds was observed only when cells were treated previous to UVB exposure. Coumarin derivatives 4-hydroxycoumarin, 6-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin did not exhibit photoprotective activity. Our data provides evidences that coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarin can be a promising class of photoprotective drugs. PMID:25795999
Oliver, Mathew; Evans, Jonathan P.
Sperm chemoattraction, where sperm locate unfertilized eggs by following a concentration gradient of egg-derived chemoattractants, has been widely documented across numerous taxa. While marine invertebrates are favoured models for understanding the underlying mechanisms of sperm chemoattraction, the evolutionary forces underpinning the process remain enigmatic. Here, we show that in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), chemically moderated gamete preferences promote assortative fertilizations between genetically compatible gametes. When offered the choice of egg clutches from two females, sperm exhibited consistent but differential ‘preferences’ for chemical cues secreted from conspecific eggs. Critically, our data reveal that the preferences shown by sperm during the egg-choice trials are highly predictive of early embryonic viability when eggs and sperm from the same individuals are mixed during standard (no-choice) fertilization assays. Moreover, we demonstrate that by experimentally separating chemoattractants from eggs, sperm swimming behaviour is differentially regulated by egg-derived chemoattractants, and that these changes in sperm behaviour are highly consistent with observed patterns of gamete preferences, fertilization and larval survival. Together, this integrated series of experiments reveals that the behaviour of sperm is fine-tuned to respond differentially to the chemical signals emitted from different conspecific eggs, and that these choices have measurable fitness benefits. PMID:24741014
Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the “local moral worlds” of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt’s famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims, with Iran’s leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi’ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430
Hammoud, I.; Molina-Gomes, D.; Wainer, R.; Bergere, M.; Albert, M.; Bailly, M.; de Mazancourt, P.; Selva, J.
Purpose Implantation failure is known to be associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy in embryos, a situation leading to a pre-implantation genetic screening, not allowed in different countries like France. Our aim was to evaluate the gamete aneuploidy incidence in this context, using first polar body and spermatozoa aneuploidy screening. Methods Three groups were considered: 11 couples with pregnancy obtained after IVF for female infertility (group 1); 20 couples with pregnancy obtained after IVF for male infertility (group 2); and 35 couples with implantation failure (group 3). In group 3, 28 couples treated by ICSI volunteered for first polar body analysis (PB1). Results Spermatozoa aneuploidy rate was increased in groups 2 (1.6%) and 3 (2.1%) in comparison to group 1 (0.6%). PB1 aneuploidy rate was 35.4% in group 3. Finally, eight couples (32%) had no particular chromosomal risk in gametes, 15/25 (60%) presented an increased spermatic (>2%) or oocyte (>1/3) aneuploidy rate, and 2/25 (8%) had both. Conclusion Those results confirm that implantation failure has a heterogeneous origin, that gamete chromosome abnormality rate is one of the major contributing factors, and that 1st Polar body and spermatozoa aneuploidy screening or pre-implantation genetics screening may be indicated for these couples. PMID:18972203
Tsoh, Janice Y.; Kohn, Michael A.; Gerbert, Barbara
Purpose To report the effectiveness of a prenatal intervention and to provide evidence that prenatal visits provide an opportune time for health assessment and counseling with abused women. Methods Fifty ethnically diverse pregnant women who presented for routine prenatal care and who also reported being at risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) were recruited to the study. Participants were assigned to either usual care or the Video Doctor plus Provider Cueing intervention. At baseline and 1-month later at another routine prenatal visit, intervention group participants received a 15-minute Video Doctor assessment and interactive tailored counseling. Their providers received a printed Cue Sheet alert and suggested counseling statements. Main findings Participants in the intervention group were significantly more likely to report provider-patient discussions of IPV compared to participants receiving usual care at baseline (81.8% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.001) and at the 1-month follow-up (70.0% vs. 23.5%, p = 0.005). Summing the number of patient-provider discussions across the two visits at baseline and one month later, intervention participants were significantly more likely to have IPV risk discussion with their providers at one or both visits (90.0% vs. 23.6%, p< 0.001) compared to the participants who received usual care. When specifically asked about the helpfulness of these IPV-related discussions, 20 out of 22 (90.9%) participants rated the discussion as helpful or very helpful at baseline and all 18 (100%) participants rated the discussion as helpful or very helpful at the 1-month follow-up. Conclusions Video Doctor plus Provider Cueing intervention significantly increases the likelihood of provider-patient IPV discussion with pregnant women with a history of abuse. PMID:21185737
Trecker, Molly A; Gu, Weiming; Jolly, Ann; Waldner, Cheryl L; Dillon, Jo-Anne R
We identified predictors of partner presentation and condom use among male gonorrhea patients in Shanghai, China. Stable relationships, intercourse in the preceding week, and longer duration of symptoms were associated with partner presentation. Men were more likely to use condoms with their spouse and if they were 35 years or younger. PMID:25581804
Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Deneyer, Michel; Nekkebroeck, Julie; Tournaye, Herman
The scope of female fertility preservation through cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex has widened from mainly oncological indications to a variety of fertility-threatening conditions. So far, no specific universally accepted denomination name has been given to cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex for the prevention of age-related fertility decline. We argue that the commonly used phrases 'social' and 'nonmedical freezing' to denote the indication for cryopreservation are not entirely correct. We suggest 'AGE banking', as this has not only the advantage of being catchy but also depicts the exact indication for the strategy, anticipated gamete exhaustion. PMID:24631381
Kranz, E; Lorz, H
We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed. PMID:12271084
Yanagiya, Akiko; Delbes, Geraldine; Svitkin, Yuri V.; Robaire, Bernard; Sonenberg, Nahum
Translational control plays a key role in late spermiogenesis. A number of mRNAs encoding proteins required for late spermiogenesis are expressed in early spermatids but are stored as translationally inactive messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). The translation of these mRNAs is associated with shortening of their poly(A) tail in late spermiogenesis. Poly(A)-binding protein (Pabp) plays an important role in mRNA stabilization and translation. Three Pabp-interacting proteins, Paip1, Paip2a, and Paip2b, have been described. Paip2a is expressed in late spermatids. To investigate the role of Paip2 in spermiogenesis, we generated mice with knockout of either Paip2a or Paip2b and double-KO (DKO) mice lacking both Paip2a and Paip2b. Paip2a-KO and Paip2a/Paip2b-DKO mice exhibited male infertility. Translation of several mRNAs encoding proteins essential to male germ cell development was inhibited in late spermiogenesis in Paip2a/Paip2b-DKO mice, resulting in defective elongated spermatids. Inhibition of translation in Paip2a/Paip2b-DKO mice was caused by aberrant increased expression of Pabp, which impaired the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and the cap structure at the 5? end of the mRNA. We therefore propose a model whereby efficient mRNA translation in late spermiogenesis occurs at an optimal concentration of Pabp, a condition not fulfilled in Paip2a/Paip2b-DKO mice. PMID:20739757
Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G
Hypoxia likely compromises the reproductive success of those marine organisms carrying out external fertilization because their gametes and embryos are inevitably exposed to the external environment. Hydroides elegans, a dominant serpulid polychaete in Hong Kong waters, can spawn throughout the year but the number of recruits drops during summer when hypoxia commonly occurs. This study attempted to explain such observation by investigating the gamete quality, including sperm motility, egg size, complexity and viability, after 1-h hypoxic exposure (1 mg O2 l(-1)). In addition, how gamete quality affects fertilization success and embryonic development was examined. After 1-h hypoxic exposure, sperm motility was significantly reduced, compromising fertilization success. Although the eggs remained viable, more malformed embryos and retarded embryonic development were observed. We interpreted that the harmful effect of hypoxia on embryonic development was attributed to the teratogenicity and induced oxidative stress, ultimately causing the reduction in recruitment during summer. PMID:24661460
Chlamydomonas lytic enzyme of the cell wall (gamete wall-autolysin) is responsible for shedding of cell walls during mating of opposite mating- type gametes. This paper reports some topographic aspects of lytic enzyme in cells. Both vegetative and gametic cells contain the same wall lytic enzyme. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kD by gel filtration and 62 kD by SDS PAGE, and is sensitive to metal ion chelators and SH-blocking agents. These properties are the same as those of the gamete wall-autolysin released into the medium by mating gametes. However, the storage form of the enzyme proves to be quite different between the two cell types. In vegetative cells, the lytic enzyme is found in an insoluble form in cell homogenates and activity is released into the soluble fraction only by sonicating the homogenates or freeze-thawing the cells, whereas gametes always yield lytic activity in the soluble fractions of cell homogenates. When vegetative cells are starved for nitrogen, the storage form of enzyme shifts from its vegetative state to gametic state in parallel with the acquisition of mating ability. Adding nitrogen to gametes converts it to the vegetative state concurrently with the loss of mating ability. We also show that protoplasts obtained by treatment of vegetative cells or gametes with exogenously added enzyme have little activity of enzyme in the cell homogenates, suggesting that lytic enzyme is stored outside the plasmalemma. When the de-walled gametes or gametes of the wall-deficient mutant, cw-15, of opposite mating types are mixed together, they mate normally but the release of lytic enzyme into the medium is practically negligible. When the de-walled vegetative cells are incubated, the lytic enzyme is again accumulated in the cells after the wall regeneration is almost complete. PMID:2879847
Pujolar, J M; Pogson, G H
Gamete recognition proteins commonly experience positive Darwinian selection and evolve more rapidly than nonreproductive proteins, but the selective forces responsible for their adaptive diversification remain unclear. We examined the patterns of positive selection in the cognate interacting pair of proteins formed by sperm bindin and its egg receptor (EBR1) and in two regions of the sea urchin sperm receptor for egg jelly suREJ3 gene (exons 22 and 26) among four species of Strongylocentrotus sea urchins (S. purpuratus, S. droebachiensis, S. pallidus and S. franciscanus). The signatures of selection differed at each reproductive protein. A strong signal of positive selection was detected at bindin in all lineages even though the species compared had highly variable gamete traits and experience different intensities and forms of sexual selection and sexual conflict in nature. Weaker selection was observed at EBR1 but the small region studied precluded a clear understanding of the extent of sexual conflict between bindin and the EBR1 protein. At the suREJ3 locus, diversifying selection was observed in exon 22 but not exon 26, suggesting that these regions experience different selective pressures and evolutionary constraints. Positive selection was also detected within S. pallidus at suREJ-22 because of the presence of 12 amino acid replacement mutations segregating at frequencies >0.10. Our results suggest that sexual conflict may be the predominant evolutionary mechanism driving the rapid diversification of reproductive proteins between, and polymorphism within, strongylocentrotid sea urchins. PMID:22060977
Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N
Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284
Mac Dougall, Kirstin; Becker, Gay; Scheib, Joanna E.; Nachtigall, Robert D.
Objective To describe how parents envision, plan, and enact disclosing to their children that they were conceived with donor gametes. Design In depth ethnographic interviews. Setting Participants were recruited from 11 medical infertility practices and 1 sperm bank in Northern California. Patients 141 married couples who had conceived a child using donor gametes (62 with donor sperm and 79 with donor oocytes). Interventions Husbands and wives were interviewed together and separately. Main outcome measures Thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Results Disclosing parents predominantly subscribed to one of two disclosure strategies: the conviction that early disclosure is of paramount importance so that the child “always knows,” or the belief that later disclosure is preferable after family routines have been established and the child has the maturity to understand biologic concepts and has developed a sense of discretion. No parent regretted disclosing and many expressed relief. Conclusions Parents choosing early disclosure were more at ease with the disclosure process while parents choosing later disclosure reported greater uncertainty about how and when to disclose. Parents wished for more peer and/or professional support and guidance to assist them in with disclosure, not only initially, but continuing long after their children are born. PMID:17141770
Dickenson, D L
There has been a troublesome anomaly in the UK between cash payment to men for sperm donation and the effective assumption that women will pay to donate eggs. Some commentators, including Donald Evans in this journal, have argued that the anomaly should be resolved by treating women on the same terms as men. But this argument ignores important difficulties about property in the body, particularly in relation to gametes. There are good reasons for thinking that the contract model and payment for gametes are both inappropriate, and that a model based on altruism should be applied to both sexes. PMID:9134489
Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T
This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639
Random mating is a fundamental assumption in quantitative genetic theory and assumes pollen-parents contribute uniform gamete numbers to the progeny generation; polycross-size-expected-inbreeding rests on this assumption. This study empirically determined polycross pollen-parent gamete frequency con...
The Social Health Intervention Project (SHIP): Protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a brief motivational intervention for problem drinking and intimate partner violence in an urban emergency department
Background There is a strong reciprocal association between two highly prevalent public health problems: intimate partner violence and heavy drinking, both of which remain major sources of morbidity and mortality. Brief interventions in the Emergency Department setting have been found to be effective in reducing alcohol-related injury but neither classic intimate partner violence nor substance abuse interventions have adequately integrated assessment and treatment for these co-occurring conditions. The overall goal of this study is to determine whether a motivational intervention delivered at the time of an Emergency Department visit will reduce heavy drinking and improve the safety of women experiencing intimate partner violence. Methods and design We are completing data collection for a randomized controlled trial enrolling 600 female patients, age 18–64, presenting to one of two urban Emergency Departments, who self-disclose both problem drinking and intimate partner violence. Eligible patients are randomized to a brief manual-guided motivational intervention, and a phone booster at 10 days. The intervention, which is delivered by masters-level therapists during the Emergency Department visit, is recorded and monitored for fidelity. Primary outcomes are episodes of heavy drinking and incidents of intimate partner violence, assessed weekly by Interactive Voice Response System for 12 weeks and at 3, 6 and 12 months by interviewers blinded to group assignment. To identify the impact of assessment alone, we included a no-contact control group assessed only once at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include violence severity, changes in the Composite Abuse Scale and alcohol quantity/frequency, along with other health-related behaviors. The analysis will also explore the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. Discussion While screening and intervention for intimate partner violence is now recommended for women of child bearing age in health care settings, there is a need for rigorous evaluations of what works for whom. Upon completion, we will have high-quality evidence regarding the effectiveness of a low-intensity, brief motivational intervention, delivered by social workers in the Emergency Department setting, for decreasing episodes of heavy drinking and intimate partner violence. Ultimately, this is a model could be generalizable to other acute health care settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number: NCT01207258 PMID:24742322
The following Universities and organizations partner with the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium with the ultimate goal of improving our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer. Accadia
... abuse. This behavior can progress to physical or sexual assault. Several types of IPV may occur together. IPV ... in 10 men in the US have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by a partner ...
This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes the resources and opportunities available to partners how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics Scientists at NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics partner extensively with scientists at academic and medical institutions around the world to discover the causes of cancer and the means of prevention.
Song, Binwei; Begley, Elin B; Lesondak, Linda; Voorhees, Kelly; Esquivel, Magdalena; Merrick, Ronald L; Carrel, Jack; Sebesta, Douglas; Vergeront, James; Shrestha, Dhana; Oraka, Emeka; Walker, Annisa; Heffelfinger, James D
Objective: The objectives of this article are to determine factors associated with refusal and agreement to provide partner information, and evaluate the effectiveness of referral approaches in offering PCRS. Methods: Index clients from 5 sites that used 3 different PCRS approaches were interviewed to obtain demographic and risk characteristics and choice of partner referral method for PCRS. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with providing partner information. Results: The percentage of index clients who refused to provide partner information varied by site (7% to 88%). Controlling for PCRS approach, index clients who were older than 25 years, male, or reported having male-male sex in the past 12 months were more likely (p <0.01) to refuse to provide partner information. Overall, 72% of named partners referred by index clients were located and offered PCRS. The proportion of partners who were located and offered PCRS differed by referral approach used, ranging from 38% using contract referral (index clients agree to notify their partners within a certain timeframe, else a disease intervention specialist or health care provider will notify them) to 98% using dual referral (index clients notify their partners with a disease intervention specialist or provider present). Conclusion: Success in obtaining partner information varied by the PCRS approach used and effectiveness in locating and notifying partners varied by the referral approach selected. These results provide valuable insights for enhancing partner services. PMID:22408699
Bernier, L; Gregoire, D
In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed. PMID:15574437
Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen
The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854
The Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population is a resource for genetics research and instruction. Prior reports are based on a population of doubled haploid (DH) lines developed by the Hordeum bulbosum (H.b.) method, which samples female gametes. We developed new DH lines from the same cross using ant...
Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.
Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854 PMID:24205150
The ever-growing acceptance and use of assisted human reproduction techniques has caused demand for "donated" sperm and eggs to outstrip supply. Medical professionals and others argue that monetary reward is the only way to recruit sufficient numbers of "donors". Is this a clash between pragmatics and policy/ethics? Where monetary payments are the norm, alternative recruitment strategies used successfully elsewhere may not have been considered, nor the negative consequences of commercialism on all participants thought through. Considerations leading some countries to ban the buying and selling of sperm, eggs and embryos are outlined and a case made that the collective welfare of all involved parties be the primary consideration in this, at times heated, debate. Key Words: Gametes • gifting • selling • ethics • policy PMID:10860215
Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common birth defect in humans. Dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation effectively and safely reduces the incidence of these often debilitating congenital anomalies. FA plays an established role in folate and homocysteine metabolism, but the means by which it suppresses occurrence of NTDs is not understood. In addition, many cases remain resistant to the beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation. To better understand the molecular, biochemical and developmental mechanisms by which FA exerts its effect on NTDs, characterized mouse models are needed that have a defined genetic basis and known response to dietary supplementation. Results We examined the effect of FA supplementation, at 5-fold the level in the control diet, on the NTD and vertebral phenotypes in Apob tm1Unc and Vangl2 Lp mice, hereafter referred to as Apob and Lp respectively. The FA supplemented diet did not reduce the incidence or severity of NTDs in Apob or Lp mutant homozygotes or the loop-tail phenotype in Lp mutant heterozygotes, suggesting that mice with these mutant alleles are resistant to FA supplementation. Folic acid supplementation also did not affect the rate of resorptions or the size of litters, but instead skewed the embryonic genotype distribution in favor of wild-type alleles. Conclusion Similar genotypic biases have been reported for several NTD models, but were interpreted as diet-induced increases in the incidence and severity of NTDs that led to increased embryonic lethality. Absence of differences in resorption rates and litter sizes argue against induced embryonic lethality. We suggest an alternative interpretation, namely that FA supplementation led to strongly skewed allelic inheritance, perhaps from disturbances in polyamine metabolism that biases fertilization in favor of wild-type gametes. PMID:25154628
Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich
The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984
Krishnakumar, S; Whiteside, D P; Elkin, B; Thundathil, J C
The objective was to investigate the effects of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in plains bison (Bison bison bison). Epididymal sperm (n = 61 per season), collected during the breeding season (July-September), had significantly higher post-thaw total motility (36.76 ± 14.18 vs 31.24 ± 12.74%), and lower linearity (0.36 ± 0.06 vs 0.39 ± 0.04) and wobbliness (0.49 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.03; mean ± SD) compared to non-breeding season (January-March) samples. Representative samples (n = 4) from each season were used in heterologous IVF trials using cattle oocytes. Cleavage, morulae and blastocyst percentage were higher for breeding vs non-breeding season sperm samples (81.88 ± 6.8 vs 49.94 ± 6.77; 41.89 ± 13.40 vs 27.08 ± 23.21; and 30.49 ± 17.87 vs 13.72 ± 18.98%, respectively). Plains bison ovaries collected during the breeding (n = 97 pairs) and non-breeding (n = 100 pairs) seasons were classified as luteal or follicular. Oocytes recovered from these ovaries were classified into five grades based on morphology. There was no significant difference in the number of luteal ovaries or grades of oocytes recovered. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (with frozen sperm from three bison bulls) and cultured in vitro. Cleavage percentage was higher for oocytes collected during breeding vs non-breeding season (83.72 ± 6.42 vs 73.98 ± 6.43), with no significant difference in subsequent development to blastocysts. In summary, epididymal sperm from non-breeding season had decreased total motility and resulted in reduced embryo production in vitro. Oocytes collected during non-breeding season had reduced ability to be matured, fertilized and/or undergo cleavage in vitro. Data suggested that season influenced gamete quality in plains bison. PMID:25529116
Torbjørn Øien; Ola Storrø; Jon A Jenssen; Roar Johnsen
BACKGROUND: There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim
Background The present article presents the protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a group-based self-management support programme for recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (one to three years post-diagnosis) and their partners. The course aims to support T2DM patients and their partners in successfully integrating diabetes care into their daily lives and hereby enhance self-management and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life. The content of the course is based on the Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM). Furthermore, principles from the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and social support theories are integrated. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 160 recently diagnosed T2DM patients and their partners from general practices in six different regions in the Netherlands. Patients need to be diagnosed with T2DM for one to three years and have to experience some degree of diabetes-related difficulties, as measured with a three-item screener. Participating patients and their partners are randomly allocated to the intervention or control condition. Participants in the intervention condition receive three monthly group sessions and a booster session three months later. Participants in the control condition receive a single information meeting. Data will be collected at baseline (T0), directly after the programme (T1) and six months post-programme (T2), including: self-management, diabetes-specific health-related quality of life, illness perceptions, attitudes, social support and empowerment. A three-level multilevel model will be used to compare change-scores between the conditions (intervention/control) on each outcome. Discussion Our study will be the first to determine whether a group-based support programme based on the CSM is effective in enhancing self-management and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life in recently diagnosed T2DM patients. The important role of patients’ partners in effective diabetes care is also acknowledged in the study. Trial registration Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR) NTR3302. PMID:24690511
Darren G. Woodside (Texas Biotechnology Corporation; REV)
Transmembrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and integrins, activate intracellular signaling pathways through interactions with downstream binding partners. Woodside discusses two examples in which GPCRs and integrins interact in a noncompeting manner with more than one partner. The specific GPCR described is the thrombin receptor, in experiments where G protein peptides selectively block signaling through a particular G protein that does not appear to inhibit coupling of the receptor to other G proteins. The second system described is the ?IIb?3 integrin and its activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk. Syk appeared capable of interacting with both the integrin and intracellular domains of immune response receptors, because binding of Syk to the integrin was not inhibited by peptides based on the Syk binding site in immune response receptors. Thus, multiple, noncompeting binding partners add to the complexity of signal transduction outputs from a single receptor complex.
In this activity, learners identify the reproductive parts of plants and the animal (bee) structures involved in pollination. Learners then use this information to role play or act out the process of pollination. Use this activity to introduce learners to the importance of pollination partners and how plant and animals interact to accomplish pollination.
Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.
For eight years, relationships with community partners have been the mainstay of a science enrichment program for secondary students. Through the use of problem-based learning, science classes use, the techniques and tools of scientists to solve authentic problems directly related to students' interests and needs. In this article, the author…
Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…
Spears, Ellen, Ed.
This newsletter issue asserts that sound, effective relationships in which diverse groups of people and organizations work together toward a common goal are the basis of the collaborative efforts in education that can accomplish change. The first article, "Partners: Forging Strong Relationships" (Sarah E. Torian), briefly describes the efforts of…
program director and one of the founders of AgriPartners, said Extension and research programs had never had the capability to monitor the crops so closely and integrate applied research so quickly before the start of this program. ?Our agents are so...
Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth
The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106
donation families. One pertinent example concerns the diversification of family forms enabled by gamete donation, including those parented by lesbian couples, solo mothers and, more recently, gay male couples and single men. Any such development almost... drawn from comparative studies of sperm donation families headed by heterosexual couples and those headed by lesbian couples (Bos et al. 2007; Gartrell et al. 2012) and single mothers (Murray and Golombok 2005). Emerging work on gay male parenting...
Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17?-HSD-11 and 17?-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799
Corbett-Detig, Russell; Jacobs-Palmer, Emily; Hartl, Daniel; Hoekstra, Hopi
Understanding the molecular basis of species formation is an important goal in evolutionary genetics, and Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities are thought to be a common source of postzygotic reproductive isolation between closely related lineages. However, the evolutionary forces that lead to the accumulation of such incompatibilities between diverging taxa are poorly understood. Segregation distorters are believed to be an important source of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities between hybridizing species of Drosophila as well as hybridizing crop plants, but it remains unclear if these selfish genetic elements contribute to reproductive isolation in other taxa. Here, we collected viable sperm from first-generation hybrid male progeny of Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus, two subspecies of rodent in the earliest stages of speciation. We then genotyped millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these gamete pools and tested for a skew in the frequency of parental alleles across the genome. We show that segregation distorters are not measurable contributors to observed infertility in these hybrid males, despite sufficient statistical power to detect even weak segregation distortion with our novel method. Thus, reduced hybrid male fertility in crosses between these nascent species is attributable to other evolutionary forces. PMID:26121240
Corbett-Detig, Russell; Jacobs-Palmer, Emily; Hartl, Daniel; Hoekstra, Hopi
Understanding the molecular basis of species formation is an important goal in evolutionary genetics, and Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities are thought to be a common source of postzygotic reproductive isolation between closely related lineages. However, the evolutionary forces that lead to the accumulation of such incompatibilities between diverging taxa are poorly understood. Segregation distorters are believed to be an important source of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities between hybridizing species of Drosophila as well as hybridizing crop plants, but it remains unclear if these selfish genetic elements contribute to reproductive isolation in other taxa. Here, we collected viable sperm from first-generation hybrid male progeny of Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus, two subspecies of rodent in the earliest stages of speciation. We then genotyped millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these gamete pools and tested for a skew in the frequency of parental alleles across the genome. We show that segregation distorters are not measurable contributors to observed infertility in these hybrid males, despite sufficient statistical power to detect even weak segregation distortion with our novel method. Thus, reduced hybrid male fertility in crosses between these nascent species is attributable to other evolutionary forces. PMID:26121240
Yang, Nina; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Yaru; Long, Cui; Li, Yingyue; Li, Yun
Colchicine treatment of G. biloba microsporocytes results in a low mutation rate in the diploid (2n) male gamete. The mutation rate is significantly lower as compared to other tree species and impedes the breeding of new economic varieties. Proteomic analysis was done to identify the proteins that influence the process of 2n gamete formation in G. biloba. The microsporangia of G. biloba were treated with colchicine solution for 48 h and the proteins were analyzed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and compared to protein profiles of untreated microsporangia. A total of 66 proteins showed difference in expression levels. Twenty-seven of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the 27 proteins, 14 were found to be up-regulated and the rest 13 were down-regulated. The identified proteins belonged to five different functional classes: ATP generation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism; protein metabolism; ROS scavenging and detoxifying enzymes; cell wall remodeling and metabolism; transcription, cell cycle and signal transduction. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins and their function could help in analysing the mechanism of lower mutation rate of diploid male gamete when the microsporangium of G. biloba was induced by colchicine. PMID:24167543
sites on the fort?s primary tank maneuver training area. ?We needed to know that the compost applied on Fort Hood?s land is not causing nutrient problems in PARTNERING WITH THE MILITARY the water and demonstrate that nutrients in compost can... is impairing that watershed. tx H2O | pg. 2 Agriculture uses compost to restore Fort Hood?s training lands --------------------------------------------- Tanks within two armored divisions at Fort Hood have left some of the training land eroded, compacted...
