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Sample records for partners controls gamete

  1. Effects of aging and reproduction on protein quality control in soma and gametes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, sa; Johansson Krogh, Elin; Hernebring, Malin; Pettersson, Ellinor; Javadi, Ala; Almstedt, Alvar; Nystrm, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    In organisms with a soma-germ demarcation, the germline must be 'preserved' such that harmful damage is not transmitted to the offspring. Keeping the progeny free of damage may be achieved by gametes enjoying elevated, and/or more functional, homeostatic maintenance systems. This possibility was approached here by testing whether the soma and maturating oocytes (eggs) dissected from female Drosophila melanogaster in reproductive ages display differential capacities for protein quality control and whether these capacities change during aging and mating. Eggs exhibited a high capacity to prevent protein aggregation, strong capacity for 26S proteasome-dependent degradation and reduced levels of oxidatively damaged (carbonylated) proteins compared to the soma. The capacity to prevent protein aggregation was not affected in either soma or eggs by age and/or mating, while the 26S proteasome capacity declined in the soma but was maintained in the eggs of aged females. However, the levels of carbonylated proteins increased with age in both soma and eggs, and this increase was more pronounced in females allowed to mate continuously. Furthermore, the levels of carbonylated proteins in the eggs of mated flies correlated negatively with the propensity of the eggs to develop into an adult fly. In young flies, mating caused a decrease in 26S proteasome capacity and an increase in protein carbonylation in the soma, but not in the eggs. These results are in line with trade-off theories of aging where aging is considered a consequence of investment in reproduction over somatic maintenance. PMID:22507075

  2. A Wolbachia-Sensitive Communication between Male and Female Pupae Controls Gamete Compatibility in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pontier, Stphanie M; Schweisguth, Franois

    2015-09-21

    Gamete compatibility is fundamental to sexual reproduction. Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate gamete compatibility in many arthropod species. In Drosophila, the fertilization of uninfected eggs by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males often results in early developmental arrest. This gamete incompatibility is called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is highest in young males, suggesting that Wolbachia affect sperm properties during male development. Here, we show that Wolbachia modulate testis development. Unexpectedly, this effect was associated with Wolbachia infection in females, not males. This raised the possibility that females influenced testis development by communicating with males prior to adulthood. Using a combinatorial rearing protocol, we provide evidence for such a female-to-male communication during metamorphosis. This communication involves the perception of female pheromones by male olfactory receptors. We found that this communication determines the compatibility range of sperm. Wolbachia interfere with this female-to-male communication through changes in female pheromone production. Strikingly, restoring this communication partially suppressed CI in Wolbachia-infected males. We further identified a reciprocal male-to-female communication at metamorphosis that restricts the compatibility range of female gametes. Wolbachia also perturb this communication by feminizing male pheromone production. Thus, Wolbachia broaden the compatibility range of eggs, promoting thereby the reproductive success of Wolbachia-infected females. We conclude that pheromone communication between pupae regulates gamete compatibility and is sensitive to Wolbachia in Drosophila. PMID:26344089

  3. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  4. To Punish or to Leave: Distinct Cognitive Processes Underlie Partner Control and Partner Choice Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Justin W.; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person’s intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a “trembling hand” economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator’s intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner’s intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  5. Quranic description of gametes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S

    1999-07-01

    There are several important characteristic properties of reproductive fluid. Gametes are the reproductive cells consisting of sperms in males and ovum in females. These cells combine to form Zygote in the process of fertilization. The characters of Gametes have been narrated by Holy Quran in a very well-suited and selected terminology. This paper enumerates various Quranic terms related to gametes, and then discusses their scientific significance. PMID:12587566

  6. Ethics and synthetic gametes.

    PubMed

    Testa, Giuseppe; Harris, John

    2005-04-01

    The recent in vitro derivation of gamete-like cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells is a major breakthrough and lays down several challenges, both for the further scientific investigation and for the bioethical and biolegal discourse. We refer here to these cells as gamete-like (sperm-like or oocyte-like, respectively), because at present there is still no evidence that these cells behave fully like bona fide sperm or oocytes, lacking the fundamental proof, i.e. combination with a normally derived gamete of the opposite sex to yield a normal individual. However, the results published so far do show that these cells share some defining features of gametes. We discuss these results in the light of the bioethical and legal questions that are likely to arise would the same process become possible with human embryonic stem (hES) cells. PMID:15943023

  7. [Anonymity and gamete donation].

    PubMed

    Bujan, L; Le Lannou, D; Kunstmann, J-M

    2012-08-01

    In France the gamete donation is based on the major principles: anonymity, no payment, solidarity and this mode of procreation can be used only if a medical indication is present in recipient couples. In prerequisite and during the revision of the law of bioethics, a wide debate took place about the anonymity of gamete donation. The objectives of this article is to review the concept of the anonymity and its links with the questions of the origin, the secret of the modalities of the conception and the mourning of the fertility, children, donors and the recipient couples waiting for gamete donation. The international situation is also addressed. The contribution of the CECOS, the centers which practice the sperm and the egg donations is highlighted. The anonymity cannot be discussed without addressing all these links and the complexity of this particular mode of conception. To date, the French society has maintained the anonymity in the new law of bioethics. PMID:23141592

  8. Perimortem gamete retrieval: should we worry about consent?

    PubMed

    Smajdor, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Perimortem gamete retrieval has been a possibility for several decades. It involves the surgical extraction of gametes which can then be cryo-preserved and stored for future use. Usually, the request for perimortem gamete retrieval is made by the patient's partner after the patient himself, or herself, has lost the capacity to consent for the procedure. Perimortem gamete retrieval allows for the partner of a dead patient to pursue jointly held reproductive aspiration long after their loved one's death. But how can we know if the dying patient would have consented to gamete retrieval? In the UK, consent is a legal necessity for storing or using gametes-but this is not always enforced. Moreover, although the issues related to posthumous reproduction have been discussed at length in the literature, few commentators have addressed the specific question of retrieval. Gamete retrieval is an invasive and sensitive operation; as with any other intervention performed on the bodies of dead or dying patients, the nature and justification for this procedure needs to be carefully considered. In particular, it is important to question the idea that consent for such an intervention can be inferred solely from a person's known wishes or plans concerning reproduction. PMID:24994620

  9. Gamete attachment process revealed in flowering plant fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Igawa, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sex-possessing organisms perform sexual reproduction, in which gametes from different sexes fuse to produce offspring. In most eukaryotes, one or both sex gametes are motile, and gametes actively approach each other to fuse. However, in flowering plants, the gametes of both sexes lack motility. Two sperm cells (male gametes) that are contained in a pollen grain are recessively delivered via pollen tube elongation. After the pollen tube bursts, sperm cells are released toward the egg and central cells (female gametes) within an ovule (Fig. 1). The precise mechanism of sperm cell movement after the pollen tube bursts remains unknown. Ultimately, one sperm cell fuses with the egg cell and the other one fuses with the central cell, producing an embryo and an endosperm, respectively. Fertilization in which 2 sets of gamete fusion events occur, called double fertilization, has been known for over 100 y. The fact that each morphologically identical sperm cell precisely recognizes its fusion partner strongly suggests that an accurate gamete interaction system(s) exists in flowering plants. PMID:25517689

  10. Gamete Dialogs in Green Lineages.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Igawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Gamete fusion is a core process of sexual reproduction and, in both plants and animals, different sex gametes fuse within species. Although most of the molecular factors involved in gamete interaction are still unknown in various sex-possessing eukaryotes, reports of such factors in algae and land plants have been increasing in the past decade. In particular, knowledge of gamete interaction in flowering plants and green algae has increased since the identification of the conserved gamete fusion factor generative cell specific 1/hapless 2 (GCS1/HAP2). GCS1 was first identified as a pollen generative cell-specific transmembrane protein in the lily (Lilium longiflorum), and was then shown to function not only in flowering plant gamete fusion but also in various eukaryotes, including unicellular protists and metazoans. In addition, although initially restricted to Chlamydomonas, knowledge of gamete attachment in flowering plants was also acquired. This review focuses on recent progress in the study of gamete interaction in volvocine green algae and flowering plants and discusses conserved mechanisms of gamete recognition, attachment, and fusion leading to zygote formation. PMID:26145252

  11. An Initial Test of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory: How Partners of Drug Abusers Assist Their Partners' Sobriety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Hallett, Jennifer S.; Erlandson, Karen T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how inconsistent nurturing as control theory asserts that because of competing goals of nurturing and controlling, partners of drug-dependent individuals will unintentionally encourage the very behavior they are trying to extinguish through inconsistent manifestations of reinforcement and punishment. Finds that partners of substance

  12. In Vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...

  13. Artificial gametes from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn. PMID:26161331

  14. Artificial gametes from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel; Simón, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn. PMID:26161331

  15. SACY-1 DEAD-Box Helicase Links the Somatic Control of Oocyte Meiotic Maturation to the Sperm-to-Oocyte Switch and Gamete Maintenance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongseop; Govindan, J. Amaranath; Tu, Zheng Jin; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest at diplotene or diakinesis and resume meiosis (meiotic maturation) in response to hormones. In Caenorhabditis elegans, major sperm protein triggers meiotic resumption through a mechanism involving somatic G?sadenylate cyclase signaling and soma-to-germline gap-junctional communication. Using genetic mosaic analysis, we show that the major effector of G?sadenylate cyclase signaling, protein kinase A (PKA), is required in gonadal sheath cells for oocyte meiotic maturation and dispensable in the germ line. This result rules out a model in which cyclic nucleotides must transit through sheath-oocyte gap junctions to activate PKA in the germ line, as proposed in vertebrate systems. We conducted a genetic screen to identify regulators of oocyte meiotic maturation functioning downstream of G?sadenylate cyclasePKA signaling. We molecularly identified 10 regulatory loci, which include essential and nonessential factors. sacy-1, which encodes a highly conserved DEAD-box helicase, is an essential germline factor that negatively regulates meiotic maturation. SACY-1 is a multifunctional protein that establishes a mechanistic link connecting the somatic control of meiotic maturation to germline sex determination and gamete maintenance. Modulatory factors include multiple subunits of a CoREST-like complex and the TWK-1 two-pore potassium channel. These factors are not absolutely required for meiotic maturation or its negative regulation in the absence of sperm, but function cumulatively to enable somatic control of meiotic maturation. This work provides insights into the genetic control of meiotic maturation signaling in C. elegans, and the conserved factors identified here might inform analysis in other systems through either homology or analogy. PMID:22887816

  16. Gamete Donor Consent and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus on whether the derivation and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from embryos remaining after infertility treatment morally require the informed consent of third-party gamete donors who contributed to the creation of the embryos. The principal guidelines for oversight and funding of hESC research in the United States make minimal or no demands for consent from gamete donors. In this article, I consider the arguments supporting and opposing gamete donor consent for hESC research and embryo research more broadly. I argue that it is not morally permissible to use leftover embryos in research without the informed consent of gamete donors, and that we should place restrictions on the use of existing hESC lines that may have been derived without informed consent. While the standard argument for this position relies on an appeal to gamete donors' interest in controlling what happens with their genetic material, I identify shortcomings with the standard approach and seek instead to locate the deeper moral foundations for gamete donor consent in rights to bodily integrity. PMID:26144537

  17. Mitochondrial GCD1 dysfunction reveals reciprocal cell-to-cell signaling during the maturation of Arabidopsis female gametes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Jun; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Li, Wen-Wei; He, Rui; Xin, Hai-Ping; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2012-11-13

    Cell-to-cell communication in embryo sacs is thought to regulate the development of female gametes in flowering plants, but the details remain poorly understood. Here, we report a mitochondrial protein, GAMETE CELL DEFECTIVE 1 (GCD1), enriched in gametophytes that is essential for final maturation of female gametes. Using Arabidopsis gcd1 mutants, we found that final maturation of the egg and central cells is not required for double fertilization but is necessary for embryogenesis initiation and endosperm development. Furthermore, nonautonomous effects, observed when GCD1 or AAC2 function is disrupted, suggest that mitochondrial function influences reciprocal signaling between central and egg cells to regulate maturation of the partner (egg or central) cell. Our findings confirm that cell-to-cell communication is important in functional maturation of female gametic cells and suggest that both egg and central cells sense and transmit their mitochondrial metabolic status as animportant cue that regulates the coordination of gamete maturation. PMID:23085019

  18. "Manejar la Situacion": Partner Notification, Partner Management, and Conceptual Frameworks for HIV/STI Control Among MSM in Peru.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jesse L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Salazar, Ximena

    2015-12-01

    Previous analyses of partner notification (PN) have addressed individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues influencing PN outcomes but have paid less attention to the conceptual framework of PN itself. We conducted 18 individual interviews and 8 group discussions, in a two-stage qualitative research process, to explore the meanings and contexts of PN for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Lima, Peru. Participants described PN as the open disclosure of private, potentially stigmatizing information that could strengthen or disrupt a partnership, structured by the tension between concealment and revelation. In addition to informing partners of an STI diagnosis, the act of PN was believed to reveal other potentially stigmatizing information related to sexual identity and practices such as homosexuality, promiscuity, and HIV co-infection. In this context, the potential development of visible, biological STI symptoms represented a risk for disruption of the boundary between secrecy and disclosure that could result in involuntary disclosure of STI status. To address the conflict between concealment and disclosure, participants cited efforts to "manejar la situacion" (manage the situation) by controlling the biological risks of STI exposure without openly disclosing STI status. We use this concept of "managing the situation" as a practical and theoretical framework for comprehensive Partner Management for HIV/STI control systems among MSM in Latin America. PMID:25821149

  19. Is Partner Violence Worse in the Context of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    M. P. Johnson's (1995) proposal that there are two qualitatively distinct types of intimate partner violence--intimate terrorism and situational couple violence--has been an influential explanation for disparate findings on sex symmetry in domestic violence. This study examines whether this typology increases our ability to explain variations in

  20. Partner notification for control of HIV: results after 2 years of a statewide program in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Pavia, A T; Benyo, M; Niler, L; Risk, I

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We sought to evaluate the utility of partner notification for control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to identify subgroups in which it may be most effective. METHODS. All persons reported to be HIV-positive during a 2-year period were interviewed. Outcome measures included proportion of index patients cooperating; number of partners named, located, counseled, and tested; number of persons newly testing positive; and costs. RESULTS. Of 308 index patients, 244 (79%) cooperated. They named 890 partners; 499 (70%) of in-state partners were located. Of these, 154 (34%) had previously tested HIV-positive. Of 279 partners tested for the first time, 39 (14%) were HIV-positive. Injecting drug users were significantly more likely to cooperate than persons in other risk groups (93% vs 76%) and named more partners (median 4 vs 1). Women and persons choosing confidential testing were more likely to cooperate and named more partners. The estimated cost of the program was $62,500 per year. CONCLUSIONS. Partner notification identified a group with a high seroprevalence of HIV. It was not successful among populations that may be difficult to reach with other interventions. PMID:8214231

  1. Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Chang, S-M; Reid, J M

    2014-06-01

    One key objective in evolutionary ecology is to understand the magnitude of inbreeding depression expressed across sex-specific components of fitness. One major component of male fitness is fertilization success, which depends on male gametic performance (sperm and pollen performance in animals and plants, respectively). Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could create sex-specific inbreeding depression in fitness, increase the benefit of inbreeding avoidance and reduce the efficacy of artificial insemination and pollination. However, there has been no assessment of the degree to which inbreeding generally depresses male gametic performance and hence post-copulatory or post-pollination fertilization success. Because inbreeding depression is understood to be a property of diploid entities, it is not clear what degree of inbreeding depression in haploid gametic performance should be expected. Here, we first summarize how inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could potentially arise through gene expression in associated diploid cells and/or reduced genetic diversity among haploid gametes. We then review published studies that estimate the magnitude of inbreeding depression in traits measuring components of sperm or pollen quantity, quality and competitiveness. Across 51 published studies covering 183 study traits, the grand mean inbreeding load was approximately one haploid lethal equivalent, suggesting that inbreeding depresses male gametic performance across diverse systems and traits. However, there was an almost complete lack of explicit estimates from wild populations. Future studies should quantify inbreeding depression in systematic sets of gametic traits under naturally competitive and noncompetitive conditions and quantify the degree to which gamete phenotypes and performance reflect haploid vs. diploid gene expression. PMID:24820115

  2. Parental age, gametic age, and inbreeding interact to modulate offspring viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cedric K W; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2013-10-01

    In principle, parental relatedness, parental age, and the age of parental gametes can all influence offspring fitness through inbreeding depression and the parental effects of organismal and postmeiotic gametic senescence. However, little is known about the extent to which these factors interact and contribute to fitness variation. Here, we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, offspring viability is strongly affected by a three-way interaction between parental relatedness, parental age, and gametic age at successive developmental stages. Overall egg-to-adult viability was lowest for offspring produced with old gametes of related, young parents. This overall effect was largely determined at the pupa-adult stage, although three-way interactions between parental relatedness, parental age and gametic age also explained variation in egg hatchability and larva-pupa survival. Controlling for the influence of parental and gametic age, we show that inbreeding depression is negligible for egg hatchability but significant at the larva-pupa and pupa-adult stages. At the pupa-adult stage, where offspring could be sexed, parental relatedness, parental age, and gametic age interacted differently in male and female offspring, with daughters suffering higher inbreeding depression than sons. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the architecture of offspring fitness is strongly influenced by a complex interaction between parental effects, inbreeding depression and offspring sex. PMID:24094353

  3. Gamete competition, gamete limitation, and the evolution of the two sexes.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Parker, Geoff A

    2014-12-01

    Males and females are a fundamental aspect of human reproduction, yet procreation is perfectly possible without this division into two sexes. Biologically, males are defined as the sex that produces the smaller gametes (e.g. sperm), implying that the male and female sexes only exist in species with gamete dimorphism (anisogamy). Our ancestors were isogamous, meaning that only one gamete size was produced. The question of the evolutionary origin of males and females is then synonymous to asking what evolutionary pressures caused gamete sizes to diverge. Studying the ancestral evolutionary divergence of males and females relies largely on mathematical modelling. Here, we review two classes of models explaining the evolutionary origin of males and females: gamete competition and gamete limitation. These seemingly alternative explanations are not mutually exclusive, but two aspects of a single evolutionary process. Once evolved, anisogamy and the two sexes are evolutionarily very stable. This explains the maintenance of anisogamy in organisms with internal fertilization, which can cause large decreases in both gamete competition and gamete limitation. The ancestral divergence and maintenance of gamete sizes subsequently led to many other differences we now observe between the two sexes, sowing the seeds for what we have become. PMID:25323972