Donna R. Sterling
Collaborations with community partners make problem-based learning experiences more authentic and exciting for students while ensuring that the experience is consistent with the community's needs and interests. The authors describe a problem-based activity that allows students an opportunity to experience firsthand what it is like to be an automotive engineer by building model cars while learning physical science content and skills with help from the community.
Heil, Martin; Barajas-Barron, Alejandro; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Svatos, Ales
Mutualisms require protection from non-reciprocating exploiters. Pseudomyrmex workers that engage in an obligate defensive mutualism with Acacia hosts feed exclusively on the sucrose-free extrafloral nectar (EFN) that is secreted by their hosts, a behaviour linking ant energy supply directly to host performance and thus favouring reciprocating behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that Acacia hosts manipulate this digestive specialisation of their ant mutualists. Invertase (sucrose hydrolytic) activity in the ant midguts was inhibited by chitinase, a dominant EFN protein. The inhibition occurred quickly in cell-free gut liquids and in native gels and thus likely results from an enzyme-enzyme interaction. Once a freshly eclosed worker ingests EFN as the first diet available, her invertase becomes inhibited and she, thus, continues feeding on host-derived EFN. Partner manipulation acts at the phenotypic level and means that one partner actively controls the phenotype of the other partner to enhance its dependency on host-derived rewards. PMID:24188323
Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.
The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental support, emotional support, and conflict management) and on/off task behavior was evaluated. Children who chose their own partners showed greater social cooperation than those children whose teacher selected their partner. However, when the positive interdependence requirements of the task were not met within the pair (neither child had the skills to provide reading support or no one needed support), lower levels of on-task behavior were observed. Providing basic partner reading script instruction at the beginning of the year was associated with better social cooperation during partner reading, but providing elaborated instruction or no instruction was associated with poorer social cooperation. It is recommended that teachers provide basic script instruction and allow children to choose their own partners. Additionally, pairings of low ability children with other low ability children and high ability children with other high ability children should be avoided. Teachers may want to suggest alternate partners for children who inadvertently choose such pairings or adjust the text difficulty to the pair. Overall, partner reading seems to be an enjoyable pedagogical strategy for teaching reading fluency. PMID:19830259
Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P
This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514
Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Xia, Yinglin; Passmore, Denise
Aim and objectives To investigate differences in sexual-risk factors between adolescent girls reporting similar-aged or older sex partners. Background Adolescent girls are at significant risk for heterosexual-acquired HIV infection and other long term reproductive health issues. Sexual partner age-discordance in teen girls has been correlated with STIs, lack of protection, multiple partners, and earlier age of sexual transition. Design A descriptive study comparing girls currently involved with age-discordant partners to those with similar-aged partners. Two-sample t-test for continuous variables and for categorical variables, Chi-square or Fisher exact test were used to compare groups. Methods Baseline data from 738 sexually-active, urban, adolescent girls ages 15 to 19, were analyzed to determine which behaviors were more likely to occur in girls with older partners. Data were collected as part of a gender specific HIV-prevention intervention in a randomized controlled trial tailored to adolescent girls. Results Multiple reported sexual risk behaviors were found to significantly differ between the two groups at baseline. Overall, girls with older partners had more episodes of sexual instances (vaginal, anal, and oral). Specific sexual risk behaviors were found to be statistically significant between the two groups. Girls with older partners started having sex at earlier ages, had more lifetime sexual partners, higher incidents of STIs and were reluctant to discuss using condoms with their partners. Girls with similar-aged partners were less willing to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Conclusions Findings from this investigation support data from other studies. Relationships with older male partners place adolescent girls at increased risk for HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy. Relevance to clinical practice Adolescent girls in age-discordant relationships are at risk for immediate and long term sexual health morbidities. Identifying girls who are at increased risk by asking tailored questions will enable nurses to recommend appropriate diagnostics for this population and provide age specific counseling. PMID:24580784
Rennison, Callie Marie.
Released earlier this summer, this report on intimate partner violence from the Bureau of Justice Statistics "provides information on violence by intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends, or boyfriends) since the redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)." "The report covers trends in intimate violence, characteristics of victims (race, sex, age, income, ethnicity, and whether the victims live in urban, suburban, or rural areas), type of crime (physical assault, verbal threats), and trends for reporting to police. Intimate victimizations measured include rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. Data on murder by intimates are also given." Data for the report came from the NCVS and the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports.
Background Conservation Breeding Programs (CBP's) are playing an important role in the protection of critically endangered anuran amphibians, but for many species recruitment is not successful enough to maintain captive populations, or provide individuals for release. In response, there has been an increasing focus on the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), including the administration of reproductive hormones to induce gamete release followed by in vitro fertilisation. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of two exogenous hormones to induce gamete release, for the purpose of conducting in vitro fertilisation (IVF), in one of Australia's most critically endangered frog species, Pseudophryne corroboree. Methods Male frogs were administered a single dose of either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa), while female frogs received both a priming and ovulatory dose of LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h post hormone administration (PA), and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Ovulation responses were evaluated by stripping females every 12 h PA for 5 days. Once gametes were obtained, IVF was attempted by combining spermic urine with oocytes in a dilute solution of simplified amphibian ringer (SAR). Results Administration of both hCG and LHRHa induced approximately 80% of males to release sperm over 72 h. Peak sperm release occurred at 12 h PA for hCG treated males and 36 h PA for LHRHa treated males. On average, LHRHa treated males released a significantly higher total number of live sperm, and a higher concentration of sperm, over a longer period. In female frogs, administration of LHRHa induced approximately 30% of individuals to release eggs. On average, eggs were released between 24 and 48 h PA, with a peak in egg release at 36 h PA. IVF resulted in a moderate percentage (54.72%) of eggs being fertilised, however all resultant embryos failed prior to gastrulation. Conclusions Hormone treatment successfully induced spermiation and ovulation in P. corroboree, but refinement of gamete induction and IVF techniques will be required before ART protocols can be used to routinely propagate this species. PMID:21114857
Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J
Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs. PMID:12576613
Shi, Jing; Li, He-ming; Wang, Yan; Fu, Ling-yu; Liu, Yun-peng
Background The relationship between passive smoking exposure (PSE) and breast cancer risk is of major interest. Objective To evaluate the relationship between PSE from partners and breast cancer risk stratified by hormone-receptor (HR) status in Chinese urban women population. Design Hospital-based matched case control study. Setting Chinese urban breast cancer patients without current or previous active smoking history in China Medical University 1st Hospital, Liaoning Province, China between Jan 2009 and Nov 2009. Patients Each breast cancer patient was matched 1?1 with healthy controls by gender and age (±2 years) from the same hospital. Measurements The authors used unconditional logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratio for women with PSE from partners and breast cancer risk. Results 312 pairs were included in the study. Women who endured PSE had significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.05–2.03; P?=?0.027), comparing with unexposed women. Women who exposed to >5 cigarettes/day also had significant increased risk (adjusted OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.28–3.10; P?=?0.002), as were women exposed to passive smoke for 16–25 years (adjusted OR: 1.87 95% CI: 1.22–2.86; P?=?0.004), and those exposed to > 4 pack-years (adjusted OR: 1.71 95% CI: 1.17–2.50; P?=?0.004). Similar trends were significant for estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) double positive subgroup(adjusted OR: 1.71; 2.20; 1.99; 1.92, respectively), but not for ER+/PR?, ER?/PR+, or ER?/PR? subgroups. Limitations limitations of the hospital-based retrospective study, lack of information on entire lifetime PSE and low statistical power. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that PSE from partners contributes to increased risk of breast cancer, especially for ER/PR double positive breast cancer, in Chinese urban women. PMID:24866166
Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs) are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs) from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral) included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral) included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs. PMID:20849663
Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline
For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under…
Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.
Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J
The bacterial phage shock protein (Psp) system is a highly conserved cell envelope stress response required for virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica. In non-inducing conditions the transcription factor PspF is inhibited by an interaction with PspA. In contrast, PspA associates with the cytoplasmic membrane proteins PspBC during inducing conditions. This has led to the proposal that PspBC exists in an OFF state, which cannot recruit PspA, or an ON state, which can. However, nothing was known about the difference between these two states. Here, we provide evidence that it is the C-terminal domain of Y. enterocolitica PspC (PspC(CT)) that interacts directly with PspA, both in vivo and in vitro. Site-specific photocross-linking revealed that this interaction occurred only during Psp-inducing conditions in vivo. Importantly, we have also discovered that PspC(CT) can interact with the C-terminal domain of PspB (PspC(CT)·PspB(CT)). However, the PspC(CT)·PspB(CT) and PspC(CT)·PspA interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo, PspC(CT) contacted PspB(CT) in the OFF state, whereas it contacted PspA in the ON state. These findings provide the first description of the previously proposed PspBC OFF and ON states and reveal that the regulatory switch is centered on a PspC(CT) partner-switching mechanism. PMID:25802329
Hemmings, K.E.; Maruthini, D.; Vyjayanthi, S.; Hogg, J.E.; Balen, A.H.; Campbell, B.K.; Leese, H.J.; Picton, H.M.
STUDY QUESTION Can amino acid profiling differentiate between human oocytes with differing competence to mature to metaphase II (MII) in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocytes which remained arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM) displayed differences in the depletion/appearance of amino acids compared with oocytes which progressed to MII and patient age, infertile diagnosis and ovarian stimulation regime significantly affected oocyte amino acid turnover during IVM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Amino acid profiling has been proposed as a technique which can distinguish between human pronucleate zygotes and cleavage stage embryos with the potential to develop to the blastocyst stage and implant to produce a pregnancy and those that arrest. Most recently, the amino acid turnover by individual bovine oocytes has been shown to be predictive of oocyte developmental competence as indicated by the gamete's capacity to undergo fertilization and early cleavage divisions in vitro. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was conducted between March 2005 and March 2010. A total of 216 oocytes which were at the GV or metaphase I (MI) stages at the time of ICSI were donated by 67 patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS The research was conducted in university research laboratories affiliated to a hospital-based infertility clinic. Oocytes were cultured for 24 h and the depletion/appearance of amino acids was measured during the final 6 h of IVM. Amino acid turnover was analysed in relation to oocyte meiotic progression, patient age, disease aetiology and controlled ovarian stimulation regime. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The depletion/appearance of key amino acids was linked to the maturation potential of human oocytes in vitro. Oocytes which arrested at the GV stage (n = 9) depleted significantly more valine and isoleucine than those which progressed to MI (n = 32) or MII (n = 107) (P < 0.05). Glutamate, glutamine, arginine and valine depletion or appearance differed in MII versus degenerating oocytes (n = 20) (P < 0.05). Glutamine, arginine, methionine, phenylalanine, total depletion and total turnover all differed in oocytes from patients aged < 35 years versus patients ?35 years (P < 0.05). MII oocytes obtained following ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH depleted more isoleucine (P < 0.05) and more alanine and lysine (P < 0.05) appeared than oocytes from hMG-stimulated cycles. MII oocytes from patients with a polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology (n = 33) depleted more serine (P < 0.05) than oocytes from women with normal ovaries (n = 61). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Immature oocytes collected at the time of ICSI were used as the model for human oocyte maturation. These oocytes have therefore failed to respond to the ovulatory hCG trigger in vivo (they are meiotically incompetent), and have limited capacity to support embryo development in vitro. The lack of cumulus cells and stress of the conditions in vitro may have influenced turnover of amino acids, and owing to the small sample sizes further studies are required to confirm these findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The findings provide support for the hypothesis that oocyte metabolism reflects oocyte quality. Longitudinal studies are required to link these functional metabolic indices of human oocyte quality with embryo developmental competence. Oocyte amino acid profiling may be a useful tool to quantify the impact of new assisted reproduction technologies (ART) on oocyte quality. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This project was funded by the UK Biology and Biotechnology Research Council (BB/C007395/1) and the Medical Research Council (G 0800250). K.E.H was in receipt of a British Fertility Society/Merck Serono studentship. H.J.L. is a shareholder in Novocellus Ltd, a company which seeks to devise a non-invasive biochemical test of embryo health. PMID:23335609
Danzmann, Roy G.; Bogart, James P.
Intra- and interspecific cross combinations between the tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor, and between H. versicolor and the diploid treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis were performed. Progeny phenotypes resulting from these crosses were examined electrophoretically using a polymorphic glutamate oxaloacetic transminase (GOT-1) locus, to determine the mechanism of chromosome segregation in H. versicolor, and to test theoretical expectations for isozyme expression in interspecific (2n x 4n or 4n x 2n) hybrids. In some intraspecific tetraploid crosses progeny phenotypes fit a disomic mode of segregation, whereas in other crosses a tetrasomic mode of segregation was the most probable. Additional crosses produced phenotypic ratios that conformed to either a disomic or tetrasomic mode of segregation. These results suggest that a polymorphism, with respect to segregation of gametes, exists in H. versicolor, resulting from differences in chromosome pairings during meiosis I. This polymorphism in gametic segregation occurred in both sexes. Certain crosses, however, produced phenotypic ratios that did not conform to any chromosome segregation model. Progeny phenotypes observed from most interspecific crosses conformed to expected interspecific isozyme staining intensity models. Symmetrical heterozygotes, representing either a single dose for both alternate alleles or double doses for both alternate alleles, were also observed. Such phenotypes are unexpected in triploid progeny. A null allele was postulated to account for the aberrant segregation ratios and phenotypes observed in certain intra- and interspecific crosses. PMID:6852524
Proudhon, Charlotte; Duffié, Rachel; Ajjan, Sophie; Cowley, Michael; Iranzo, Julian; Carbajosa, Guillermo; Saadeh, Heba; Holland, Michelle L; Oakey, Rebecca J; Rakyan, Vardhman K; Schulz, Reiner; Bourc'his, Déborah
Identifying loci with parental differences in DNA methylation is key to unraveling parent-of-origin phenotypes. By conducting a MeDIP-Seq screen in maternal-methylation free postimplantation mouse embryos (Dnmt3L-/+), we demonstrate that maternal-specific methylation exists very scarcely at midgestation. We reveal two forms of oocyte-specific methylation inheritance: limited to preimplantation, or with longer duration, i.e. maternally imprinted loci. Transient and imprinted maternal germline DMRs (gDMRs) are indistinguishable in gametes and preimplantation embryos, however, de novo methylation of paternal alleles at implantation delineates their fates and acts as a major leveling factor of parent-inherited differences. We characterize two new imprinted gDMRs, at the Cdh15 and AK008011 loci, with tissue-specific imprinting loss, again by paternal methylation gain. Protection against demethylation after fertilization has been emphasized as instrumental in maintaining parent-of-origin methylation inherited from the gametes. Here we provide evidence that protection against de novo methylation acts as an equal major pivot, at implantation and throughout life. PMID:22902559
Schjørring, Solveig; Lüscher, Annelis
We tested the hypothesis that the cestode Schistocephalus solidus is capable of premature gamete exchange as a plerocercoid in the last intermediate stickleback host. The existence of such a reproductive mode is suggested by the highly advanced gonadal development in the plerocercoid and the large fitness gain of outcrossing. In addition, eggs from selfing cestodes have a higher hatching rate when the cestode originated from a doubly infected stickleback than when it came from a singly infected fish. We hatched eggs from 10 singly breeding cestodes that originated from doubly infected sticklebacks with the prediction that some should be outcrossed and share alleles with both the breeding cestode and the second cestode in the coinfection if the hypothesis is correct. However, all of the 430 tested larvae matched only the alleles of the breeding cestode. It is therefore very unlikely that S. solidus engaged in gamete exchange in its fish host. We suggest an alternative hypothesis to explain the higher hatching rate of eggs produced by cestodes from doubly infected fish as compared to those from single infections. PMID:12880596
Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running Head: Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence Christopher T. Allen University of New York #12;Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 2 Abstract The current study
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.
A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606
Anderson, Alan; Baker, Gary; Carmody, Martin; Demien, Kent; DeRoo, Todd; Inacker, Stephen; Jacobson, Tim; Markoski, David; Solovy, Alden
Successful materials management extends far beyond the hospital walls. More than ever, effective materials managers are partnering with suppliers, distributors, manufacturers and group purchasing organizations to reduce costs, improve inventory control and increase operational efficiency. This requires partners who are intimately familiar with both the unique requirements of individual health care settings and best practices throughout the industry. Beyond achieving better balance-sheet results, this consultative approach ultimately leads to standardized, proven processes that help ensure quality care is delivered safely. Health Forum convened a group of health care executives and industry vendors Nov. 4, 2005, in Chicago to discuss hospital-vendor partnerships. The closed-door dialogue focused on how hospitals can work with vendors to improve operations. Health Forum would like to thank all of the participants for their open and candid discussion, as well as the sponsors for supporting this event. PMID:16583613
When a partner is disabled and not in the labour force, the need for earnings provided by the non-disabled partner increases. However, the disabled partner's need for care raises the value of time spent at home by the non-disabled partner. The direction of the relation between partner disability and hours worked varies with couple type because connecting links are affected by couple type. Relevant issues include foregone earnings, amount of income lost by the disabled partner, accumulated savings and healthcare coverage. In order to determine whether there is a significant relation between hours worked and having a disabled partner, controlling for other characteristics, Tobit regression equations were estimated using the US 2000 Decennial Census 5% sample. Among same-sex partners, unmarried opposite-sex partners and married men, individuals with disabled partners worked fewer hours in the labour force than did those without disabled partners. Only among married women did those with a disabled partner work more hours. PMID:18975226
This MENG thesis implements a security system for a classroom presentation system called the Classroom Learning Partner (CLP). The goal of the security system is to prevent cheating on electronic quizzes. CLP is a system ...
Kilmann, Peter Richard; Vendemia, Jennifer M C
Spousal discrepancy theory posits that partners with wide personality differences are at risk for marital distress. In this study, we assessed links between partner personality and interpersonal characteristics and marital distress in 244 couples who sought marital therapy. The sample was divided into three subgroups according to marital duration. Longer-married couples reflected significantly less impulsive, exploitive, and insensitive characteristics than couples in either shorter or intermediate marriages. Couples' marital distress was linked to larger discrepancies in personal distress, impulsivity, interpersonal insensitivity, and self-centered characteristics. While husbands' marital distress was linked to partner differences in personal distress and to impulsive, narcissistic, and competitive characteristics, wives' marital distress was primarily linked to partner discrepancies in self-centeredness. PMID:23484347
Ornstein, Petra; Rickne, Johanna
Over their lifetime, approximately 10% of all women become victims of postseparation stalking or assault. We use a nationally representative survey of separated Swedish women to examine whether men who strive to control their partners during their relationships are more likely to stalk or assault their ex-partners after separation. The empirical analysis shows that basic measures of control behaviors explain 18% of the variance in stalking victimization and 8% of the assault victimization. Moreover, the predictive values of our measures of control by far surpass those of other common risk markers included in the analysis. PMID:23743350
Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals. PMID:24933287
Gambardella, Chiara; Ferrando, Sara; Morgana, Silvia; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ramoino, Paola; Ravera, Silvia; Bramini, Mattia; Diaspro, Alberto; Faimali, Marco; Falugi, Carla
The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle (NP)-induced embryotoxicity in aquatic organisms. We previously demonstrated that exposure of male gametes to NPs causes non-dose-dependent skeletal damage in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these anomalies in sea urchin development from male gametes exposed to cobalt (Co), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) NPs were investigated by histochemical, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. P. lividus sperm were exposed to different NP concentrations (from 0.0001 to 1 mg/L). The distribution of molecules related to skeletogenic cell identification, including ID5 immunoreactivity (IR), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity and fibronectin (FN) IR, were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy at the gastrula (24 h) and pluteus (72 h) stages. Our results identified a spatial correspondence among PMCs, ID5 IR and WGA affinity sites. The altered FN pattern suggests that it is responsible for the altered skeletogenic cell migration, while the Golgi apparatus of the skeletogenic cells, denoted by their WGA affinity, shows different aspects according to the degree of anomalies caused by NP concentrations. The ID5 IR, a specific marker of skeletogenic cells in sea urchin embryos (in particular of the msp130 protein responsible for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) mineralization), localized in the cellular strands prefiguring the skeletal rods in the gastrula stage and, in the pluteus stage, was visible according to the degree of mineralization of the skeleton. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the investigated NPs suspended in seawater interfere with the bio-mineralization processes in marine organisms, and the results of this study offer a new series of specific endpoints for the mechanistic understanding of NP toxicity. PMID:25481784
Pension Partner Information FOR OFFICE USE ONLY Page 1 of 2 PS5_03/2010 This form is used to identify your pension partner. Your pension partner is AUTOMATICALLY the sole beneficiary of your pension a pension partner, complete the Designation of Beneficiary(ies) form. Please completely fill out all
Background There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners’ behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women’s empowerment and partners’ behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. Methods The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. Results The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women’s occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. Conclusion In the Ugandan context, women’s empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners’ negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence. PMID:24289495
Notrica, Judith; Divita, Andrea; Neuspiller, Fernando; Arenas, Gabriela; de Fried, Ester Polak
This study reports birth in a case of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved oocytes and spermatozoa banked after radiotherapy and prior to chemotherapy due the occurrence of two non-synchronous seminomas. A 30-year-old male with a diagnosis of seminoma cryopreserved six vials of spermatozoa. After oncological treatment was completed, his partner, a 24-year-old woman, underwent ovarian stimulation. Seventeen oocytes were retrieved; one was at the germinal vesicle stage and two were injected, resulting in two embryos. Fourteen metaphase II oocytes were frozen. The woman presented moderated ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and embryo cryopreservation was indicated. After endometrial preparation, two embryos were transferred and a pregnancy was achieved. The woman suffered eclampsia during week 28 of gestation. Caesarean section was performed and a preterm girl weighing 1000 g was born, but died 2 weeks after delivery. A year later, a second procedure was begun. Frozen oocytes and one vial of semen were thawed. Eight of the 14 oocytes survived and were microinjected; two became fertilized and one good quality cleaved embryo was transferred. Pregnancy was achieved and a healthy girl was born with a birth weight of 2800 g. Oocyte cryopreservation associated with sperm banking in cancer patients is a useful tool for couples seeking deferred parenthood. PMID:15670407
THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.
Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention. PMID:19704393
be turned into something positive?growing grass and reducing soil erosion,? Fox said. ?We?ve seen nothing to indicate runoff of nutrients into streams,? Hoffman said. Hoffman and his team of researchers monitor the water quality for the project... the soil?s structure, increases its water-holding capacity and aids in erosion control. To date, the project has trucked in more than 15,000 tons of compost from the North Bosque River Watershed where too much phosphorus from dairy manure runoff...
Ehlers, J; Palermo, T
The purpose of the Community Partners for Healthy Farming Intervention Research (CPHF-IR) program is to implement and evaluate existing or new interventions for reduction of agriculture-related injuries, hazards, and illnesses. Objectives include the development of active partnerships between experienced researchers, communities, workers, managers, agricultural organizations, agribusinesses, and other stakeholders. Specific intervention projects were selected by the competitive review process in response to a request for proposals. The second series of projects (funded 2000-2003) targeted: improved ergonomics for handling grapes (CA) and for small-scale berry growers (WI, IA, MI, MN), engineering controls (KY, VA, SC) and training (IN) related to tractors, private-sector financial incentives for safety (IA, NE), and reducing eye injuries in Latino farmworkers (IL, MI, FL). Partners have provided their unique resources for accessing the target population, planning, implementation, dissemination, and evaluation. They have produced useful engineering controls, educational and motivational tools, and helped build infrastructure for promoting agricultural health as essential to sustainable agriculture. Additional outcomes have included: increased interest among participants in collaborating in further research, the feasibility of Latino lay health advisors as active partners in research, and the value of process evaluation of a partnership to enhance intervention sustainability. NIOSH is utilizing the model created for Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers, a document related to earlier CPHF-IR projects, for a comparable document for construction in both English and Spanish. This program has confirmed that such partnerships can produce not only sustainable interventions but also products and models with the potential to expand farther geographically than originally anticipated and even into other sectors, e.g., for primary prevention among healthcare workers and adolescents, and to introduce public health in social studies and language classes. PMID:15931945
The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013: ? 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered. ? 797 new participants installed a HAN. ? Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components. ? Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program. ? On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly. ? An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.
Shade, Daniel D.
Described are aspects of the Computers As Partners Project (CAPP) of the Department of Individual and Family Studies, College of Human Resources, University of Delaware. Originally known as the Computer Active Preschool Project, the CAPP began in January, 1983 as a pilot program designed to determine the best ways to integrate computers into early…
Joan Cerdà; Julien Bobe; Patrick J. Babin; Arie Admon; Esther Lubzens
The sustained mass production of alevins in finfish aquaculture requires a deep understanding of the biological processes controlling gametogenesis, which ultimately will determine the quality of eggs and sperm. Functional genomics and proteomics technologies have been recently developed, expanding the scope of biological investigation from studying single genes or proteins to studying potentially all genes and proteins at once in
Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ...
... by their husband, boyfriend, or other intimate partner. Domestic violence , also known as intimate partner violence, not only ... IF YOU ARE BEING ABUSED, CALL THE NATIONAL DOMESTIC VIOLENCE HOTLINE AT 1-800-799-SAFE (7233). THEY ...