  4. Comprehensive Cancer Control Partners Use of and Attitudes About Evidence-Based Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John M.; Townsend, Julie S.; Fonseka, Jamila; Richardson, Lisa C.; Chovnick, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are encouraged to work with partners (eg, nonprofit organizations) to develop and implement plans to reduce the cancer burden in their jurisdictions using evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, the extent of EBP use among awardees and their partners is not well understood. Methods From March through July 2012, we conducted a web-based survey of program partners referred by NCCCP program directors who were involved in implementation of cancer control plans. Results Approximately 53% of referred partners (n = 83) completed surveys, 91.6% of whom represented organizations. Most partners reported involvement in helping to identify (80.5%), adapt (81.7%), implement (90.4%), and evaluate (81.9%) EBPs. The factors rated most frequently as very important when selecting EBPs were consistent with our organizations mission (89.2%) and cost-effective (81.9%). Although most respondents said that their organizations understood the importance of using EBPs (84.3%) and had adequate access to cancer registry data (74.7%), few reported having sufficient financial resources to develop new EBPs (7.9%). The most frequently mentioned benefit of using EBPs was that they are proven to work. Resource limitations and difficulty adapting EBPs for specific populations and settings were challenges. Conclusions Our findings help indicate how NCCCP partners are involved in using EBPs and can guide ongoing efforts to encourage the use of EBPs for cancer control. The challenges of using EBPs that partners identified highlight the need to improve strategies to translate cancer prevention and control research into practice in real-world settings and for diverse populations. PMID:26182148

  5. Natural Variation in Epigenetic Pathways Affects the Specification of Female Gamete Precursors in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  6. Natural variation in epigenetic pathways affects the specification of female gamete precursors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  7. Recent developments in vaccination against malaria: Gamete vaccines and transmission-blocking immunity in malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Gwadz, Robert W.; Carter, Richard; Green, Ira

    1979-01-01

    We have recently proposed an approach to malaria control based on immunization of the host against extracellular malarial gametes, the stage in the mosquito guts, in order to block transmission by the mosquito vector. Our studies with avian and primate models have demonstrated that immunization of the host with extracellular gametes totally suppresses infectivity to the mosquito of a subsequent blood meal. Gametocytes within the erythrocytes are unaffected by the immunity, since resuspending the gametocytes in serum from normal nonimmune animals restores their infectivity to mosquitos. Immunity is mediated by antibodies that are ingested with the blood meal. These antibodies interact with extracellular gametes and prevent fertilization (the fusion of male and female gametes). Thus the infection in the mosquito is blocked, and in this way transmission is interrupted. PMID:317439

  8. Developing and testing accelerated partner therapy for partner notification for people with genital Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Copas, Andrew; Mercer, Catherine H; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Symonds, Merle; Tickle, Laura; Muniina, Pamela; Rait, Greta; Johnson, Anne M; Aderogba, Kazeem; Creighton, Sarah; Cassell, Jackie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a promising partner notification (PN) intervention in specialist sexual health clinic attenders. To address its applicability in primary care, we undertook a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two APT models in community settings. Methods Three-arm pilot RCT of two adjunct APT interventions: APTHotline (telephone assessment of partner(s) plus standard PN) and APTPharmacy (community pharmacist assessment of partner(s) plus routine PN), versus standard PN alone (patient referral). Index patients were women diagnosed with genital chlamydia in 12 general practices and three community contraception and sexual health (CASH) services in London and south coast of England, randomised between 1 September 2011 and 31 July 2013. Results 199 women described 339 male partners, of whom 313 were reported by the index as contactable. The proportions of contactable partners considered treated within 6?weeks of index diagnosis were APTHotline 39/111 (35%), APTPharmacy 46/100 (46%), standard patient referral 46/102 (45%). Among treated partners, 8/39 (21%) in APTHotline arm were treated via hotline and 14/46 (30%) in APTPharmacy arm were treated via pharmacy. Conclusions The two novel primary care APT models were acceptable, feasible, compliant with regulations and capable of achieving acceptable outcomes within a pilot RCT but intervention uptake was low. Although addition of these interventions to standard PN did not result in a difference between arms, overall PN uptake was higher than previously reported in similar settings, probably as a result of introducing a formal evaluation. Recruitment to an individually randomised trial proved challenging and full evaluation will likely require service-level randomisation. Trial registration number Registered UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio id number 10123. PMID:26019232

  9. How safe is gamete micromanipulation by laser tweezers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.

    1998-04-01

    Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.

  10. SEM analysis of marine invertebrate gametes.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, John

    2014-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enables a close-up investigation of topographical features at the cellular level down to a resolution of about 3 nm. In terms of gametes this allows for examination of minute surface details and changes that occur during fertilization. Sometimes these features are hidden from view and must be carefully exposed during preparation in order to be made visible in the SEM. This chapter describes methods that can reveal surface details of gametes for observation, as well as fix them permanently, while keeping fixation artifacts to a minimum. PMID:24567211

  11. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India

    PubMed Central

    Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

  12. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N = 1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077

  13. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  14. 75 FR 41276 - US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company--Continuance in Control Exemption--Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company US Rail Partners, Ltd. (USRP), a noncarrier holding company, and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company (BNGR), a Class III carrier,...

  15. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We

  16. [Cultural diversity in gamete and embryos donation].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, S

    2014-09-01

    Through gamete and embryo donation have successively emerged new ways of designing individuals who, in turn, have generated mutations in the concept of parenthood. A debate is open to the society, which often raises ideological cleavages. Indeed, donation practices mobilize the conflicting interests of donor of gametes, the recipient couple, child, whose origins are complex, although his filiation is legally clear. Its place in the family genealogy can be examined in relation to other societies, which admit plural concepts called "classificatory" kinship. They set up role partition between parents and educators. Setting anthropological perspective provides a broadening of the reflection to answer questions from the donation practices, including genealogical questions of revelation to the child of his conception, his incorporation in family and social group and the importance of compensation of donation. PMID:25153433

  17. Drug Use Trajectories After a Randomized Controlled Trial of MTFC: Associations with Partner Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Kimberly A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Kim, Hyoun; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of drug use were examined in a sample of women with prior juvenile-justice system involvement. One hundred fifty-three young women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) in adolescence were assessed on five occasions over a 24-month period in young adulthood (mean age = 22.29 years at T1). Participants assigned to the MTFC condition during adolescence reported greater decreases in drug use than girls assigned to the treatment as usual (TAU) condition. Partner drug use was significantly associated with womens concurrent drug use, although participants in the MTFC condition were more resilient to partner drug use than in the TAU condition. Implications for drug use prevention and intervention programs during adolescence are discussed. PMID:24729667

  18. Ancestor embryos: embryonic gametes and genetic parenthood.

    PubMed

    Watt, Helen

    2014-11-01

    The proposal for reproducing human generations in vitro raises the question to what extent parenthood is possible in embryos and to what extent human rights and interests are dependent on conscious awareness. This paper argues that the interest in not being made a parent non-consensually for the benefit of others persists throughout the lifespan of the individual human organism. We do not become genetic parents by learning that we are parents; rather, we discover (or fail to discover) an existing genetic relationship between our offspring and ourselves. The claim to genetic parenthood of an embryo used for reproduction in vitro is, if anything, clearer than the claim of the adult for whom gametes are derived via ips cells, in that an embryo's cells, unlike an adult's somatic cells, are already functionally geared to producing gametes (among other types of cell). An embryo used to make gametes that are used in reproduction is immediately and non-consensually made a genetic parent and to that extent is wronged whether or not the parent embryo survives-as some could survive-the harvesting of cells. All human individuals carry objective interests in benefits appropriate to the kind of being they are; these include the stake in not being made a parent without one's consent, whether posthumously or otherwise. PMID:25012847

  19. Reinforcement of Gametic Isolation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement, a process by which natural selection increases reproductive isolation between populations, has been suggested to be an important force in the formation of new species. However, all existing cases of reinforcement involve an increase in mate discrimination between species. Here, I report the first case of reinforcement of postmating prezygotic isolation (i.e., barriers that act after mating but before fertilization) in animals. On the slopes of the African island of So Tom, Drosophila yakuba and its endemic sister species D. santomea hybridize within a well-demarcated hybrid zone. I find that D. yakuba females from within this zone, but not from outside it, show an increase in gametic isolation from males of D. santomea, an apparent result of natural selection acting to reduce maladaptive hybridization between species. To determine whether such a barrier could evolve under laboratory conditions, I exposed D. yakuba lines derived from allopatric populations to experimental sympatry with D. santomea, and found that both behavioral and gametic isolation become stronger after only four generations. Reinforcement thus appears to be the best explanation for the heightened gametic isolation seen in sympatry. This appears to be the first example in animals in which natural selection has promoted the evolution of stronger interspecific genetic barriers that act after mating but before fertilization. This suggests that many other genetic barriers between species have been increased by natural selection but have been overlooked because they are difficult to study. PMID:20351771

  20. The conserved plant sterility gene HAP2 functions after attachment of fusogenic membranes in Chlamydomonas and Plasmodium gametes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Tewari, Rita; Ning, Jue; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Garbom, Sara; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.; Steele, Robert E.; Sinden, Robert E.; Snell, William J.; Billker, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie species-specific membrane fusion between male and female gametes remain largely unknown. Here, by use of gene discovery methods in the green alga Chlamydomonas, gene disruption in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, and distinctive features of fertilization in both organisms, we report discovery of a mechanism that accounts for a conserved protein required for gamete fusion. A screen for fusion mutants in Chlamydomonas identified a homolog of HAP2, an Arabidopsis sterility gene. Moreover, HAP2 disruption in Plasmodium blocked fertilization and thereby mosquito transmission of malaria. HAP2 localizes at the fusion site of Chlamydomonas minus gametes, yet Chlamydomonas minus and Plasmodium hap2 male gametes retain the ability, using other, species-limited proteins, to form tight prefusion membrane attachments with their respective gamete partners. Membrane dye experiments show that HAP2 is essential for membrane merger. Thus, in two distantly related eukaryotes, species-limited proteins govern access to a conserved protein essential for membrane fusion. PMID:18367645

  1. Plant chemical defence: a partner control mechanism stabilising plant - seed-eating pollinator mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez, Sébastien; Gallet, Christiane; Dommanget, Fanny; Després, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Background Mutualisms are inherently conflictual as one partner always benefits from reducing the costs imposed by the other. Despite the widespread recognition that mutualisms are essentially reciprocal exploitation, there are few documented examples of traits that limit the costs of mutualism. In plant/seed-eating pollinator interactions the only mechanisms reported so far are those specific to one particular system, such as the selective abortion of over-exploited fruits. Results This study shows that plant chemical defence against developing larvae constitutes another partner sanction mechanism in nursery mutualisms. It documents the chemical defence used by globeflower Trollius europaeus L. (Ranunculaceae) against the seed-eating larvae of six pollinating species of the genus Chiastocheta Pokorny (Anthomyiidae). The correlative field study carried out shows that the severity of damage caused by Chiastocheta larvae to globeflower fruits is linked to the accumulation in the carpel walls of a C-glycosyl-flavone (adonivernith), which reduces the larval seed predation ability per damaged carpel. The different Chiastocheta species do not exploit the fruit in the same way and their interaction with the plant chemical defence is variable, both in terms of induction intensity and larval sensitivity to adonivernith. Conclusion Adonivernith accumulation and larval predation intensity appear to be both the reciprocal cause and effect. Adonivernith not only constitutes an effective chemical means of partner control, but may also play a key role in the sympatric diversification of the Chiastocheta genus. PMID:19887006

  2. A Case-Control Study on Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight, Southeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Violence against women has serious consequences for their reproductive and sexual health including birth outcomes. In Ethiopia, though the average parity of pregnant women is much higher than in other African countries, the link between intimate partner violence with low birth weight is unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intimate partner violence and low birth weight among pregnant women. Method. Hospital based case-control study was conducted among 387 mothers (129 cases and 258 controls). Anthropometric measurements were taken both from mothers and their live births. The association between intimate partner violence and birth weight was computed through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses and statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. Result. Out of 387 interviewed mothers, 100 (25.8%) had experienced intimate partner violence during their index pregnancy period. Relatively more mothers of low birth weight infants were abused (48%) compared with controls (16.4%). Those mothers who suffered acts of any type of intimate partner violence during pregnancy were three times more likely to have a newborn with low birth weight (95% CI; (1.57 to 7.18)). The association between overall intimate partner violence and LBW was adjusted for potential confounder variables. Conclusion. This research result gives insight for health professional about the importance of screening for intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health care providers should consider violence in their practice and try to identify women at risk. PMID:26798345

  3. Relatively speaking: halachic and legal issues of gamete donation.

    PubMed

    Feuer, Julia

    2011-06-01

    The dramatic increase of gamete donations, as a result of technological advances in assisted reproduction, has raised considerable legal and halachic issues. This article raises reader awareness about problems involved in gamete donation within Jewish law (halacha), particularly in Israel. Two core problems with gamete donation are: deciding the mother of the child (donor or birthing mother) and genetic lineage. The former is important in establishing the child's religious status and the latter for matters of consanguinity and incest. Anonymous gamete donation increases the probability of incest. Persons unaware of their biological heritage could unintentionally cohabit with a close family member and progeny of this union would be considered mamzerim. These problems may be prevented by legislation, registration, and greater openness by the donor and the intended parents of the donor conceived child. This article focuses on the halachic perspective of gamete donation. Since consanguinity is prohibited by most cultures, the implications of gamete donation are universally relevant. PMID:21877469

  4. Gamete Recognition and Complementary Haplotypes in Sexual Penna Ageing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    In simulations of sexual reproduction with diploid individuals, we introduce female haploid gametes that recognize one specific allele of the genomes as a marker of the male haploid gametes. They fuse to zygotes preferably with male gametes having a different marker than their own. This gamete recognition enhances the advantage of complementary bit-strings in the simulated diploid individuals, at low recombination rates. Thus with rare recombinations the bit-strings evolve to be complementary; with recombination rates above approximately 0.1 they instead evolve under Darwinian purification selection, with few bits mutated.

  5. Centrality of control-seeking in men's intimate partner violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, M Pippin

    2013-10-01

    Two million women and one million men experience rape, stalking, or physical assault by a current or former romantic partner each year in the U.S. Not only do women report twice the incidents, but intimate partner violence (IPV) that women experience is typically more severe. Explanations for IPV gender asymmetry include male dominance attitudes, hostile sexism, and men's control-seeking. There are gaps in our knowledge of how attitudes and control-seeking co-relate to influence IPV. This study demonstrates a mediation analysis to investigate these relationships. Data were from a cross-sectional online survey of male undergraduate students from a public Southeastern university. The survey measured attitudes of male dominance and hostile sexism, desire for control, and IPV perpetration. After including age and academic level in the model, male dominance remained a significant predictor of likelihood of physical IPV (OR?=?1.16, p?=?.004) but not psychological IPV. The addition of control-seeking (physical OR?=?1.65, p?control-seeking (psychological IPV OR?=?1.27, p?control-seeking mediates the relationship between male dominance and physical IPV and partially mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and IPV. Practical implications for IPV prevention programs and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23400847

  6. Property rights in human gametes in Australia.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa

    2013-03-01

    It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts. PMID:23600194

  7. The functional domain of GCS1-based gamete fusion resides in the amino terminus in plant and parasite species.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Makoto; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2010-01-01

    Fertilization is one of the most important processes in all organisms utilizing sexual reproduction. In a previous study, we succeeded in identifying a novel male gametic transmembrane protein GCS1 (GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1), also called HAP2 (HAPLESS 2) in the male-sterile Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, as a factor critical to gamete fusion in flowering plants. Interestingly, GCS1 is highly conserved among various eukaryotes covering plants, protists and invertebrates. Of these organisms, Chlamydomonas (green alga) and Plasmodium (malaria parasite) GCS1s similarly show male gametic expression and gamete fusion function. Since it is generally believed that protein factors controlling gamete fusion have rapidly evolved and different organisms utilize species-specific gamete fusion factors, GCS1 may be an ancient fertilization factor derived from the common ancestor of those organisms above. And therefore, its molecular structure and function are important to understanding the common molecular mechanics of eukaryotic fertilization. In this study, we tried to detect the central functional domain(s) of GCS1, using complementation assay of Arabidopsis GCS1 mutant lines expressing modified GCS1. As a result, the positively-charged C-terminal sequence of this protein is dispensable for gamete fusion, while the highly conserved N-terminal domain is critical to GCS1 function. In addition, in vitro fertilization assay of Plasmodium berghei (mouse malaria parasite) knock-in lines expressing partly truncated GCS1 showed similar results. Those findings above indicate that the extracellular N-terminus alone is sufficient for GCS1-based gamete fusion. PMID:21209845

  8. Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Adn; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gametes positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645

  9. Molecular mechanisms involved in mammalian gamete fusion.

    PubMed

    Cuasnicú, P S; Ellerman, D A; Cohen, D J; Busso, D; Morgenfeld, M M; Da Ros, V G

    2001-01-01

    Fusion between gametes is a key event in the fertilization process involving the interaction of specific domains of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. During recent years, efforts have been made toward the identification of the specific molecular components involved in this event. The present work will focus on the best characterized candidates for mediating gamete membrane fusion in mammals. These molecules include members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and a metalloprotease domain) family, i.e., testicular proteins fertilin alpha, fertilin beta, and cyritestin, which are thought to interact with integrins in the egg plasma membrane through their disintegrin domains, and a member of the cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) family, i.e., epididymal protein DE, which participates in an event subsequent to sperm-egg binding and leading to fusion through specific complementary sites localized on the fusogenic area of the egg surface. The identification and characterization of these molecules will contribute not only to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mammalian sperm-egg fusion but also to the development of new methods for both fertility regulation and diagnosis and treatment of human infertility. PMID:11750738

  10. Sampling the genetic diversity of tall fescue utilizing gamete selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamete Selection is a plant breeding selection methodology that has been traditionally shown to be effective in the development of a wide array of plant species. Widely utilized in corn, wheat, rye and legumes, a gamete selection approach has not been applied toward tall fescue germplasm developmen...

  11. Epigenetic regulation and reprogramming during gamete formation in plants.

    PubMed

    Baroux, Clia; Raissig, Michael T; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2011-04-01

    Plants and animals reproduce sexually via specialized, highly differentiated gametes. Yet, gamete formation drastically differs between the two kingdoms. In flowering plants, the specification of cells destined to enter meiosis occurs late in development, gametic and accessory cells are usually derived from the same meiotic product, and two distinct female gametes involved in double fertilization differentiate. This poses fascinating questions in terms of gamete development and the associated epigenetic processes. Although studies in this area remain at their infancy, it becomes clear that large-scale epigenetic reprogramming, involving RNA-directed DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, and nucleosome remodeling, contributes to the establishment of transcriptionally repressive or permissive epigenetic landscapes. Furthermore, a role for small RNAs in the regulation of transposable elements during gametogenesis is emerging. PMID:21324672

  12. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  13. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. PMID:25389191

  14. Community-based intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Miller-Graff, Laura

    2015-08-01

    A community-based intervention, The Moms' Empowerment Program, was tested with 181 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during the past year. Following consent, a sequential randomized control assignment procedure allocated participants to 3 conditions: mother-plus-child received intervention (M + C), child-only received intervention (CO), and a wait list comparison group (CG). A 2-level hierarchical linear model consisting of repeated observations within individuals and individuals assigned to conditions was used to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention comparing the 3 conditions and from postintervention to 8-month follow-up for both intervention conditions. Outcomes were individual women's positive parenting and depression. Women in the M + C condition showed the greatest improvement over time of the 3 conditions in both positive parenting and depression. Without intervention parenting grew significantly worse over time for women in the comparison group. Thus, this short-term group intervention program was successful in showing moderate change in both domains. PMID:26030027

  15. Do clinicians benefit from gamete donor anonymity?

    PubMed

    Haimes, E V

    1993-09-01

    Two groups of participants are frequently omitted from discussions and studies of donor anonymity in assisted conception: the children conceived and the clinicians providing the service. Past secrecy explains the absence of the children's views, but the absence of a systematic consideration of the clinician's views is more puzzling. Evidence from the history of donor insemination suggests that clinicians have supported keeping such practices secret, not just for the protection of donors, recipients and resultant children but also to protect their own position from the detailed scrutiny of others who had expressed doubts about the practice. However, the various important developments in both the practice and the regulation of assisted conception in the 1980s and the early 1990s may well have alleviated such earlier anxieties. None the less, a growing willingness by clinicians to consider greater openness in gamete donation may be counter-balanced by the nature of their relationship with recipients, the majority of whom still appear to favour secrecy, and by the wider cultural uncertainty about the physiological and symbolic importance of genetic relationships in the development of the individual. It is concluded therefore that future studies of donor anonymity should include clinicians, in order to explore these questions in detail. PMID:8253945

  16. [What strategy to improve the recruitment of gamete donors?].

    PubMed

    Le Lannou, D

    2013-12-01

    To a high demand for donated gametes, sperm and oocytes, centers often face difficulties in recruiting enough donors. To increase the number of donors are needed financial and human resources to accommodate them in good conditions, information and a strong promotion to motivate approaches donations, diversify recruitment methods. In France, the gametes donation comes from couples with children and is free. The opening of the gift for men and women without children and remuneration of these gifts are discussed. PMID:24268325

  17. Epigenetic effects of methoxychlor and vinclozolin on male gametes.

    PubMed

    Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Imprinting is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that mediates a parent-of-origin-dependent expression of the alleles of a number of genes. Imprinting, which occurs at specific sites within or surrounding the gene, called differentially methylated domains, consists in a methylation of CpGs. The appropriate transmission of genomics imprints is essential for the control of embryonic development and fetal growth. A number of endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect male reproductive tract development and spermatogenesis. It was postulated that the genetic effects of EDs might be induced by alterations in gene imprinting. We tested two EDs: methoxychlor and vinclozolin. Their administration during gestation induced in the offspring a decrease in sperm counts and significant modifications in the methylation pattern of a selection of paternally and maternally expressed canonical imprinted genes. The observation that imprinting was largely untouched in somatic cells suggests that EDs exert their damaging effects via the process of reprogramming that is unique to gamete development. Interestingly, the effects were transgenerational, although disappearing gradually from F1 to F3. A systematic analysis showed a heterogeneity in the CpG sensitivity to EDs. We propose that the deleterious effects of EDs on the male reproductive system are mediated by imprinting defects in the sperm. The reported effects of EDs on human male spermatogenesis might be mediated by analogous imprinting alterations. PMID:24388192

  18. Regulation of mouse gamete interaction by a sperm tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, L; LeGuen, P; Bunch, D; Saling, P M

    1992-01-01

    A 95-kDa mouse sperm protein has been previously identified as a putative receptor involved in the sperm-egg interactions that lead to fertilization. The ligand for this receptor is the zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3. This constituent of the oocyte-specific extracellular matrix mediates not only sperm binding to the zona but also triggers acrosomal exocytosis. The latter, also termed the acrosome reaction, is a key regulatory event upon which fertilization is absolutely dependent. Previously, we showed that the 95-kDa protein that binds ZP3 is a substrate for tyrosine kinase, and its phosphotyrosine content increases after sperm-zona pellucida binding. Here, we show the presence of protein tyrosine kinase activity in sperm plasma membranes and in electroeluted 95-kDa protein. The tyrosine kinase activity of the isolated protein is stimulated by solubilized zona pellucida and inhibited by tyrphostin RG-50864, a membrane-permeable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, tyrphostin inhibits zona-triggered acrosomal exocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that the 95-kDa protein participates in a critical regulatory event of gamete interaction; moreover, our experiments suggest that sperm protein tyrosine kinase may be an excellent target for the control of fertility. Images PMID:1281543

  19. Gamete evolution and sperm numbers: sperm competition versus sperm limitation

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Geoff A.; Lehtonen, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models in sperm economics. We show quite generally for the intensity model (where N males compete for each set of eggs) that however severe the degree of SL, if there is at least one competitor for fertilization (N ? 1 ? 1), the marginal gains through SC exceed those for SL, provided that the relationship between the probability of fertilization (F) and increasing sperm numbers (x) is a concave function. In the risk model, as fertility F increases from 0 to 1.0, the threshold SC risk (the probability q that two males compete for fertilization) for SC to be the dominant force drops from 1.0 to 0. The gamete competition and gamete limitation theories for the evolution of anisogamy rely on very similar considerations: our results imply that gamete limitation could dominate only if ancestral reproduction took place in highly isolated, small spawning groups. PMID:25100694

  20. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of

  1. Conundrums with penumbras: the right to privacy encompasses non-gamete providers who create preembryos with the intent to become parents.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Lainie M C

    2003-05-01

    To date, five state high courts have resolved disputes over frozen preembryos. These disputes arose during divorce proceedings between couples who had previously used assisted reproduction and cryopreserved excess preembryos. In each case, one spouse wished to have the preembryos destroyed, while the other wanted to be able to use or donate them in the future. The parties in these cases invoked the constitutional right to privacy to argue for dispositional control over the preembryos; two of the five cases were resolved by relying on this right. The constitutional right to privacy protects intimate decisions involving procreation, marriage, and family life. However, when couples use donated sperm or ova to create preembryos, a unique circumstance arises: one spouse--the gamete provider--is genetically related to the preembryos and the other is not. If courts resolve frozen preembryo disputes that involve non-gamete providers based on the constitutional right to privacy, they should find that the constitutional right to privacy encompasses the interests of both gamete and non-gamete providers. Individuals who create preembryos with the intent to become a parent have made an intimate decision involving procreation, marriage, and family life that falls squarely within the the right to privacy. In such cases, the couple together made the decision to create a family through the use of assisted reproduction, and the preembryos would not exist but for that joint decision. Therefore, gamete and non-gamete providers should be afforded equal constitutional protection in disputes over frozen preembryos. PMID:15378817

  2. Genetic generations: artificial gametes and the embryos produced with them.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this topic for discussion, it also wades into the ethical fray over the practice. Several possible lines of objection can be raised against this practice, but these accounts are by and large insufficient as an ethical analysis of this possible, future way of conceiving human children. PMID:23966423

  3. Does respect for embryos entail respect for gametes?

    PubMed

    Gmez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Respect for human embryos is often defended on the basis of the potentiality argument: embryos deserve respect because they already possess potentially the features that in adults are fully actualized. Opponents of this argument challenge it by claiming that if embryos should be respected because they are potentially adults, then gametes should be respected because they are potentially embryos. This article rejects this reductio ad absurdum argument by showing that there are two different types of potentiality involved so that the transitivity of potentiality does not hold up in this case. Respect for embryos does not logically entail respect for gametes. PMID:15529806

  4. Mammalian gamete plasma membranes re-assessments and reproductive implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of the diploid status occurs with the fusion of female and male gametes. Both the mammalian oocyte and spermatozoa are haploid cells surrounded with plasma membranes that are rich in various proteins playing a crucial role during fertilization. Fertilization is a complex and ordered st...

  5. Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes

    PubMed Central

    Cutas, Daniela; Smajdor, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from nonreproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised—and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow, geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs. PMID:26074667

  6. Does Screening or Providing Information on Resources for Intimate Partner Violence Increase Womens Knowledge? Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Klevens, Joanne; Sadowski, Laura S.; Kee, Romina; Garcia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for IPV in health care settings might increase women's knowledge or awareness around its frequency and its impact on health. When IPV is disclosed, assuring women it is not their fault should improve their knowledge that IPV is the perpetrator's responsibility. Providing information about IPV resources may also increase women's knowledge about the availability of solutions. Methods Women (n=2708) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) partner violence screen plus video referral and list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) a no-screen, no-partner violence resource list control group (n=898). One year later, 2364 women (87%) were re-contacted and asked questions assessing their knowledge of the frequency of partner violence, its impact on physical and mental health, the availability of resources to help women experiencing partner violence, and that it is the perpetrator's fault. Results There were no differences between women screened and provided with a partner violence resource list compared to a control group as to women's knowledge of the frequency of IPV, its impact on physical or mental health, or the availability of IPV services in their community. However, among women who experienced IPV in the year before or year after enrolling in the trial, those who were provided a list of IPV resources without screening were significantly less likely to know that IPV is not the victim's fault than those in the control or list plus screening conditions. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that providing information on partner violence resources, with or without asking questions about partner violence, did not result in improved knowledge. PMID:26740959

  7. Comprehensive cancer control programs and coalitions: partnering to launch successful colorectal cancer screening initiatives.

    PubMed

    Seeff, Laura C; Major, Anne; Townsend, Julie S; Provost, Ellen; Redwood, Diana; Espey, David; Dwyer, Diane; Villanueva, Robert; Larsen, Leslie; Rowley, Kathryn; Leonard, Banning

    2010-12-01

    Colorectal cancer control has long been a focus area for Comprehensive Cancer Control programs and their coalitions, given the high burden of disease and the availability of effective screening interventions. Colorectal cancer control has been a growing priority at the national, state, territorial, tribal, and local level. This paper summarizes several national initiatives and features several Comprehensive Cancer Control Program colorectal cancer control successes. PMID:21086035

  8. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release. PMID:19543389

  9. Cardiac Arrest during Gamete Release in Chum Salmon Regulated by the Parasympathetic Nerve System

    PubMed Central

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39±1.61 s in females and for 5.20±0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release. PMID:19543389

  10. Gametic interactions promote inbreeding avoidance in house mice.

    PubMed

    Firman, Rene C; Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-09-01

    Reproduction among related individuals is generally maladaptive. Inbreeding imposes significant costs on individual reproductive success, and can decrease population fitness. Theory predicts that polyandrous females can avoid inbreeding by exploiting paternity-biasing mechanisms that enable differential sperm 'use'. Evidence of sperm selection is difficult to demonstrate because patterns of non-random paternity can be generated by a variety of different mechanisms. Here, using in vitro fertilisation in mice, we provide evidence of sperm selection at the gametic level. We mixed the sperm of sibling and non-sibling males, and observed a fertilisation bias towards the sperm of non-sibling males. The number of motile sperm and sperm swimming performance did not differ between competitors among the replicate assays. Therefore, our result can only be ascribed to egg-driven sperm selection against related sperm. We conclude that the expression or secretion of gametic proteins could provide the molecular basis for this mechanism of cryptic female choice. PMID:26154782

  11. Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells have recently been shown to be capable of differentiating in vitro into oocytes or sperm. Should these findings be duplicated using human embryonic stem cells, this would raise a number of social and ethical concerns, some specific to these particular developments, others shared with other aspects of stem cell research. This review outlines the properties of stem cells and their conversion to gametes. Concerns raised include embryo destruction, quality of gametes derived in this way, possibility for children with two male biological parents, movement towards germ line gene therapy and 'designer babies', and the future impacts on health service provisions. It is important that public discussion of some of these issues should take place. PMID:17454202

  12. In vitro-derived gametes from stem cells.

    PubMed

    West, Franklin D; Shirazi, Reza; Mardanpour, Pezhman; Ozcan, Servet; Dinc, Gokcen; Hodges, Dewey H; Soleimanpour-Lichaei, Hamid Reza; Nayernia, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Sperm and eggs are essential cells for reproduction and fertility in mammals. Lack of sperm production is one of the leading causes of infertility, a major and growing problem in the developed world affecting 13 to 18% of reproductive-age couples. The birth of the first test tube baby by in vitro fertilization marked an advance in infertility treatment. Later on, several important new techniques called assisted reproductive technologies were developed to help couples who experience infertility. One limiting factor is the requirement of reproductive cells (gametes) for use in in vitro fertilization. For azoospermic men lacking sperm cells, producing gametes in vitro could be a new window to overcome infertility. In the past few years, several reports have been published on generating germ cells from stem cells, one of the epitomes of which was the report on functional in vitro-derived (IVD) germ cells. These mature haploid sperm cells from mouse embryonic stem cells were capable of egg fertilization and producing live offspring. In tandem with previous advancements in germ cell research, development of new technologies based on IVD gametes will change the future of infertility and provide a new basis for the establishment of novel therapeutic approaches to cure more complicated conditions of infertility. In addition, IVD gametogenesis provides an accessible system for studying the specification and differentiation of sperm cells and related processes such as meiosis, morphogenesis, and motility. PMID:23329634

  13. Central role of altruism in the recruitment of gamete donors.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores problems associated with using altruism as the central value in gamete donation, and in doing so draws on empirical data that sheds light on why gamete donors choose to donate. Donation of bodily material is, arguably, supposed to be motivated by altruism, and this is the view taken by many European governments. Other values are often ignored or rejected as morally inappropriate. This paper analyses some conceptual and practical problems with the use of altruism as the motivation to determine moral acceptability-drawing on empirical data that suggests gamete donors are not motivated purely by altruism, and that motivations are in fact quite complex. Two problems are first analysed: (1) how do we distinguish altruistic from non-altruistic donations and (2) how do we distinguish between removing barriers and providing incentives. A final question, triggered by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report, is whether the meaning of the payment should be decided on the basis of an a priori definition or on the basis of the donors' subjective experience. It is concluded that there are different legitimate core values in donation, which should be balanced. In order to value the good generated by donation, donors with mixed motives should be accepted, as long as helping others is an important motive and also features in their motivation. PMID:25743052

  14. Segregation for Sexual Seed Production in Paspalum as Directed by Male Gametes of Apomictic Triploid Plants

    PubMed Central

    Martnez, Eric J.; Acua, Carlos A.; Hojsgaard, Diego H.; Tcach, Mauricio A.; Quarin, Camilo L.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Gametophytic apomixis is regularly associated with polyploidy. It has been hypothesized that apomixis is not present in diploid plants because of a pleiotropic lethal effect associated with monoploid gametes. Rare apomictic triploid plants for Paspalum notatum and P. simplex, which usually have sexual diploid and apomictic tetraploid races, were acquired. These triploids normally produce male gametes through meiosis with a range of chromosome numbers from monoploid (n = 10) to diploid (n = 20). The patterns of apomixis transmission in Paspalum were investigated in relation to the ploidy levels of gametes. Methods Intraspecific crosses were made between sexual diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants as female parents and apomictic triploid plants as male parents. Apomictic progeny were identified by using molecular markers completely linked to apomixis and the analysis of mature embryo sacs. The chromosome number of the male gamete was inferred from chromosome counts of each progeny. Key Results The chromosome numbers of the progeny indicated that the chromosome input of male gametes depended on the chromosome number of the female gamete. The apomictic trait was not transmitted through monoploid gametes, at least when the progeny was diploid. Diploid or near-diploid gametes transmitted apomixis at very low rates. Conclusions Since male monoploid gametes usually failed to form polyploid progenies, for example triploids after 4x 3x crosses, it was not possible to determine whether apomixis could segregate in polyploid progenies by means of monoploid gametes. PMID:17766843

  15. Motile Male Gametes of the Araphid Diatom Tabularia fasciculata Search Randomly for Mates

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Robyn; Drolet, David; Ehrman, James M.; Kaczmarska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality in the marine araphid diatom Tabularia involves an unusual type of gamete, not only among diatoms but possibly in all of nature. The non-flagellated male gamete is free and vigorously motile, propelled by pseudopodia. However, the cues (if any) in their search for compatible female gametes and the general search patterns to locate them are unknown. We tracked and compared male gamete movements in the presence and absence of receptive female gametes. Path linearity of male movement was not affected by presence of female gametes. Male gametes did not move towards female gametes regardless of their proximity to each other, suggesting that the detection range for a compatible mate is very small compared to known algal examples (mostly spermatozoids) and that mate recognition requires (near) contact with a female gamete. We therefore investigated how male gametes move to bring insight into their search strategy and found that it was consistent with the predictions of a random-walk model with changes in direction coming from an even distribution. We further investigated the type of random walk by determining the best-fit distribution on the tail of the move length distribution and found it to be consistent with a truncated power law distribution with an exponent of 2.34. Although consistent with a Lvy walk search pattern, the range of move lengths in the tail was too narrow for Lvy properties to emerge and so would be best described as Brownian motion. This is somewhat surprising because female gametes were often outnumbered by male gametes, thus contrary to the assumption that a Brownian search mode may be most optimal with an abundant target resource. This is also the first mathematically analysed search pattern of a non-flagellated protistan gamete, supporting the notion that principles of Brownian motion have wide application in biology. PMID:24991803

  16. A controlled trial of Partners in Dementia Care: veteran outcomes after six and twelve months

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction “Partners in Dementia Care” (PDC) tested the effectiveness of a care-coordination program integrating healthcare and community services and supporting veterans with dementia and their caregivers. Delivered via partnerships between Veterans Affairs medical centers and Alzheimer’s Association chapters, PDC targeted both patients and caregivers, distinguishing it from many non-pharmacological interventions. Hypotheses posited PDC would improve five veteran self-reported outcomes: 1) unmet need, 2) embarrassment about memory problems, 3) isolation, 4) relationship strain and 5) depression. Greater impact was expected for more impaired veterans. A unique feature was self-reported research data collected from veterans with dementia. Methods and Findings Five matched communities were study sites. Two randomly selected sites received PDC for 12 months; comparison sites received usual care. Three structured telephone interviews were completed every 6 months with veterans who could participate. Results Of 508 consenting veterans, 333 (65.6%) completed baseline interviews. Among those who completed baseline interviews, 263 (79.0%) completed 6-month follow-ups and 194 (58.3%) completed 12-month follow-ups. Regression analyses showed PDC veterans had significantly less adverse outcomes than those receiving usual care, particularly for more impaired veterans after 6 months, including reduced relationship strain (B = −0.09; p = 0.05), depression (B = −0.10; p = 0.03), and unmet need (B = −0.28; p = 0.02; and B = −0.52; p = 0.08). PDC veterans also had less embarrassment about memory problems (B = −0.24; p = 0.08). At 12 months, more impaired veterans had further reductions in unmet need (B = −0.96; p < 0.01) and embarrassment (B = −0.05; p = 0.02). Limitations included use of matched comparison sites rather than within-site randomization and lack of consideration for variation within the PDC group in amounts and types of assistance provided. Conclusions Partnerships between community and health organizations have the potential to meet the dementia-related needs and improve the psychosocial functioning of persons with dementia. Trial Registry NCT00291161 PMID:24764496

  17. Changes in spawning time led to the speciation of the broadcast spawning corals Acropora digitifera and the cryptic species Acropora sp. 1 with similar gamete recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Shun; Kowalski, Radoslaw K.; Kitanobo, Seiya; Morita, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Multi-species spawning is reported in the coral genus Acropora, but hybridization in nature rarely occurs because of the incompatibility of gametes and the timing of spawning. However, the evolutionary relationships between gamete compatibility and spawning time are obscure. Investigations of gamete compatibility in sister species that spawn at different times may provide clues to answering this question. Acropora sp. 1 has been defined as a cryptic species of Acropora digitifera, and they are morphologically similar, but spawn in different months, suggesting that they are either a cryptic species or a different species. We examined the morphology and conducted crossing experiments using cryopreserved sperm. The morphologies (branch length, branch width, and outer diameter of axial corallites) of A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 differed significantly. A phylogenetic tree of partial Pax- C nuclear sequences from A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 shows that they are monophyletic and closely related genetically, based on F ST values and P-distance. These results imply that these two species originated recently from a common ancestor. In addition, cryopreserved sperm from both A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 showed bidirectional inter-crossing (cryopreserved sperm of A. digitifera and eggs of Acropora sp. 1 from Sesoko: 32.1 ± 6.7 %, control-conspecific cryopreserved sperm and eggs: 46.1 ± 10.6 %; cryopreserved sperm of Acropora sp. 1 and eggs of A. digitifera from Oku: 63.3 ± 16.6 %, control: 83.6 ± 6.0 %). The results suggest that the gametes of these two species are compatible and that the pre-zygotic isolation mechanism is relaxed because their gametes do not interact. Overall, these two species should be classified as distinct species, and changes in spawning time are related to speciation in a similar gamete recognition system.