This paper will critically examine the use of evidence in creating policy in the area of reproductive technologies. The use of evidence in health care and policy is not a new phenomenon. However, codified strategies for evidence appraisal in health care technology assessments and attempts to create evidence based policy initiatives suggest that the way evidence is used in practice and policy has changed. This paper will examine this trend by considering what is counted as 'good' evidence, difficulties in translating evidence into policy and practice and how evidence interacts with principles. To illustrate these points the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK in 2005 and the debates that preceded this change in the law will be examined. It will be argued that evidence will only ever take us so far and attention should also be paid to the underlying principles that guide policy. The paper will conclude with suggestions for how underlying principles can be more rigorously used in policy formation. PMID:25743050
Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald
Generating gametes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has many scientific justifications and several biomedical rationales. Here, we consider several strategies for deriving gametes from PSCs from mice and primates (human and non-human) and their anticipated strengths, challenges and limitations. Although the ‘Weismann barrier’, which separates the mortal somatic cell lineages from the potentially immortal germline, has long existed, breakthroughs first in mice and now in humans are artificially creating germ cells from somatic cells. Spermatozoa with full reproductive viability establishing multiple generations of seemingly normal offspring have been reported in mice and, in humans, haploid spermatids with correct parent-of-origin imprints have been obtained. Similar progress with making oocytes has been published using mouse PSCs differentiated in vitro into primordial germ cells, which are then cultured after xenografting reconstructed artificial ovaries. Progress in making human oocytes artificially is proving challenging. The usefulness of these artificial gametes, from assessing environmental exposure toxicity to optimising medical treatments to prevent negative off-target effects on fertility, may prove invaluable, as may basic discoveries on the fundamental mechanisms of gametogenesis. PMID:25472048
De Storme, Nico; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Geelen, Danny
Whole-genome duplication through the formation of diploid gametes is a major route for polyploidization, speciation, and diversification in plants. The prevalence of polyploids in adverse climates led us to hypothesize that abiotic stress conditions can induce or stimulate diploid gamete production. In this study, we show that short periods of cold stress induce the production of diploid and polyploid pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using a combination of cytological and genetic analyses, we demonstrate that cold stress alters the formation of radial microtubule arrays at telophase II and consequently leads to defects in postmeiotic cytokinesis and cell wall formation. As a result, cold-stressed male meiosis generates triads, dyads, and monads that contain binuclear and polynuclear microspores. Fusion of nuclei in binuclear and polynuclear microspores occurs spontaneously before pollen mitosis I and eventually leads to the formation of diploid and polyploid pollen grains. Using segregation analyses, we also found that the majority of cold-induced dyads and triads are genetically equivalent to a second division restitution and produce diploid gametes that are highly homozygous. In a broader perspective, these findings offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate male gametogenesis in plants and demonstrate that their sensitivity to environmental stress has evolutionary significance and agronomic relevance in terms of polyploidization. PMID:23096158
Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Layde, Peter M.; Hamberger, L. Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W.
We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared to other femicides, while neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921
Dehler Zufferey, Jessica; Bodemer, Daniel; Buder, Jurgen; Hesse, Friedrich W.
Awareness of the knowledge of learning partners is not always sufficiently available in collaborative learning scenarios. To compensate, the authors propose to provide collaborators with partner knowledge awareness by means of a visualization tool. Partner knowledge awareness can be used to adapt messages toward the partner. This study…
Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…
Simpson, Jeffry A.; Overall, Nickola C.
Insecurely attached people have less happy, unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships should depend on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to buffer (emotionally and behaviorally regulate) insecurely attached individuals, which makes them feel better, behave more constructively, and improves their relationships. Understanding when and how this important interpersonal process works requires a dyad-centered approach. In this article, we describe core tenets of attachment theory and the two forms of attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance). We then present the Dyadic Regulation Model of Insecurity Buffering, which explains how and why certain types of buffering behaviors soothe the worries and improve the relationship perceptions and behaviors of anxious or avoidant people. We next review studies of couples trying to resolve major conflicts that illustrate some ways in which partners can successfully buffer the insecure reactions of anxious and avoidant individuals. We conclude by discussing other traits and social contexts to which our model can be applied. PMID:25214722
Girme, Yuthika U; Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fletcher, Garth J O
People high in attachment avoidance typically respond more negatively to partner support, but some research suggests they can be calmed by high levels of practical support. In the present research, we attempted to reconcile these inconsistencies by modeling curvilinear associations between romantic partners' support and support recipients' outcomes and testing whether these curvilinear associations were moderated by recipients' degree of attachment avoidance. We examined the effect of partner support during support-relevant discussions (Studies 1-3) and in daily life (Study 4) on support recipients' distress (Studies 1-4), self-efficacy (Studies 2 and 3), perceived partner control/criticism (Studies 2 and 4), and distancing from the partner (Study 4). The results and a meta-analysis across all four studies (N = 298 couples) demonstrated that the curvilinear effect of practical support on recipients' outcomes was moderated by attachment avoidance. Highly avoidant recipients exhibited more negative responses as their partner provided them low-to-moderate levels of practical support, including increasing distress, perceived partner control/criticism and distancing, and decreasing self-efficacy. However, as partners' practical support shifted from moderate to high levels, highly avoidant recipients experienced more positive outcomes, including decreasing distress, perceived partner control/criticism and distancing, and increasing self-efficacy. Less avoidant individuals were resilient and experienced better outcomes regardless of the level of partner support they received. These results demonstrate the utility of curvilinear models in reconciling the costs and benefits of support, and indicate that high levels of practical support can overcome the defenses of highly avoidant individuals by offering undeniable evidence of the partner's availability. PMID:25751717
Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H
This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed. PMID:18405868
...Persons required to make return —(1) Controlling fifty-percent partners. The term controlling fifty-percent partner means...which the partnership has one or more controlling fifty-percent partners, each...
. This cactus also increased I in the exclosures during the drouth. Mesquite tree populations were more closely related to the type of soil than to the grazing practices used since 1938. Page .................... 3 In t roc Expel rimental.... This species was most abun- dant on Ozona clay. All soil types on the range station were found to support three-awn grasses. The dry lakebeds 311VWcU I.llt: IllgllcJI. densities of purple three-awn and the uplands supported more Wright's three- , awn...
Taft, Casey T.; Weatherill, Robin P.; Woodward, Halley E.; Pinto, Lavinia A.; Watkins, Laura E.; Miller, Mark W.; Dekel, Rachel
This study examined rates and correlates of intimate partner and general aggression perpetration among 236 male combat veterans seeking services in a VA PTSD clinic. Approximately 33% of those in an intimate relationship reported perpetrating partner physical aggression in the previous year, and 91% reported partner psychological aggression. Comparable rates were found for general aggression perpetration among partnered and non-partnered veterans. PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression were associated with aggression across subgroups and forms of aggression, and PTSD symptoms reflecting arousal and lack of control were generally the strongest predictor of aggression. Findings indicate a need for additional aggression screening and intervention development for this population, and highlight the targeting of heightened arousal and lack of behavioral control in aggression interventions. PMID:20099937
Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W
Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076
Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian
This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578
Gentry, Sommer Elizabeth
To see two expert partners, one leading and the other following, swing dance together is to watch a remarkable two-agent communication and control system in action. Even blindfolded, the follower can decode the leader's ...
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and coercion have been associated with negative health outcomes, including increased HIV risk behaviors, among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is the first study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with experiencing IPV or coercion among US MSM dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), an analytic framework to describe interdependent outcomes within dyads. Methods Among MSM couples enrolled as dyads in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial (RCT), two outcomes are examined in this cross-sectional analysis: 1) the actor experiencing physical or sexual IPV from the study partner in the past 3-months and 2) the actor feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by the study partner. Two multilevel APIM logistic regression models evaluated the association between each outcome and actor, partner, and dyad-level factors. Results Of 190 individuals (95 MSM couples), 14 reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV from their study partner in the past 3 months (7.3%) and 12 reported feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by their study partner (6.3%). Results of multivariate APIM analyses indicated that reporting experienced IPV was associated (p?0.1) with non-Black/African American actor race, lower actor education, and lower partner education. Reporting experienced coercion was associated (p?0.1) with younger actor age and lower partner education. Conclusions These findings from an HIV prevention RCT for MSM show considerable levels of IPV experienced in the past 3-months and coercion to participate in the research study, indicating the need for screening tools and support services for these behaviors. The identification of factors associated with IPV and coercion demonstrate the importance of considering actor and partner effects, as well as dyadic-level effects, to improve development of screening tools and support services for these outcomes. PMID:24580732
Study objective: To describe gender specific suicide rates associated with partner’s psychiatric disorder, loss of a spouse, or child by suicide or other causes, being a parent, and marital status.Design: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers.Setting: Denmark.Participants: 9011 people aged 25–60 years who committed suicide;
Miguel-Blanco, Celia; Lelièvre, Joël; Delves, Michael J; Bardera, Ana I; Presa, Jesús L; López-Barragán, María José; Ruecker, Andrea; Marques, Sara; Sinden, Robert E; Herreros, Esperanza
In response to a call for the global eradication of malaria, drug discovery has recently been extended to identify compounds that prevent the onward transmission of the parasite, which is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum stage V gametocytes. Lately, metabolic activity has been used in vitro as a surrogate for gametocyte viability; however, as gametocytes remain relatively quiescent at this stage, their ability to undergo onward development (gamete formation) may be a better measure of their functional viability. During gamete formation, female gametocytes undergo profound morphological changes and express translationally repressed mRNA. By assessing female gamete cell surface expression of one such repressed protein, Pfs25, as the readout for female gametocyte functional viability, we developed an imaging-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify transmission-blocking compounds. This assay, designated the P. falciparum female gametocyte activation assay (FGAA), was scaled up to a high-throughput format (Z' factor, 0.7 ± 0.1) and subsequently validated using a selection of 50 known antimalarials from diverse chemical families. Only a few of these agents showed submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations in the assay: thiostrepton, methylene blue, and some endoperoxides. To determine the best conditions for HTS, a robustness test was performed with a selection of the GlaxoSmithKline Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS) and the final screening conditions for this library were determined to be a 2 ?M concentration and 48 h of incubation with gametocytes. The P. falciparum FGAA has been proven to be a robust HTS assay faithful to Plasmodium transmission-stage cell biology, and it is an innovative useful tool for antimalarial drug discovery which aims to identify new molecules with transmission-blocking potential. PMID:25801574
Janus, Lydia M; Smoczek, Anna; Hedrich, Hans-J; Bleich, Andre
Murine parvoviruses, including minute virus of mice (MVM), represent major infectious disease problems encountered in contemporary laboratory animal research facilities with embryo transfer (ET), one of the most widely used techniques for rederivation. Using an in vivo approach, the objectives of this study were to assess the risk of MVM transmission during rederivation and to provide data that allow recommendation of preventive measures. Therefore, we determined whether immunosuppressive variant MVMi viral DNA is detectable in reproductive organs, gametes (oocytes and spermatozoa), and embryos collected from experimentally infected mice and whether washing as recommended before ET eliminates MVMi sufficiently from gametes and embryos. Fractions of reproductive organs tested positive from Day 5 to Day 30 postinoculation, demonstrating a risk for a minimum period of 4 wk; the highest incidence of positive organs was found between Day 9 and Day 13 postinoculation. Real-time PCR detected viral DNA to a lesser extent in male than in female reproductive organs. MVMi DNA was detected in oocytes and sperm cells derived after in vivo infection but not in two-cell embryos. In vitro contamination studies revealed that the virus firmly adheres to the zona pellucida after 10 wash steps, indicating that even extensive washing might not eliminate MVMi completely from embryos. According to this systematic in vivo approach, recommended measures to prevent transmission of MVM during rederivation include sufficient washing of embryos, accompanying testing using adequate (PCR) methods, and using embryos rather than in vitro fertilization techniques; furthermore, the exchange of gametes should be considered a risk factor. PMID:19553599
Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.
Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner’s desire to not cohabit trumped their partner’s more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad. PMID:23087542
PhD David Epel (Stanford U. Hopkins Marine Station)
Lab directions for part of one 50 min period (part of the core lab, can be done with fertilization in 50 minutes). Includes set up information, materials, procedure, things to observe, math possibilities, experiments to mimic environmental problems, thought-provoking questions and an assessment.
Schokker, Marike C; Links, Thera P; Bouma, Jelte; Keers, Joost C; Sanderman, Robbert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Hagedoorn, Mariët
This study examined whether diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediates the association between overprotection and distress and whether this mediation depends on glycemic control and gender. The research sample of 215 individuals with diabetes and their partners completed a measure of partners' overprotective behaviours towards the patient. Patients also completed measures of diabetes-specific self-efficacy and diabetes-related distress. Further, HbA1c values were obtained as an indication of glycemic control. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection by the partner and diabetes-related distress especially when glycemic control was relatively poor. Furthermore, diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection and diabetes-related distress more strongly in female than in male patients. The findings underscore the importance of studying both moderators and mediators in the association between partner behaviour and distress in patients. PMID:20204978
Kaur, Kiranjeet; Prabha, Vijay
The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function) seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent. PMID:25110702
Anil Suri; Aruna Asaf; Ali Marg
The increase in population growth rate warrants the development of additional contraceptive methods that are widely acceptable, free from side effects and less expensive. Immunocontraception, and in particular the targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm egg binding and fertilization, offers an attractive approach to control fertility. The development of a contraceptive vaccine based on sperm antigen represents
Zhe Zhang; Ming Jia; Difang Wan
We examine how formal contracts moderate the relationship between a partner’s reputation and cooperation effects in public-private\\u000a (P-P) partnerships. We base our analysis on differences between formal contracts, which require a series of legal agreements,\\u000a and informal contracts, which may be implicit and\\/or unwritten. We argue that a partner’s reputation is more likely to impact\\u000a cooperation effects in the context
Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M.; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René
The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women. PMID:24277856
Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Westling, Erika; Rini, Christine; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.
Maternal postpartum emotional distress is quite common and can pose significant risk to mothers and infants. The current study investigated mothers’ relationships with their partners during pregnancy and tested the hypotheses that perception of prenatal partner support is a significant predictor of changes in maternal emotional distress from midpregnancy to postpartum, and contributes to maternal ratings of infant distress to novelty. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 272 adult pregnant women were interviewed regarding their partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security (attachment style and willingness to seek out support), and they completed standardized measures of prenatal symptoms of depression and anxiety (distress). At 6 to 8 weeks’ postpartum, mothers reported these symptoms again and completed measures of their infants’ temperament. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect contributions of partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security to maternal and infant postpartum distress. Mothers who perceived stronger social support from their partners midpregnancy had lower emotional distress postpartum after controlling for their distress in early pregnancy, and their infants were reported to be less distressed in response to novelty. Partner support mediated the effects of mothers’ interpersonal security and relationship satisfaction on maternal and infant outcomes. A high-quality, supportive partner relationship during pregnancy may contribute to improved maternal and infant well-being postpartum, indicating a potential role for partner relationships in mental health interventions, with possible benefits for infants as well. PMID:22662772
Shah, Monisha K.; Gee, Rebekah E.; Theall, Katherine P.
Purpose Despite hypothesized relationships between lack of partner support during a woman’s pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, few studies have examined partner support among teens. We examined a potential proxy measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and pregnancy loss) among women who have had a teenage pregnancy in the United States. Methods In a secondary data analysis utilizing cross-sectional data from 5609 women who experienced a teen pregnancy from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we examined an alternative measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess differences in women who were teens at time of conception who had partner support during their pregnancy and those who did not, and their birth outcomes. Results Even after controlling for potential confounding factors, women with a supportive partner were 63% less likely to experience LBW [aOR: 0.37, 95% CI: (0.26 - 0.54)] and nearly two times less likely to have pregnancy loss [aOR: 0.48, 95% CI: (0.32-0.72)] compared to those with no partner support. Conclusions Having partner support or involvement during a teenager’s pregnancy may reduce the likelihood of having a poor birth outcome. PMID:24316120
McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G
Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted. PMID:24635647
Reluctant Partners examines how the federal government can secure the cooperation it needs to effect national policy goals whtn the implementation process itself empowers potential adversaries. The current battle over how and where to permanently store the nation's high-level nuclear waste poses one of the greatest challenges to federalism since the Civil War. Authority has been legislatively diffused among the federal government, the states, the counties, and certain affected Indian tribes. The situation also epitomizes the conflict that arises when Congress delegates final decisionmaking authority to the bureaucracy. The book contributes to the body of implementation literature by moving past organizational theory to consider issues of governance and leadership. However, it will disappoint the empiricist who sees an opportunity for the application of a theory go by the boards.
Sarah L. Crittenden; David S. Bernstein; Jennifer L. Bachorik; Beth E. Thompson; Maria Gallegos; Andrei G. Petcherski; Gary Moulder; Robert Barstead; Marvin Wickens; Judith Kimble
Germline stem cells are defined by their unique ability to generate more of themselves as well as differentiated gametes. The molecular mechanisms controlling the decision between self-renewal and differentiation are central unsolved problems in developmental biology with potentially broad medical implications. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germline stem cells are controlled by the somatic distal tip cell. FBF-1 and FBF-2, two nearly
Telling Your Partner You Have an STD KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > Telling Your Partner You Have ... have questions about STDs, talk to a doctor, sexual health clinic, or student health center. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD Date reviewed: October ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...
Business Partnering with Open Source Communities: Opportunities, Perils and Pitfalls James Howison Syracuse University #12;James Howison: Open Source and Business Partnering Introductions ·Doctoral student reference manager--scratching graduate student itch!) ·Hear from you in a second ... #12;James Howison: Open
Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.
Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…
Blasco, C.; Vaquerizo, J. A.
PARTNeR stands for Proyecto Academico con el Radiotelescopio de NASA en Robledo (the Academic Project with NASA's radio telescope at Robledo), and allows students to perform radio astronomy observations. High school and university students can access the PARTNeR radio telescope via the internet. The students can operate the antenna from their own school or university and perform radio astronomy observations.
Partners in Science students, aided by community professionals, learn science by designing and conducting their own research. Partners in Science brings the community and schools closer together through a mentorship program. Scientists, in fields ranging from wildlife biology to space physics, are in frequent contact with classes and home-schooled…
Lucier, Bradley J.
The Solar Chimney Schlaich Bergermann und Partner Structural Consulting Engineers . Last update 2002 Page 1 The Solar Chimney #12;The Solar Chimney Schlaich Bergermann und Partner Structural. Designing large solar chimneys 10 6. Energy Production Costs 12 7. References 14 Author: Schlaich Bergermann
Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth
"The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211…
Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M
Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity. PMID:23921210
Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.; Stephens, Dafydd; Lunner, Thomas
The objective of this study was to further develop the Ida Institute model on communication partners' (CPs) journey through experiences of person with hearing impairment (PHI), based on the perspectives of CPs. Nine CPs of hearing aid users participated in this study, recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, the data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and presented with the use of process mapping approach. Seven main phases were identified in the CP journey which includes: (1) contemplation, (2) awareness, (3) persuasion, (4) validation, (5) rehabilitation, (6) adaptation, and (7) resolution. The Ida Institute model (based on professionals' perspective) was compared with the new template developed (based on CPs' perspectives). The results suggest some commonalities and differences between the views of professionals and CPs. A new phase, adaptation, was identified from CPs reported experiences, which was not identified by professionals in the Ida Institute model. The CP's journey model could be a useful tool during audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions to promote discussion between the PHI and the CP. In addition, it can be used in the training of hearing healthcare professionals. PMID:23533422
Heru, Alison M.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Recupero, Patricia Ryan
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly bidirectional with both partners perpetrating and being victims of aggressive behaviors. In these couples, family dysfunction is reported across a broad range of family functions: communication, intimacy, problem solving, expression or control of anger, and designation of relationship roles. This study reports on the perceived family functioning of suicidal inpatients. Method: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study of adult suicidal inpatients, participants completed assessments of recent IPV and family functioning. Recruited patients were between 18 and 65 years of age and English fluent, had suicidal ideation, and were living with an intimate partner for at least the past 6 months. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised, and family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. The study was conducted from August 2004 through February 2005. Results: In 110 inpatients with suicidal ideation and IPV, family functioning was perceived as poor across many domains, although patients did report family strengths. Gender differences were not found in the overall prevalence of IPV, but when the sample was divided into good and poor family functioning, women with poorer family functioning reported more psychological abuse by a partner. For both genders, physical and psychological victimization was associated with poorer family functioning. Conclusion: Among psychiatric inpatients with suicidal ideation, IPV occurred in relationships characterized by general dysfunction. Poorer general family functioning was associated with the perception of victimization for both genders. The high prevalence of bidirectional IPV highlights the need for the development of couples treatment for this population of suicidal psychiatric inpatients. PMID:18185819
Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence. PMID:22411299
Rutstein, Sarah E; Brown, Lillian B; Biddle, Andrea K; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kamanga, Gift; Mmodzi, Pearson; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mofolo, Innocent; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C
Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes' locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider-based notification strategies are potentially cost-effective for identifying new cases of HIV. These strategies offer a simple, effective and easily implementable opportunity to control HIV transmission. PMID:23325584
...transactions between the partners. Thus, a sale by partner A to partner B of his entire one-fourth interest in partnership ABCD would not come within the scope of section 736. (ii) A partner retires when he ceases to be a partner under local...
Urano, Daisuke; Dong, Taoran; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Jones, Alan M
Proteins that interact coevolve their structures. When mutation disrupts the interaction, compensation by the partner occurs to restore interaction otherwise counterselection occurs. We show in this study how a destabilizing mutation in one protein is compensated by a stabilizing mutation in its protein partner and their coevolving path. The pathway in this case and likely a general principle of coevolution is that the compensatory change must tolerate both the original and derived structures with equivalence in function and activity. Evolution of the structure of signaling elements in a network is constrained by specific protein pair interactions, by requisite conformational changes, and by catalytic activity. The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling is a paragon of this protein interaction/function complexity and our deep understanding of this pathway in diverse organisms lends itself to evolutionary study. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the G? subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. An important RGS-contact site is a hydroxyl-bearing residue on the switch I region of G? subunits in animals and most plants, such as Arabidopsis. The exception is the grasses (e.g., rice, maize, sugarcane, millets); these plants have G? subunits that replaced the critical hydroxyl-bearing threonine with a destabilizing asparagine shown to disrupt interaction between Arabidopsis RGS protein (AtRGS1) and the grass G? subunit. With one known exception (Setaria italica), grasses do not encode RGS genes. One parsimonious deduction is that the RGS gene was lost in the ancestor to the grasses and then recently acquired horizontally in the lineage S. italica from a nongrass monocot. Like all investigated grasses, S. italica has the G? subunit with the destabilizing asparagine residue in the protein interface but, unlike other known grass genomes, still encodes an expressed RGS gene, SiRGS1. SiRGS1 accelerates GTP hydrolysis at similar concentration of both G? subunits containing either the stabilizing (AtGPA1) or destabilizing (RGA1) interface residue. SiRGS1 does not use the hydroxyl-bearing residue on G? to promote GAP activity and has a larger G?-interface pocket fitting to the destabilizing G?. These findings indicate that SiRGS1 adapted to a deleterious mutation on G? using existing polymorphism in the RGS protein population. PMID:25568345
Christina C. Pallitto; Patricia O’Campo
Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive, and mental health consequences. The effect of intimate partner violence on women's ability to control their fertility and the mechanisms through which these phenomena are related merit further investigation. Building on findings from a previous analysis in which a statistically significant
Objectives. Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of cohabitation among older adults, the caregiving literature has exclusively focused on formally married individuals. Extending prior work on intra-couple care, this study contrasts frail cohabitors’ patterns of care receipt from a partner to that of frail spouses. Methods. Using nationally representative panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006), we estimate random effects cross-sectional times series models predicting frail cohabitors’ likelihood of receiving partner care compared with their married counterparts’. Conditional on the receipt of intra-couple care, we also examine differences in marital and nonmarital partners’ caregiving hours and caregiving involvement relative to other helpers. Results. Net of sociodemographic, disability, and comorbidity factors, we find that cohabitors are less likely to receive partner care than married individuals. However, caregiving nonmarital partners provide as many hours of care as spouses while providing a substantially larger share of disabled respondents’ care than marital partners. Discussion. Cohabitation and marriage have distinct implications for older adults’ patterns of partner care receipt. This study adds weight to a growing body of research emphasizing the importance of accounting for older adults’ nontraditional union forms and of examining the ramifications of cohabitation for older adults’ well-being. PMID:21482588
Keelan, Colleen M; Schenk, Allison M; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J
Research has yet to examine the social influences of parents, peers, and partners on bullying. This study explored the impact of social relationships on bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved participants. A sample of 370 college-age participants was asked about bullying, family environment, friends' illegal behavior, and conflict resolution tactics in romantic relationships. Results indicated controls came from more secure and engaged families. Bully/victims reported friends engaging in more illegal behaviors than victims and uninvolved participants. Bullies and bully/victims reported more psychological coercion from their romantic partner. A logistic regression revealed peer illegal behaviors, psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion in romantic relationships best predicted bullies from non-bullies (67.3%). Based on these results, the interpersonal world of those involved with bullying significantly impacts behaviors. PMID:24305866
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.
The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084
Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.
De La Ronde, C; Swann, W B
When spouses received feedback that disconfirmed their impressions of their partners, they attempted to undermine that feedback during subsequent interactions with these partners. Such partner verification activities occurred whether partners construed the feedback as overly favorable or overly unfavorable. Furthermore, because spouses tended to see their partners as their partners saw themselves, their efforts to restore their impressions of partners often worked hand-in-hand with partners' efforts to verify their own views. Finally, support for self-verification theory emerged in that participants were more intimate with spouses who verified their self-views, whether their self-views happened to be positive or negative. PMID:9731313
Carey, Michael P.
Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age?=?26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817
Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne
A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576
Kaya, Cevdet; Gunes, Mustafa; Gokce, Ali Murat; Kalkan, Senad
The authors enrolled 32 female partners of sexually active men with premature ejaculation to investigate their sexual functions. An age-matched sample of the same number women whose partners had no sexual dysfunction was also included. Premature ejaculation was defined for all participants as ejaculation that nearly always occurs before or within 2 min of vaginal penetration. An invitation letter was given to men with premature ejaculation to ask whether their female partners could be contacted about completing a questionnaire to measure female sexual status. On the basis of the Female Sexual Function Index, the average sexual function score was significantly lower in partners of men with premature ejaculation (21.8 ± 7.6) compared with that in healthy controls (25.9 ± 6.6). Female sexual dysfunction was diagnosed in 78% of women who has a male partner with premature ejaculation, while 40% of female partner of healthy men. All of the domain scores of Female Sexual Function Index, except the desire and pain levels, were significantly lower in female partners of men with premature ejaculation group than those of healthy subjects. PMID:24779361
Di Pillo, Gianni
Partner 49 TRUSIANI Elio Federazione Russa; Dip. DATA-DESIGN, TECNOLOGIA DELL'ARCHITETTURA,TERRITORIO E Federazione Russa; Dip. SCIENZE DOCUMENTARIE, LINGUISTICO-FILOLOGICHE E GEOGRAFICHE 52 SCANDURA Claudia Federazione Russa; Dip. STUDI EUROPEI, AMERICANI E IN
Little Higgs models often give rise to top partners beyond the minimal ones necessary for the cancellation of quadratic divergences. We review how this occurs and discuss the phenomenology of these exotic states. We emphasize ...
... trends in nonfatal intimate partner violence which includes rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault committed by ... two-year rolling averages beginning in 1993. Includes rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple ...
Mountains and Lowlands: Enemies or Partners? Example of the High Atlas, Morocco #12;Contact Address of the High Atlas, Morocco Preface Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The High Atlas Mountains the backbone of Morocco
Robot Partners: Collaborative Perceptual Robotic Systems Working paper Cooperative Distributed robotic systems, including remote-brained soccer players, visually guided mobile robots, and visual been supported by the the Networks of Centres of Excellence Institute for Robotics and Intelligent
Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy
This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. PMID:21995611
Jacquelyn C Campbell
In reviews of US and Canadian population-based surveys during 1985-98, between 8 and 14% of women of all ages reported physical assault in the previous year by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-partner; the lifetime prevalence was between 25 and 30%. 1,2 Such assault is most often termed intimate partner violence in North America, with the definition usually including acts of
Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas
Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467
Smith, Timothy W; Uchino, Bert N; Bosch, Jos A; Kent, Robert G
Trait anger and hostility predict the development of coronary heart disease, and systemic inflammation may partly mediate this association. In a sample of 94 middle-aged and older married couples, we replicate research showing a within individuals (i.e., actor effect) association of trait hostility with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). As a novel extension of that research, the present study also examined the association of individuals' trait hostility with their partners' hsCRP (i.e., partner effect). Controlling for potential confounds, trait hostility, measured with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, was significantly associated with both participants' own hsCRP, b=.0528 (SE=.0196), p=.008 and their partners' levels b=.0473 (SE=.0194), p=.016. Hence, the inflammatory correlates of trait hostility occur not only within individuals but between them, as well. The effects of unhealthy personality traits may extend to intimate partners and possibly other social network members. PMID:25019591
Morgan, Mary Ann
A cancer diagnosis, regardless of type or site, raises feelings of fear and loss of control in patients and their partners. Being married is associated with lower mortality from a wide range of illnesses, including cancer.However, the quality of marital interactions is a stronger predictor of health outcomes than marital status alone.When people face great life challenges, they attach importance to their intimate partner's behaviors.Trust, a key component of relationship quality, can lend stability as well as emotional and practical support during treatment.This article will examine the results of research focused on patients with cancer and their partners and discuss the effects of a cancer diagnosis on couples.Recommendations for clinical practice include couple behaviors, communication patterns, and coping strategies.In addition, partners should be included in assessment and interventions to improve the quality of care for patients with cancer. PMID:19193550
Eagan, R.J.; Gauster, W.B.; Hartley, D.L.; Jones, G.J.
For nearly fifty years the US held a dominant position in research and development in the free world. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade. Countries around the world realize that to foster sustainable economic growth, they must build and maintain a foundation in science and technology. The time in which a country could base its gross national product solely on extraction of raw materials or on people-intensive manufacturing is drawing to a close. The funding for research and development has been growing in the rest of the world, while US expenditures have not kept pace. In 1961, the United States funded 71 `?40 of the world's R&D. It is estimated that the US contribution to research and development fimding today has reached the 3 3o/0 level, and will drop to 26o/0 of the world's total by 2003.1 In 1981 US government spending per capita on non-defense research and development was nearly fifty percent above our major competitors; by 2002 it is projected to be f@ percent below them.2 This trend has a profound impact on how research and development institutions in the United States plan for their future technical growth. Sandia National Laboratories, as one of the largest US-government tided research establishments, has been watching this trend for some time. %ndi~ focusing on the Laboratories' missions in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, environmental integrity, and emerging national challenges, is committed to bringing the best in world-class technology to bear on the nation's problems. We realize maintaining our state-of-the-art technolo=~ base requires we look not only to domestic sources in universities, industries and other laboratories, but also to sources overseas. The realization that we must be "worldwide gatherers of technology" has led Sandia National Laboratories to consider the question of international partnering in some detaiI. As a national laboratory with a national security mission we are well aware of the issues that we face in pursuing international collaborations. In order to make the proper decisions, we are interested in understanding the history of such partnerships, when they are appropriate, why we expect them to be important, the risks they present and what we can do to mitigate those risks.
Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny
Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…
Carolin J. Showers; Virgil Zeigler-Hill
This study examined the association between organization of knowledge about a romantic partner (partner structure) and relationship status (ongoing or ended) 1 year later. Ironically, partner structures that were associated with more positive feel- ings about one's partner at Time 1 were associated with greater rates of breakup by Time 2. These results are interpreted in terms of the vulnerability
Ziurys, Lucy M.
Opposite-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Certification Instructions Adding an Opposite-Sex Domestic not return this form; keep for your own records. #12;Opposite-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Declaration of Tax Partner's Child To add a domestic partner's child: Complete and return the form(s) in this packet. You
Widman, Laura; Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Purpose This study examined adolescents’ technology-based sexual communication with dating partners, and evaluated associations between technology-based communication and condom use. Methods Participants were 176 high school students who indicated their use of technology to communicate with partners about condoms, birth control, STIs, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Sexually active youth also reported their frequency of condom use. Results Many adolescents (49%) used technology to discuss sexual health with partners, with rates varying by topic. Girls were more likely than boys to discuss HIV, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Ethnic minorities were more likely than Whites to discuss condoms, STIs, HIV, pregnancy, and birth control. Importantly, rates of consistent condom use were three-times higher among youth using technology to discuss condoms and birth control. Conclusions Results provide novel preliminary evidence about adolescents’ use of technology to discuss sexual health, and demonstrate links between technology-based communication and condom use among sexually active youth. PMID:24512716
, Procurement, and Housing and Food Services; The Director of Environmental Health and Safety (EHUniversity Safety Partners Mission Statement The University Safety Partners (USP) is a group of appointed representatives who are responsible for the administration of the University's health and safety
Jaime C. Confer; Mark D. Cloud
Based on sexual strategies theory, we predicted that men would be less likely to continue an imagined long-term relationship following a partner’s heterosexual affair compared to homosexual affair. For women, it was expected that both affair types would result in a low willingness to continue the relationship, but especially so for homosexual affairs. We further predicted that the interaction would
Vivian Cheung (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics)
With the exception of identical twins, individuals have different genetic makeup, which results from two key processes. During meiosis, maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes assort randomly to form daughter cells (gametes), thus generating different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Additional variation is generated by recombinations or crossovers, in which parts of homologous chromosomes are exchanged, resulting in a new combination of parental alleles. Parvanov et al., Baudat et al., and Myers et al. report the identification of a mammalian geneâ??PR domain containing 9 (PRDM9)â??that controls the extent to which crossovers occur in preferred chromosomal locations, known as "hotspots."
Gobin, Robyn L
Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences. PMID:22375805
Zayas, Vivian; Shoda, Yuichi; Mischel, Walter; Osterhout, Lee; Takahashi, Melissa
Little is known about neural responses in the early automatic-stage processing of rejection cues from a partner. Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a window to study processes that may be difficult to detect via behavioral methods. We focused on the N400 ERP component, which reflects the amount of semantic processing prompted by a target. When participants were primed by attachment-related contexts ("If I need help from my partner, my partner will be ..."), rejection-related words (e.g., dismissing) elicited greater N400 amplitudes than acceptance-related words (e.g., supporting). Analyses of results for nonattachment primes suggest that these findings were not simply caused by target valence; the brain responds differentially to cues of partner rejection (vs. acceptance) in under 300 ms. Moreover, these early-stage neurophysiological responses were heightened or dampened as a function of individuals' adult attachment; women characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance showed the greatest N400 responses to cues of partner rejection (vs. acceptance). PMID:19493321
Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be defined in many ways and encompasses many different types of physical and emotional abuse. IPV affects the health, safety, and quality of life for women, men, and children worldwide, regardless of race, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. The health effects include acute trauma; a wide range of physical and mental sequelae; and, for some, death. Because of the serious consequences of IPV, both the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization identify IPV as a significant public health issue. PMID:25841604
Carol B. Cunradi; Michael Todd; Michael Duke; Genevieve Ames
The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of male unemployment and each partner’s problem drinking to risk\\u000a for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of construction industry\\u000a workers and their spouses\\/partners. Participants in the sample (n = 848 couples) completed cross-sectional health behavior surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models of MFPV and
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Golin, Carol E; Prinstein, Mitchell J
This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages 12 to 15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. More than half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends--and the interaction between parent and friend communication--was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions. PMID:24354655
Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Meyer, Silke; Akers, Caroline
Given the far-reaching social, personal, and economic costs of crime and violence, as well as the lasting health effects, understanding how women respond to domestic violence and the types of help sought are critical in addressing intimate partner violence. We use a nationally representative dataset (Canadian General Social Survey, Personal Risk, 1999) to examine the help-seeking behaviors of female intimate partner violence victims (N = 250). Although victims of violent crime often do not call the police, many victims, particularly women who have been battered by their partner rely on family, friends, social service, and mental health interventions in dealing with the consequences of violent crime. We examine the role of income, education, and employment status in shaping women's decisions to seek help, and we treat these economic variables as symbolic and relative statuses as compared to male partners. Although family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the dynamics of intimate partner violence with respect to the structural dimensions of sociodemographic factors, feminist researchers connect economic power to family dynamics. Drawing on these literatures, we tap the power in marital and cohabiting relationships, rather than treating these variables as simply socioeconomic resources. Controlling for other relevant variables we estimate a series of multivariate models to examine the relationship between status compatibilities and help-seeking from both formal and informal sources. We find that status incompatibilities between partners that favor women increase the likelihood of seeking support in dealing with the impact of violence. PMID:22946106
Krannitz, Morgan A; Grandey, Alicia A; Liu, Songqi; Almeida, David A
Surface acting (i.e., faking and suppressing emotions at work) is repeatedly linked to employee negative moods and emotional exhaustion, but the consequences may also go beyond work boundaries. We provide a unique theoretical integration of these 2 emotional labor consequences with 2 work-to-family conflict mechanisms, mood spillover and resource drain, to explain why surface acting is likely to create marital partner discontent (i.e., partner's perceived work-to-family conflict and desire for the employee to quit). A survey of 197 hotel managers and their marital partners supported that managers' surface acting was directly related to their partner wanting them to quit, and indirectly to partner's perception of work-to-family conflict via exhaustion consistent with the resource drain mechanism. Anxiety from surface acting had an indirect mediating effect on marital partner discontent through exhaustion. Importantly, controlling for dispositional negativity and job demands did not weaken these effects. Implications for theory and future research integrating work-family and emotional labor are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25705910
Meacham, Meredith C.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Epstein, Marina; Hawkins, J. David
Background Although there is considerable evidence that the development of tobacco dependence (TD) and that of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are intertwined, less is known about the comorbid development of these disorders. The present study examines tobacco dependence and alcohol use disorder comorbidity in young adulthood within the context of romantic partner relationships. Methods Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a contemporary, ethnically diverse, and gender balanced longitudinal panel including 808 participants. A typological person-centered approach was used to assign participants to four outcome groups: no disorder, tobacco dependence (TD) only, alcohol use disorder (AUD) only, and comorbid (both). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between partner general and substance-specific environments and single or dual alcohol and tobacco use disorder diagnosis in young adulthood (ages 24–33, n = 628). Previous heavy alcohol and tobacco use were controlled for, as were dispositional characteristics, gender, ethnicity, adult SES, and adult depression. Results Greater partner conflict increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having TD only or AUD only. Having a smoking partner increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having AUD only, but having a drinking partner did not significantly distinguish being comorbid from having TD only. Conclusions Findings demonstrated the utility of a comorbidity-based, person-centered approach and the influence of general and tobacco-specific, but not alcohol-specific, partner environments on comorbid alcohol and tobacco use disorders in young adulthood. PMID:23428316
Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Georgiades, Chrissa; Pang, Lily
This study used a novel questionnaire to examine ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. Seventy-two men and 83 women estimated their own and their opposite-sex partner's overall physical attractiveness and the attractiveness of various body parts and measures. They also answered six simple questions concerning physical attractiveness. Results showed significant gender differences in self-estimates of overall facial attractiveness and upper body features. In general, and regardless of gender, participants rated their opposite-sex partners as being significantly more attractive than themselves. In addition, the results showed that body weight and facial attractiveness were the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of social biases are considered. PMID:18089256
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562
Bent, Katherine N; Magilvy, J Kathy
Death of a life partner and the subsequent bereavement are profound experiences for an individual. By far, the majority of bereavement research reported is focused on heterosexual couples, primarily married and often in the later years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the bereavement experiences of lesbians whose life partners have died. The study used a descriptive, qualitative design informed by feminist scholarship and phenomenology to access the depth of personal experiences, as well as internally interpreted meanings of those experiences, among lesbian widows. PMID:16613798
Background Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. Methods The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Results Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had significantly more depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships has specific mental health consequences over and above those associated with physical violence. Assessment of partner violence in Chinese relationships should include screening for sexual aggression in order to provide appropriate interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials gov NCT01206192 PMID:24886374
Matson, Pamela A.; Chung, Shang-en; Ellen, Jonathan M.
Purpose This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. Methods A clinic recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 16 -19, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Results Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceed ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.78,1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Conclusions Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for STI as they may be more likely to have non-monogamous partners. PMID:24393545
Lübke, Katrin T; Hoenen, Matthias; Pause, Bettina M
On an individual level, human body odors carry information about whether a person is an eligible mate. The current studies investigate if body odors also transmit information about individuals being potential partners in more general terms, namely in regards to gender and sexual orientation. In study 1, 14 gay and 14 heterosexual men were presented with body odors obtained from potential partners (gay male and heterosexual female body odors, respectively) and heterosexual male body odor as a control. In study 2, 14 lesbian and 14 heterosexual women were presented with lesbian female and heterosexual male body odors representing body odors of potential partners, and heterosexual female body odor as a control. Central nervous processing was analyzed using chemosensory event-related potentials and current source density analysis (64-channel EEG recording). Gay and heterosexual men responded with shorter P2 latencies to the body odors of their preferred sexual partners, and lesbian women responded with shorter P2 latencies to body odors of their preferred gender. In response to heterosexual male body odors, lesbian women displayed the most pronounced P3 amplitude, and distinct neuronal activation in medial frontal and parietal neocortical areas. A similar pattern of neuronal activation was observed in gay men when presented with heterosexual male body odor. Both the early processing advantage (P2) for desirable partners' body odors as well as the enhanced evaluative processing (P3, CSD) of undesirable partners' body odors suggest that human body odors indeed carry information about individuals being potential partners in terms of gender and sexual orientation. PMID:22197679
Frederic M. Rosa (Ecole Normale Superieure; Groupe Danio REV)
Within a multicellular organism, communication between cells is essential during development to ensure proper execution of cell migration, cell fate decisions, and differentiation events. It is also essential in the adult for the coordination of many physiological functions. Cell-to-cell communications often rely on the interaction of cell surface receptors with soluble or membrane-bound ligands. Receptors or ligands may interact with additional partners to trigger specific signaling cascades inside the cell. In most cases, partners act in a specific configuration, either as a diffusible "co-ligand" or a membrane-bound co-receptor. Here, we examine the case of Cripto, a signaling molecule that has prominent functions during vertebrate development. Conflicting results have suggested that Cripto has the unusual capacity to act both as a secreted ligand and as a cell surface component to control a single signaling pathway. Here, we review the recent experiments that attempt to reconcile those results. Furthermore, three reports have described the fact that Cripto is modified by the addition of sugar residues, including a rare case of fucosylation. These modifications are essential for Cripto function, suggesting that, as is the case for other key developmental or physiological regulators such as Notch or selectins, the activity of Cripto may be controlled by the extent of its glycosylation or fucosylation (or both).
Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…
Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew
Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…
Clint Otto, a research ecologist at the USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, partners with professional beekeepers in North Dakota to evaluate what plant species honey bees forage on and when. Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use change...
Knutson, John F.; Lawrence, Erika; Taber, Sarah M.; Bank, Lew; DeGarmo, David S.
Child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely acknowledged as a threat to the psycho-social and academic well-being of children. Unfortunately, as reflected in the literature, the specific link between such exposure and childhood outcomes is ambiguous. Based on a review of the literature, this article suggests that this state of…
Agency 229 2014 Annual Report Partners for Progress Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station #12 encourages kids to be creative 9 Master Gardeners help extend Extension's reach 10 Agency 229 is ... 11 project looks toward the future 16 Healing equine injuries with help from stem cells 16 Patents help
Staples, Judith; Neal, Christine
Female superintendents prize spouses who are emotionally secure and supportive and assist with household chores. Partners should communicate priorities, vacation together periodically, keep healthy, stay flexible, avoid guilt, establish family rituals, stay in frequent contact, respect each others' roles, and not strive for perfect balance. (MLH)
about pursuing STEM subjects, and Georgia Tech Jumpstart trains Tech students to foster early reading leaders who want to team with Georgia Tech to improve performance in STEM for all students at the levelA Vital K-12 Partner Teacher Professional Development Opportunities GIFT Internship www
High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.
International Partner Institutions USA · Carnegie Mellon University · Lafayette College · New York of Aberdeen, UK · University of degli Studi di Cagliari, Italy · University of Edinburgh, UK · University Phone: +49-421-200-4310 E-Mail: email@example.com www.jacobs-university.de/international
Sparrow, Victor W.
Current U.S. and international laws prohibit commercial supersonic flight over land due to the impact of conventional sonic boom noise. Aircraft manufacturers, however, now have modern computational fluid dynamics and optimization tools, unavailable when those laws were enacted, that will allow them to design and build aircraft with boom signatures that are substantially smoothed compared with traditional N-waves. One purpose of the FAA/NASA/Transport Canada PARTNER Center of Excellence Project 8 is to determine exactly which waveforms would be heard by the public if low-boom supersonic aircraft are put into service. Another purpose is to ascertain the acceptability of those waveforms. The project involves the following universities, government, and industry partners: Penn State, Purdue, Stanford, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, Boeing, Cessna, Gulfstream, Lockheed-Martin, and Wyle Laboratories. Some of the initial project work includes studies on the propagation of sonic booms through atmospheric turbulence, on the mutual reproducibility of three sonic boom simulators, and on the realism of those simulators as determined by expert listeners. The results of all the studies are intended to provide the FAA with new data to reassess current regulations. [Work supported by NASA, the FAA, and the PARTNER industrial partners.
BECOME AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF FINANCING Private equity markets have grown exponentially over the last 30INCENTIVES OF PRIVATE EQUITY GENERAL PARTNERS FROM FUTURE FUNDRAISING Ji-Woong Chung Berk A. Sensoy Lea H. Stern Michael S. Weisbach Ohio State University February 2010 #12;PRIVATE EQUITY MARKETS HAVE
and Language Academics for Multilingual Students #12;Conversation Partner Program Tips and Guidelines When together. For example, you may wish to go to Koret and play basketball, go to a restaurant, or check out meetings. We have some exercises that you can use to add variety to your conversations. #12;Discussion Tips
Smallwood, Carol, Ed.
Including 66 focused snapshots of outreach in action, this resource reflects the creative solutions of librarians searching for new and innovative ways to build programs that meet customer needs while expanding the library's scope into the community. This contributed volume includes: (1) A huge array of program options for partnering with other…
Rosenbaum, Alan; And Others
Fifty-three partner-abusive men, 45 maritally satisfied, and 32 maritally discordant, nonviolent men were evaluated for past history of head injury. Logistic regressions confirmed head injury was significant predictor of being a batterer. Implications of findings for both marital aggression and posthead injury rehabilitation are discussed. (Author)
Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel
The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…
Regus, John U.; Gano, Kelsey A.; Hollowell, Amanda C.; Sachs, Joel L.
Eukaryotic hosts must exhibit control mechanisms to select against ineffective bacterial symbionts. Hosts can minimize infection by less-effective symbionts (partner choice) and can divest of uncooperative bacteria after infection (sanctions). Yet, such host-control traits are predicted to be context dependent, especially if they are costly for hosts to express or maintain. Legumes form symbiosis with rhizobia that vary in symbiotic effectiveness (nitrogen fixation) and can enforce partner choice as well as sanctions. In nature, legumes acquire fixed nitrogen from both rhizobia and soils, and nitrogen deposition is rapidly enriching soils globally. If soil nitrogen is abundant, we predict host control to be downregulated, potentially allowing invasion of ineffective symbionts. We experimentally manipulated soil nitrogen to examine context dependence in host control. We co-inoculated Lotus strigosus from nitrogen depauperate soils with pairs of Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness and fertilized plants with either zero nitrogen or growth maximizing nitrogen. We found efficient partner choice and sanctions regardless of nitrogen fertilization, symbiotic partner combination or growth season. Strikingly, host control was efficient even when L. strigosus gained no significant benefit from rhizobial infection, suggesting that these traits are resilient to short-term changes in extrinsic nitrogen, whether natural or anthropogenic. PMID:24573843
Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao
Background Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. Findings: About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China. PMID:23626798
Negri, V; Veronesi, F
Crosses between male sterile L. corniculatus (2n=4x=24) and L. tenuis (2n=2x=12) plants were performed in order to verify the presence of 2n gametes in L. tenuis. All but one of the plants from these crosses had 2n=4x=24 and the L. corniculatus phenotype; this plant had 2n=2x=12 and the L. tenuis phenotype. The plants also showed good quantity of pollen at tripping, good pollen fertility and good percentage of seed setting in the backcross to L. corniculatus. On the whole, both cytological and morphological observations, showing that all but one of the plants from L. corniculatus x L. tenuis were normal tetraploids, suggest the existence of diploandrous gametes in L. tenuis. On the other hand, haploid parthenogenesis probably gave origin to the dihaploid plant 2n=2x=12. PMID:24227248
Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn
The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252
Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Neighbors, Clayton
The current research evaluates how perceptions of one’s partner’s drinking problem relate to attempts to regulate partner behavior and relationship functioning, and whether this varies by perceptions of one’s own drinking. New measures are offered for Thinking about your Partner’s Drinking (TPD) and Partner Management Strategies (PMS). Participants included 702 undergraduates who had been in a romantic relationship for at least three months. Participants completed an online survey assessing perceptions of problematic drinking for one’s self and partner, ways in which attempts were made to regulate or restrain their partner’s drinking, relationship outcomes (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, trust, and need fulfillment), and alcohol use and consequences for self and partner. Factor analyses supported a single factor for Thinking about your Partner’s Drinking (TPD) and two factors for the Partner Management Strategies (PMS) scale (i.e., punishment and reward). Results using structural equation modeling indicated that perceiving one’s partner to have a drinking problem was associated with lower relationship functioning. Further, this association was mediated by strategies using punishment aimed at changing one’s partner’s drinking, but was not mediated by strategies using rewards. Finally, moderation results suggested that this relationship was not as detrimental for participants who perceived they also had an alcohol problem. In sum, perceiving one’s partner to have a drinking problem was associated with relationship problems through punishing regulation strategies, and was weaker among individuals who also perceived themselves to have a drinking problem. PMID:24070719
V. Negri; F. Veronesi
Crosses between male sterile L. corniculatus (2n=4x=24) and L. tenuis (2n=2x=12) plants were performed in order to verify the presence of 2n gametes in L. tenuis. All but one of the plants from these crosses had 2n=4x=24 and the L. corniculatus phenotype; this plant had 2n=2x=12 and the L. tenuis phenotype. The plants also showed good quantity of pollen at
on the value creation and value appropriation mechanisms that have been studied and alliances enable new strategies that create more value for the partners. However, in the case of explorative alliances, this value goes beyond what
Hojo, Masaru K.; Yamamoto, Ari; Akino, Toshiharu; Tsuji, Kazuki; Yamaoka, Ryohei
Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants. PMID:24489690
Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sol; Seo, Han Geuk; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Chung, Hyung-Min; Do, Jeong Tae
Somatic cells are reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by overexpression of a combination of defined transcription factors. We generated iPSCs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (with Oct4-GFP reporter) by transfection of pCX-OSK-2A (Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4) and pCX-cMyc vectors. We could generate partially reprogrammed cells (XiPS-7), which maintained more than 20 passages in a partially reprogrammed state; the cells expressed Nanog but were Oct4-GFP negative. When the cells were transferred to serum-free medium (with serum replacement and basic fibroblast growth factor), the XiPS-7 cells converted to Oct4-GFP-positive iPSCs (XiPS-7c, fully reprogrammed cells) with ESC-like properties. During the conversion of XiPS-7 to XiPS-7c, we found several clusters of slowly reprogrammed genes, which were activated at later stages of reprogramming. Our results suggest that partial reprogrammed cells can be induced to full reprogramming status by serum-free medium, in which stem cell maintenance- and gamete generation-related genes were upregulated. These long-term expandable partially reprogrammed cells can be used to verify the mechanism of reprogramming. PMID:24892478
... make your partner happy, or a belief that sex is the only way to make your relationship with your partner better, or closer. If you decide to have sex, it should be because you feel emotionally and ...
...Rel. No. IC-21980; 812-10104] THC Partners; Notice of Application May 23...APPLICANT: THC Partners. RELEVANT ACT SECTIONS: Order...common stock of The Hughes Corporation (``THC'') and limited partnership...