  18. The gametic central cell of Arabidopsis determines the lifespan of adjacent accessory cells.

    PubMed

    Kgi, Christina; Baumann, Nadine; Nielsen, Nicola; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Gross-Hardt, Rita

    2010-12-21

    Plant germ cells develop in specialized haploid structures, termed gametophytes. The female gametophyte patterns of flowering plants are diverse, with often unknown adaptive value. Here we present the Arabidopsis fiona mutant, which forms a female gametophyte that is structurally and functionally reminiscent of a phylogenetic distant female gametophyte. The respective changes include a modified reproductive behavior of one of the female germ cells (central cell) and an extended lifespan of three adjacent accessory cells (antipodals). FIONA encodes the cysteinyl t-RNA synthetase SYCO ARATH (SYCO), which is expressed and required in the central cell but not in the antipodals, suggesting that antipodal lifespan is controlled by the adjacent gamete. SYCO localizes to the mitochondria, and ultrastructural analysis of mutant central cells revealed that the protein is necessary for mitochondrial cristae integrity. Furthermore, a dominant ATP/ADP translocator caused mitochondrial cristae degeneration and extended antipodal lifespan when expressed in the central cell of wild-type plants. Notably, this construct did not affect antipodal lifespan when expressed in antipodals. Our results thus identify an unexpected noncell autonomous role for mitochondria in the regulation of cellular lifespan and provide a basis for the coordinated development of gametic and nongametic cells. PMID:21135240

  19. Gametic embryogenesis and haploid technology as valuable support to plant breeding.

    PubMed

    German, Maria Antonietta

    2011-05-01

    Plant breeding is focused on continuously increasing crop production to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population, improving food quality to ensure a long and healthy life and address the problems of global warming and environment pollution, together with the challenges of developing novel sources of biofuels. The breeders' search for novel genetic combinations, with which to select plants with improved traits to satisfy both farmers and consumers, is endless. About half of the dramatic increase in crop yield obtained in the second half of the last century has been achieved thanks to the results of genetic improvement, while the residual advance has been due to the enhanced management techniques (pest and disease control, fertilization, and irrigation). Biotechnologies provide powerful tools for plant breeding, and among these ones, tissue culture, particularly haploid and doubled haploid technology, can effectively help to select superior plants. In fact, haploids (Hs), which are plants with gametophytic chromosome number, and doubled haploids (DHs), which are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication, represent a particularly attractive biotechnological method to accelerate plant breeding. Currently, haploid technology, making possible through gametic embryogenesis the single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, has already had a huge impact on agricultural systems of many agronomically important crops, representing an integral part in their improvement programmes. The aim of this review was to provide some background, recent advances, and future prospective on the employment of haploid technology through gametic embryogenesis as a powerful tool to support plant breeding. PMID:21431908

  20. Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Strycharska, Melania S.; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Erzberger, Jan P.; O’Shea, Valerie; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Berger, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB complexed with nucleotide reveals a new conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active, but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an auto-regulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to nucleotide and both replication initiation and elongation factors. PMID:24373746

  1. Regulatory considerations for global transfer of cryopreserved fish gametes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Federal and state resource managers, scientists, lawmakers, business and development investors, and the general public all struggle with issues surrounding the conservation of our biological heritage, especially in the face of increased population growth and consequent anthropogenic disturbances. Conservation interests include recovering exploited aquatic populations, decreasing the loss of genetic diversity, and reintroducing locally depleted species. However, research on husbandry and other techniques critical to implementing conservation strategies is often not started until few individuals remain. A program in the cryopreservation of gametes and embryos from aquatic species would address several of these conservation concerns by allowing the establishment of gene banks

  2. Mandatory counseling for gamete donation recipients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Benward, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Mental health professionals have engaged in mandatory pretreatment counseling and assessment of patients seeking treatment at IVF programs in the United States since the 1980s. At present, most recipient patients undergoing IVF with egg or embryo donation in the United States are required to meet with a mental health professional for one pretreatment session. Mandatory counseling of gamete recipients is fraught with ethical questions for the mental health professional. Attention to issues of autonomy, confidentiality, role clarity, along with self-evaluation and openness with the patient can help lessen the impact of these ethical challenges. PMID:26235569

  3. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. PMID:25801423

  4. Recruiting gamete donors: response to Craft and Thornhill.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Ken

    2005-04-01

    This response challenges the notion that paying more money, in whatever form, will overcome the anxieties of gamete donors regarding the removal of anonymity. An overview of the literature on payment and donor recruitment indicates that this is a complex issue. That literature does provide 'pointers' to the types of persons who should be 'targeted' in an information sharing and non-payment system. The experience in Sweden, both in relation to donor recruitment and parents' information-sharing with their children, is clarified, as the evidence is not always presented accurately. PMID:15901446

  5. HIV-1 Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Control the Architecture of Their Nucleocapsid Partner

    PubMed Central

    Coulaud, Dominique; Hameau, Laurence; Lafosse, Sophie; Jeusset, Josette; Borde, Isabelle; Reboud-Ravaux, Michle; Restle, Tobias; Gorelick, Robert J.; Le Cam, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid is formed during protease (PR)-directed viral maturation, and is transformed into pre-integration complexes following reverse transcription in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. Here, we report a detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis of the impact of HIV-1 PR and reverse transcriptase (RT) on nucleocapsid plasticity, using in vitro reconstitutions. After binding to nucleic acids, NCp15, a proteolytic intermediate of nucleocapsid protein (NC), was processed at its C-terminus by PR, yielding premature NC (NCp9) followed by mature NC (NCp7), through the consecutive removal of p6 and p1. This allowed NC co-aggregation with its single-stranded nucleic-acid substrate. Examination of these co-aggregates for the ability of RT to catalyse reverse transcription showed an effective synthesis of double-stranded DNA that, remarkably, escaped from the aggregates more efficiently with NCp7 than with NCp9. These data offer a compelling explanation for results from previous virological studies that focused on i) Gag processing leading to nucleocapsid condensation, and ii) the disappearance of NCp7 from the HIV-1 pre-integration complexes. We propose that HIV-1 PR and RT, by controlling the nucleocapsid architecture during the steps of condensation and dismantling, engage in a successive nucleoprotein-remodelling process that spatiotemporally coordinates the pre-integration steps of HIV-1. Finally we suggest that nucleoprotein remodelling mechanisms are common features developed by mobile genetic elements to ensure successful replication. PMID:17712401

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

    2002-02-26

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

  7. High gene flow levels lead to gamete wastage in a desert spider system.

    PubMed

    Riechert, S E; Singer, F D; Jones, T C

    2001-01-01

    Field censuses, breeding experiments, and a quantitative model are used to obtain insight into the extent and consequences of genetic mixing between locally adapted populations of a desert spider. Typically, 9% of the matings of desert riparian spiders (non-aggressive phenotype) in native habitat involve an arid-land partner (aggressive phenotype). Mating was found to be random with respect to behavioral phenotype, but linearly related to both the rate of immigration and survival of immigrants from surrounding arid habitats in the riparian area. Genetic mixing between riparian and arid-land spiders produces offspring that exhibit lower rates of survival in riparian habitat. Two extreme behavioral phenotypes were also observed in the field studies: approximately 5% of the female spiders attacked all males they encountered while another 22% ran from all potential mates. Punnett square analyses of the potential genotypes produced by introgression between arid- and riparian-adapted spiders indicate that these extreme phenotypes appear in F2 generation hybrids and backcrosses. Because there is a costly wastage of gametes in the case of mixed phenotype mating, model results indicate that within three generations of the cessation of gene flow, the riparian population would be free of mixed genotypes and moving towards genetic differentiation. PMID:11838772

  8. Cell-cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  9. Cell–cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller–detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  10. The gametic synapse: RNA transfer to the bovine oocyte.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Angus D; Gilbert, Isabelle; Caballero, Julieta; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fournier, Eric; Tossou, Prudencio; Sirard, Marc-Andr; Clarke, Hugh J; Khandjian, douard W; Richard, Francois J; Hyttel, Poul; Robert, Claude

    2014-10-01

    Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build the reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between the gamete and the surrounding cells that is limited to paracrine signaling and direct transfer of small molecules via gap junctions existing at the end of the somatic cells' projections that are in contact with the oolemma. The purpose of this work was to explore the role of cumulus cell projections as a means of conductance of large molecules, including RNA, to the mammalian oocyte. By studying nascent RNA with confocal and transmission electron microscopy in combination with transcript detection, we show that the somatic cells surrounding the fully grown bovine oocyte contribute to the maternal reserves by actively transferring large cargo, including mRNA and long noncoding RNA. This occurrence was further demonstrated by the reconstruction of cumulus-oocyte complexes with transfected cumulus cells transferring a synthetic transcript. We propose selective transfer of transcripts occurs, the delivery of which is supported by a remarkable synapselike vesicular trafficking connection between the cumulus cells and the gamete. This unexpected exogenous contribution to the maternal stores offers a new perspective on the determinants of female fertility. PMID:25143353

  11. Consequences of manipulating gametes and embryos of ruminant species.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, T G; Ashworth, C J; Rooke, J A; Sinclair, K D

    2003-01-01

    During the past 12 years, ruminants have provided a focus for some significant advances in mammalian reproductive biotechnologies. Lambs were the first offspring generated after nuclear transfer of fetal or adult cells to enucleated oocytes, and many calves of pre-determined gender are today the result of commercialized semen sexing. In 1990, the birth of one calf provided living proof that even 'dead' spermatozoa can be paternal, whereas, more recently, a short-lived gaur calf and viable mouflon lamb represented a novel option for conservation of endangered species. As well as highlights, hazards have emerged, resulting in setbacks or developmental anomalies, such as those associated with the large offspring syndrome which encompasses a range of adverse fetal, placental and post-natal phenomena expressed in ruminants. In this review, the developmental and other consequences of applying manipulative procedures, such as assisted fertilization, semen sexing, cloning and gene transfer, to gametes and embryos from bovine, ovine and caprine species are considered. Although assisted fertilization techniques can overcome mammalian infertility, they also usurp natural gamete selection safeguards, but not always with impunity. In the case of manipulations such as cloning, and to a lesser extent gene transfer, it is evident that nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions and nuclear-mitochondrial DNA interdependences are at least partially damaged or destroyed with a view to reconstruction. Therefore, among surviving zygotes and embryos it is inevitable that the legacy is frequently one of altered genetic, epigenetic or cellular programmes and processes. PMID:14635934

  12. Tetramerization and interdomain flexibility of the replication initiation controller YabA enables simultaneous binding to multiple partners

    PubMed Central

    Felicori, Liza; Jameson, Katie H.; Roblin, Pierre; Fogg, Mark J.; Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Ventroux, Magali; Cherrier, Mickaël V.; Bazin, Alexandre; Noirot, Philippe; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Molina, Franck; Terradot, Laurent; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    YabA negatively regulates initiation of DNA replication in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. The protein exerts its control through interactions with the initiator protein DnaA and the sliding clamp DnaN. Here, we combined X-ray crystallography, X-ray scattering (SAXS), modeling and biophysical approaches, with in vivo experimental data to gain insight into YabA function. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of YabA solved at 2.7 Å resolution reveals an extended α-helix that contributes to an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Homology modeling and biochemical analysis indicates that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of YabA is a small Zn-binding domain. Multi-angle light scattering and SAXS demonstrate that YabA is a tetramer in which the CTDs are independent and connected to the N-terminal four-helix bundle via flexible linkers. While YabA can simultaneously interact with both DnaA and DnaN, we found that an isolated CTD can bind to either DnaA or DnaN, individually. Site-directed mutagenesis and yeast-two hybrid assays identified DnaA and DnaN binding sites on the YabA CTD that partially overlap and point to a mutually exclusive mode of interaction. Our study defines YabA as a novel structural hub and explains how the protein tetramer uses independent CTDs to bind multiple partners to orchestrate replication initiation in the bacterial cell. PMID:26615189

  13. Tetramerization and interdomain flexibility of the replication initiation controller YabA enables simultaneous binding to multiple partners.

    PubMed

    Felicori, Liza; Jameson, Katie H; Roblin, Pierre; Fogg, Mark J; Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Ventroux, Magali; Cherrier, Mickaël V; Bazin, Alexandre; Noirot, Philippe; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Molina, Franck; Terradot, Laurent; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    YabA negatively regulates initiation of DNA replication in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. The protein exerts its control through interactions with the initiator protein DnaA and the sliding clamp DnaN. Here, we combined X-ray crystallography, X-ray scattering (SAXS), modeling and biophysical approaches, with in vivo experimental data to gain insight into YabA function. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of YabA solved at 2.7 Å resolution reveals an extended α-helix that contributes to an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Homology modeling and biochemical analysis indicates that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of YabA is a small Zn-binding domain. Multi-angle light scattering and SAXS demonstrate that YabA is a tetramer in which the CTDs are independent and connected to the N-terminal four-helix bundle via flexible linkers. While YabA can simultaneously interact with both DnaA and DnaN, we found that an isolated CTD can bind to either DnaA or DnaN, individually. Site-directed mutagenesis and yeast-two hybrid assays identified DnaA and DnaN binding sites on the YabA CTD that partially overlap and point to a mutually exclusive mode of interaction. Our study defines YabA as a novel structural hub and explains how the protein tetramer uses independent CTDs to bind multiple partners to orchestrate replication initiation in the bacterial cell. PMID:26615189

  14. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  15. Involvement in Child Rearing and Firm Control Parenting by Male Cohabiting Partners in Black Low-Income Stepfamilies: Forecasting Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. PMID:26007695

  16. Controlling for Selection Effects in the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Clifton R.

    2011-01-01

    This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816

  17. Controlling for Selection Effects in the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Clifton R.

    2011-01-01

    This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…

  18. Recruiting male partners for couple HIV testing and counselling in Malawi’s option B+ programme: an unblinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Mtande, Tiwonge K; Saidi, Friday; Stanley, Christopher; Jere, Edward; Paile, Lusubiro; Kumwenda, Kondwani; Mofolo, Innocent; Ng’ambi, Wingston; Miller, William C; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Couples HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is encouraged but is not widely done in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to compare two strategies for recruiting male partners for CHTC in Malawi’s option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme: invitation only versus invitation plus tracing and postulated that invitation plus tracing would be more effective. Methods We did an unblinded, randomised, controlled trial assessing uptake of CHTC in the antenatal unit at Bwaila District Hospital, a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. Women were eligible if they were pregnant, had just tested HIV-positive and therefore could initiate antiretroviral therapy, had not yet had CHTC, were older than 18 years or 16–17 years and married, reported a male sex partner in Lilongwe, and intended to remain in Lilongwe for at least 1 month. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the invitation only group or the invitation plus tracing group with block randomisation (block size=4). In the invitation only group, women were provided with an invitation for male partners to present to the antenatal clinic. In the invitation plus tracing group, women were provided with the same invitation, and partners were traced if they did not present. When couples presented they were offered pregnancy information and CHTC. Women were asked to attend a follow-up visit 1 month after enrolment to assess social harms and sexual behaviour. The primary outcome was the proportion of couples who presented to the clinic together and received CHTC during the study period and was assessed in all randomly assigned participants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02139176. Findings Between March 4, 2014, and Oct 3, 2014, 200 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the invitation only group (n=100) or the invitation plus tracing group (n=100). 74 couples in the invitation plus tracing group and 52 in the invitation only group presented to the clinic and had CHTC (risk difference 22%, 95% CI 9–35; p=0·001) during the 10 month study period. Of 181 women with follow-up data, two reported union dissolution, one reported emotional distress, and none reported intimate partner violence. One male partner, when traced, was confused about which of his sex partners was enrolled in the study. No other adverse events were reported. Interpretation An invitation plus tracing strategy was highly effective at increasing CHTC uptake. Invitation plus tracing with CHTC could have many substantial benefits if brought to scale. PMID:26520928

  19. Adaptive evolution of M3 lysin--a candidate gamete recognition protein in the Mytilus edulis species complex.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thiago G; McCartney, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Marine invertebrate gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) are classic examples of rapid adaptive evolution of reproductive proteins, and hybridizing Mytilus blue mussels allow us to study the evolution of GRPs during speciation following secondary contact. Even with frequent hybridization, positive selection drives divergence of M7 lysin, one of the three Mytilus egg vitelline envelope (VE) lysins. Mytilus trossulus and M. edulis form a broad hybrid zone in the Canadian Maritimes and eastern Maine, isolated by strong (but partial) gamete incompatibility. M7 lysin, however, is an unlikely GRP controlling this gametic incompativility, as earlier studies showed either weak or no positive selection and extensive introgression between the two species. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and cloned several alleles of M3 lysin, a potent VE lysin encoded by a nonhomologous gene whose evolution has not been studied. McDonald-Kreitman and HKA tests reveal strong positive selection, which PAML branch-site models detect in 19.7% of the codons. Protein structure predictions show that replacements map exclusively to one face of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of this C-type lectin, with codons under positive selection localizing to CRD regions known to control ligand specificity. Polymorphism/divergence analyses show that selective sweep has purged M. edulis but not M. trossulus of polymorphism, and unique to M3 is an absence of fixed substitutions and broad haplotype sharing between M. edulis and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. Taken together, these results suggest that different lysins serve as GRPs in different Mytilus hybrid zones, with M3 likely co-opted to play this role in the western Atlantic. PMID:24048587

  20. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  1. Update on the Center for Recombinant Gamete Contraceptive Vaccinogens.

    PubMed

    Herr, J C

    1996-03-01

    The overall goal of the Center for Recombinant Gamete Contraceptive Vaccinogens is to develop a contraceptive vaccine which will induce antibodies in the female reproductive tract at sufficient levels to block fertilization. It is envisioned that antibodies developed by this vaccine will act to agglutinate, immobilize or coat either the egg or the sperm in the oviduct, uterus, cervix or vagina. Thus, the vaccine will exert its effects before the fertilization event, as a "prefertilization contraceptive." The Center has focused its activities over the past 4 years on four areas: 1) sperm antigens: the identification and characterization of novel sperm surface molecules which are attractive candidates for inclusion in a vaccine; 2) zona antigens: the identification of synthetic peptides derived from the zona pellucida which possess contraceptive potential without adverse pathology; 3) oral vaccine delivery: the development of live Salmonella vectors which deliver vaccine antigens through the oral route and which will stimulate secretory immunity in the female reproductive tract; and 4) animal testing: the testing of vaccine formulations in in vitro fertilization models, in small animals, in monkeys and in baboons. In addition, preparations for human testing are underway through preparation of an Investigational New Drug Application to begin Phase I human trials of a LDH-C4 peptide vaccine. PMID:8962645

  2. Adhesion proteins expressed on human gamete surfaces and egg activation.

    PubMed

    Finaz, C; Hammami-Hamza, S

    2000-07-01

    The initiation and propagation of a Ca2+ signal through the egg seems to be the pivotal event in triggering of meiosis resumption. Over the past decade evidence has accumulated suggesting that sperm contact is essential for this phenomenon to occur in most physiological groups. Given their ability to transduce signals, adhesive proteins which are involved in various binding mechanisms such as cell migration, lymphocyte activation, phagocytosis and virus fusion may play a similar role in fertilization. They have been the subject of serious investigation in non-human mammals and some emerging data indicate that they are active in humans as well. Our goal is to review the presence of such molecules on human gametes and their relevant physiological role, i.e., integrins and their ligands, selectins, IgG Fc receptors and leucocyte differentiation markers. We will discuss how they might trigger egg activation through signaling pathways in light of their identified functions in other adhesion systems. The putative participation of specific human sperm proteins will also be evaluated. PMID:11043411

  3. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought. PMID:22908618

  4. Artificial gametes and the ethics of unwitting parenthood.

    PubMed

    Smajdor, A; Cutas, D

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we explore the ethical and legal implications of a hypothetical use of artificial gametes (AGs): that of taking a person's cells, converting them to AGs and using them in reproduction-without that person's knowledge or consent. We note the common reliance on genetic understandings of parenthood in the law and suggest that injustices may arise if unwitting genetic parents are sued for child support. We draw parallels between the hypothetical use of AGs to facilitate unwitting parenthood and real examples of unwitting parenthood following cases of sperm theft. We also look at the harm that might be caused by becoming a genetic parent, independently of financial obligations, and ask whether such harm should be understood in terms of theft of property. These examples help to highlight some of the current and prospective difficulties for the regulation of genetic and legal parenthood, and show how existing regulatory assumptions are likely to be further challenged by the development of AGs. We conclude by suggesting that the reliance on genetic connections to generate parental responsibility (financial or otherwise) for offspring is flawed and that alternative ways of establishing parental responsibility should be considered. PMID:24972593

  5. Gametic selection, developmental trajectories, and extrinsic heterogeneity in Haldane's rule.

    PubMed

    Bundus, Joanna D; Alaei, Ravin; Cutter, Asher D

    2015-08-01

    Deciphering the genetic and developmental causes of the disproportionate rarity, inviability, and sterility of hybrid males, Haldane's rule, is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation between species. Moreover, extrinsic and prezygotic factors can contribute to the magnitude of intrinsic isolation experienced between species with partial reproductive compatibility. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni to quantify the sensitivity of hybrid male viability to extrinsic temperature and developmental timing, and test for a role of mito-nuclear incompatibility as a genetic cause. We demonstrate that hybrid male inviability manifests almost entirely as embryonic, not larval, arrest and is maximal at the lowest rearing temperatures, indicating an intrinsic-by-extrinsic interaction to hybrid inviability. Crosses using mitochondrial substitution strains that have reciprocally introgressed mitochondrial and nuclear genomes show that mito-nuclear incompatibility is not a dominant contributor to postzygotic isolation and does not drive Haldane's rule in this system. Crosses also reveal that competitive superiority of X-bearing sperm provides a novel means by which postmating prezygotic factors exacerbate the rarity of hybrid males. These findings highlight the important roles of gametic, developmental, and extrinsic factors in modulating the manifestation of Haldane's rule. PMID:26102479

  6. High resistance of Acropora coral gametes facing copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4 ± 4.8 μg L(-1) and 75.4 ± 6.4 μg L(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220 μg Cu L(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity. PMID:25462298

  7. GAMETES: a fast, direct algorithm for generating pure, strict, epistatic models with random architectures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geneticists who look beyond single locus disease associations require additional strategies for the detection of complex multi-locus effects. Epistasis, a multi-locus masking effect, presents a particular challenge, and has been the target of bioinformatic development. Thorough evaluation of new algorithms calls for simulation studies in which known disease models are sought. To date, the best methods for generating simulated multi-locus epistatic models rely on genetic algorithms. However, such methods are computationally expensive, difficult to adapt to multiple objectives, and unlikely to yield models with a precise form of epistasis which we refer to as pure and strict. Purely and strictly epistatic models constitute the worst-case in terms of detecting disease associations, since such associations may only be observed if all n-loci are included in the disease model. This makes them an attractive gold standard for simulation studies considering complex multi-locus effects. Results We introduce GAMETES, a user-friendly software package and algorithm which generates complex biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) disease models for simulation studies. GAMETES rapidly and precisely generates random, pure, strict n-locus models with specified genetic constraints. These constraints include heritability, minor allele frequencies of the SNPs, and population prevalence. GAMETES also includes a simple dataset simulation strategy which may be utilized to rapidly generate an archive of simulated datasets for given genetic models. We highlight the utility and limitations of GAMETES with an example simulation study using MDR, an algorithm designed to detect epistasis. Conclusions GAMETES is a fast, flexible, and precise tool for generating complex n-locus models with random architectures. While GAMETES has a limited ability to generate models with higher heritabilities, it is proficient at generating the lower heritability models typically used in simulation studies evaluating new algorithms. In addition, the GAMETES modeling strategy may be flexibly combined with any dataset simulation strategy. Beyond dataset simulation, GAMETES could be employed to pursue theoretical characterization of genetic models and epistasis. PMID:23025260

  8. The effect of filamentous turf algal removal on the development of gametes of the coral Orbicella annularis.

    PubMed

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragn, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7-10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete lack of recruitment. PMID:25658586

  9. The Effect of Filamentous Turf Algal Removal on the Development of Gametes of the Coral Orbicella annularis

    PubMed Central

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P.; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J.; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragn, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (710 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete lack of recruitment. PMID:25658586

  10. [Issues surrounding the preservation and subsequent use of transsexual persons' gametes].

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Some transsexual persons wish to have their gametes frozen before gender transition, in order to preserve their fertility. This measure should be carried out, in strict compliance with the law, in case of orchidectomy, oophorectomy or hysterectomy However, as hormonal treatments do not irreversibly alter gonadal function, the reproductive capacity of trans-sexual persons can be maintained by avoiding surgical sterilization. There is therefore no obvious medical indication for cryopreserving gametes or germinal tissue in the absence of surgical sterilization. Moreover, the use of such cryopreserved gametes would, in principle, be considered mainly by a same-sex couple, something that French law currently prohibits. Regardless of these legal aspects, the issues surrounding the use of cryopreserved gametes, and its consequences, must not be ignored. If transsexual persons who are already parents may find ways of managing the change in both their personal and parental identity, the use of gametes stored prior to gender transition raises issues of identity whose consequences are difficult to assess, especially for the future child. Cryopreservation of gametes or germinal tissue cannot be undertaken without first considering whether their potential use is in keeping with what is, at present, medically and legally possible. In any case, it is up the physician to decide, on a case by case basis, whether or not to implement cryopreservation, taking into account the situation of the persons who request the procedure and their plans for parenthood. PMID:26427299

  11. Estimating exotic gene flow into native pine stands: zygotic vs. gametic components.

    PubMed

    Unger, G M; Vendramin, G G; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring contemporary gene flow from widespread exotic plantations is becoming an important problem in forest conservation genetics. In plants, where both seed and pollen disperse, three components of exotic gene flow with potentially unequal consequences should be, but have not been, explicitly distinguished: zygotic, male gametic and female gametic. Building on a previous model for estimating contemporary rates of zygotic and male gametic gene flow among plant populations, we present here an approach that additionally estimates the third (female gametic) gene flow component, based on a combination of uni- and biparentally inherited markers. Using this method and a combined set of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites, we estimate gene flow rates from exotic plantations into two Iberian relict stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Results show neither zygotic nor female gametic gene flow but moderate (6-8%) male gametic introgression for both species, implying significant dispersal of pollen, but not of seeds, from exotic plantations into native stands shortly after introduced trees reached reproductive maturity. Numerical simulation results suggest that the model yields reasonably accurate estimates for our empirical data sets, especially for larger samples. We discuss conservation management implications of observed levels of exposure to nonlocal genes and identify research needs to determine potentially associated hazards. Our approach should be useful for plant ecologists and ecosystem managers interested in the vectors of contemporary genetic connectivity among discrete plant populations. PMID:25277767

  12. Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.

  13. Gamete plasticity in a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Crean, Angela J.; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm competition has classically been thought to maintain anisogamy (large eggs and smaller sperm) because males are thought to maximize their chance of winning fertilizations by trading sperm size for number. More recently it has been recognized that sperm quality (e.g., size, velocity) can also influence sperm competition, although studies have yielded conflicting results. Because sex evolved in the sea, debate has continued over the role of sperm competition and sperm environment in determining both sperm and egg size in externally fertilizing broadcast spawners. Remarkably, however, there have been no direct tests of whether broadcast spawners change the traits of their gametes depending on the likelihood of sperm competition. We manipulated the density (and thus, sperm environment) of a broadcast spawning ascidian (Styela plicata) in the field and then determined whether the phenotype of eggs and sperm changed. We found that sperm from adults kept at high density were larger and more motile than sperm from low-density adults. In vitro fertilizations revealed that sperm from high-density adults also lived longer and induced less polyspermy. Adult density also affected egg traits: eggs from high-density adults were smaller targets for sperm overall but produced larger ovicells than eggs from low-density adults. This suggests that broadcast spawning mothers balance (potentially conflicting) pre- and postzygotic selection pressures on egg size. Overall, our results suggest that sperm competition does not represent a strong force maintaining anisogamy in broadcast spawners. Instead, sperm limitation seems to select for large eggs and smaller, more numerous sperm. PMID:18757726

  14. Examination of relaxin and its receptors expression in pig gametes and embryos

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relaxin is a small peptide also known as pregnancy hormone in many mammals. It is synthesized by both male and female tissues, and its secretions are found in various body fluids such as plasma serum, ovarian follicular fluid, utero-oviduct secretions, and seminal plasma of many mammals, including pigs. However, the presence and effects of relaxin in porcine gametes and embryos are still not well-known. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in pig gametes and embryos. Methods Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from sows' ovaries collected at the abattoir. After in vitro-maturation, COCs were in vitro-fertilized and cultured. For studies, immature and mature COCs were separately collected, and oocytes were freed from their surrounding cumulus cells. Denuded oocytes, cumulus cells, mature boar spermatozoa, zygotes, and embryos (cleaved and blastocysts) were harvested for temporal and spatial gene expression studies. Sections of ovary, granulosa and neonatal porcine uterine cells were also collected to use as controls. Results Using both semi-quantitative and quantitative PCRs, relaxin transcripts were not detected in all tested samples, while RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA were present. Both receptor gene products were found at higher levels in oocytes compared to cumulus cells, irrespective of the maturation time. Cleaved-embryos contained higher levels of RXFP2 mRNA, whereas, blastocysts were characterized by a higher RXFP1 mRNA content. Using western-immunoblotting or in situ immunofluorescence, relaxin and its receptor proteins were detected in all samples. Their fluorescence intensities were consistently more important in mature oocytes than immature ones. The RXFP1 and RXFP2 signal intensities were mostly located in the plasma membrane region, while the relaxin ones appeared homogeneously distributed within the oocytes and embryonic cells. Furthermore, spermatozoa displayed stronger RXFP2 signal than RXFP1 after western-immunoblotting. Conclusion All together, our findings suggest potential roles of relaxin and its receptors during oocyte maturation, early embryo development, and beyond. PMID:21251292

  15. Telomere-to-centromere ratio of bovine clones, embryos, gametes, fetal cells, and adult cells.

    PubMed

    Meerdo, Lora N; Reed, William A; White, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell, was born. It was announced in 1999 that Dolly might be aging faster than normal because her telomeres were shorter than age-matched control sheep. Telomeres, a repeated DNA sequence located at the ends of linear chromosomes, allow for base pair loss during DNA replication. Telomere shortening acts as a "mitotic clock," leading to replicative senescence. By using whole cell lysate and slot-blot analysis, we determined the telomere-to-centromere ratio (T/C) for bovine gametes, embryos, fetal tissues (brain, heart, lung, kidney, uterus, ovary, and skin), adult donor cells, and cloned embryos. Our data indicates a consistency in T/C among the various fetal tissues. The T/C of sperm is significantly lower than in oocytes. The T/C decreases from the oocyte to the 2-8-cell stage embryo, increases dramatically at the morula stage, and decreases at the blastocyst stage. Our data shows no significant difference in T/C between cloned embryos and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos, but there is a significant difference between cloned embryos and adult donor cells. In conclusion, the enucleated bovine oocyte has the ability to reestablish the telomere length of adult somatic cell donor nuclei. PMID:15996118

  16. Fertilization in Dictyostelium: pharmacological analyses and the presence of a substrate protein suggest protein kinase C is essential for gamete fusion.

    PubMed

    Gunther, K E; Ramkissoon, S; Lydan, M A; O'Day, D H

    1995-10-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) during fertilization in the model eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum was studied. Inhibition of PKC activity using staurosporine, chelerythrine, and bisindoylmaleimide resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in gamete fusion without any detectable effect on cell morphology or growth. At 1.0 microM, staurosporine led to a greater than 90% inhibition of gamete fusion. In support of this, chelerythrine and bisindoylmaleimide at 10 microM inhibited gamete cell fusion by 98 and 99%, respectively. In all cases, subsequent removal of the inhibitor allowed for the completion of sexual development in a manner indistinguishable from untreated, control cultures. In contrast, the stimulation of PKC by the addition of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate at 5 nM resulted in a 56% enhancement of cell fusion. In order to identify PKC substrates that may regulate fertilization in D. discoideum, in vitro phosphorylation was carried out followed by SDS-PAGE. A number of proteins were phosphorylated, only one of which, a protein of about 50,000 M(r), appears to be a PKC substrate. In total, these results coupled with earlier work suggest that PKC functions as part of a calcium-mediated signaling pathway that regulates fertilization in D. discoideum, suggesting that the dual signaling pathway that regulates fertilization in higher eukaryotes may have evolved very early. PMID:7556440

  17. Sperm competition and the evolution of gametic compatibility in externally fertilizing taxa.

    PubMed

    Kosman, E T; Levitan, D R

    2014-12-01

    Proteins expressed on the surface of sperm and egg mediate gametic compatibility and these proteins can be subject to intense positive selection. In this review, we discuss what is known about the patterns of adaptive evolution of gamete recognition proteins (GRPs). We focus on species that broadcast eggs and sperm into the environment for external fertilization, as the ease of observing and manipulating gamete interactions has allowed for greater advances in the understanding of GRP evolution, uncomplicated by confounding behavioral and physiological components that offer alternative evolutionary targets in internal fertilizers. We discuss whether interspecific mechanisms, such as selection to avoid fertilization between species (reinforcement selection), or intraspecific mechanisms, such as selection to increase (or decrease) the affinity between eggs and sperm based on the intensity of sperm competition, may be responsible for the pattern of GRP evolution observed. Variation in these proteins appears to influence gametic compatibility; GRP divergence among species is a better predictor of hybrid fertilization than neutral genetic markers and GRP variation within species predicts reproductive success among individuals within a population. Evidence suggests that sperm competition may play a large role in the evolution of gametic compatibility. PMID:25323969

  18. Gamete retrieval in terminal conditions: is it practical? What are the consequences?

    PubMed

    Finnerty, James J; Karns, Logan B; Thomas, Theodore S; West, Rebecca W; Pinkerton, JoAnn V

    2002-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in, and request for, gamete retrieval from recently deceased or near-dead subjects for the purpose of posthumous procreation. This usually arises in an emergency situation with little time for physicians to consider ethical ramifications. Advance planning is needed to help these physicians make thoughtful decisions. After considering the complexity of the issues involved, the Ethics Consult Service and the Ethics Committee at the University of Virginia requested that we develop a policy on gamete retrieval for subjects in terminal conditions, which would govern and guide involved providers should this process be requested. Our team consisted of members of the Ethics Consult Service and Ethics Committee, as well as personnel who might be intimately involved in the gamete retrieval process, including the director of the Human Gamete and Embryo Laboratory, a urologist, and a reproductive endocrinologist. In addition to reviewing the current literature describing the actual processes involved, we explored the ethical implications of gamete retrieval in these situations. A policy was developed and approved by the Ethics Committee at our institution, and is included in this article. PMID:12099192

  19. The meaning of synthetic gametes for gay and lesbian people and bioethics too.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Some commentators indirectly challenge the ethics of using synthetic gametes as a way for same-sex couples to have children with shared genetics. These commentators typically impose a moral burden of proof on same-sex couples they do not impose on opposite-sex couples in terms of their eligibility to have children. Other commentators directly raise objections to parenthood by same-sex couples on the grounds that it compromises the rights and/or welfare of children. Ironically, the prospect of synthetic gametes neutralises certain of these objections, insofar as they would ensure that children have parents whom they can know as their genetic parents, which outcome is not always possible when same-sex couples involve third parties as the source of gametes or embryos. Not all commentators in bioethics throw the use of synthetic gametes into doubt as far as same-sex couples are concerned, but even these commentators put parenting by gay men and lesbians at the conclusion of an argument rather than presupposing parental legitimacy from the outset. Synthetic gametes do raise questions of ethics in regard to parenthood for gay men and lesbians, but these are largely questions of access and equity, not questions of parental fitness and/or child welfare. PMID:24489106

  20. Should donors have the right to decide who receives their gametes?

    PubMed

    Pennings, G

    1995-10-01

    A continuing feature of gamete donation is the scarcity of available donors. A strategy to improve the meagre supply of gametes would be to adjust the donation procedure to the wishes and desires of the donors. However, giving donors the right to direct their gametes to certain groups of recipients goes against the general rule that donors relinquish all rights and duties. Moreover, allocation by the donor might very well run counter to the rules of distributional justice. On the other hand, the allocation right can be supported by the principle of autonomy and by the donor's interest in and contribution to the process. The position is taken that the donors should have the right to direct their gametes to categories accepted as relevant by the moral and religious communities in their society. They should not be given the right to add their own categories to the exclusion list. If donors are not allowed to allocate their gift, they should at least be informed as to which categories of recipient are treated by the hospital to enable them to decide whether they want to donate gametes. PMID:8567802

  1. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs. PMID:26492133

  2. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment.