...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth...
Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.
The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…
Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond
The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…
Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy
Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of…
Post, Lori Ann; Klevens, Joanne; Maxwell, Christopher D.; Shelley, Gene A.; Ingram, Eben
This study tests the impact of coordinated community response (CCR) on reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) and on modifying knowledge and attitudes. The authors conduct hierarchical linear modeling of data from a stratified random-digit dial telephone survey (n = 12,039) in 10 test and 10 control sites, which include 23 counties from…
Lynn M Short; Denise Johnson; Alison Osattin
Programs that are effective in training health care providers to recognize and meet the needs of victims of intimate partner violence must be identified and replicated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed criteria for use in developing, enhancing, and evaluating such programs. CDC developed these criteria as a result of continuing efforts to provide useful products
Nocl N. Schulz; Herbert L. Ginn; S. Mark Halpin
Mississippi State University was one of the original four university participants in the Office of Naval Research sponsored Electric Ship Research and Development Consortium. Over the last three years, the MSU team and its partners have done research in areas of modeling and shipboard data analysis; active filtering and compensation techniques; control systems; and reconfiguration of the power system and
Human-Computer Music Performance: From Synchronized Accompaniment to Musical Partner Roger B for live music performance and outline our efforts to establish a new direction, Human- Computer Music because they require little or no direct human control, and their synchroniza- tion is limited to computed
Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.
Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…
As a community partner and an academic researcher, we experienced the direct and extended benefits of a relatively small-scale, community-engaged informed consent process that developed in an immigrant occupational health study, Assessing and Controlling Occupational Health Risks for Immigrant Populations in Somerville, Massachusetts. The practice of human participants research played a positive role in the community, and both community partners and researchers, as well as the larger academic community, reaped unexpected benefits during the five-year project (2005–2010), which continue into the present. Lessons learned from our experience may be helpful for wider application. PMID:24134386
Joseph Ntaganira; Adamson S Muula; Florence Masaisa; Fidens Dusabeyezu; Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. METHODS:
The development of thyroiditis in DA rats that had been exposed to 131I in utero was prevented by parabiosis to normal, syngeneic partners. However, if the normal partner had received sublethal irradiation before parabiosis, thyroid implants placed in either partner were likely to manifest spontaneous thyroiditis. PMID:2279743
The development of thyroiditis in DA rats that had been exposed to 131I in utero was prevented by parabiosis to normal, syngeneic partners. However, if the normal partner had received sublethal irradiation before parabiosis, thyroid implants placed in either partner were likely to manifest spontaneous thyroiditis. Images Figure 1 PMID:2279743
Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth
Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…
T. De Greef
This dissertation promotes a focus shift from automation extending human capabilities to automation partnering with the human. Highly automated systems tend to be incompatible with humans, leading to degradations in performance that may lead to serious problems in high-risk professional domains, such as the Navy and Urban Search and Rescue. This dissertation shows how an electronic partner (ePartner) can act
Yu-Liang Chi; I-Jui Chen
This study proposes a knowledge intensive approach for creating the Partner Network Model (PNM). The approach enables IT systems to perform partner profile management, production planning based on material arrangement, and supplier teaming simulation. Two design components are proposed using ontology and semantic rule respectively. Ontology is utilized as conceptual taxonomy for gathering factual information from partners. Semantic rule is
Samuel Cameron; Alan Collins
SUMMARYThis paper presents the first attempts by economists to estimate an equation of the demand curve for sexual relationship partner attributes. The focus is on the age of partner sought as the item demanded. A sample of newspaper ‘personal ads' is used to construct the demand curve. The estimates show clear evidence of age trade offs in partner search which
Joana Urbano; Ana Paula Rocha; Eugenio Oliveira
In the digital economy era, commercial relationships between business partners are increasing in flexibility, and temporary business binds tend to be created whenever a business opportunity arises. Moreover, the instability in demand in- creases the need for enterprises to procure new partners and the associate risk of inter-operating with partners that might be unknown beforehand. Therefore, en- terprises need mechanisms
Ziurys, Lucy M.
Arizona Department of Administration Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Declaration of Tax Status, _________________________________________________, declare ______________________________________________ as my Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child. Print Name of Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child I understand that my employer has a legitimate need to know
Qiang Zhao; Xinhui Zhang; Renbin Xiao
Partner selection is a fundamental problem in the formation and success of a virtual enterprise. The partner selection problem with precedence and due date constraint is the basis of the various extensions and is studied in this paper. A nonlinear integer program model for the partner selection problem is established. The problem is shown to be NP-complete by reduction to
Key components of membrane trafficking and signaling machinery in eukaryotic cells are proteins that bind or synthesize phosphoinositides. PIKfyve, a product of an evolutionarily conserved single-copy gene has both these features. It binds to membrane phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)3P and synthesizes PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns5P. Molecular functions of PIKfyve are elusive but recent advances are consistent with a key role in the course of endosomal transport. PIKfyve dysfunction induces endosome enlargement and profound cytoplasmic vacuolation, likely as a result of impaired normal endosome processing and membrane exit out of endosomes. Multicellular organisms with genetically impaired function of PIKfyve or that of the PIKfyve protein partners regulating PtdIns(3,5)P2 homeostasis display severe disorders, including embryonic/perinatal death. This review describes recent advances on PIKfyve functionality in higher eukaryotes, with particular reference to biochemical and genetic insights in PIKfyve protein partners. PMID:18304842
Binder, R.L.; Lech, J.J.
Eggs spawned from Lake Michigan lake trout contain a number of xenobiotic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To assess whether this contamination is sufficient to induce hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activity during early development, the hepatic MO systems of laboratory-cultured offspring of Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and Marquette Hatchery lake trout were compared. Additionally, the induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 systems in developing lake trout by the commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), was characterized. During late embryonic development and at the swim-up stage, the hepatic MO systems of the feral lake trout offspring appeared induced, based on levels of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity that were 3.5- to 8.6-fold higher than the hatchery control levels. Furthermore, at the swim-up stage the feral trout offspring resembled A1254-treated hatchery fry with regard to the degree of inhibition of hepatic AHH activity by alpha-naphthoflavone, and the presence of an inducible Mr . 58,000 polypeptide in hepatic microsomes. The levels of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, which was relatively unresponsive to inducers, were moderately lower in the Lake Michigan and Green Bay swim-up fry compared to the hatchery control levels. After 7 months of posthatching laboratory culture, when residues of xenobiotics present at fertilization were greatly diluted by growth, the hepatic MO systems of the Lake Michigan and hatchery trout offspring appeared essentially indistinguishable with regard to a number of parameters.
de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Stein, Michael
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. Methods The current study examined 1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and 2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (n=203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Results Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean CES-D scores (b = 0.54, 95%CI 0.07; 1.02, p < .05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (OR = 6.65, 95%CI 1.61; 27.46, p < .01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use and ethnicity. Conclusions These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment. PMID:24821357
Bayer, R; Toomey, K E
In the cases of medical patients with sexually transmitted diseases (particularly those with the human immunodeficiency virus), two distinct approaches exist to notifying sexual and/or needle-sharing partners of possible risk. Each approach has its own history (including unique practical problems of implementation) and provokes its own ethical dilemmas. The first approach--the moral "duty to warn"--arose out of clinical situations in which a physician knew the identity of a person deemed to be at risk. The second approach--that of contact tracing--emerged from sexually transmitted disease control programs in which the clinician typically did not know the identity of those who might have been exposed. Confusion between the two approaches has led many to mistake processes that are fundamentally voluntary as mandatory and those that respect confidentiality as invasive of privacy. In the context of the AIDS epidemic and the vicissitudes of the two approaches, we describe the complex problems of partner notification and underscore the ethical and political contexts within which policy decisions have been made. PMID:1304728
Drawing on interviews with African American males in violent intimate relationships, this paper focuses on individual causes\\u000a (exposure to violence), cultural causes (constructions of masculinity) and structural causes (unemployment and incarceration)\\u000a of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American men. IPV is “triggered” by two threats to masculinity, though I\\u000a focus exclusively on the first trigger (breadwinning). The analyses are
Harner, Holly M
Although the mechanism by which early victimization, specifically sexual abuse, increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy is unclear, a relationship between previous victimization and adolescent pregnancy has been demonstrated. While partnering with an older man may initially offer the means necessary to escape a neglectful or violent family of origin, this protection be accompanied by an imbalance of power and control. Both adolescent mothers partnered with adult men and adolescent mothers partnered with male peers reported sexual abuse perpetrated by family members, family friends, strangers, and peers. Policies developed to protect young people from victimization, including mandatory reporting and statutory rape laws, should be evaluated for their consistent application to all children, regardless of age, race, gender, or pregnancy status. PMID:16149725
Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J.
HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV. PMID:21987514
Luecken, Linda J.; Lin, Betty; Coburn, Shayna S.; MacKinnon, David P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Crnic, Keith A.
Maternal exposure to significant prenatal stress can negatively affect infant neurobiological development and increase the risk for developmental and health disturbances. These effects may be pronounced in low SES and ethnic minority families. We explored prenatal partner support as a buffer of the impact of prenatal stress on cortisol reactivity of infants born to low-income Mexican American women. Women (N=220; age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; 89% foreign born; modal family income $10,000–$15,000) reported on economic stress and satisfaction with spousal/partner support during the prenatal period (26–38 weeks gestation), and infant salivary cortisol reactivity to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks was assessed at women’s homes at six weeks postpartum. Multilevel models estimated the interactive effect of prenatal stress and partner support on cortisol reactivity, controlling for covariates and potential confounds. Infants born to mothers who reported high prenatal stress and low partner support exhibited higher cortisol reactivity relative to those whose mothers reported high support or low stress. The effects did not appear to operate through birth outcomes. For low-income Mexican American women, partner support may buffer the impact of prenatal stress on infant cortisol reactivity, potentially promoting more adaptive infant health and development. PMID:24090585
Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica; Trent, Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Studies report that women use as much or more physical intimate partner violence (IPV) as men. Most of these studies measure IPV by counting the number of IPV acts over a specified time period, but counting acts captures only one aspect of this complex phenomenon. To inform interventions, women’s motivations for using IPV must be understood. A systematic review therefore was conducted to summarize evidence regarding women’s motivations for the use of physical IPV in heterosexual relationships. Four published literature databases were searched, and. articles that met inclusion criteria were abstracted. This was supplemented with a bibliography search and expert consultation. Eligible studies included English-language publications that directly investigated heterosexual women’s motivations for perpetrating non-lethal, physical IPV. Of the 144 potentially eligible articles, 23 met inclusion criteria. Over two-thirds of studies enrolled participants from IPV shelters, courts, or batterers’ treatment programs. Women’s motivations were primarily assessed through interviews or administration of an author-created questionnaire. Anger and not being able to get a partner’s attention were pervasive themes. Self-defense and retaliation also were commonly cited motivations, but distinguishing the two was difficult in some studies. Control was mentioned, but not listed as a primary motivation. IPV prevention and treatment programs should explore ways to effectively address women’s relationship concerns and ability to manage anger, and should recognize that women commonly use IPV in response to their partner’s violence. PMID:20823071
Rauer, Amy J.; El-Sheikh, Mona
Toward explicating associations and directionality of effects between relationship processes and a fundamental facet of health, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and men and women’s sleep. During two assessments, a diverse community sample of couples reported on their perpetrated acts of psychological and physical IPV and their sleep quality. Cross-sectional associations between IPV and sleep were evident for both partners, in particular between psychological IPV and sleep. A dyadic path analysis controlling for the autoregressive effects and within-time correlations revealed longitudinal links between men’s perpetration of IPV and their sleep quality. Even though high levels of stability in all IPV and sleep measures were observed over time, results indicated that sleep problems predicted increases in the perpetration of psychological IPV over time for both men and women. Cross-partner effects emerged for men, revealing that men’s sleep problems were strongly affected by their partner’s earlier perpetration of IPV and sleep difficulties. Findings illustrate the significance of contemporaneous, dyadic assessments of relationship processes and sleep for a better understanding of both facets of adaptation, and have implications for those wishing to understand the etiology and consequences of the perpetration of IPV for both men and women. PMID:22468689
Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Carey, Joanne
While men's gendered experiences of depression have been described, the perspectives of women partners who are affected by men's depression have received little attention. Women partners were recruited to explore how men's depression impacts them and its influence on gender regimes. Individual interviews with 29 women spouses were coded and analysed. Although idealized femininity positions women as endlessly patient and caring, our findings reveal significant challenges in attempting to fulfil these gender ideals in the context of living with a male partner who is experiencing depression. The strain and drain of living with a depressed man was a key element of women's experiences. Four sub-themes were identified: (1) resisting the emotional caregiver role, (2) shouldering family responsibilities, (3) connecting men to professional care and (4) preserving the feminine self. The findings suggest that men's depression has great potential to dislocate heterosexual gender regimes, and attention to gender relations should be included to ensure successful care management of men who experience depression. PMID:23426793
Fischer, Christophe Y; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges C; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, François J
The aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbor ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants' services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially toward ant-frequented plants. However, our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies. PMID:24659520
Launay, Jacques; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya
Previous studies have demonstrated that synchronising movements with other people can influence affiliative behaviour towards them. While research has focused on synchronisation with visually observed movement, synchronisation with a partner who is heard may have similar effects. We replicate findings showing that synchronisation can influence ratings of likeability of a partner, but demonstrate that this is possible with virtual interaction, involving a video of a partner. Participants performed instructed synchrony in time to sounds instead of the observable actions of another person. Results show significantly higher ratings of likeability of a partner after moving at the same time as sounds attributed to that partner, compared with moving in between sounds. Objectively quantified synchrony also correlated with ratings of likeability. Belief that sounds were made by another person was manipulated in Experiment 2, and results demonstrate that when sounds are attributed to a computer, ratings of likeability are not affected by moving in or out of time. These findings demonstrate that interaction with sound can be experienced as social interaction in the absence of genuine interpersonal contact, which may help explain why people enjoy engaging with recorded music. PMID:24805849
Numbers, Katya T; Meade, Michelle L; Perga, Vladimir A
In this study, we examined whether increasing the proportion of false information suggested by a confederate would influence the magnitude of socially introduced false memories in the social contagion paradigm Roediger, Meade, & Bergman (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8:365-371, 2001). One participant and one confederate collaboratively recalled items from previously studied household scenes. During collaboration, the confederate interjected 0 %, 33 %, 66 %, or 100 % false items. On subsequent individual-recall tests across three experiments, participants were just as likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from a partner who was mostly accurate (33 % incorrect) as they were from a partner who was not at all accurate (100 % incorrect). Even when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a related memory task, they were still as likely to incorporate the confederate's entirely misleading suggestions on subsequent recall and recognition tests (Exp. 2). Only when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a practice test of the experimental task itself were they able to reduce false memory, and this reduction occurred selectively on a subsequent individual recognition test (Exp. 3). These data demonstrate that participants do not always consider their partners' memory ability when working on collaborative memory tasks. PMID:25035186
Stephenson, Rob; Sato, Kimi N.; Finneran, Catherine
Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking. Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (<12 month) experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV. Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration. Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. PMID:23930144
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0–11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with children without such histories (n = 395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage = 39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups–childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls–reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49], physical abuse (AOR = 2.52, 95% CI [1.17, 5.40]), and neglect (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.04, 2.59]) predicted increased risk for being victimized by a partner via physical injury. CAN and neglect also predicted being victimized by a greater number and variety of IPV acts. CAN and control groups did not differ in reports of perpetration of IPV, although neglect predicted greater likelihood of perpetrating physical injury to a partner, compared to controls. Abused/neglected females were more likely to report being injured by their partner, whereas maltreated males did not. This study found that child maltreatment increases risk for the most serious form of IPV involving physical injury. Increased attention should be paid to IPV (victimization and perpetration) in individuals with histories of neglect. PMID:24325940
Schellekens, Melanie P. J.; Molema, Johan; Speckens, Anne E. M.; van der Drift, Miep A.
Background: Lung cancer patients and partners show high rates of impaired quality of life and heightened distress levels. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction has proven to be effective in reducing psychological distress in cancer patients. However, studies barely included lung cancer patients. Aim: We examined whether Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction might be a feasible and effective intervention for patients with lung cancer and partners. Design: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction is a training in which mindfulness practices are combined with psycho-education to help participants cope with distress. In this mixed methods pilot study, questionnaires on psychological distress and quality of life were administered before, directly after and 3?months after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training, in combination with semi-structured interviews. Setting/participants: Patients with lung cancer and partners were recruited at one tertiary care academic medical centre. A total of 19 lung cancer patients and 16 partners participated in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training. Results: Most patients were diagnosed with advanced stage lung cancer. Vast majority completed the training. Those receiving anti-cancer treatment did not miss more sessions than patients who were not currently treated. Patients and partners felt positive about participating in a peer group and with their partner. Among participants no significant changes were found in psychological distress. Caregiver burden in partners decreased significantly after following Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. The qualitative analysis showed that the training seemed to instigate a process of change in participants. Conclusion: The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training seemed to be feasible for patients with lung cancer and their partners. A randomized controlled trial is needed to examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in reducing psychological distress in lung cancer patients and partners. PMID:25701663
Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)
Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.
Monaghan, Pat; Heidinger, Britt J.; D'Alba, Liliana; Evans, Neil P.; Spencer, Karen A.
Stressful conditions early in life can give rise to exaggerated stress responses, which, while beneficial in the short term, chronically increase lifetime exposure to stress hormones and elevate disease risk later in life. Using zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we show here that individuals whose glucocorticoid stress hormones were experimentally increased for only a brief period in early post-natal life, inducing increased stress sensitivity, had reduced adult lifespans. Remarkably, the breeding partners of such exposed individuals also died at a younger age. This negative effect on partner longevity was the same for both sexes; it occurred irrespective of the partner's own early stress exposure and was in addition to any longevity reduction arising from this. Furthermore, this partner effect continued even after the breeding partnership was terminated. Only 5 per cent of control birds with control partners had died after 3 years, compared with over 40 per cent in early stress–early stress pairs. In contrast, reproductive capability appeared unaffected by the early stress treatment, even when breeding in stressful environmental circumstances. Our results clearly show that increased exposure to glucocorticoids early in life can markedly reduce adult life expectancy, and that pairing with such exposed partners carries an additional and substantial lifespan penalty. PMID:21849320
Laner, M R
Based on a design used in previous research with heterosexuals, this study assessed the permanent partner priorities of gay and straight men and women, as well as the perception of those priorities by each gender and sexual orientation. Heterosexuals and homosexuals did not differ in their rank-ordered priorities, but tended to misperceive the priorities of their own and the other groups studied. Differentials of misperception were explained by varying societal pressures experienced by homo- and heterosexual men and women. Implications based on the difference between the competitive nature of courtship and the cooperative nature of permanent pairing were drawn from the findings. PMID:591710
Pinto, Lavinia A.; Sullivan, Eric L.; Rosenbaum, Alan; Wyngarden, Nicole; Umhau, John C.; Miller, Mark W.; Taft, Casey T.
An extensive literature documents biological correlates of general aggression, but there has been less focus on biological correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this review is to summarize the research literature to date that has reported on biological factors in IPV perpetration. We review the existing literature on four domains of biological processes that have been examined with respect to IPV perpetration, including: head injury and neuropsychology; psychophysiology; neurochemistry, metabolism and endocrinology; and genetics. We critique the literature, discuss the clinical relevance of research findings, and provide some recommendations for future biologically-oriented IPV research. PMID:23393423
Dill-Shackleford, Karen E; Green, Melanie C; Scharrer, Erica; Wetterer, Craig; Shackleford, Lee E
Research has demonstrated the ability of fictional narratives to educate about social and health issues. Although some entertainment-education efforts have used live theater as a mechanism for social change, very few use social science methods to demonstrate exposure effects. This project used live theater to increase understanding and knowledge about intimate partner violence, a pervasive and costly social and health problem. Audiences watched either a play about abusive relationships-emphasizing psychological abuse and the role of coercion and control-or a control play. Compared with controls, those who watched the abuse play were more knowledgeable and less accepting of myths about abusive relationships in a way that mirrored play content. Although both plays were highly transporting, transportation did not explain a significant amount of variance in the attitudes toward intimate partner violence. These results provide rare evidence for theater as a tool for social change. PMID:26086987
Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A
Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition. PMID:24548684
Togher, L; Hand, L; Code, C
A range of discourse analyses are effective in identifying features which are aberrant following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the exchanges of five traumatically brain-injured subjects and five matched controls across four speaking situations which included speaking to a therapist, to the bus timetable information service, to the police, and to their mothers on the telephone. Transcripts were analysed using the exchange structure analysis of systemic functional grammar. This analysis provided an indication of information giving (K1 moves per minute); information requesting and receiving (K2 moves per minute) and the amount of negotiation that was needed for the messages to be conveyed (dynamic moves per minute). Results indicated that the TBI subjects performed differently across the four conditions, and were differentiated from the matched controls on a number of measures. The role of different communication partners is also addressed. Communication partners were noted to interact differently with TBI subjects when compared with controls. This included increased information-giving to control subjects; more requests for information by police from TBI subjects and a greater use of dynamic moves by therapists with controls. The potential of exchange structure analysis is discussed as a useful way of examining the discourse of TBI subjects and their communication partners. Exchange structure analysis highlighted the dynamic nature of information exchange and the subtle ways speakers responded to familiarity and power imbalance in social interaction. This study has implications for family and community education regarding communication with people with TBI. PMID:9057999
Colleagues in England have recently discovered the possibilities of group work in teaching FL. The article calls to mind the well-known procedures of partner and group work, and offers suggestions for their use in teaching English, oriented toward internal differentiation. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Declining rates of marriage and overall increases in union instability, combined with high levels of unintended and nonmarital fertility, create the possibility for parents to have children with more than one partner, called multiple-partner fertility, or MPF. The unique characteristics of families with MPF present data and other logistical challenges to researchers studying the phenomenon. Drawing from recent studies and updated data, I present new estimates of MPF that show that about 13 percent of men aged 40 to 44 and 19 percent of women aged 41 to 49 have children with more than one partner, with a higher prevalence among the disadvantaged. Compared to parents with two or more children by only one partner, people with MPF become parents at younger ages, largely with unintended first births, and often do so outside of marriage. This article touches on the implications of MPF for families and concludes by discussing the theoretical difficulties in studying MPF and the challenges it presents to public policy. PMID:25284822
Christian Grov; Tyrel J. Starks; H. Jonathon Rendina; Jeffrey Parsons
We used Latent Class Analysis to investigate rules guiding non-monogamy in partnered gay and bisexual men. Data are from a 2010 survey (n = 463) from which those in relationships (n = 191) were analyzed. Over half (56%) were non-monogamous and these men responded to 13 rules about sex outside of their relationship. The Safe Anonymous Sex group (34%) included
Bergen, Raquel Kennedy; Bukovec, Paul
This article explores men's use of sexual violence against their intimate partner. Although there is a growing body of information about men's use of physical violence, there is less data about men's sexual violence in intimate partnerships. Data were collected from 229 men who were enrolled in an intervention program for men who abuse. Of men in…
King's Health Partners Clinical Trials Office Supporting Clinical Research in King's Health patients · Follow protocol CONTRACT RESEARCH #12;The KHP-CTO What is a Non-commercial Clinical Trial ·Clinicians ·Clinical Research ·Routine Treatment Services ·Patients ·Clinicians ·Clinical Research ·Routine
Derrick, Jaye L.; Testa, Maria; Leonard, Kenneth E.
Objective Agreement within couples regarding the occurrence of aggression is surprisingly low. Survey research often collapses across partners’ reports to create a pooled estimate of aggression in the relationship. This method ignores possible differences in partners’ perceptions of the event, potentially weakening researchers’ ability to detect consequences of aggression. The current study examines both partners’ reports of verbal aggression to determine whether aggression reported by only one partner influences both partners’ short-term outcomes. Methods We used a 56-day daily diary to examine the effect of verbal aggression on short-term negative outcomes. We examined whether aggression reported by either partner is sufficient to predict consequences for both partners, or if an individual must report aggression to experience consequences. Results Victims’ reports of receiving verbal aggression were a better predictor of next day victim consequences than perpetrators’ reports. Perpetrators’ reports of perpetrating verbal aggression were a better predictor of next day perpetrator consequences than victims’ reports. Days when partners agreed that aggression had occurred generally predicted the worst outcomes. Conclusions People’s own reports of verbal aggression are the best predictor of short-term consequences. Pooling partner reports of aggression may make it more difficult to understand the consequences of intimate partner aggression. PMID:25346861
Wang, Jing; Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J.
The natural tendency for humans to make and break relationships is thought to facilitate the emergence of cooperation. In particular, allowing conditional cooperators to choose with whom they interact is believed to reinforce the rewards accruing to mutual cooperation while simultaneously excluding defectors. Here we report on a series of human subjects experiments in which groups of 24 participants played an iterated prisoner’s dilemma game where, critically, they were also allowed to propose and delete links to players of their own choosing at some variable rate. Over a wide variety of parameter settings and initial conditions, we found that dynamic partner updating significantly increased the level of cooperation, the average payoffs to players, and the assortativity between cooperators. Even relatively slow update rates were sufficient to produce large effects, while subsequent increases to the update rate had progressively smaller, but still positive, effects. For standard prisoner’s dilemma payoffs, we also found that assortativity resulted predominantly from cooperators avoiding defectors, not by severing ties with defecting partners, and that cooperation correspondingly suffered. Finally, by modifying the payoffs to satisfy two novel conditions, we found that cooperators did punish defectors by severing ties, leading to higher levels of cooperation that persisted for longer. PMID:22904193
Retailleau, Kevin; Duprat, Fabrice
Mutations of the two polycystins, PC1 and PC2, lead to polycystic kidney disease. Polycystins are able to form complexes with numerous families of proteins that have been suggested to participate in mechanical sensing. The proposed role of polycystins and their partners in the kidney primary cilium is to sense urine flow. A role for polycystins in mechanosensing has also been shown in other cell types such as vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes. At the plasma membrane, polycystins interact with diverse ion channels of the TRP family and with stretch-activated channels (Piezos, TREKs). The actin cytoskeleton and its interacting proteins, such as filamin A, have been shown to be essential for these interactions. Numerous proteins involved in cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix junctions interact with PC1 and/or PC2. These multimeric protein complexes are important for cell structure integrity, the transmission of force, as well as for mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. A group of polycystin partners are also involved in subcellular trafficking mechanisms. Finally, PC1 and especially PC2 interact with elements of the endoplasmic reticulum and are essential components of calcium homeostasis. In conclusion, we propose that both PC1 and PC2 act as conductors to tune the overall cellular mechanosensitivity. PMID:24687583
Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L.
This study explores the intimate relationship experiences of cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners’ self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified. PMID:23668602
Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829
William Fals-Stewart; Cheryl Kennedy
As the use of partner-involved therapies for alcoholism and drug abuse become more common in substance-abuse treatment programs, providers are more frequently encountering one of the most challenging and politically charged public health issues of our time: intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent investigations reveal 40–60% of married or cohabiting substance-abusing patients report episodes of partner aggression in the year preceding
Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T
Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide. PMID:25031103
Background There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and “predictors” of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique). Methods Data were collected during a 12?month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once) from 1,442 women aged 15–49?years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R). The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Results The overall experienced IPV during the past 12?months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe) was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8?±?120.9).a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1?±?9.1-12.8?±?26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3?±?117.6) of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV) varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7?±?80.3-64.9?±?110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in “explaining” the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child). Conclusions In our study, controlling behaviours over/by partner, own perpetration, co-occurring victimization and childhood abuse were more important factors in “explaining” sustained IPV. More investigation into women’s IPV exposure and its “predictors” is warranted in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Mozambique. PMID:23241146
Ana Isabel Marqués-Marí; José Vicente Medrano; Carlos Simón
\\u000a Embryonic stem cell lines derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are pluripotent (they can differentiate into\\u000a all the different cell types) and have the ability to self-renewal in vitro, remaining undifferentiated. It has been demonstrated\\u000a that murine embryonic stem cells can give rise to structures very similar to sperm and oocytes in vitro. These differentiated cells are
Solesvik, Marina Z.; Encheva, Sylvia
There is a growing body of research devoted to the issues of cooperative design. However, there are still gaps in the existing knowledge on partner selection for cooperation. This paper intends to explore partner selection issues in the context of collaborative ship design. The study aims to fill a gap in the partner selection literature by proposing a quantitative technique based on formal concept analysis. An illustrative example of the selection of a partner for a project-based alliance in a naval architect firm is presented. The study has implications for practitioners and researchers.
Oldfield, Christopher J; Meng, Jingwei; Yang, Jack Y; Yang, Mary Qu; Uversky, Vladimir N; Dunker, A Keith
Background Proteins are involved in many interactions with other proteins leading to networks that regulate and control a wide variety of physiological processes. Some of these proteins, called hub proteins or hubs, bind to many different protein partners. Protein intrinsic disorder, via diversity arising from structural plasticity or flexibility, provide a means for hubs to associate with many partners (Dunker AK, Cortese MS, Romero P, Iakoucheva LM, Uversky VN: Flexible Nets: The roles of intrinsic disorder in protein interaction networks. FEBS J 2005, 272:5129-5148). Results Here we present a detailed examination of two divergent examples: 1) p53, which uses different disordered regions to bind to different partners and which also has several individual disordered regions that each bind to multiple partners, and 2) 14-3-3, which is a structured protein that associates with many different intrinsically disordered partners. For both examples, three-dimensional structures of multiple complexes reveal that the flexibility and plasticity of intrinsically disordered protein regions as well as induced-fit changes in the structured regions are both important for binding diversity. Conclusions These data support the conjecture that hub proteins often utilize intrinsic disorder to bind to multiple partners and provide detailed information about induced fit in structured regions. PMID:18366598
Richard Bertram; Arthur Sherman; Leslie S. Satin
intracellular free Ca2. Pulsatile blood insulin levels appear to play an important physiological role in insulin action and are lost in patients with type 2 diabetes and their near relatives. We present evidence for a recently developed -cell model, the \\
Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Koehler, Sabrina; Peterson, Ashley; Nechitaylo, Taras Y; Stubblefield, J William; Herzner, Gudrun; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard
Many insects rely on symbiotic microbes for survival, growth, or reproduction. Over evolutionary timescales, the association with intracellular symbionts is stabilized by partner fidelity through strictly vertical symbiont transmission, resulting in congruent host and symbiont phylogenies. However, little is known about how symbioses with extracellular symbionts, representing the majority of insect-associated microorganisms, evolve and remain stable despite opportunities for horizontal exchange and de novo acquisition of symbionts from the environment. Here we demonstrate that host control over symbiont transmission (partner choice) reinforces partner fidelity between solitary wasps and antibiotic-producing bacteria and thereby stabilizes this Cretaceous-age defensive mutualism. Phylogenetic analyses show that three genera of beewolf wasps (Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus) cultivate a distinct clade of Streptomyces bacteria for protection against pathogenic fungi. The symbionts were acquired from a soil-dwelling ancestor at least 68 million years ago, and vertical transmission via the brood cell and the cocoon surface resulted in host-symbiont codiversification. However, the external mode of transmission also provides opportunities for horizontal transfer, and beewolf species have indeed exchanged symbiont strains, possibly through predation or nest reuse. Experimental infection with nonnative bacteria reveals that--despite successful colonization of the antennal gland reservoirs--transmission to the cocoon is selectively blocked. Thus, partner choice can play an important role even in predominantly vertically transmitted symbioses by stabilizing the cooperative association over evolutionary timescales. PMID:24733936
Hegarty, Kelsey L; O'Doherty, Lorna O; Astbury, Jill; Gunn, Jane
Intimate partner violence is a common but under-recognised issue for women attending primary care. There is a lack of studies looking at women's comfort to discuss and openness to getting help for health issues, including fear of a partner, in primary care. Female patients (aged 16-50 years) attending 55 general practitioners (GPs) in Victoria, Australia were mailed a brief survey that screened for health and lifestyle issues, comfort to discuss these issues and intention to get help in primary care. Needing physical activity and smoking were the issues women were most comfortable to discuss; followed by difficulty controlling what and/or how much is eaten, feeling down, depressed, hopeless or worried, and use of drugs or alcohol. Women were least comfortable to discuss fear of a partner and least likely to seek help for it from the GP or primary care nurse. However, as with the other issues, acceptability of being asked in a survey was high. All health and lifestyle issues predicted fear of a partner. Primary care practitioners should be aware of this complex major public health issue especially when carrying out preventive health care. PMID:22950858
Hess, Kristen L.; Javanbakht, Marjan; Brown, Joelle M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Hsu, Paul; Gorbach, Pamina M.
Context The prevalence of intimate partner violence and anal intercourse is high in young adult relationships, but few have looked the intersection of the two. This paper considers this association within multiple intimate partner violence contexts. Methods Using wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, an analysis was completed on the association of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and anal intercourse in relationships reported by young women. This wave was collected from 2001–2002 when the women were between 18 and 28 years old. A hierarchical random effects model was used to control for the clustered survey design and multiple relationships reported per participant. This analysis included 10,462 relationships reported by 6,280 women. Results In multivariate analysis, relationships where women perpetrated physical violence (AOR 1.9) and relationships that were reciprocally physically violent (AOR 1.7) were more likely to include anal intercourse than non-abusive relationships. Among those that included anal intercourse, relationships where the woman was a victim of physical violence (AOR 0.2) were less likely to have ever used a condom during anal intercourse. There was no association between sexual violence and condom use. Conclusion These analyses demonstrate that women in violent relationships may be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to unprotected anal intercourse. More information on the context surrounding anal intercourse and intimate partner violence is needed in order to understand the nuances of this association. PMID:23489852
Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; Doss, Brian D; Hsueh, Annie C; Libet, Julian; Mitchell, Alexandra E
Couples presenting for treatment of relationship distress often experience additional problems, including individual psychopathology and intimate partner violence (IPV). Both issues are associated with current and future poor relationship functioning in nontreatment samples, but relatively little is understood about their association with initial presentation and outcomes in couple therapy. The current study examined these associations in a sample of 177 heterosexual couples who received therapy at two Veteran's Affairs clinics. Unlike most studies of couple therapy outcomes, couples were not excluded from treatment specifically because of high levels of psychopathology or IPV. Results of Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) analyses revealed actor and partner effects of depression, actor effects of anxiety, and partner effects of IPV on initial relationship satisfaction, such that greater coexisting difficulties were associated with poorer initial satisfaction. However, improvement in relationship satisfaction over the course of therapy was not associated with psychopathology, and, contrary to hypothesis, was positively associated with men's IPV prior to treatment, even when initial level of satisfaction was controlled. The results suggest that coexisting symptoms of psychopathology or IPV may not necessarily interfere with therapy outcomes and, indeed, therapy may have positive effects for couples with these problems. PMID:21534671
Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Koehler, Sabrina; Peterson, Ashley; Nechitaylo, Taras Y.; Stubblefield, J. William; Herzner, Gudrun; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard
Many insects rely on symbiotic microbes for survival, growth, or reproduction. Over evolutionary timescales, the association with intracellular symbionts is stabilized by partner fidelity through strictly vertical symbiont transmission, resulting in congruent host and symbiont phylogenies. However, little is known about how symbioses with extracellular symbionts, representing the majority of insect-associated microorganisms, evolve and remain stable despite opportunities for horizontal exchange and de novo acquisition of symbionts from the environment. Here we demonstrate that host control over symbiont transmission (partner choice) reinforces partner fidelity between solitary wasps and antibiotic-producing bacteria and thereby stabilizes this Cretaceous-age defensive mutualism. Phylogenetic analyses show that three genera of beewolf wasps (Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus) cultivate a distinct clade of Streptomyces bacteria for protection against pathogenic fungi. The symbionts were acquired from a soil-dwelling ancestor at least 68 million years ago, and vertical transmission via the brood cell and the cocoon surface resulted in host–symbiont codiversification. However, the external mode of transmission also provides opportunities for horizontal transfer, and beewolf species have indeed exchanged symbiont strains, possibly through predation or nest reuse. Experimental infection with nonnative bacteria reveals that—despite successful colonization of the antennal gland reservoirs—transmission to the cocoon is selectively blocked. Thus, partner choice can play an important role even in predominantly vertically transmitted symbioses by stabilizing the cooperative association over evolutionary timescales. PMID:24733936
Rauer, Amy J; El-Sheikh, Mona
Toward explicating associations and directionality of effects between relationship processes and a fundamental facet of health, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and men and women's sleep. During two assessments, a diverse community sample of couples reported on their perpetrated acts of psychological and physical IPV and their sleep quality. Cross-sectional associations between IPV and sleep were evident for both partners, in particular between psychological IPV and sleep. A dyadic path analysis controlling for the autoregressive effects and within-time correlations revealed longitudinal links between men's perpetration of IPV and their sleep quality. Even though high levels of stability in all IPV and sleep measures were observed over time, results indicated that sleep problems predicted increases in the perpetration of psychological IPV over time for both men and women. Cross-partner effects emerged for men, revealing that men's sleep problems were strongly affected by their partner's earlier perpetration of IPV and sleep difficulties. Findings illustrate the significance of contemporaneous, dyadic assessments of relationship processes and sleep for a better understanding of both facets of adaptation, and have implications for those wishing to understand the etiology and consequences of the perpetration of IPV for both men and women. PMID:22468689
Fife, Betsy L.; Scott, Linda L.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Zwickl, Beth E.
This study evaluated an intervention to facilitate adaptive coping by persons living with HIV (PLWH), with the participation of their cohabiting partners as a dimension of the intervention. An experimental design with randomization was used, and 84 PLWH and their partners were recruited. The intervention was based on a psychosocial educational model that incorporated 4 two-hour sessions focused on communication, stress appraisal, adaptive coping strategies, and building social support. Both members of the dyad were included in each session. The comparison control included four supportive phone calls to the PLWH alone. Data were collected from both the PLWH and their partners in each of the two groups at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 3 months and 6 months post-treatment. Data were analyzed using RM ANOVA, with change scores from the partner data being covariates. Findings indicated that the design was a feasible model, which demonstrated potential for the management of stress, and possibly problems such as adherence, in PLWH. A manual was developed as a part of this intervention and is currently available. PMID:18191771
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49
Marini, R.C. [Camp Dresser and McKee Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Gates, S.R.; Tunnicliffe, P.W. [CDM Engineers and Constructors Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)
The court dockets are overflowing with lawsuits filed by parties involved in environmental restoration (hazardous waste site cleanup) projects. And it seems that no one is free from potential liability these days. Among other common litigation scenarios, remedial action contractors are suing their clients, the owners; employees and other site workers are suing their employers, the remedial action contractors; and owners are suing their designers, the engineers. In the search for viable solutions to the litigation-riddled environmental cleanup business, several options are emerging. Among them, the design/build, or turnkey approach has become common, as has the less well known, but increasingly popular partnering concept, in which the owner, engineer, and constructor form an alliance that allows them to work in concert toward common goals and under shared and properly assigned risks.
Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Overup, Camilla S.; Neighbors, Clayton
Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals’ perceptions of their partner’s alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one’s perception of one’s romantic partner’s drinking as problematic on one’s relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one’s partner’s drinking. Both partners in romantic heterosexual relationships (N = 78 dyads) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and problems, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and the perception that their partner’s drinking was problematic. Analyses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) revealed a partner-moderated actor interaction, such that partner self-reported drinking significantly moderated the association between the actor’s perception of their partner’s drinking as problematic and actor relationship outcomes. Results indicated that when partners drank at higher levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic did not have an effect. These individuals were less satisfied regardless of their perceptions. However, when partners drank at lower levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic was negatively associated with relationship outcomes. Furthermore, for alcohol consumption, three-way interactions with gender emerged, indicating that this effect was stronger for males. Results extend the literature on drinking in relationships and on interpersonal perception. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23438240
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence…
Reber, Paul J.
Psychological Bulletin The Predictive Validity of Ideal Partner Preferences: A Review and Meta. (2013, April 15). The Predictive Validity of Ideal Partner Preferences: A Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0032432 #12;The Predictive Validity of Ideal
Describes how one English teacher developed an approach to teaching writing that pairs student writers with writers in the community outside the school. Outlines the features of this writing partners project, including the responsibilities of each partner. Argues that such programs foster writer skill and self-esteem. (HB)
O'Reilly, Sarah; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty
One-hundred-and-ninety seven undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 22-item questionnaire designed to assess the qualities college women want in their prospective marital partners. The data revealed that women (when compared to what men want in a partner) were significantly more likely to prefer men…
McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.
This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…
Nomination Form Rural Clinician Partner's Program Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Washington University, St. Louis The Clinician Partner's Program (CPP) is part of the ADRC's Rural Educational Outreach-residency" for health professionals who serve older adults living in rural areas of Missouri. The primary goal
Keith C Klostermann
Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these
Goebel, Camille A.; Umoja, Aminata; DeHaan, Robert L.
Undergraduate college "science partners" provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K-5 teachers in a university-school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed…
Whisman, Mark A.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.
Using path analysis and hierarchical linear modeling, the authors evaluated the associations between both partners' level of depression and anxiety, as measured by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) content scales, and both partners' level of marital satisfaction among married couples (N = 774) that participated in the MMPI…
Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…
Arriaga, Ximena B.; Capezza, Nicole M.
Partner violence causes many negative outcomes for the target of the violence. Preventing negative outcomes in part hinges on altogether preventing the violence from occurring. There have been advances in violence prevention that the authors briefly review. However, some of the most notable advances focus on dealing with partner violence once it…
Ziurys, Lucy M.
partner or spouse of the same or opposite sex; AND D. is not currently married to anyone or legallyQualified Opposite-Sex Domestic Partner Certification Instructions Adding a Qualified Opposite-Sex separated from anyone else; AND E. is not a blood relative any closer than would prohibit marriage between
and Organization Interfaces]: Synchronous interaction. Keywords Human-Machine-Interaction, Remote Intimacy, Design-shirt or a scarf with the partner's typical perfume (save the smell of the partner) . Physical closeness to experience sensual touch and the physiological presence of the loved person. 2. UNITED-PULSE CONCEPT-DESIGN
Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.
Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…
TRD - Your Partner for Technical R&D Crystalline Solids Wei-Qin (Tony) Tong, Ph.D. Novartis and Challenges #12;TRD - Your Partner for Technical R&D BackgroundBackground -- DefinitionsDefinitions Solid-States Organic Molecular Solid Amorphous Crystalline Polymorphs Solvates/Hydrates Monotropic Enantiotropic
Hamby, Sherry L.; And Others
In this study, 224 female undergraduates completed 4 different partner violence measures. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a one-factor model best fit the data, but that the measures did not represent the construct equally well. Frequency measures were more strongly associated with the latent construct, "partner violence" than were…
IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners Cloud computing is a key part of driving greater alignment between business and IT. IBM Service Management and Cloud Computing to the IBM technical community. IBM Cloud Computing Business Partner Technical Enablement Offering
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as well…
Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and…
Adjiwanou, Vissého; N'Bouke, Afiwa
We question the positive effect of intimate partner violence on women's modern contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa found in previous studies. The explanations offered for this counter-intuitive result are either that women make greater efforts to avoid childbearing in conflictual relationships, or that endogeneity bias exists. Endogeneity bias stems from the inability of researchers to attribute a specific cause to one variable when they are unable to control for related missing covariates. Demographic and Health Survey data from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa provide evidence for the latter but not the former. Indeed, using simple probit regression models, we observe a positive relationship between intimate partner violence and modern contraceptive use in Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. This effect remains unchanged when controlling for various measures of women's autonomy in the household, showing that these two variables interact with contraceptive use independently. However, the use of recursive bivariate probit and Rosenbaum bounds sensitivity analysis to control for endogeneity biases erodes the initial positive effect in the five countries, although only partially in Burkina Faso. Our research shows that the previously reported findings arise from poor model specification and highlights the need for more appropriate data to assess the effect of intimate partner violence on modern contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26059986
Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (?.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572
Wenger, Marin R
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an issue of serious public concern. However, policy interventions and theoretical development have been complicated by mixed evidence about whether men or women experience higher levels of IPV. Some of this discrepancy arises from measurement and whether abuse and victimization are asked of one or both partners. This study uses matched partner data from 1,393 heterosexual couples collected in Wave IIIof the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to examine partner IIV reporting discrepancies and develop hypotheses for why such discrepancies might exist. Consistent with expectations, the findings suggest that research on the prevalence of IIV should rely on reports from both partners, rather than just one, and that gendered patterns of social desirability create differences in men's and women's IPV reporting. PMID:25929136
Neurotic characteristics of spouses have often been associated with dissatisfaction with the partner relationship. This article addresses the question whether the link between dissatisfaction with the relationship and neuroticism appears during the partner relationship, or whether it is present before the person enters the relationship. Utilizing data from a Swedish longitudinal project, satisfaction with the partner relationship was linked with neuroticism both in adolescence and in adulthood. Adolescent neuroticism was measured at age 15 with the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ), and adult neuroticism was measured at age 37 with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-I). Results showed that a lower degree of satisfaction in partner relationships in mid-life was linked with higher concurrent neuroticism scores. Opposing most of the previous studies, this association appeared for both men and women. Higher neuroticism in adolescence was, however, not significantly associated with satisfaction in partner relationships in mid-life. PMID:15016282
Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B
This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men. PMID:25222339
Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel
In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. PMID:25462878
Lenahan, Patricia M
Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics. PMID:19459093
King, J; Whitfield, M
OBJECTIVE--To provide a guide to choosing a new partner in general practice by using psychometric assessments. DESIGN--A descriptive account of the experience of one practice. SETTING--A general practice in Bristol. RESULTS--The partners found that using a psychologist to assess both themselves and the candidates facilitated the selection process. During the pre-interview stage the partners learnt about the dynamics of the practice and their own personalities. The examination of the candidates by an outside assessor as well as the partners gave a sense of security and a certainty that mistakes were unlikely to be made. CONCLUSION--More practices should consider adopting a selection process using psychometric assessments when appointing a new partner. PMID:2271828
Northern British Columbia, University of
REAL ESTATE FOUNDATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PARTNERING FUND GUIDELINES The intent of the Real Estate Foundation of British Columbia Partnering Fund, generated by an endowment to UNBC by the Real Estate: UNBC and the Real Estate Foundation of British Columbia share a mutual interest in advancing practices
Green, Eric P; Blattman, Christopher; Jamison, Julian; Annan, Jeannie
Intimate partner violence is widespread and represents an obstacle to human freedom and a significant public health concern. Poverty alleviation programs and efforts to economically "empower" women have become popular policy options, but theory and empirical evidence are mixed on the relationship between women's empowerment and the experience of violence. We study the effects of a successful poverty alleviation program on women's empowerment and intimate partner relations and violence from 2009 to 2011. In the first experiment, a cluster-randomized superiority trial, 15 marginalized people (86% women) were identified in each of 120 villages (n = 1800) in Gulu and Kitgum districts in Uganda. Half of villages were randomly assigned via public lottery to immediate treatment: five days of business training, $150, and supervision and advising. We examine intent-to-treat estimates of program impact and heterogeneity in treatment effects by initial quality of partner relations. 16 months after the initial grants, the program doubled business ownership and incomes (p < 0.01); we show that the effect on monthly income, however, is moderated by initial quality of intimate partner relations. We also find small increases in marital control (p < 0.05), self-reported autonomy (p < 0.10), and quality of partner relations (p < 0.01), but essentially no change in intimate partner violence. In a second experiment, we study the impact of a low-cost attempt to include household partners (often husbands) in the process. Participants from the 60 waitlist villages (n = 904) were randomly assigned to participate in the program as individuals or with a household partner. We observe small, non-significant decreases in abuse and marital control and large increases in the quality of relationships (p < 0.05), but no effects on women's attitudes toward gender norms and a non-significant reduction in autonomy. Involving men and changing framing to promote more inclusive programming can improve relationships, but may not change gender attitudes or increase business success. Increasing women's earnings has no effect on intimate partner violence. PMID:25875324
Robison, Julie; Curry, Leslie; Gruman, Cynthia; Porter, Martha; Henderson, Charles R., Jr.; Pillemer, Karl
Purpose: This article reports the results of a randomized, controlled evaluation of Partners in Caregiving in a Special Care Environment, an intervention designed to improve communication and cooperation between staff and families of residents in nursing home dementia programs. Design and Methods: Participants included 388 family members and 384…
... false Disqualification of partners of DOT employees. 300.17 Section 300.17...PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF CONDUCT IN DOT PROCEEDINGS UNDER THIS CHAPTER § 300.17 Disqualification of partners of DOT employees. No partner of a DOT...
Jhon Goes in Center, . D.
In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Native America. As a thirty year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. A recent relationship building endeavor that utilized a recent Executive Order to empower federal agencies to work hand in hand with tribal colleges has resulted in a formal Memorandum of Understanding with the United States Geologic Survey. This relationship has paved the way toward significant progress that is measured in the enhanced educational services and relevant research for Sinte Gleska University and the Lakota Nation. As an institution of higher learning for the region in the Great Plains, SGU's leadership is unparalleled. Sinte Gleska University proposes to share a vision of collaboration with not only sister institutions but with the greater national and global community. This vision is already in place with SGU's leadership in developing and participating in the World Indigenous Higher Education Consortium. As a recent recipient of the NASA REASoN CAN award and ongoing projects with the NSF and NOAA, SGU will exemplify the culmination of these endeavors to illustrate and promote innovative partnerships with Federal Agencies, Industry Partners, mainstream academic institutions and other tribal colleges.
Qasenco, a joint venture planning to build a methanol plant at Umm Said, Qatar, will issue prequalification documents to contractors in early July. Partnership agreements to form the joint venture are expected to be concluded at the beginning of June. Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (Doha) will hold 50%. The remaining share will be split between Petronas (Kuala Lumpur) and Penspen (London). Other shareholders may also join. Market studies for the 2,500-m.t./day plant were based on ICI`s technology, but the partners want to look at other available processes-including Mitsubishi Gas Chemical`s-before committing to the $400-million venture. Schroder Wagg (London) has been appointed as the project`s financial adviser. About 30% of the financing is expected to come from equity and the rest as longterm credit. Petronas, the Malaysian state-owned energy company, already owns a 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant at Labuan but needs more product for its customers in the Far East. The company is interested in taking at least 50% of the output from the Umm Said plant.
The relationship between sexual attitudes and number of heterosexual partners in a survey-based and nationally representative random sample of 551 British men aged 16-25 years was examined. The main predictor of the number of partners in the last 5 years was the time since the first sexual intercourse, whereas age, marital status, education, social class, smoking, and alcohol consumption contributed on a smaller but significant level. Sexual attitudes were summarized in terms of three underlying dimensions which could be described as permissiveness, attitudes toward sexual relations of same-sex partners, and importance of orgasm for sex. None of these was a significant predictor of the number of partners in the last 5 years. Both permissiveness and number of partners were associated with the age of first sexual intercourse and other background variables indicating opportunities for social contact. In conclusion, common factors of sexual attitudes and the number of sexual partners are not directly related but rather jointly predicted by a very similar set of background variables such as age, time since first sexual intercourse, social class, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Given the absence of a significant relationship between sexual attitudes and number of young men's partners, promoting safer sex may be a more sensible strategy than trying to change these attitudes. PMID:11286003
Eimontaite, Iveta; Nicolle, Antoinette; Schindler, Igor; Goel, Vinod
Despite the prevalence of studies examining economic decision-making as a purely rational phenomenon, common sense suggests that emotions affect our decision-making particularly in a social context. To explore the influence of emotions on economic decision-making, we manipulated opponent-directed emotions prior to engaging participants in two social exchange decision-making games (the Trust Game and the Prisoner's Dilemma). Participants played both games with three different (fictional) partners and their tendency to defect was measured. Prior to playing each game, participants exchanged handwritten “essays” with their partners, and subsequently exchanged evaluations of each essay. The essays and evaluations, read by the participant, were designed to induce either anger, sympathy, or a neutral emotional response toward the confederate with whom they would then play the social exchange games. Galvanic skin conductance level (SCL) showed enhanced physiological arousal during anger induction compared to both the neutral and sympathy conditions. In both social exchange games, participants were most likely to defect against their partner after anger induction and least likely to defect after sympathy induction, with the neutral condition eliciting intermediate defection rates. This pattern was found to be strongest in participants exhibiting low cognitive control (as measured by a Go/no-Go task). The findings indicate that emotions felt toward another individual alter how one chooses to interact with them, and that this influence depends both on the specific emotion induced and the cognitive control of the individual. PMID:23898313
Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.