    PubMed

    Liker, Andrs; Freckleton, Robert P; Reme, Vladimir; Szkely, Tams

    2015-11-01

    Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of male polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and ASR in influencing parental sex roles. PMID:26420758

  3. A Design to Investigate the Feasibility and Effects of Partnered Ballroom Dancing on People With Parkinson Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa; Pickering, Ruth; Roberts, Helen Clare; Wiles, Rose; Kunkel, Dorit; Hulbert, Sophia; Robison, Judy; Fitton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-help and physical leisure activities has become increasingly important in the maintenance of safe and functional mobility among an increasingly elderly population. Preventing the cycle of deterioration, falling, inactivity, dependency, and secondary complications in people with Parkinson disease (PD) is a priority. Research has shown that people with PD are interested in dance and although the few existing trials are small, initial proof of principle trials from the United States have demonstrated beneficial effects on balance control, gait, and activity levels. To our knowledge, there has been no research into long-term effects, cost effectiveness, the influence on spinal posture and turning, or the personal insights of dance participants. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the methodological feasibility of conducting a definitive phase III trial to evaluate the benefits of dance in people with PD. We will build on the proof of principle trials by addressing gaps in knowledge, focusing on areas of greatest methodological uncertainty; the choice of dances and intensity of the program; for the main trial, the availability of partners, the suitability of the currently envisaged primary outcomes, balance and spinal posture; and the key costs of delivering and participating in a dance program to inform economic evaluation. Methods Fifty participants (mild-to-moderate condition) will be randomized to the control (usual care) or experimental (dance plus usual care) groups at a ratio of 15:35. Dance will be taught by professional teachers in a dance center in the South of England. Each participant in the experimental group will dance with his or her spouse, a friend, or a partner from a bank of volunteers. A blinded assessor will complete clinical measures and self-reported ability at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. A qualitative study of a subgroup of participants and partners will examine user’s views about the appropriateness and acceptability of the intervention, assessment protocol, and general trial procedures. Procedures for an economic evaluation of dance for health care will be developed for the main trial. Results Recruitment began in January 2013 and the last participant is expected to complete the trial follow-up in June 2014. Conclusions Findings from our study may provide novel insights into the way people with PD become involved in dance, their views and opinions, and the suitability of our primary and secondary outcomes. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 63088686; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN63088686/63088686 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6QYyjehP7). PMID:25051989

  4. A parallel-group, randomised controlled trial of a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners: design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; McElduff, Patrick; Turner, Jane; Levesque, Janelle V; Kayser, Karen; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy T F; Barker, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Coping skills training interventions have been found to be efficacious in helping both patients and their partners manage the physical and emotional challenges they face following a cancer diagnosis. However, many of these interventions are costly and not sustainable. To overcome these issues, a self-directed format is increasingly used. The efficacy of self-directed interventions for patients has been supported; however, no study has reported on the outcomes for their partners. This study will test the efficacy of Coping-Together—a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners. Methods and analysis The proposed three-group, parallel, randomised controlled trial will recruit patients diagnosed in the past 4 months with breast, prostate, colorectal cancer or melanoma through their treating clinician. Patients and their partners will be randomised to (1) a minimal ethical care (MEC) condition—selected Cancer Council New South Wales booklets and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline, (2) Coping-Together generic—MEC materials, the six Coping-Together booklets and DVD, the Cancer Council Queensland relaxation audio CD and login to the Coping-Together website or (3) Coping-Together tailored—MEC materials, the Coping-Together DVD, the login to the website and only those Coping-Together booklet sections that pertain to their direct concerns. Anxiety (primary outcome), distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed before receiving the study material (ie, baseline) and again at 3, 6 and 12 months postbaseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the relevant local area health and University ethics committees. Study findings will be disseminated not only through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations but also through educational outreach visits, publication of lay research summaries in consumer newsletters and publications targeting clinicians. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000491763 (03/05/2013) PMID:23883890

  5. Gametes or organs? How should we legally classify ovaries used for transplantation in the USA?

    PubMed Central

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian tissue transplantation is an experimental procedure that can be used to treat both infertility and premature menopause. Working within the current legal framework in the USA, I examine whether ovarian tissue should be legally treated like gametes or organs in the case of ovarian tissue transplantation between two women. One option is to base classification upon its intended use: ovarian tissue used to treat infertility would be classified like gametes, and ovarian tissue used to treat premature menopause would be classified like organs. In the end, however, I argue that this approach will not work because it engenders too many legal, cultural and logistical concerns and that, at least for the near future, we should treat ovarian tissue like gametes. PMID:21245477

  6. [Gamete recognition in mammals: sperm and zona pellucida interactions].

    PubMed

    Finaz, C; Lefvre, A

    1998-01-01

    Association of sperm with the acellular protective envelope of the oocyte, the zona pellucida, and their penetration is a determinant step in fertilization process. It is at this stage that species barriers take place to prevent cross fertilizations. This association is dependent upon binding of ZP3 oligosaccharides to specific sperm receptors. Their activation triggers the acrosome reaction via transduction pathways and release of proteolytic enzymes that dissociate the zona pellucida network. Then, secondary binding to zona pellucida components allows sperm to penetrate and cross the zona pellucida barrier. Several sperm surface proteins are putative receptors for zona pellucida partners. Repercussion of these studies on human fertility are discussed. PMID:9810129

  7. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... official capacity under the command or operational control of the commander of United States Central... that come under the control of the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

  8. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... official capacity under the command or operational control of the commander of United States Central... that come under the control of the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

  9. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... official capacity under the command or operational control of the commander of United States Central... that come under the control of the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

  10. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... official capacity under the command or operational control of the commander of United States Central... that come under the control of the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

  11. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).

  12. Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

    2013-04-01

    A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

  13. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Cte dIvoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding gender dialogue groups to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Cte dIvoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to gender dialogue groups added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a womans ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?control women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?

  14. An investigation of concurrent sex partnering in two samples of drug users having large numbers of sex partners.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark L; Ross, Michael W; Atkinson, John; Bowen, Anne; Klovdahl, Alden; Timpson, Sandra C

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure the nature of concurrent sex partnering in two samples of drug users having large numbers of sex partners. The purpose of this study was to measure concurrent sex partnering and overlap in concurrent sex partners in two samples of drug users in which some or all participants were trading sex-for-money. Two samples having large numbers of sex partners were used to conduct the analyses: drug-using male sex workers (MSW) and male and female crack cocaine smokers (CS) having vaginal sex. To reflect the quality of concurrent partnering, three measures were used: the proportion of the samples having concurrent partners; the proportions of the samples having intimate, casual, and sex-for-money of partners; and overlap in concurrent partners. Proportions of each sample having concurrent partners were essentially the same. However, the kinds of concurrent partners and overlap in concurrent partners were significantly different. Concurrent partners in the MSW sample were mostly sex-for-money or sex-for-drugs partners. Most concurrent partners in the CS sample were initimate or casual sex partners. Overlap in concurrent partners was also significantly different. The measure of overlap for the CS sample was three times higher than that of the MSW sample. These data suggest that concurrent sex partnering in the two samples, beyond the proportion having concurrent partners, was different. The patterns of concurrent sex partners in each sample may reflect different reasons for engaging in concurrent partnering. Different reasons for engaging in concurrent partnering may also be reflected in different overlap scores between the two samples. Efforts should be made in future studies to better capture the complexities of concurrent partnering and to examine the implications of these for disease spread and control. PMID:16643680

  15. 9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.904 Section 93.904 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  16. Experimental approach to prezygotic chromosome screening using only a single pair of gametes in mice

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Hiroyuki; KOHDA, Atsushi; TATENO, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    During in vitro embryo production, chromosome screening is essential to prevent pregnancy losses caused by embryonic chromosome aberrations. When the chromosome screening is completed before fertilization, gametes are effectively utilized as genetic resources. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chromosome screening of gametes accompanied by fertilization would be feasible using a single mouse spermatozoon and oocyte. Metaphase II oocytes were divided into a cytoplast and a karyoplast. For genome cloning of the gametes, androgenic and gynogenic embryos were produced by microinjection of sperm into cytoplasts and parthenogenetic activation of karyoplasts, respectively. Pairs of blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were fused electrically to produce diploid embryos, which were transferred into pseudopregnant surrogate mothers to examine fetal development. Blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were individually treated with calyculin Aa specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatasesfor 2 h to induce premature chromosome condensation. Thereafter, chromosome analysis of blastomeres, reflecting the genetic constitution of individual spermatozoa and oocytes, was performed, and we confirmed that most of the androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos had a haploid set of chromosomes in their sister blastomeres. The reconstructed embryos from blastomeres of androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos could be implanted and develop into live fetuses, albeit at low efficiency. This study indicates that prezygotic chromosome screening and embryo production using a single pair of gametes may be practicable. PMID:26234555

  17. Experimental approach to prezygotic chromosome screening using only a single pair of gametes in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Atsushi; Tateno, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-18

    During in vitro embryo production, chromosome screening is essential to prevent pregnancy losses caused by embryonic chromosome aberrations. When the chromosome screening is completed before fertilization, gametes are effectively utilized as genetic resources. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chromosome screening of gametes accompanied by fertilization would be feasible using a single mouse spermatozoon and oocyte. Metaphase II oocytes were divided into a cytoplast and a karyoplast. For genome cloning of the gametes, androgenic and gynogenic embryos were produced by microinjection of sperm into cytoplasts and parthenogenetic activation of karyoplasts, respectively. Pairs of blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were fused electrically to produce diploid embryos, which were transferred into pseudopregnant surrogate mothers to examine fetal development. Blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were individually treated with calyculin A-a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases-for 2 h to induce premature chromosome condensation. Thereafter, chromosome analysis of blastomeres, reflecting the genetic constitution of individual spermatozoa and oocytes, was performed, and we confirmed that most of the androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos had a haploid set of chromosomes in their sister blastomeres. The reconstructed embryos from blastomeres of androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos could be implanted and develop into live fetuses, albeit at low efficiency. This study indicates that prezygotic chromosome screening and embryo production using a single pair of gametes may be practicable. PMID:26234555

  18. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    1999-03-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  19. [Embryos and gametes cryopreservation for genetic resources conservation of laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S Ya; Brusentsev, E Yu; Okotrub, K A; Rozhkova, I N

    2015-01-01

    Article reviews the use of embryos and gametes cryopreservation for cryobanking the laboratory animal species. The special emphasis is made on the mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryoprotection during program freezing and vitrification. The species specific cryobanking problems are discussed and the prospects to overcome these problems are outlined. PMID:26021119

  20. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species... species to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Center for...

  1. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species... species to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Center for...

  2. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species... species to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Center for...

  3. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species... species to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Center for...

  4. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species... species to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Center for...

  5. The ethics of anonymous gamete donation: is there a right to know one's genetic origins?

    PubMed

    De Melo-Martn, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of jurisdictions hold that gamete donors must be identifiable to the children born with their eggs or sperm, on grounds that being able to know about one's genetic origins is a fundamental moral right. But the argument for that belief has not yet been adequately made. PMID:24532424

  6. Selection in the rapid evolution of gamete recognition proteins in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vacquier, Victor D; Swanson, Willie J

    2011-11-01

    Animal fertilization is governed by the interaction (binding) of proteins on the surfaces of sperm and egg. In many examples presented herein, fertilization proteins evolve rapidly and show the signature of positive selection (adaptive evolution). This review describes the molecular evolution of fertilization proteins in sea urchins, abalone, and oysters, animals with external fertilization that broadcast their gametes into seawater. Theories regarding the selective forces responsible for the rapid evolution driven by positive selection seen in many fertilization proteins are discussed. This strong selection acting on divergence of interacting fertilization proteins might lead to prezygotic reproductive isolation and be a significant factor in the speciation process. Since only a fraction of all eggs are fertilized and only an infinitesimal fraction of male gametes succeed in fertilizing an egg, gametes are obviously a category of entities subjected to intense selection. It is curious that this is never mentioned in the literature dealing with selection, perhaps because we know so little about fitness differences among gametes. (Ernst Mayr, 1997). PMID:21730046

  7. Selection in the Rapid Evolution of Gamete Recognition Proteins in Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Vacquier, Victor D.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal fertilization is governed by the interaction (binding) of proteins on the surfaces of sperm and egg. In many examples presented herein, fertilization proteins evolve rapidly and show the signature of positive selection (adaptive evolution). This review describes the molecular evolution of fertilization proteins in sea urchins, abalone, and oysters, animals with external fertilization that broadcast their gametes into seawater. Theories regarding the selective forces responsible for the rapid evolution driven by positive selection seen in many fertilization proteins are discussed. This strong selection acting on divergence of interacting fertilization proteins might lead to prezygotic reproductive isolation and be a significant factor in the speciation process. Since only a fraction of all eggs are fertilized and only an infinitesimal fraction of male gametes succeed in fertilizing an egg, gametes are obviously a category of entities subjected to intense selection. It is curious that this is never mentioned in the literature dealing with selection, perhaps because we know so little about fitness differences among gametes.(ErnstMayr, 1997) PMID:21730046

  8. Effect of Different Media and Protein Source on Equine Gametes: Potential Impact During In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, L; Macedo, S; Lopes, J S; Rocha, A; Macías-García, B

    2015-12-01

    Equine in vitro fertilization (IVF) is still inconsistent. In the present work, we studied how modified Whitten's (MW) medium and Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM) added with Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS; 10% v/v) or Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA; 7 mg/ml) affected equine gametes to subsequently run IVF trials. Compact (Cp) and expanded (Ex) cumuli equine oocytes were matured and placed in TCM or MW supplemented with BSA or FBS for 18-20 h (no sperm added). In Ex oocytes, TCM-199 added with FBS or BSA resulted in higher metaphase II (MII) rates (75.7% and 62.7%, respectively) than MW added with BSA (54%) or FBS (52.2%; p < 0.05); this was not observed for Cp oocytes. Equine sperm were capacitated in the same media at 10 × 10(6) sperm/ml for 4 h at 37°C; total motility and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY) were evaluated. While motility remained unchanged, TCM or MW added with FBS enhanced the number of sperm showing PY-stained tails (25 ± 4.8% and 31 ± 6.6%; mean ± SEM, respectively) over BSA supplemented media (3 ± 1.2% and 11.7 ± 1.1%) for TCM and MW (p < 0.05). In view of the previous results, sperm were capacitated in TCM + FBS and MW + BSA (control); IVF trials were run in the same media supplemented with 200 ng/ml of progesterone, but no fertilization occurred. Our results show that TCM + FBS enhances Ex equine oocyte's meiotic competence over MW + BSA and TCM or MW added with FBS successfully induce equine PY over media supplemented with BSA. PMID:26482800

  9. Developmental selection within the angiosperm style: Using gamete DNA to visualize interspecific pollen competition

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. H.; Friedman, W. E.; Arnold, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    Among flowering plants, females often have little control over the genetic relatedness of pollen deposited on stigmas. Thus, postpollination processes are of primary importance for mate discrimination. The ability to screen and select among male gametes during pollen tube growth within the female tissues of the stigma, style, and ovary is critical to the process of mate choice and reproductive isolation. However, direct evidence of the mechanistic/developmental processes associated with mate choice in flowering plants is sparse. We studied the contribution of postpollination, prefertilization processes to reproductive isolation in two wind-pollinated species of birch (Betula) that commonly hybridize in nature. We exploited the 3-fold difference in ploidy level between these two species to determine the paternity of individual pollen tubes growing within female reproductive tissues. We then tracked their developmental fate in conspecific, heterospecific, and mixed-species crosses. This design allowed a direct comparison of developmental processes responsible for reproductive isolation in both single-species and mixed-species pollinations. Our results have important implications for the population genetic outcome of hybridization dynamics in natural populations. Paternity analysis of progeny from mixed-species pollinations revealed that conspecific pollen tubes sired more than 98% of seedlings. Biased siring success was not the result of differential embryo abortion. We detected strong, early postpollination barriers such as pollen tube incompatibility, slower pollen tube growth, and delayed generative cell mitosis. Conspecific fertilization precedence was mediated by favorable or unfavorable male-female interactions, but there was no evidence for antagonistic male-male interactions. PMID:10430920

  10. A surface glycoprotein indispensable for gamete fusion in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Hideki D; Saeki, Kentaro; Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Ishida, Kentaro; Sawada, Hitoshi; Urushihara, Hideko

    2012-05-01

    Sexual reproduction is essential for the maintenance of species in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, and even unicellular organisms that normally proliferate asexually possess a sexual cycle because of its contribution to increased genetic diversity. Information concerning the molecules involved in fertilization is accumulating for many species of the metazoan, plant, and fungal lineages, and the evolutionary consideration of sexual reproduction systems is now an interesting issue. Macrocyst formation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a sexual process in which cells become sexually mature under dark and submerged conditions and fuse with complementary mating-type cells. In the present study, we isolated D. discoideum insertional mutants defective in sexual cell fusion and identified the relevant gene, macA, which encodes a highly glycosylated, 2,041-amino-acid membrane protein (MacA). Although its overall similarity is restricted to proteins of unknown function within dictyostelids, it contains LamGL and discoidin domains, which are implicated in cell adhesion. The growth and development of macA-null mutants were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. The overexpression of macA using the V18 promoter in a macA-null mutant completely restored its sexual defects. Although the macA gene encoded exactly the same protein in a complementary mating-type strain, it was expressed at a much lower level. These results suggest that MacA is indispensable for gamete interactions in D. discoideum, probably via cell adhesion. There is a possibility that it is controlled in a mating-type-dependent manner. PMID:22389384

  11. A Surface Glycoprotein Indispensable for Gamete Fusion in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Hideki D.; Saeki, Kentaro; Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Ishida, Kentaro; Sawada, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is essential for the maintenance of species in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, and even unicellular organisms that normally proliferate asexually possess a sexual cycle because of its contribution to increased genetic diversity. Information concerning the molecules involved in fertilization is accumulating for many species of the metazoan, plant, and fungal lineages, and the evolutionary consideration of sexual reproduction systems is now an interesting issue. Macrocyst formation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a sexual process in which cells become sexually mature under dark and submerged conditions and fuse with complementary mating-type cells. In the present study, we isolated D. discoideum insertional mutants defective in sexual cell fusion and identified the relevant gene, macA, which encodes a highly glycosylated, 2,041-amino-acid membrane protein (MacA). Although its overall similarity is restricted to proteins of unknown function within dictyostelids, it contains LamGL and discoidin domains, which are implicated in cell adhesion. The growth and development of macA-null mutants were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. The overexpression of macA using the V18 promoter in a macA-null mutant completely restored its sexual defects. Although the macA gene encoded exactly the same protein in a complementary mating-type strain, it was expressed at a much lower level. These results suggest that MacA is indispensable for gamete interactions in D. discoideum, probably via cell adhesion. There is a possibility that it is controlled in a mating-type-dependent manner. PMID:22389384

  12. Hyposalinity stress compromises the fertilization of gametes more than the survival of coral larvae.

    PubMed

    Hdouin, Laetitia; Pilon, Rosanne; Puisay, Antoine

    2015-03-01

    The life cycle of coral is affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations occurring in the marine environment. In the context of global changes, it is likely that rainfall events will be more intense and that coastal reefs will be exposed to sudden drops in salinity. Therefore, a better understanding of how corals-especially during the pelagic life stages-are able to deal with declines in salinity is crucial. To fill this knowledge gap, this work investigated how gametes and larva stages of two species of Acropora (Acropora cytherea and Acropora pulchra) from French Polynesia cope with drops in salinity. An analysis of collected results highlights that both Acropora coral gametes displayed the same resistance to salinity changes, with 4h30-ES50 (effective salinity that decrease by 50% the fertilization success after 4h30 exposure) of 26.60.1 and 27.50.3 for A.cytherea and A.pulchra, respectively. This study also revealed that coral gametes were more sensitive to decreases in salinity than larvae, for which significant changes are only observed at 26 for A.cytherea after 14d of exposure. Although rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are often perceived as the main threat for the survival of coral reefs, our work indicates that 70% of the gametes could be killed during a single night of spawning by a rainfall event that decreases salinity to 26. This suggests that changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events associated with climate changes should be taken seriously in efforts to both preserve coral gametes and ensure the persistence and renewal of coral populations. PMID:25562765

  13. Improvement of gamete quality and its short-term storage: an approach for biotechnology in laboratory fish.

    PubMed

    Yasui, G S; Senhorini, J A; Shimoda, E; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O; Fujimoto, T; Arias-Rodriguez, L; Silva, L A

    2015-03-01

    In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) - mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1 ± 4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5 ± 5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6 ± 27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4 ± 7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1 ± 26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization. PMID:25391393

  14. Male partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and media depictions of partner scarcity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laramie D

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity. PMID:23335697

  15. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the family partners for health study: a cluster randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young children who are overweight are at increased risk of becoming obese and developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Therefore, early intervention is critical. This paper describes the rationale, design, methodology, and sample characteristics of a 5-year cluster randomized controlled trial being conducted in eight elementary schools in rural North Carolina, United States. Methods/Design The first aim of the trial is to examine the effects of a two-phased intervention on weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy in overweight or obese 2nd, 3 rd, and 4th grade children and their overweight or obese parents. The primary outcome in children is stabilization of BMI percentile trajectory from baseline to 18 months. The primary outcome in parents is a decrease in BMI from baseline to 18 months. Secondary outcomes for both children and parents include adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy from baseline to 18 months. A secondary aim of the trial is to examine in the experimental group, the relationships between parents and children's changes in weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy. An exploratory aim is to determine whether African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children and parents in the experimental group benefit differently from the intervention in weight status, adiposity, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. A total of 358 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic children with a BMI ? 85th percentile and 358 parents with a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 have been inducted over 3 1/2 years and randomized by cohort to either an experimental or a wait-listed control group. The experimental group receives a 12-week intensive intervention of nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training and exercise (Phase I), 9 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II) and then 6 months (follow-up) on their own. Safety endpoints include adverse event reporting. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied to all data. Discussion Findings from this trial may lead to an effective intervention to assist children and parents to work together to improve nutrition and exercise patterns by making small lifestyle pattern changes. Trial registration NCT01378806. PMID:22463125

  16. Health Problems of Partner Violence Victims

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Background National population-based studies show that 40%50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. Purpose To understand mens mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. Methods In 20122013, two samples of men611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. Results In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Conclusions Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. PMID:25442232

  17. Gene expression profiles in rice gametes and zygotes: identification of gamete-enriched genes and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Mafumi; Maeda, Hiroki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation. PMID:23570690

  18. Gene expression profiles in rice gametes and zygotes: identification of gamete-enriched genes and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Abiko, Mafumi; Maeda, Hiroki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation. PMID:23570690

  19. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression in Crassostrea gigas male gametes

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Claire E.; Roberts, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns and functions are variable across invertebrate taxa. In order to provide a better understanding of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), we characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in male gamete cells using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to examine the relationship between DNA methylation and transcript expression. Methylation status of over 7.6 million CpG dinucleotides was described with a majority of methylated regions occurring among intragenic regions. Overall, 15% of the CpG dinucleotides were determined to be methylated and the mitochondrial genome lacked DNA methylation. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data revealed a positive association between methylation status, both in gene bodies and putative promoter regions, and expression. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the distribution of DNA methylation in the oyster male gamete tissue and suggests that DNA methylation is involved in gene regulatory activity. PMID:24987376

  20. Ethical aspects of creating human-nonhuman chimeras capable of human gamete production and human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Palacios-González, César

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I explore some of the moral issues that could emerge from the creation of human-nonhuman chimeras (HNH-chimeras) capable of human gamete production and human pregnancy. First I explore whether there is a cogent argument against the creation of HNH-chimeras that could produce human gametes. I conclude that so far there is none, and that in fact there is at least one good moral reason for producing such types of creatures. Afterwards I explore some of the moral problems that could emerge from the fact that a HNH-chimera could become pregnant with a human conceptus. I focus on two sets of problems: problems that would arise by virtue of the fact that a human is gestated by a nonhuman creature, and problems that would emerge from the fact that such pregnancies could affect the health of the HNH-chimera. PMID:26458367

  1. Gamete and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy in Australia: The Social Context and Regulatory Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hammarberg, Karin; Johnson, Louise; Petrillo, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    The social and legal acceptability of third-party reproduction varies around the world. In Australia, gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy are permitted within the regulatory framework set out by federal and state governments. The aim of this paper is to describe the social context and regulatory framework for third-party reproduction in Australia. This is a review of current laws and regulations related to third-party reproduction in Australia. Although subtle between-state differences exist, third-party reproduction is by and large a socially acceptable and legally permissible way to form a family throughout Australia. The overarching principles that govern the practice of third-party reproduction are altruism; the right of donorconceived people to be informed of their biological origins; and the provision of comprehensive counselling about the social, psychological, physical, ethical, financial and legal implications of third-party reproduction to those considering donating or receiving gametes or embryos and entering surrogacy arrangements. These principles ensure that donors are not motivated by financial gain, donor offspring can identify and meet with the person or persons who donated gametes or embryos, and prospective donors and recipients are aware of and have carefully considered the potential consequences of third-party reproduction. Australian state laws and federal guidelines prohibit commercial and anonymous third-party reproduction; mandate counselling of all parties involved in gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy arrangements; and require clinics to keep records with identifying and non- identifying information about the donor/s to allow donor-conceived offspring to trace their biological origins. PMID:24851179

  2. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and

  3. Making muslim babies: Ivf and gamete donation in sunni versus shia islam

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the local moral worlds of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypts famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shiite Muslims, with Irans leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shiite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  4. Pheromonal stimulation of spawning release of gametes by gonadotropin releasing hormone in the chiton, Mopalia sp.

    PubMed

    Gorbman, Aubrey; Whiteley, Arthur; Kavanaugh, Scott

    2003-03-01

    The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0 mg/L) but dilutions to 50 microg/L no longer were effective. Three other GnRHs: lamprey GnRH-3, tunicate GnRH-1, and a modified chicken GnRH-2, had no such action under the same test conditions. Since the spawning response could be produced by some GnRHs and not by others, it would appear that some kind of molecular recognition is involved, possibly by specific binding to a receptor. In earlier preliminary experiments tunicate GnRH-2 rapidly stimulated gamete release in a hemichordate, Saccoglossus. Thus it is suggested that GnRHs, in at least some invertebrates, may function as pheromones, serving to stimulate simultaneous spawning of individuals in a population of animals, and in this way assure more successful fertilization in species that must release their gametes into the water in which they live. PMID:12620248

  5. Ploidy frequencies in plants with ploidy heterogeneity: fitting a general gametic model to empirical population data

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Jan; Herben, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Genome duplication (polyploidy) is a recurrent evolutionary process in plants, often conferring instant reproductive isolation and thus potentially leading to speciation. Outcome of the process is often seen in the field as different cytotypes co-occur in many plant populations. Failure of meiotic reduction during gametogenesis is widely acknowledged to be the main mode of polyploid formation. To get insight into its role in the dynamics of polyploidy generation under natural conditions, and coexistence of several ploidy levels, we developed a general gametic model for diploidpolyploid systems. This model predicts equilibrium ploidy frequencies as functions of several parameters, namely the unreduced gamete proportions and fertilities of higher ploidy plants. We used data on field ploidy frequencies for 39 presumably autopolyploid plant species/populations to infer numerical values of the model parameters (either analytically or using an optimization procedure). With the exception of a few species, the model fit was very high. The estimated proportions of unreduced gametes (median of 0.0089) matched published estimates well. Our results imply that conditions for cytotype coexistence in natural populations are likely to be less restrictive than previously assumed. In addition, rather simple models show sufficiently rich behaviour to explain the prevalence of polyploids among flowering plants. PMID:23193129

  6. Gamete fusion is required to block multiple pollen tubes from entering an Arabidopsis ovule.

    PubMed

    Beale, Kristin M; Leydon, Alexander R; Johnson, Mark A

    2012-06-19

    In double fertilization, a reproductive system unique to flowering plants, two immotile sperm are delivered to an ovule by a pollen tube. One sperm fuses with the egg to generate a zygote, the other with the central cell to produce endosperm. A mechanism preventing multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule would ensure that only two sperm are delivered to female gametes. We use live-cell imaging and a novel mixed-pollination assay that can detect multiple pollen tubes and multiple sets of sperm within a single ovule to show that Arabidopsis efficiently prevents multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule. However, when gamete-fusion defective hap2(gcs1) or duo1 sperm are delivered to ovules, as many as three additional pollen tubes are attracted. When gamete fusion fails, one of two pollen tube-attracting synergid cells persists, enabling the ovule to attract more pollen tubes for successful fertilization. This mechanism prevents the delivery of more than one pair of sperm to an ovule, provides a means of salvaging fertilization in ovules that have received defective sperm, and ensures maximum reproductive success by distributing pollen tubes to all ovules. PMID:22608506

  7. Gamete fusion is required to block multiple pollen tubes from entering an Arabidopsis ovule

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Kristin M.; Leydon, Alexander R.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In double fertilization, a reproductive system unique to flowering plants, two immotile sperm are delivered to an ovule by a pollen tube. One sperm fuses with the egg to generate a zygote, the other with the central cell to produce endosperm[1]. A mechanism preventing multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule would ensure that only two sperm are delivered to female gametes. We use live-cell imaging[1, 2] and a novel mixed-pollination assay that can detect multiple pollen tubes and multiple sets of sperm within a single ovule to show that Arabidopsis efficiently prevents multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule. However, when gamete-fusion defective hap2(gcs1) or duo1 sperm are delivered to ovules as many as three additional pollen tubes are attracted. When gamete fusion fails, one of two pollen tube-attracting synergid cells persists, enabling the ovule to attract more pollen tubes for successful fertilization. This mechanism prevents the delivery of more than one pair of sperm to an ovule, provides a means of salvaging fertilization in ovules that have received defective sperm, and ensures maximum reproductive success by distributing pollen tubes to all ovules. PMID:22608506

  8. HAP2(GCS1)-Dependent Gamete Fusion Requires a Positively Charged Carboxy-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Julian L.; Leydon, Alexander R.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    HAP2(GCS1) is a deeply conserved sperm protein that is essential for gamete fusion. Here we use complementation assays to define major functional regions of the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog using HAP2(GCS1) variants with modifications to regions amino(N) and carboxy(C) to its single transmembrane domain. These quantitative in vivo complementation studies show that the N-terminal region tolerates exchange with a closely related sequence, but not with a more distantly related plant sequence. In contrast, a distantly related C-terminus is functional in Arabidopsis, indicating that the primary sequence of the C-terminus is not critical. However, mutations that neutralized the charge of the C-terminus impair HAP2(GCS1)-dependent gamete fusion. Our results provide data identifying the essential functional features of this highly conserved sperm fusion protein. They suggest that the N-terminus functions by interacting with female gamete-expressed proteins and that the positively charged C-terminus may function through electrostatic interactions with the sperm plasma membrane. PMID:20333238

  9. HAP2(GCS1)-dependent gamete fusion requires a positively charged carboxy-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Wong, Julian L; Leydon, Alexander R; Johnson, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    HAP2(GCS1) is a deeply conserved sperm protein that is essential for gamete fusion. Here we use complementation assays to define major functional regions of the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog using HAP2(GCS1) variants with modifications to regions amino(N) and carboxy(C) to its single transmembrane domain. These quantitative in vivo complementation studies show that the N-terminal region tolerates exchange with a closely related sequence, but not with a more distantly related plant sequence. In contrast, a distantly related C-terminus is functional in Arabidopsis, indicating that the primary sequence of the C-terminus is not critical. However, mutations that neutralized the charge of the C-terminus impair HAP2(GCS1)-dependent gamete fusion. Our results provide data identifying the essential functional features of this highly conserved sperm fusion protein. They suggest that the N-terminus functions by interacting with female gamete-expressed proteins and that the positively charged C-terminus may function through electrostatic interactions with the sperm plasma membrane. PMID:20333238

  10. Chemically moderated gamete preferences predict offspring fitness in a broadcast spawning invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Mathew; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm chemoattraction, where sperm locate unfertilized eggs by following a concentration gradient of egg-derived chemoattractants, has been widely documented across numerous taxa. While marine invertebrates are favoured models for understanding the underlying mechanisms of sperm chemoattraction, the evolutionary forces underpinning the process remain enigmatic. Here, we show that in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), chemically moderated gamete preferences promote assortative fertilizations between genetically compatible gametes. When offered the choice of egg clutches from two females, sperm exhibited consistent but differential preferences for chemical cues secreted from conspecific eggs. Critically, our data reveal that the preferences shown by sperm during the egg-choice trials are highly predictive of early embryonic viability when eggs and sperm from the same individuals are mixed during standard (no-choice) fertilization assays. Moreover, we demonstrate that by experimentally separating chemoattractants from eggs, sperm swimming behaviour is differentially regulated by egg-derived chemoattractants, and that these changes in sperm behaviour are highly consistent with observed patterns of gamete preferences, fertilization and larval survival. Together, this integrated series of experiments reveals that the behaviour of sperm is fine-tuned to respond differentially to the chemical signals emitted from different conspecific eggs, and that these choices have measurable fitness benefits. PMID:24741014

  11. Sperm protein "DE" mediates gamete fusion through an evolutionarily conserved site of the CRISP family.

    PubMed

    Ellerman, Diego A; Cohen, Débora J; Da Ros, Vanina G; Morgenfeld, Mauro M; Busso, Dolores; Cuasnicú, Patricia S

    2006-09-01

    The first member of the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family was described by our laboratory in the rat epididymis, and it is known as DE or CRISP-1. Since then, numerous CRISPs exhibiting a high amino acid sequence similarity have been identified in animals, plants and fungi, although their functions remain largely unknown. CRISP-1 proteins are candidates to mediate gamete fusion in the rat, mouse and human through their binding to complementary sites on the egg surface. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying CRISP-1 function, in the present work, deletion mutants of protein DE were generated and examined for their ability to bind to the rat egg and interfere with gamete fusion. Results revealed that the egg-binding ability of DE resides within a 45-amino acid N-terminal region containing the two motifs of the CRISP family named Signature 1 and Signature 2. Subsequent assays using synthetic peptides and other CRISPs support that the egg-binding site of DE falls in the 12-amino-acid region corresponding to Signature 2. The interesting finding that the binding site of DE resides in an evolutionarily conserved region of the molecule provides novel information on the molecular mechanisms underlying CRISP-1 function in gamete fusion with important implications on the structure-function relationship of other members of the widely distributed CRISP family. PMID:16872593

  12. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  13. Female and male gamete mitochondria are distinct and complementary in transcription, structure, and genome function.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Wilson B M; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Missirlis, Fanis; Ashworth, Rachel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lucas, Cathy H; Allen, John F

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals. Mitochondrial DNA mutation then accumulates with age, and may set a limit to the lifespan of individual, multicellular organisms. Why is this mutation not inherited? Here we demonstrate that female gametes-oocytes-have unusually small and simple mitochondria that are suppressed for DNA transcription, electron transport, and free radical production. By contrast, male gametes-sperm-and somatic cells of both sexes transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory electron carriers and produce oxygen free radicals. This germ-line division between mitochondria of sperm and egg is observed in both the vinegar fruitfly and the zebrafish-species spanning a major evolutionary divide within the animal kingdom. We interpret these findings as an evidence that oocyte mitochondria serve primarily as genetic templates, giving rise, irreversibly and in each new generation, to the familiar energy-transducing mitochondria of somatic cells and male gametes. Suppressed mitochondrial metabolism in the female germ line may therefore constitute a mechanism for increasing the fidelity of mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24068653

  14. Reactions to a Partner-Assisted Emotional Disclosure Intervention: Direct Observation and Self-Report of Patient and Partner Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Laura S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Keefe, Francis J.; Patterson, Emily S.

    2012-01-01

    Partner-assisted emotional disclosure is a couple-based intervention designed to help patients disclose cancer-related concerns to their spouses-partners. We previously found that, compared with an education/support control condition, partner-assisted emotional disclosure led to significant improvements in relationship quality and intimacy for

  15. Working with men to prevent intimate partner violence in a conflict-affected setting: a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from armed conflict settings points to high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Current knowledge on how to prevent IPV is limited—especially within war-affected settings. To inform prevention programming on gender-based violence in settings affected by conflict, we evaluated the impact of adding a targeted men’s intervention to a community-based prevention programme in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods We conducted a two-armed, non-blinded cluster randomized trial in Côte d’Ivoire among 12 pair-matched communities spanning government-controlled, UN buffer, and rebel–controlled zones. The intervention communities received a 16-week IPV prevention intervention using a men’s discussion group format. All communities received community-based prevention programmes. Baseline data were collected from couples in September 2010 (pre-intervention) and follow-up in March 2012 (one year post-intervention). The primary trial outcome was women’s reported experiences of physical and/or sexual IPV in the last 12 months. We also assessed men’s reported intention to use physical IPV, attitudes towards sexual IPV, use of hostility and conflict management skills, and participation in gendered household tasks. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis was used to compare outcomes between intervention and control communities at follow-up. Results At follow-up, reported levels of physical and/or sexual IPV in the intervention arm had decreased compared to the control arm (ARR 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-1.51, not significant). Men participating in the intervention reported decreased intentions to use physical IPV (ARR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.06) and improved attitudes toward sexual IPV (ARR 1.21, 95% CI 0.77-1.91). Significant differences were found between men in the intervention and control arms’ reported ability to control their hostility and manage conflict (ARR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.58), and participation in gendered household tasks (ARR 2.47, 95% CI 1.24-4.90). Conclusions This trial points to the value of adding interventions working with men alongside community activities to reduce levels of IPV in conflict-affected settings. The intervention significantly influenced men’s reported behaviours related to hostility and conflict management and gender equitable behaviours. The decreased mean level of IPV and the differences between intervention and control arms, while not statistically significant, suggest that IPV in conflict-affected areas can be reduced through concerted efforts to include men directly in violence prevention programming. A larger-scale trial is needed to replicate these findings and further understand the mechanisms of change. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01803932 PMID:24716478

  16. The Social Health Intervention Project (SHIP): Protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a brief motivational intervention for problem drinking and intimate partner violence in an urban emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a strong reciprocal association between two highly prevalent public health problems: intimate partner violence and heavy drinking, both of which remain major sources of morbidity and mortality. Brief interventions in the Emergency Department setting have been found to be effective in reducing alcohol-related injury but neither classic intimate partner violence nor substance abuse interventions have adequately integrated assessment and treatment for these co-occurring conditions. The overall goal of this study is to determine whether a motivational intervention delivered at the time of an Emergency Department visit will reduce heavy drinking and improve the safety of women experiencing intimate partner violence. Methods and design We are completing data collection for a randomized controlled trial enrolling 600 female patients, age 18–64, presenting to one of two urban Emergency Departments, who self-disclose both problem drinking and intimate partner violence. Eligible patients are randomized to a brief manual-guided motivational intervention, and a phone booster at 10 days. The intervention, which is delivered by masters-level therapists during the Emergency Department visit, is recorded and monitored for fidelity. Primary outcomes are episodes of heavy drinking and incidents of intimate partner violence, assessed weekly by Interactive Voice Response System for 12 weeks and at 3, 6 and 12 months by interviewers blinded to group assignment. To identify the impact of assessment alone, we included a no-contact control group assessed only once at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include violence severity, changes in the Composite Abuse Scale and alcohol quantity/frequency, along with other health-related behaviors. The analysis will also explore the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. Discussion While screening and intervention for intimate partner violence is now recommended for women of child bearing age in health care settings, there is a need for rigorous evaluations of what works for whom. Upon completion, we will have high-quality evidence regarding the effectiveness of a low-intensity, brief motivational intervention, delivered by social workers in the Emergency Department setting, for decreasing episodes of heavy drinking and intimate partner violence. Ultimately, this is a model could be generalizable to other acute health care settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number: NCT01207258 PMID:24742322

  17. Resources for Partners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes the resources and opportunities available to partners how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.