This paper combines relational perspectives on gender identity with social network structural perspectives on health to understand men’s sexual functioning. We argue that network positions that afford independence and control over social resources are consistent with traditional masculine roles and may therefore affect men’s sexual performance. For example, when a heterosexual man’s female partner has more frequent contact with his confidants than he does–a situation that we refer to as partner betweenness – his relational autonomy, privacy, and control are constrained. Analyses of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) show that about a quarter of men experience partner betweenness, and that these men are 92 percent more likely to report problems getting and/or maintaining an erection (95% CI: 1.274, 2.881). This association is strongest among the youngest men in the sample, which may reflect changing conceptions of masculinity in later life. We close by considering several explanations for these findings, and urge additional research on the linkages between health, gender, and network structure. PMID:22003520
Deribe, Kebede; Beyene, Biruk Kebede; Tolla, Anbessu; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu
Background Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. Result In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%–67.9%). The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%–53.4%)] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8–44.5)]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%–44.8%)] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. Conclusion Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time. PMID:22558376
Hungate, Bruce A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Ravel, Jacques; Prodger, Jessica L.; Serwadda, David; Kigozi, Godfrey; Galiwango, Ronald M.; Nalugoda, Fred; Keim, Paul; Wawer, Maria J.; Price, Lance B.; Gray, Ronald H.
ABSTRACT Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal bacterial imbalance associated with risk for HIV and poor gynecologic and obstetric outcomes. Male circumcision reduces BV-associated bacteria on the penis and decreases BV in female partners, but the link between penile microbiota and female partner BV is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that having a female partner with BV increases BV-associated bacteria in uncircumcised men. We characterized penile microbiota composition and density (i.e., the quantity of bacteria per swab) by broad-coverage 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 165 uncircumcised men from Rakai, Uganda. Associations between penile community state types (CSTs) and female partner’s Nugent score were assessed. We found seven distinct penile CSTs of increasing density (CST1 to 7). CST1 to 3 and CST4 to 7 were the two major CST groups. CST4 to 7 had higher prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria, such as Mobiluncus and Dialister, than CST1 to 3. Men with CST4 to 7 were significantly more likely to have a female partner with a high Nugent score (P = 0.03). Men with two or more extramarital partners were significantly more likely to have CST4 to 7 than men with only marital partners (CST4 to 7 prevalence ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 2.92). Female partner Nugent BV is significantly associated with penile microbiota. Our data support the exchange of BV-associated bacteria through intercourse, which may explain BV recurrence and persistence. PMID:26081632
Beauceron, Stéphanie; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Ruiz-Álvarez, José D.
Single production of vectorlike top partners is becoming a major focus of new searches, as the increasing mass limits on vectorlike quarks obtained by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations are such that single production is becoming competitive with respect to pair production. Typically searches focus on decays containing leptons in the final state in order to have less background from the Standard Model processes. However the current centre of mass energies available in the latest LHC runs limit the searches to low masses. Fully hadronic final states may be an alternative option for discovery, as they allow a larger number of signal events if backgrounds can be kept under control. We study the fully hadronic decay of a singly produced vectorlike top partner and we show a strategy to extract the signal over the background, considering as a benchmark the 20 fb-1 of data collected at 8 TeV with the run I of the LHC.
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Owen, Lee D.
Female romantic partners’ influence on official crime occurrence for men across a 12-year period in early adulthood was examined within a comprehensive dynamic prediction model including both social learning and social control predictors. We hypothesized that relationship stability, rather than attachment to partner, would be associated with reduced likelihood of crime, whereas women’s antisocial behavior would be a risk factor, along with deviant peer association. Models were tested on a sample of at-risk men [the Oregon Youth Study (OYS)] using zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) modeling predicting to 1) arrest persistence (class and count) and 2) arrest onset class. Findings indicated that women’s antisocial behavior was predictive of both onset and persistence of arrests for men, and deviant peer association was predictive of persistence. Relationship stability was protective against persistence. PMID:19079751
Fischer, Melanie S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Kirby, Jennifer S.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective Romantic partners can play an important role in the recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN). It is important to understand partners’ behaviors and variables associated with their own distress. The aim was to examine associations of patients’ perceived negative consequences of AN, behavioral strategies employed by partners, and partner distress. Method We used a cross-sectional design to assess associations between self-reports of patients’ perceived negative consequences of AN, partners’ caregiver distress, negative affect, relationship satisfaction, and observational coding measures of partners’ behavioral strategies of change promotion and acceptance/validation. Sixteen adult patient-partner dyads in committed relationships were assessed at baseline of a couple-based intervention for AN. Results Partners’ change promotion moderated the association between patients’ perceived negative consequences of AN and partners’ caregiver distress. Partners’ acceptance/validation was associated with partners’ negative affect. Discussion This report represents the first description of specific partner behaviors in the context of AN. Partners who reported the least distress were those who were trying to promote changes in AN behaviors in patients who reported high negative consequences of AN, and partners who were trying to show understanding of the patients’ experience. Future studies should examine the impact of partner behaviors on AN treatment outcome. PMID:25087574
Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Ryabchenko, Karen; Castillo, Diane; Freund, Rachel; Heyman, Richard
This study examined the influence of trauma history and PTSD symptoms on the behavior of veterans and their intimate partners (287 couples; N = 574) observed during conflict discussions and coded using the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System (Heyman, 2004). Dyadic structural equation modeling analyses showed that PTSD was associated with more frequent displays of hostility and psychological abuse and fewer expressions of acceptance and humor in both veterans and their partners. Findings provide new insight into the social and emotional deficits associated with PTSD and emphasize the importance of addressing the trauma histories and PTSD of both partners when treating veteran couples with relationship disturbance. PMID:23523947
Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L
Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy. PMID:24473923
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.
Recent studies have found significant but relatively modest associations in parenting across generations, suggesting additional influences on parenting than experience in the family of origin. The present prospective, cross-generational study of at-risk men (Oregon Youth Study) focuses on fathers’ negative discipline practices with their 2- to 3-year-old children. The theoretical model is based on a dynamic developmental systems approach to problematic family functioning, which points to the importance of developmental systems, including family risk context and key influential social interactional systems, and emphasizes influence that is directly pertinent to the outcome of interest. Path modeling indicated that the men’s poor and harsh discipline practices were predicted by partners’ problem behavior (substance use and antisocial behavior) and negative discipline practices, as well as by poor discipline experienced in the family of origin, men’s own problem behavior, ages at which they became fathers, and family socioeconomic status were controlled. Findings indicate the importance of focusing on influence dynamics across parents. PMID:17899359
Beydoun, Hind A.; Al-Sahab, Ban; Beydoun, May A.; Tamim, Hala
Purpose Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health concern predominantly affecting women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to intimate partner violence before, during or after pregnancy on postpartum depression in a nationally representative sample of Canadian women. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Maternity Experience Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006. A population-based sample of 8,542 women 15 years and older who delivered singleton live births was selected from all Canadian provinces and territories; of those, 6,421 completed a computer-assisted telephone interview. Recent experiences with and threats of physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner were examined in relation to postpartum depression assessed through the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. Results The prevalence of postpartum depression was 7.5% (95% CI: 6.8, 8.2). Controlling for confounders, odds of postpartum depression were significantly higher among women who reported partner violence in the past two years as opposed to those who did not (adjusted OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.45). Conclusions Intimate partner violence is positively associated with postpartum depression among Canadian women. Implications for healthcare practice are discussed. PMID:20609336
Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.
This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274
Xu, Mengshu; Soloveychik, Maria; Ranger, Mathieu; Schertzberg, Michael; Shah, Zarna; Raisner, Ryan; Venkatasubrahmanyan, Shivkumar; Tsui, Kyle; Gebbia, Marinella; Hughes, Tim; van Bakel, Harm; Nislow, Corey; Madhani, Hiten D; Meneghini, Marc D
Gametes are among the most highly specialized cells produced during development. Although gametogenesis culminates in transcriptional quiescence in plants and animals, regulatory mechanisms controlling this are unknown. Here, we confirm that gamete differentiation in the single-celled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accompanied by global transcriptional shutoff following the completion of meiosis. We show that Jhd2, a highly conserved JARID1-family histone H3K4 demethylase, activates protein-coding gene transcription in opposition to this programmed transcriptional shutoff, sustaining the period of productive transcription during spore differentiation. Moreover, using genome-wide nucleosome, H3K4me, and transcript mapping experiments, we demonstrate that JHD2 globally represses intergenic noncoding transcription during this period. The widespread transcriptional defects of JHD2 mutants are associated with precocious differentiation and the production of stress-sensitive spores, demonstrating that Jhd2 regulation of the global postmeiotic transcriptional program is critical for the production of healthy meiotic progeny. PMID:23123093
Xu, Mengshu; Soloveychik, Maria; Ranger, Mathieu; Schertzberg, Michael; Shah, Zarna; Raisner, Ryan; Venkatasubrahmanyan, Shivkumar; Tsui, Kyle; Gebbia, Marinella; Hughes, Tim; van Bakel, Harm; Nislow, Corey; Madhani, Hiten D.; Meneghini, Marc D.
SUMMARY Gametes are among the most highly specialized cells produced during development. Although gametogenesis culminates in transcriptional quiescence in plants and animals, regulatory mechanisms controlling this are unknown. Here, we confirm that gamete differentiation in the single-celled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accompanied by global transcriptional shutoff following the completion of meiosis. We show that Jhd2, a highly conserved JARID1-family histone H3K4 demethylase, activates protein-coding gene transcription in opposition to this programmed transcriptional shutoff, sustaining the period of productive transcription during spore differentiation. Moreover, using genome-wide nucleosome, H3K4me, and transcript mapping experiments, we demonstrate that JHD2 globally represses intergenic noncoding transcription during this period. The widespread transcriptional defects of JHD2 mutants are associated with precocious differentiation and the production of stress-sensitive spores, demonstrating that Jhd2 regulation of the global postmeiotic transcriptional program is critical for the production of healthy meiotic progeny. PMID:23123093
Beutler, L E; Scott, F B; Karacan, I; Baer, P E; Rogers, R R; Morris, J
We evaluated 49 women whose sexual partners were organically impotent and subsequently received either an inflatable or noninflatable penile prosthesis. The women comprised three groups, based on the type of prostheses their partners had received: inflatable (n = 34), noninflatable (n = 11), and a double implant group (n = 4). The comparisons made were (1) dimensions of sexual satisfaction, (2) emotional stability, (3) satisfaction with the prosthesis, and (4) relationship changes. Two special questionnaires and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory were utilized in this evaluation. Women in the inflatable prosthesis group were found to be significantly more satisfied with the quality of their sexual relations and with their partner's prosthesis than were the women in the noninflatable prosthesis group. There apparently is a general advantage to women whose partners have received an inflatable prosthesis compared with the noninflatable alternatives. PMID:6506394
... Violence Survey IPV-Related Impacts Among Victims of Rape, Physical Violence, and/ or Stalking by an Intimate ... their fullest potential. Overlap of Lifetime Intimate Partner Rape, Stalking, and Physical Victimization Female Victims Male Victims ...
Collins, Gary S.
WSU SPOKANE'S HEALTH CARE PARTNERS · Pullman Memorial Hospital · Kootenai · Community Health Association of Spokane (CHAS) · Health Sciences and Services Authority · Inland Northwest Health Services · Spokane Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery · Inland Imaging · MEDEX Northwest · Pacific
...FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not...
...FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not...
...FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not...
A set of supersymmetric partners of the Rosen–Morse potential is generated. The corresponding physical properties are studied—in\\u000a particular, the change in intensity of the singularities at the boundaries of the domain.
Mueller, Jessie L
In this thesis, we present the design and implementation of a data storage and viewing system for students' classroom work. Our system, which extends the classroom interaction system called Classroom Learning Partner, ...
Partnering allows complex environmental challenges to be efficiently addressed by leveraging resources and scientific expertise. The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) routinely collaborates with other federal, state, and local governme...
Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures 1. Introduction has significantly strengthened the legal protections for students during periods of pregnancy who is pregnant or has decided to terminate a pregnancy. The arrangements and procedures detailed
Hearn, Kimberly D; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa
It is now becoming clear how important it is to understand women's HIV risk in the context of their sexual relationships with male partners, particularly among more vulnerable populations of women such as drug-involved women and women with physically abusive partners. Drawing from in-depth interviews with a sample of 38 ethnically diverse women, this study explores the meanings of monogamy and concurrent sexual partnerships in the relationships of women in methadone treatment with a history of physical abuse. Moreover, the ways in which having a history of intimate partner violence influences women's desire and ability to insist on monogamy is addressed. The women's narratives indicated that the majority valued monogamy and reported practicing it; however, many women were indifferent to this ideal or were unable to challenge non-monogamous partners for fear of severe reprisals. In addition, men's suspicions about violations of monogamy on the part of the women often resulted in extreme violence. PMID:15933837
This dissertation investigates three sets of research questions. First, how can partner selection be used as a mechanism to minimize R&D alliance participantsÃ¢Â?Â? concerns about knowledge leakage? And what is the nature ...
Annelies De Ridder; Agnieszka Rusinowska
We study two different ways of forming multi-partner alliances between ?rms with the central idea that procedure is an important factor in multi-partner alliance formation. In the ?rst procedure, an alliance is formed simultaneously, while in the second, step-by-step procedure, members are added one by one. In the model we present, each ?rm is assumed to have a multidimensional maneuvering
Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Walton, Maureen A; Sanborn, Michelle; Kraus, Shane; Blow, Fred; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T
Studies of violence in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings typically focus on partner aggression (PA) although non-partner aggression (NPA) is also a common problem. This study examines potentially distinct paths of distal and proximal risk factors related to aggression towards non-partners (NPA) and partners (PA) among a SUD treatment sample. The sample included 176 adults reporting past-year violence. Bivariate analyses indicated several distal and proximal factors were associated with NPA and PA. According to multivariate, multiple mediation analyses youth aggression history was a factor for both NPA and PA. Alcohol and cocaine use and psychological distress were associated with NPA; marijuana use was associated with PA. There also was evidence of indirect effects of distal factors on NPA and PA. The results suggest that there may be substantially different dynamics associated with NPA and PA, and have implications for developing screening, assessment and treatment protocols targeting violence among individuals in SUD treatment. PMID:25012548
Lau, Janet; Castelli, Laura A; Lin, Emme C K; Macaulay, S Lance
Akt protein kinase has been shown to play a pivotal role in diverse cell functions, including motility, apoptosis, growth and metabolism. How it differentially regulates these diverse functions is of significant interest. Three isoforms have been well characterized, Akt1, 2, and 3, encoded by separate genes, but showing high homology over the entire coding sequence (> 80%). An area of variability between the three isoforms is the C-terminal tail. To find potentially regulating binding partners of Akt2, the isoform implicated in metabolic control, we used a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein expressing the C-terminal 75 residues of Akt2 (GST-Akt2 tail) to screen for proteins that specifically bound the Akt2 tail. Elongation factor 1alpha (EF1alpha) and beta-tubulin were identified as binding partners for the Akt2 tail by peptide mass fingerprinting. These two proteins have themselves been previously identified as interacting partners (Nakazawa et al.FEBS Lett. 453,29-34, 1999). Using CHOT cells that overexpress insulin receptors and HA-tagged Akt2, we showed that EF1alpha co-immunoprecipitated with HA-tagged Akt2. It is thus possible that these proteins colocalise as part of a regulatory signaling complex with the cytoskeleton directing them to sites of cell activity. PMID:16652225
Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Lixing
Empirical observations have shown that cooperative partners can compete for common resources, but what factors determine whether partners cooperate or compete remain unclear. Using the reciprocal fig–fig wasp mutualism, we show that nonlinear amplification of interference competition between fig wasps—which limits the fig wasps' ability to use a common resource (i.e. female flowers)—keeps the common resource unsaturated, making cooperation locally stable. When interference competition was manually prevented, the fitness correlation between figs and fig wasps went from positive to negative. This indicates that genetic relatedness or reciprocal exchange between cooperative players, which could create spatial heterogeneity or self-restraint, was not sufficient to maintain stable cooperation. Moreover, our analysis of field-collected data shows that the fitness correlation between cooperative partners varies stochastically, and that the mainly positive fitness correlation observed during the warm season shifts to a negative correlation during the cold season owing to an increase in the initial oviposition efficiency of each fig wasp. This implies that the discriminative sanction of less-cooperative wasps (i.e. by decreasing the egg deposition efficiency per fig wasp) but reward to cooperative wasps by fig, a control of the initial value, will facilitate a stable mutualism. Our finding that asymmetric interaction leading to an indeterminate fitness interaction between symbiont (i.e. cooperative actors) and host (i.e. recipient) has the potential to explain why conflict has been empirically observed in both well-documented intraspecific and interspecific cooperation systems. PMID:21490005
Ireland, Timothy O; Smith, Carolyn A
Links between living in a partner-violent home and subsequent aggressive and antisocial behavior are suggested by the "cycle of violence" hypothesis derived from social learning theory. Although there is some empirical support, to date, findings have been generally limited to cross-sectional studies predominantly of young children, or retrospective studies of adults. We address this issue with prospective data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS), an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the development of antisocial behavior in a community sample of 1,000 urban youth followed from age 14 to adulthood. The original panel included 68% African American, 17% Hispanic, and 15% White participants, and was 72.9% male, and 27.1% female. Measures come from a combination of sources including interviews with parents, interviews with youth, and official records. We test the general hypothesis that there is a relationship between living in partner-violent homes during adolescence, and later antisocial behavior and relationship violence. Employing logistic regression and controlling for related covariates, including child physical abuse, we find a significant relationship between exposure to parental violence and adolescent conduct problems. The relationship between exposure to parental violence and measures of antisocial behavior and relationship aggression dissipates in early adulthood, however, exposure to severe parental violence is significantly related to early adulthood violent crime, and intimate partner violence. Our results suggest that exposure to severe parental violence during adolescence is indeed consequential for violent interactions in adulthood. PMID:19636748
Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Duke, Michael; Ames, Genevieve
The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of male unemployment and each partner’s problem drinking to risk for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of construction industry workers and their spouses/partners. Participants in the sample (n=848 couples) completed cross-sectional health behavior surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models of MFPV and FMPV, with adjustment for demographic and psychosocial variables, were developed. Approximately 20% of couples reported MFPV, and 24% reported FMPV. Results indicated that couples in which the male was a problem drinker, and in which the male worker reported being currently unemployed, were at risk for MFPV. Number of months unemployed by the male worker was significantly associated with FMPV, but problem drinking was not associated with this outcome. Male and female impulsivity were significantly associated with risk for MFPV and FMPV, and the male’s report of adverse childhood events was associated with increased likelihood of MFPV. There was no evidence for the effects of unemployment being moderated (exacerbated) by problem drinking. Workplace-based prevention efforts may be a feasible and important strategy to reduce problem drinking and partner violence among high-risk occupational groups. PMID:22096270
Alipour, Abbas; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Rajaeefard, Abdorreza; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali
Background Overall, 60-70% of the hepatitis c virus (HCV) transmission routes is parenteral, and in 30-40% of the cases is unknown (e.g. sexual route). Knowing these routes in HIV infected dyads is very important due to clinical and methodological reasons. Objectives The present study aimed to identify and quantitatively investigate HIV-infected individuals and their main heterosexual partners regarding the risk factors of HCV transmission. Patients and Methods One hundred sixty eight of 984 couples were chosen through random generated numbers using a computer program from behavioral consultation center in Shiraz, Iran. We used actor partner independent model (APIM) and multilevel analysis to assess multiple risk factors for HCV, while partitioning the source of risk at the individual and couple levels. Results Age of the index samples was 38.71 ± 7 years, and 33.2 ± 6.3 for their main heterosexual partners; the mean duration of sexual relationship for couples was 11.9 (median = 8.5) years. Multivariate analysis showed that actor risk factor of intravenous drug using (IDU) (AOR= 13.03; 95% CI: 3.9- 43.82) and actor cofactors of HIV positivity (AOR = 7.1; 95% CI: 1.37- 36.97), razor sharing (AOR = 4.81; 95% CI: 1.84- 12.55), sex (AOR = 8.83; 95% CI: 3.16- 24.87), and condom use in sexual activity with main partner (AOR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02- 0.44) were associated with actor HCV positivity. Conclusions Health care providers need to pay special attention to sexual transmission of HCV among HIV-infected individuals, and should recommend control/preventive measures for HCV sexual transmission. PMID:24348647
Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Co-occurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts. PMID:25255940
Charles AS Karamagi; James K Tumwine; Thorkild Tylleskar; Kristian Heggenhougen
BACKGROUND: We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention
UNITED WAY OF GREATER NEW HAVEN CURRENT PARTNERS 2010-2011 United Way of Greater New Haven partners OF GREATER NEW HAVEN CURRENT PARTNERS 2010-2011 United Way of Greater New Haven partners with the following Education Fund Street Outreach Worker Program City of New Haven Steward Program Solar Youth INCOME Economic
Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.
Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…
...San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1. Castle Creek Capital Partners IV, L.P., and persons that are acting with, or control Castle Creek Capital Partners IV, L.P. (Castle Creek Advisors IV, LLC; Castle Creek...
Morris, Jessica L; Lippman, Sheri A; Philip, Susan; Bernstein, Kyle; Neilands, Torsten B; Lightfoot, Marguerita
A self-administered, street intercept survey was conducted in order to examine the relation of stigma and shame associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) to STI testing practices, partner notification, and partner-delivered treatment among young African American men (n=108) in a low-income, urban community in San Francisco with high STI burden. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing STI-related stigma was significantly associated with a decreased odds of STI testing, such that every standard deviation increase in stigma score was associated with 0.62 decreased odds of having been tested (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.38-1.00), controlling for age. STI stigma was also significantly associated with a decreased willingness to notify non-main partners of an STI (aOR: 0.64 95% CI: 0.41-0.99). Participants with higher levels of stigma and shame were also significantly less likely to be willing to deliver STI medication to a partner (stigma aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37-0.88; shame aOR 0.53 95% CI: 0.34-0.83). Findings suggest that STI-related stigma and shame, common in this population, could undermine STI testing, treatment, and partner notification programs. The medical establishment, one of the institutional factors to have reinforced this culture of stigma, must aid efforts to reduce its effects through providing integrated services, reframing sexual health in campaigns, educating clients, and providing wider options to aid disclosure and partner notification practices. PMID:25133501
The U.S. and European partners in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project have awarded contracts to U.S. and Italian firms, respectively, for two prototype antennas. ALMA is a planned telescope array, expected to consist of 64 millimeter-wave antennas with 12-meter diameter dishes. The array will be built at a high-altitude, extremely dry mountain site in Chile's Atacama desert, and is scheduled to be completed sometime in this decade. On February 22, 2000, Associated Universities Inc. (AUI) signed an approximately $6.2 million contract with Vertex Antenna Systems, of Santa Clara, Calif., for construction of one prototype ALMA antenna. AUI operates the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the National Science Foundation under a cooperative agreement. The European partners contracted with the consortium of European Industrial Engineering and Costamasnaga, of Mestre, Italy, on February 21, 2000, for the production of another prototype. (Mestre is located on the inland side of Venice.) The two antennas must meet identical specifications, but will inherently be of different designs. This will ensure that the best possible technologies are incorporated into the final production antennas. Only one of the designs will be selected for final production. Several technical challenges must be met for the antennas to perform to ALMA specifications. Each antenna must have extremely high surface accuracy (25 micrometers, or one-third the diameter of a human hair, over the entire 12-meter diameter). This means that, when completed, the surface accuracy of the ALMA dishes will be 20 times greater than that of the Very Large Array (VLA) antennas, and about 50 times greater than dish antennas for communications or radar. The ALMA antennas must also have extremely high pointing accuracy (0.6 arcseconds). An additional challenge is that the antennas, when installed at the ALMA site in Chile, will be exposed to the ravages of weather at 16,500 feet (5000 meters) elevation. All previous millimeter-wavelength antennas that meet such exacting specifications for surface accuracy and pointing accuracy have been housed within telescope enclosures. The U.S. and European prototype antennas will be delivered to the NRAO VLA site, near Socorro, New Mexico, in October and November of 2001, respectively. Preparations for ALMA prototype testing are already underway at the VLA site. Three pads are being constructed for the antennas to rest on. An ALMA control room within the VLA control building is being established. About ten full-time ALMA staff will be involved in the testing. Additionally, ALMA project members from around the U.S. and the world will visit the VLA site to participate in the test program. The two prototype antennas will first be tested separately. Following that, the two will be linked together and tested as an interferometer. Millimeter-wave astronomy is the study of the universe in the spectral region between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared radiation. In this realm, ALMA will study the structure of the early universe and the evolution of galaxies; gather crucial data on the formation of stars, protoplanetary disks, and planets; and provide new insights on the familiar objects of our own solar system. ALMA is an international partnership between the United States (National Science Foundation) and Europe. European participants include the member states of the European Southern Observatory (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland), the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the Oficina de Ciencia Y Tecnologia/Instituto Geografico Nacional OCYT/IGN (Spain), and the Swedish Natural Science Research Council (NFR). The project is currently in a Design and Development phase governed by a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Europe. It is hoped and expected
Partners In Health and Brigham & Women's Hospitalist Program Background: Partners In Health (PIH) is a health and social justice organization with a mission to build high quality, comprehensive public health systems
Ellis, Jason G.; Deary, Vincent; Troxel, Wendy
Despite Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) being effective, barriers to adherence have been documented. Perceived partner alliance has been shown to influence adherence and treatment outcome across a range of other health conditions. The present study examined patients’ perceptions regarding the role of their partner in CBT-I and the impact of perceived partner alliance on treatment outcome. Twenty-one patients were interviewed, following CBT-I, to examine the areas where partners were thought to influence the process of CBT-I. The majority of statements made during interviews explicitly mentioned a partner’s influence (65%). Additionally, the production of more positive partner statements was associated with better treatment outcome (using the Insomnia Severity Index). The integration of perceived partner alliance, into CBT-I, is discussed. PMID:24527869
Environmental Health & Safety Guidelines for University Safety Partners These guidelines are based to serve as a USP, Schools and Departments should consider these guidelines. The University Safety Partners, chemical hygiene plan, hazardous materials and waste procedures, emergency preparedness planning
Blackbourn, J. M.; And Others
Future collaborative teacher training programs must meet customer needs and foster more shared responsibility. This article considers a medical-school model that offers only graduate-level training, requires training programs to control their own admissions, relocates teacher-educators' offices and coursework in selected school buildings, and…
Yeates, Sarah E; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Emerson, Brent C; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew J G
Despite evidence that variation in male–female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of both sperm types, conspecific sperm gained fertilization precedence. Surprisingly, the species’ identity of the eggs did not explain this cryptic female choice, which instead was primarily controlled by conspecific ovarian fluid, a semiviscous, protein-rich solution that bathes the eggs and is released at spawning. Video analyses revealed that ovarian fluid doubled sperm motile life span and straightened swimming trajectory, behaviors allowing chemoattraction up a concentration gradient. To confirm chemoattraction, cell migration tests through membranes containing pores that approximated to the egg micropyle showed that conspecific ovarian fluid attracted many more spermatozoa through the membrane, compared with heterospecific fluid or water. These combined findings together identify how cryptic female choice can evolve at the gamete level and promote reproductive isolation, mediated by a specific chemoattractive influence of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior. PMID:24299405
Carbonneau, Noémie; Carbonneau, Elise; Cantin, Mélynda; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre
Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively. PMID:26009203
The roles of several presumed factors in the choice of partners during a first group encounter were examined, when the only available information was a ranking of group members' physical attractiveness. After they had received bogus feedback about their own attractiveness rank in a newly formed group, 99 Japanese students were asked to choose a partner for a task. The results indicated that feedback about one's own attractiveness was the primary factor that determined choice of others and that susceptibility to this type of feedback was characterized by a notable gender difference. These findings suggest that when the only information available about others concerns their physical appearance, the choice of partner or competitor, even for appearance-irrelevant tasks, is partially dependent on others' rankings of one's own physical attractiveness. PMID:7776639
Baechler, Michael C.; Dillon, Heather E.; Bartlett, Rosemarie
In 2008 the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Commercial Buildings Partnership (CBP) project to accelerate market adoption of commercially available energy saving technologies into the design process for new and upgraded commercial buildings. The CBP represents a unique collaboration between industry leaders and DOE to develop high performance buildings as a model for future construction and renovation. CBP was implemented in two stages. This paper focuses on lessons learned at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the first stage and discusses some partner insights from the second stage. In the first stage, PNNL and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recruited CBP partners that own large portfolios of buildings. The labs provide assistance to the partners' design teams and make a business case for energy investments.
Keane, F E; Thomas, B J; Whitaker, L; Renton, A; Taylor-Robinson, D
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in a considerable proportion of men remains unaccounted for. We wished to investigate the possible aetiological role of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the commonest cause of abnormal discharge in women, in this condition. METHODS: We carried out two studies. In the first, case-control, study, we recruited men with and without NGU and examined their female partners for evidence of BV. The second, cohort design, study which ran concurrently with the first study involved recruiting women with and without BV and examining their male partners for evidence of NGU. The diagnoses of both NGU and BV were made microscopically to include symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in both disease categories. RESULTS: In the case-control study 51 couples were recruited. Of these 39 men had NGU and 12 (31%) of their female contacts had BV. In contrast, of 12 men without NGU, only one (8%) of the female partners had BV (odds ratio 4.89, 95% CI: 0.51-42.27). When only Chlamydia trachomatis negative patients were considered, the odds ratio for an association between BV and NGU was increased to 6.77, 95% CI: 0.73-62.68). Thirty eight couples were recruited to the cohort design study. Of 17 women with BV, 12 (71%) of their male partners had NGU. In contrast, of 21 women without BV, seven (33%) of their male partners had NGU (p = 0.049, odds ratio 4.8). When only C trachomatis negative patients were considered, the significance of the association was increased (p = 0.037; odds ratio 5.42). CONCLUSIONS: An association exists between NGU and BV, and vice versa. If BV arises de novo the findings could help to explain the development of urethritis in stable sexual relationships. PMID:9534747
Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity and/or compensation of plant biomass does not depend on the degree of AM colonisation but more on the intercropping partner. PMID:23549903
Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic places to identify and prevent intimate partner violence. PMID:25741656
K. Daniel O’Leary; Nathan Tintle; Evelyn J. Bromet; Semyon F. Gluzman
Aims Partner aggression is believed to be widespread in Eastern Europe although systematic evidence is sparse. Using data from\\u000a the World Mental Health (WMH) survey in Ukraine, we present the first population-based findings on the descriptive epidemiology\\u000a of partner aggression among married adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Married men (n = 558) and women (n = 558) were interviewed with the WMH-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) module assessing aggression
Broderick, Debra J; Birbilis, Jean M; Steger, Michael F
Spousal loss is a common event that has been associated with risk of depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Practitioners working with lesbians need comprehensive clinical guidelines that integrate research about lesbian partner loss with contemporary views of grief and bereavement. Using this literature, we make recommendations for clinical practice that address the possible contributions of several factors--social support, emotional closeness, relationship satisfaction, disclosure or non-disclosure of sexual identity and the relationship, faith and/or spirituality, and meaning-making--to the grieving process and positive psychological adjustment of lesbians grieving the death of a partner. PMID:19042734
Anderson, Melissa L; Kobek Pezzarossi, Caroline M
Using a sample of Deaf female undergraduate students, the current study sought to investigate the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics of intimate partner violence victimization in hearing-Deaf and Deaf-Deaf relationships. Initial results suggest that similarities in hearing status and communication preference are associated with increased levels of negotiation within these relationships. However, compatibility in these areas did not co-occur with significant decreases in physical, psychological, or sexual partner violence. Recommendations for future research as well as implications for clinical and educational practice are outlined. PMID:24296466
Buck, Nicole M L; Leenaars, Ellie P E M; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; van Marle, Hjalmar J C
Studies have found that male batterers are more often insecurely attached as compared with nonbatterers. However, it is still not clear how insecure attachment is related to domestic violence. Many studies compared batterers and nonbatterers regarding pathological personality characteristics that are related to attachment (e.g., dependency, jealousy) and generally found that batterers report more personality characteristics. However, these studies did not investigate which role these characteristics played in the relationship between insecure attachment and battering. The first aim of this study is to test which personality characteristics are good candidates to explain the relationship between insecure attachment and domestic violence. The second aim is to test whether personality characteristics are predictive of battering over and above attachment. Seventy-two mainly court-mandated family-only males who were in group treatment for battering are allocated to a securely and an insecurely attached group and compared with 62 nonbatterers. Using questionnaires, self-esteem, dependency, general distrust, distrust in partner, jealousy, lack of empathy, separation anxiety, desire for control, and impulsivity were assessed. This was the first study that examined distrust, separation anxiety, and desire for control in relation to battering. The results show that the relationship between insecure attachment and domestic violence can be explained by separation anxiety and partner distrust. Moreover, only partner distrust increased the risk for battering over and above insecure attachment. The findings suggest the presence of two subtypes among batterers based on attachment style, which has similarities to the family-only and dysphoric-borderline subtypes suggested by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart. Implications of the present findings for therapy are discussed. PMID:22550146
Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Conchell, R; González-Bono, E; Moya-Albiol, L
Aggressive behavior and immune activity are shown to be positively associated in perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). This relationship follows an inverted-U curve, with the most violent individuals showing lower levels of immunocompetence than those with a history of moderate violence. Moreover, the activational and organizational effects of testosterone (T) may indirectly stimulate the immune response. Given this, we used the Trier Social Stress Test to establish whether the salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response to acute stress was a specific psychobiological feature in perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV perpetrators showed higher sIgA levels than controls for the preparation period. Moreover, higher anger expression and T (baseline and AUCi) were only related to higher sIgA levels in IPV perpetrators. We hypothesize that in IPV perpetrators, the use of violence against partners could benefit their psychological well-being - through immunological modifications such as mucosal immunity changes expressed by the sIgA - and so be rewarding for them. This research may provide a wider explanation of why IPV perpetrators use violence against their partners. PMID:24315951
Kelly, Christine A; Friedland, Barbara A; Morar, Neetha S; Katzen, Lauren L; Ramjee, Gita; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Ahmed, Khatija
Gender norms that privilege men's sexual power and pleasure, and distrust of condom use in intimate relationships, leave women vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Vaginal microbicides allow women to exert a degree of control over their sexual health, through responsibility for product insertion as well as the possibility of covert use. In practice, however, the uptake of new HIV-prevention products is heavily influenced by partnership dynamics. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data from two qualitative sub-studies conducted during a Phase 3 microbicide efficacy trial in South Africa. Using transcripts from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 278 female trial participants and 27 male partners, we investigated the extent to which women disclosed microbicide use to their partners, and the level and types of male engagement with microbicide use. Most women chose to communicate with their partners about the trial, but the timing and content of associated discussions differed according to their motivation for disclosure. Men provided their partners with both moral and practical support, but reported a desire for greater involvement in decision-making surrounding microbicide uptake and use. The findings inform recommendations for constructive male participation in future trials and, ultimately, introduction of a marketed product. PMID:25913101
Pham, Huyen Tran; Minh, Tran Hung; Krause, Kathleen H.; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu; VanderEnde, Kristin; Kramer, Michael R.
Purpose We assess the association of men's exposure to violence in childhood--witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative--with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV mediates this relationship and whether men’s attitudes about IPV mediate any relationship of exposure to violence in childhood with perpetration of IPV. Methods 522 married men 18–51 years in Vietnam were interviewed. Multivariate regressions for ordinal and binary responses were estimated to assess these relationships. Results Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of reporting more reasons to hit a wife (aORs, 95%CIs: 1.43, 1.03–2.00 and 1.66, 1.05–2.64, respectively). Men’s lifetime perpetration of IPV accounted fully for these associations. Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of ever perpetrating IPV (aORs, 95%CIs: 3.28, 2.15–4.99 and 4.56, 2.90–7.17, respectively). Attitudes about IPV modestly attenuated these associations. Conclusion Addressing violence in childhood is needed to change men’s risk of perpetrating IPV and greater subsequent justification of it. PMID:24630242
Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn
This study is grounded in theories of information management. Patients with a diagnosed heart-related condition (N=253) completed a survey regarding their perceptions of sharing/not sharing information with a partner about their health condition. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results indicated that although most patients reported sharing "everything" with their partner, others reported not sharing certain topics such as health issues and physical symptoms/ailments. In addition, patients who reported sharing everything with a partner reported significantly greater communication efficacy, and breadth, depth, and frequency of communication about a heart-related condition compared with those who reported not sharing certain topics. Finally, as hypothesized, there were no significant group differences in terms of sharing specific physical and psychological health information. We discuss the findings and implications of the study for nursing practice. PMID:24476675
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women and create a preventable threat to their fertility. One factor that contributes to young women's high rates of STIs is reinfection from an untreated sexual partner. One way to address this problem is through expedited partner therapy, the practice of treating the sexual partners of patients in whom STIs are diagnosed. Expedited partner therapy enables the obstetrician-gynecologist or other provider to give prescriptions or medications to patients to take to their partners without first examining these partners. Despite the effectiveness of expedited partner therapy, numerous legal, medical, practical, and administrative barriers hinder its routine use by obstetrician-gynecologists. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the use of expedited partner therapy as a method of preventing gonorrhea and chlamydial reinfection when a patient's partners are unable or unwilling to seek medical care. Expedited partner therapy should be accompanied by patient counseling and written treatment instructions for the patient's partner(s). Partners receiving expedited partner therapy should be encouraged to seek additional medical evaluation as soon as possible to discuss screening for other STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:26000540
Caron Zlotnick; Nicole M. Capezza; Donna Parker
This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing depression and\\u000a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of low-income pregnant women with recent intimate partner violence (IPV).\\u000a Fifty-four women were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of four sessions\\u000a during pregnancy and one “booster” session within 2 weeks of
Robert F Valois; John E Oeltmann; Jennifer Waller; James R Hussey
Purpose: To examine the relationship between number of sexual partners and selected health risk behaviors in a statewide sample of public high school students.Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to secure usable sexual risk-taking, substance use, and violence\\/aggression data from 3805 respondents. Because simple polychotomous logistic regression analysis revealed a significant Race
...BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 714.408-170 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable procedures and requirements. [77 FR 8171, Feb. 14,...
, 2012; Geurts et al., 2012). Non-symbiotic rhizosphere microbes have received much less attentionMolecular Plant RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Rhizosphere Microbes as Essential Partners for Plant Stress appears to depend on their association with certain microbes, raising a number of ques- tions: What
This paper examines the emerging role of the Library Information Commons for providing integrated instruction and support of student learning with a focus on the Georgia Institute of Technology. It reports on the success of the Information Commons as a collaborative venture between the Library and Information Technology, discusses organizing principles, and reviews the literature on partnering for student learning
Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.
The study was a cross-sectional examination of African American women positive for intimate partner violence (IPV) who presented to the medical or psychiatric emergency department (ED) for treatment. African American women with a recent history of IPV who presented following an attempted suicide (n = 100) were compared to demographically…
Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas
Reconciliation, a post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents, is an important mechanism for reducing the costs of aggressive conflict in primates and some other mammals as it may repair the opponents' relationship and reduce post-conflict distress. Opponents who share a valuable relationship are expected to be more likely to reconcile as for such partners the benefits of relationship repair should outweigh the risk of renewed aggression. In birds, however, post-conflict behavior has thus far been marked by an apparent absence of reconciliation, suggested to result either from differing avian and mammalian strategies or because birds may not share valuable relationships with partners with whom they engage in aggressive conflict. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of reconciliation in a group of captive subadult ravens (Corvus corax) and show that it is more likely to occur after conflicts between partners who share a valuable relationship. Furthermore, former opponents were less likely to engage in renewed aggression following reconciliation, suggesting that reconciliation repairs damage caused to their relationship by the preceding conflict. Our findings suggest not only that primate-like valuable relationships exist outside the pair bond in birds, but that such partners may employ the same mechanisms in birds as in primates to ensure that the benefits afforded by their relationships are maintained even when conflicts of interest escalate into aggression. These results provide further support for a convergent evolution of social strategies in avian and mammalian species. PMID:21464962
A sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) can be distinguished within the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that is specifically larger in males than in females. The SDN has been implicated in both motor aspects of copulation and expression of sexual partner preferences in experimental animal and humans. Six to ...
Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.; Ingram, Jerry G.; Li, Han
This study examined outcomes for faculty and community partners of a gerontological curriculum enrichment effort at a midwestern state university. The study was supported by the John A. Hartford Foundation. Faculty from three academic centers around the state were involved in revising the foundation (core) curriculum. Community practitioners from…
dd/mm/yy 3 Date of return to work dd/mm/yy If the child is born early, rights of entitlement with the above) for the child's upbringing, and 3 I am making the application to take time off work to support/placement of child). 2. Please read the Paternity/Partner Leave Policy and Procedure, available via the HR Family
...briefing on the Partner Vetting System (PVS) pilot program. The objective of the briefing is to provide information about the PVS pilot program. Members of the public may...Development (USAID) will brief on the PVS pilot program. The briefing will be...
Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Jordano, Pedro; Carstensen, Daniel W; Olesen, Jens M
Although species and their interactions in unison represent biodiversity and all the ecological and evolutionary processes associated with life, biotic interactions have, contrary to species, rarely been integrated into the concepts of spatial ?-diversity. Here, we examine ?-diversity of ecological networks by using pollination networks sampled across the Canary Islands. We show that adjacent and distant communities are more and less similar, respectively, in their composition of plants, pollinators and interactions than expected from random distributions. We further show that replacement of species is the major driver of interaction turnover and that this contribution increases with distance. Finally, we quantify that species-specific partner compositions (here called partner fidelity) deviate from random partner use, but vary as a result of ecological and geographical variables. In particular, breakdown of partner fidelity was facilitated by increasing geographical distance, changing abundances and changing linkage levels, but was not related to the geographical distribution of the species. This highlights the importance of space when comparing communities of interacting species and may stimulate a rethinking of the spatial interpretation of interaction networks. Moreover, geographical interaction dynamics and its causes are important in our efforts to anticipate effects of large-scale changes, such as anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:25632001
Soglin, Lenore F.; Bauchat, Jeanette; Soglin, David F.; Martin, Gary J.
In this study, an assessment phase is undertaken to determine intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence. An anonymous survey is followed by a chart review documenting identification of IPV. Two methods are attempted to increase assessment/documentation of IPV: a physician educational intervention and a nursing routine inquiry intervention in one…
Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Pepper, Carolyn M.; Ryabchenko, Karen A.; Griffith, James W.; Miller, Allison B.; Johnson, Matthew D.
To test a caregiving model of depression in spouses, 31 married couples completed interview and questionnaire assessments of depressive symptoms and caregiving activities. Spouses living with a partner with depressive symptoms had more symptoms of depression themselves. However, this association was found to be fully mediated by spouses' perceived…
of the PhD candidate and strengthen ties between both research groups. Utrecht University Marie Curie support grant This 7.500 grant supports research groups at Utrecht University to host a Marie Sklodowska Curie fellow from a Utrecht University Partner. Utrecht University Chinese University of Hong Kong
Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve
The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…
100100 520520 21002100 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 0.1 1 10 Projected Dose in mg/kg Solubility(µg/ml) High Pe Med Pe Low Pe 11 1010 100100 55 5252 520520 2121 207207 21002100 #12;TRD - Your Partner for Technical
Introducing a new way for universities to partner with Google... Google is pleased to announce the Google Student Ambassador Programme, an innovative new opportunity for top-performing computer science and engineering students at select universities. Google Student Ambassadors are volunteer representatives
Robertson, Kirsten; Murachver, Tamar
This study examines partner violence within an incarcerated sample of women and men. Specifically, it focused on the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes to the perpetration and victimization of violence. Findings revealed that violence was bidirectional, with males and females equally likely to report being the perpetrator or…
Goebel, Camille A.; Umoja, Aminata
Undergraduate college “science partners” provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K–5 teachers in a university–school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed of four major elements: 1) a cadre of mentor teachers trained to provide district-wide teacher professional development; 2) a recruitment and training effort to place college students in classrooms as science partners in semester-long partnerships with teachers; 3) a teacher empowerment effort termed “participatory reform”; and 4) an inquiry-based curriculum with a kit distribution and refurbishment center. The main goals of the program were to provide college science students with an intensive teaching experience and to enhance teachers' skills in inquiry-based science instruction. Here, we describe some of the program's successes and challenges, focusing primarily on the impact on the classroom teachers and their science partners. Qualitative analyses of data collected from participants indicate that 1) teachers expressed greater self-confidence about teaching science than before the program and they spent more class time on the subject; and 2) the college students modified deficit-model negative assumptions about the children's science learning abilities to express more mature, positive views. PMID:19723818
Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…
Kendall, Jayne; Pelucio, Maria Tereza; Casaletto, Jennifer; Thompson, Karen Parker; Barnes, Sherry; Pettit, Erin; Aldrich, Mae
The objective of the study is to assess the impact of emergency department (ED) intimate partner violence (IPV) counseling and resource referrals on patient-perceived safety and safety planning. ED patients with risk factors were offered consultation with trained IPV advocacy counselors who completed safety assessments, provided resource…
Mottram, Emily; McCoy, Emily
In the last three decades, several strands of research have produced compelling evidence justifying a focus on the family with a particular emphasis on early years in order to raise literacy standards. Partners in Literacy is an evidence-based model which is built on these key research findings, these are: (1) Families and parents are critical to…
Anna Giles; Sylvia C. Martin; Deborah Bryce; Graham D. Hendry
Most course evaluation in higher education is designed and conducted by university staff and rarely are students given central responsibility for planning and implementing an evaluation. Involving students as partners in educational evaluation may offer them authentic ways to develop professional skills. We describe an ‘education option’ that involved five students in designing and conducting an evaluation of the Virtual
Giles, Anna; Martin, Sylvia C.; Bryce, Deborah; Hendry, Graham D.
Most course evaluation in higher education is designed and conducted by university staff and rarely are students given central responsibility for planning and implementing an evaluation. Involving students as partners in educational evaluation may offer them authentic ways to develop professional skills. We describe an "education option" that…
Functioning CU Students - 2013 ACHA NCHA Survey Stress 39.6% Sleep difficulties 27.9% Relationship Student Overall Stress Level (Past 12 Months) 2013 ACHA NCHA Survey Stress Level CU Students No stress 1Stress, Risk Taking, Alcohol/Drugs, and Parents as Partners What Every CU Parent Should Know Donald
Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…
Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…
Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.
Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…
Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.
A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…
Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer
The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…
Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.
This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…
about the Canadian way of life. The Time Commitment The day and time partners meet is flexible. It is up Canoeing, walking, skiing, hiking, ice-skating, or mountain biking Go Shopping #12;The EAL Students A. Who the students benefit? Can help improve listening and conversation skills. Gain new insights into the Canadian
and to learn more about the Canadian way of life. The Time Commitment The day and time partners meet for coffee Going out for lunch Play sports together Watch a movie Canoeing, walking, skiing the students benefit? Can help improve listening and conversation skills. Gain new insights
Harmon, Hobart L.
This paper describes four considerations for policymakers who wish to have public schools serve as viable partners in the rural development efforts of their communities. First, schools are a community resource. When rural students are given opportunities to engage in community-based learning, they develop responsible citizenship and leadership…
Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars
The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…
Tsien, Roger Y.
Form Department Information Date: Department: Services requested by: E-mail Address: Work Phone: ( ) Alternate Phone: ( ) E-mail Address: If request is urgent, please explain: Please provide any additional-2362, or send intracampus mail to Partner Opportunities Program Mail code 0065. For more information, contact
Carr, Jo Ann
The integration of the Internet into many facets of American education requires that any examination of the incentives, roles, and responsibilities for potential USEIN partners reflect the needs of not only traditional education information providers but also those who, in the past, have been consumers but not producers or distributors of…
Marital delay, relationship dissolution and churning, and high divorce rates have extended the amount of time individuals in search of romantic relationships spend outside of marital unions. The scope of research on intimate partnering now includes studies of "hooking up," Internet dating, visiting relationships, cohabitation, marriage following…
in the opposite sex is whether or not the men and women already have a sexual partner. In their evaluations of men's and women's subjective ratings and response times while they evaluated photos of opposite-sex faces. Fifty-nine men and 56 women rated 510 photos of opposite-sex faces for realism, masculinity, attractiveness
Olinger, Andrea; Bishop, Hugh; Cabrales, Jose; Ginsburg, Rebecca; Mapp, Joseph; Mayorga, Orlando; Nava, Erick; Nunez, Elfego; Rosas, Otilio; Slater, Andre; Sorenson, LuAnn; Sosnowski, Jim; Torres, Agustin
This article features Language Partners, an ESL program offered at the Danville Correctional Center, a medium-security men's prison in central Illinois. The program in which prisoners teach ESL classes, supported by volunteer teacher-trainers, is a learning community with immense and sometimes unforeseen value. The authors discuss reasons for…
Birch, Tobeylynn; Greenfield, Louise; Janke, Karen; Schaeffer, Deborah; Woods, Ada
As colleges of education prepare to meet NCATE standards they will find technically savvy allies and willing partners at their campus libraries. The information literacy and technology targets in the standards of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) parallel the information literacy standards developed by the…
Turner, W. D.; Banks, K.; Athar, A.; Yazdani, B.; Zhu, Y.; Culp, C.
Continuous Commissioning: A Valuable Partner to Retrofit Projects Yeqiao Zhu Aamer Athar Kenneth Banks Ph.D. PE, CEM PE, CEM Energy Systems Laboratory Sempra Energy Solutions Sempra Energy Solutions Charles Culp Dan Turner Bahman Yazdani Ph.D. PE Ph...
Hotta, M.; Schützhold, R.; Unruh, W. G.
The partner mode with respect to a vacuum state for a given mode (like that corresponding to one of the thermal particles emitted by a black hole) is defined and calculated. The partner modes are explicitly calculated for a number of cases, in particular for the modes corresponding to a particle detector being excited by turn-on/turn-off transients, or with the thermal particles emitted by the accelerated mirror model for black hole evaporation. One of the key results is that the partner mode in general is just a vacuum fluctuation, and one can have the partner mode be located in a region where the state cannot be distinguished from the vacuum state by any series of local measurements, including the energy density. For example, "information" (the correlations with the thermal emissions) need not be associated with any energy transport. The idea that black holes emit huge amounts of energy in their last stages because of all the information which must be emitted under the assumption of black hole unitarity is found to not necessarily be the case.
Ilika, Amobi Linus
Partner violence is a serious public health problem affecting mostly women. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of rural Igbo women of Nigeria of intimate partner violence. Information was elicited using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Women of childbearing age were selected from the various women age grades in Ozubulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that the women generally condone and are complacent with intimate partner violence, perceiving it as cultural and religious norms. The women felt that reprimands, beating and forced sex affecting their physical, mental and reproductive wellbeing are normal in marriage. They did not support reporting such cases to the police or divorcing the man, they would rather prefer reporting to family members. They felt that exiting the marriage would not gain the support of family members. They also expressed fear for the uncertainty in re-marrying, means of livelihood after re-marriage, social stigmatisation, and concern for their children. Socio-cultural norms and structures favour partner violence in Anambra State of Nigeria. There is a need for advocacy and concerted action that will involve the educational, health, civil and religious sectors of the society to evolve sustainable structures that will empower women and provide support to enable victims to react appropriately to violence. PMID:16623192
Taylor, Charles C.
9 Dataset Descriptions and Results Various StatLog partners See Appendix C for a full list 1 9.1 INTRODUCTION We group the dataset results according to domain type, although this distinction is perhaps arbitrary at times. There are three credit datasets, of which two follow in the next section; the third
Sims, Joseph Michael
to be due to one trainee "modeling" the other part of the task. However, it has also been shown that social interaction is not required, which suggests that equal benefits could be derived from using intelligent agents as automated partners. In this thesis...