  18. Understanding Intimate Partner Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abuse. This behavior can progress to physical or sexual assault. Several types of IPV may occur together. Why ... in 10 men in the US have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by a partner ...

  19. All Partner Organizations

    Cancer.gov

    The following Universities and organizations partner with the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium with the ultimate goal of improving our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer. Accadia

  20. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens/AR mediate sperm death which is a novel field of investigation in sperm biology.

  1. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639

  2. Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the childs second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial RegisterNTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854 PMID:24205150

  3. Endocrine control of epigenetic mechanisms in male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ankolkar, Mandar; Balasinor, N H

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine control of reproduction is very well known and has been echoed by many research groups. However, recent developments point to the ability of toxic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) to alter epigenetic information of the gametes which gets transferred to the developing embryo and affects the immediate reproductive outcome or even persists transgenerationally. These epigenetic aberrations contribute to the ensuing pathophysiology of reproductive disorders. Investigations of the female in cases of poor reproductive outcome have been the main strategy towards diagnosis. However, despite the male partner contributing half of his genome to the progeny, thorough investigations in the male have been ignored. Environmental pollutants are all pervading and are encountered in our day-to-day life. Many of these pollutants have potential to disrupt the endocrine system. Here, we discuss how the male gametes (spermatozoa) are susceptible to a myriad of epigenetic insults inflicted by exposure to endocrine disruptors and how important is the contribution of the epigenetic marks of the spermatozoa in healthy reproduction. We advocate that sperm epigenetics should be considered as a significant contributor to reproductive health and should be researched further and be subsequently included in routine diagnostic workup in cases of poor reproductive outcome. PMID:26943614

  4. Gamete types, sex determination and stable equilibria of all-hybrid populations of diploid and triploid edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Ditte G

    2009-01-01

    Background Triploid individuals often play a key role in speciation by hybridization. An understanding of the gamete types (ploidy and genomic content) and stability of hybrid populations with triploid individuals is therefore of importance for exploring the role of hybridization in evolution. The all-hybrid populations of the edible frog, Pelophylax esculentus, are unique in their composition and genetic dynamics: Diploid (genotype LR) and triploid (LLR and LRR) hybrids depend on each other's different gamete contributions for successful reproduction and maintenance of the populations, as the parental genotypes P. lessonae (LL) and P. ridibundus (RR) are absent among adults. This study provides data and interpretations on gamete types and sex determination that are essential for understanding the function, evolutionary potential and threats of this intriguing system. Results Dissection of metamorphs from a crossing experiment confirmed that sex determination is an XX-XY system with the Y confined to the L genome. From microsatellite analysis of parents and offspring from the crossings, gamete frequencies could be deduced: Triploids of both sexes mostly made haploid gametes with the genome they had in double dose, however LLR females also made approximately 10% LL gametes by automixis. LR frogs showed much variation in their gamete production. In LRR-rich populations, their LR sperm production was sufficiently high (22%) to explain the observed proportion of LRR males, the formation of which has not previously been understood. A model was constructed to calculate equilibrium genotype proportions for different population types on the basis of the gamete proportions found. These equilibria agreed well with empirical literature data. Conclusion If population differentiation with respect to genotype proportions is really driven by gamete patterns, as strongly suggested by the present study, all-hybrid populations constitute not one, but several intrinsically different breeding systems. Tetraploidization could occur if the survival or fertility of both males and females increased. Whether introduction of hybrid or parental species individuals would threaten the all-hybrid populations cannot be predicted without further knowledge on the mechanisms behind non-hybrid inviability, but at least R genomes with Y factor are predicted to be invasive, if introduced, and could bring the populations to collapse. PMID:19527499

  5. Gamete compatibility between marine and estuarine Acanthopagrus spp. (Sparidae) and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D G; Gray, C A; West, R J; Ayre, D J

    2010-08-01

    On Australia's south-east coast, hybridization between estuary-restricted black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri Munro and its migratory coastal congener yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (Gnther) has led to estuarine populations largely composed of hybrids that are most genetically similar to A. butcheri. The fertilization success achieved when ova of estuary-caught A. butcheri were fertilized with the cryogenically preserved sperm of either ocean-caught A. australis or estuary-caught A. butcheri-like was compared. The experimental crosses, which by chance included both pure parental and hybrid bream, revealed no evidence that gametic incompatibility provides a barrier to fertilization among both pure species and their hybrids. PMID:20646166

  6. [Methylation of DNA is an epigenetic modification critical for gametic imprinting].

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Marta; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    Differences in epigenetic patterns in male and female organisms highlight the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in development, initiated in gametogenesis. A consequence of imprinting is the expression of only one allele--maternal or paternal. Disturbances in imprinting cause genetic disorders (e.g., Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome) or influence cancer development. Also immature gametes used in artificial reproductive technologies may increase the risk of genetic disorders in offspring. Imprinting is heritable and does not change during the lifetime of an organism. PMID:21160099

  7. In Vitro Fertilization with Isolated, Single Gametes Results in Zygotic Embryogenesis and Fertile Maize Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, E; Lorz, H

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed. PMID:12271084

  8. Assisted conception and South Asian communities in the UK: public perceptions of the use of donor gametes in infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Rapport, Frances

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores 'public' attitudes to the use of donated gametes in infertility treatment amongst members of British South Asian communities in the UK. The study included 14 single-sex focus groups with a total of 100 participants of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origins in three English cities and 20 individual semi-structured interviews with key informants. It explores five themes from the data: childlessness and stigma; using sperm and using eggs; cultural connections; choosing gametes; religion and the use of donated gametes; and disclosure and the management of information. The paper demonstrates that the socio-cultural context of fertility treatment is highly relevant and those delivering services and those consulting the public need to be aware of cultural and gender differences. Third party assisted conception represents a challenge to received ideas of identity and has implications for social reproduction and kinship which go well beyond immediate conjugal relationships. PMID:23477468

  9. The right to know your genetic parents: from open-identity gamete donation to routine paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Over the years a number of countries have abolished anonymous gamete donation and shifted toward open-identity policies. Donor-conceived children are said to have a fundamental "right to know" the identity of their donor. In this article, we trace the arguments that underlie this claim and question its implications. We argue that, given the status attributed to the right to know one's gamete donor, it would be discriminatory not to extend this right to naturally conceived children with misattributed paternity. One way to facilitate this would be through routine paternity testing at birth. While this proposal is likely to raise concerns about the conflicting interests and rights of other people involved, we show that similar concerns apply to the context of open-identity gamete donation. Unless one can identify a rational basis for treating the two groups differently, one's stance toward both cases should be the same. PMID:23557045

  10. Intraspecific genetic analysis, gamete release performance, and growth of Sargassum muticum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng

    2013-11-01

    Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24°C and an irradiance of 60-100 μmol photons/(m2·s). Under ambient conditions (12-25°C and 60-125 μmol photons/(m2·s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.

  11. Developmental Coordination of Gamete Differentiation with Programmed Cell Death in Sporulating Yeast.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Michael D; Meneghini, Marc D

    2015-09-01

    The gametogenesis program of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as sporulation, employs unusual internal meiotic divisions, after which all four meiotic products differentiate within the parental cell. We showed previously that sporulation is typically accompanied by the destruction of discarded immature meiotic products through their exposure to proteases released from the mother cell vacuole, which undergoes an apparent programmed rupture. Here we demonstrate that vacuolar rupture contributes to de facto programmed cell death (PCD) of the meiotic mother cell itself. Meiotic mother cell PCD is accompanied by an accumulation of depolarized mitochondria, organelle swelling, altered plasma membrane characteristics, and cytoplasmic clearance. To ensure that the gametes survive the destructive consequences of developing within a cell that is executing PCD, we hypothesized that PCD is restrained from occurring until spores have attained a threshold degree of differentiation. Consistent with this hypothesis, gene deletions that perturb all but the most terminal postmeiotic spore developmental stages are associated with altered PCD. In these mutants, meiotic mother cells exhibit a delay in vacuolar rupture and then appear to undergo an alternative form of PCD associated with catastrophic consequences for the underdeveloped spores. Our findings reveal yeast sporulation as a context of bona fide PCD that is developmentally coordinated with gamete differentiation. PMID:26092920

  12. The use of Pacific herring gametes and embryos for assessing natural and anthropogenic stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, C.A.; Griffin, F.J.; Hibbard-Robbins, T.; Cherr, G.N.; Pillai, M.C.; Yanagimachi, R.

    1995-12-31

    For marine and estuarine waters in Northern California through the Pacific Northwest, an ecologically important endemic teleost system has been lacking for use in toxicological studies of embryo development. Since Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) spawn in estuaries during periods of freshwater input in shallow protected waters, their gametes/embryos are potentially impacted by altered salinities and pollutants. Their results demonstrate that advantages of the Pacific herring system include: (1) gametes are easily collected from mature adults, and are viable when stored up to 1 week; (2) embryos and larvae can be cultured through hatching ({approximately}10 days) in the laboratory (static or flow-through), and when outplanted in the field; and (3), distinct endpoints can be assessed, including initiation of sperm motility, fertilization, development, hatching success, and larval morphology. The authors have investigated 3 stressors which can impact early life stages of herring: salinity, creosote, and bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME). Results demonstrate that sperm motility initiation, fertilization, and development are perturbed by altered salinities, and that effects are dose-dependent with respect to both salinity and sodium. Monitoring of natural spawns on creosote pilings indicated perturbation of development; this is similar to what was observed in laboratory exposures. Finally, a major toxic constituent of BKME specifically impacts sperm and inhibits fertilization.

  13. Developmental Coordination of Gamete Differentiation with Programmed Cell Death in Sporulating Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The gametogenesis program of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as sporulation, employs unusual internal meiotic divisions, after which all four meiotic products differentiate within the parental cell. We showed previously that sporulation is typically accompanied by the destruction of discarded immature meiotic products through their exposure to proteases released from the mother cell vacuole, which undergoes an apparent programmed rupture. Here we demonstrate that vacuolar rupture contributes to de facto programmed cell death (PCD) of the meiotic mother cell itself. Meiotic mother cell PCD is accompanied by an accumulation of depolarized mitochondria, organelle swelling, altered plasma membrane characteristics, and cytoplasmic clearance. To ensure that the gametes survive the destructive consequences of developing within a cell that is executing PCD, we hypothesized that PCD is restrained from occurring until spores have attained a threshold degree of differentiation. Consistent with this hypothesis, gene deletions that perturb all but the most terminal postmeiotic spore developmental stages are associated with altered PCD. In these mutants, meiotic mother cells exhibit a delay in vacuolar rupture and then appear to undergo an alternative form of PCD associated with catastrophic consequences for the underdeveloped spores. Our findings reveal yeast sporulation as a context of bona fide PCD that is developmentally coordinated with gamete differentiation. PMID:26092920

  14. Role of melatonin on production and preservation of gametes and embryos: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; da Cruz, Jurandir Ferreira; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this brief review is to clarify the role of melatonin in the production and preservation of mammalian gametes and embryos. Melatonin is an indoleamine synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and other organs that operates as a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis modulator and regulates the waxing and waning of seasonal reproductive competence in photoperiodic mammals. A major function of the melatonin rhythm is to transmit information about the length of the daily photoperiod to the circadian and circannual systems in order to provide time-of-day and time-of-year information, respectively, to the organism. Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent, which is due to its direct scavenging of toxic oxygen derivatives and its ability to reduce the formation of reactive species. Mammalian gametes and embryos are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to the presence of high lipid levels; during artificial breeding procedures, these structures are exposed to dramatic changes in the microenvironment, which have a direct bearing on their function and viability. Free radicals influence the balance between oxidation-reduction reactions, disturb the transbilayer-phospholipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane and enhance lipid peroxidation. Melatonin, due to its amphiphilic nature, is undoubtedly useful in tissues by protecting them from free radical-mediated oxidative damage and cellular death. The supplementation of melatonin to semen extender or culture medium significantly improves sperm viability, oocyte competence and blastocyst development in vitro. PMID:24559971

  15. Gamete derivation from stem cells: revisiting the concept of genetic parenthood.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi

    2014-11-01

    Genetic parenthood is usually portrayed as a value-neutral concept that can be confirmed or rejected based on objective, scientific tests. However, on inspection, it is exposed as a very complex idea that we might need to consider as something that comes in different shapes and forms and that is open to interpretation rather than being clearly defined and fixed. Different people may therefore also desire different aspects of the general concept of genetic parenthood, which implies that some may not even be satisfied with gametes that have all the properties that their own natural gametes would have, whereas others may be satisfied with a much simpler solution. Encouraging infertility patients to gain insight into what it is exactly that they hope to gain by pursuing genetic parenthood (rather than choosing for donor conception or adoption) may lead them to recognise that the added advantage may be limited and may be acquired in other ways as well. Nevertheless, many people will find it difficult to let go of the desire for genetic parenthood as it is deeply rooted in our genes. Infertility is experienced as a grave medical condition and entails an intense grieving process for many. For that reason alone it is important that the medical and research community develop and apply methods to help people in their quest for genetic parenthood. On the other hand, it is important not to reinforce the dogma that genetic parenthood is 'the best kind of parenthood'. PMID:24951670

  16. Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale.

    PubMed

    Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N

    2013-09-01

    Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284

  17. Procuring gametes for research and therapy: the argument for unisex altruism--a response to Donald Evans.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, D L

    1997-01-01

    There has been a troublesome anomaly in the UK between cash payment to men for sperm donation and the effective assumption that women will pay to donate eggs. Some commentators, including Donald Evans in this journal, have argued that the anomaly should be resolved by treating women on the same terms as men. But this argument ignores important difficulties about property in the body, particularly in relation to gametes. There are good reasons for thinking that the contract model and payment for gametes are both inappropriate, and that a model based on altruism should be applied to both sexes. PMID:9134489

  18. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions. PMID:25935214

  19. Collaboration with Community Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

    2006-01-01

    For eight years, relationships with community partners have been the mainstay of a science enrichment program for secondary students. Through the use of problem-based learning, science classes use, the techniques and tools of scientists to solve authentic problems directly related to students' interests and needs. In this article, the author…

  20. Parents as Writing Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.

  1. Partners of the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

  2. Partner Schools Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard W.

    A partner school simultaneously provides: (1) an exemplary education for a segment of K-12 children, (2) internships and other educational experiences for prospective teachers and administrators, and (3) continuing education for members of the profession. School districts and institutions of higher education are jointly responsible for governance…

  3. Partners: Forging Strong Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Ellen, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This newsletter issue asserts that sound, effective relationships in which diverse groups of people and organizations work together toward a common goal are the basis of the collaborative efforts in education that can accomplish change. The first article, "Partners: Forging Strong Relationships" (Sarah E. Torian), briefly describes the efforts of…

  4. Collaboration with Community Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

    2006-01-01

    For eight years, relationships with community partners have been the mainstay of a science enrichment program for secondary students. Through the use of problem-based learning, science classes use, the techniques and tools of scientists to solve authentic problems directly related to students' interests and needs. In this article, the author

  5. Modeling forage legume polycross pollen-parent gamete contributions to progeny based on empirical measurements with implications for effective polycross size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Random mating is a fundamental assumption in quantitative genetic theory and assumes pollen-parents contribute uniform gamete numbers to the progeny generation; polycross-size-expected-inbreeding rests on this assumption. This study empirically determined polycross pollen-parent gamete frequency con...

  6. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of ones conversation partners is defined as the degree to which ones next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individuals predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a communityin the sense of an abundance of surrounding trianglestend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  7. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  8. Effects of maternal cadmium exposure on female reproductive functions, gamete quality, and offspring development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wu, Su Mei; Tsai, Pei Ju; Chou, Ming Yi; Wang, Wen-Der

    2013-10-01

    Impacts of maternal Cd(2+) exposure on female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were observed in females as well as their offspring. In females, Cd disturbed fecundity and other reproductive functions. In their offspring, it retarded gamete development and growth and influenced gene expression. There was a positive relationship between Cd(2+) contents in ovaries of females and treatment doses of 0-8.9 μM of Cd(2+). The mating rate decreased by 60 % when females were exposed to 8.9-35.6 μM of Cd(2+) for 72 h compared with the control group. It was observed that growth is delayed by one somite stage in maternal-Cd(2+) embryos compared with control embryos, which grew at the sixth-somite stage. The ceratohyal angles of larvae of Cd-exposed adults (maternal Cd(2+)) at 72 h postfertilization (hpf) appeared to have a positive response after doses of maternal Cd. In addition, approximately 30 % of 96-hpf larvae that were treated with a dose of 35.6 μM of maternal Cd(2+) appeared to have pericardial edema. At the 5-hpf stage of maternal Cd(2+) exposure, embryos showed 33 and 37 target genes, respectively, that were significantly downregulated and upregulated as shown by cDNA microarray analysis. A major effect of maternal Cd(2+) exposure on zebrafish embryo genes is that 18.9% of transcription functions were upregulated. In addition, 33.3% of transcripts relative to the function of protein biosynthesis were downregulated. These results showed that maternal Cd(2+) exposure influenced the reproduction ability of females and also caused their embryos to develop with abnormal gene expression. PMID:23644582

  9. The comparative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) and substance abuse treatment alone: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Method Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N = 52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Results Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Conclusions Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00847873 PMID:24059784

  10. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2001, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU). Two large freezer tanks are located at each university. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, an emphasis on cryopreserving wild unmarked fish, continued fertility trials, and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

  11. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during JanuaryMarch 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous donors' needs and desires are not homogeneous; policy and practice should be sensitive and responsive to a wide range of circumstances and preferences. Decisions made to restrict or facilitate contact or the exchange of information have ramifications for donors as well as for donor-conceived people. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was funded by the Victorian Department of Health. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. PMID:24549216

  12. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, L; Gregoire, D

    2004-01-01

    In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed. PMID:15574437

  13. The levels of male gametic mitochondrial DNA are highly regulated in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-07-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

  14. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  15. The Levels of Male Gametic Mitochondrial DNA Are Highly Regulated in Angiosperms with Regard to Mitochondrial Inheritance[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

  16. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and childrens psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the childs genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  17. Active DNA Demethylation in Plant Companion Cells Reinforces Transposon Methylation in Gametes

    PubMed Central

    Uzawa, Rie; Rodrigues, Jessica A.; Zemach, Assaf; Chumak, Nina; Machlicova, Adriana; Nishimura, Toshiro; Rojas, Denisse; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi; Zilberman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana central cell, the companion cell of the egg, undergoes DNA demethylation before fertilization, but the targeting preferences, mechanism, and biological significance of this process remain unclear. Here, we show that active DNA demethylation mediated by the DEMETER DNA glycosylase accounts for all of the demethylation in the central cell and preferentially targets small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements. The vegetative cell, the companion cell of sperm, also undergoes DEMETER-dependent demethylation of similar sequences, and lack of DEMETER in vegetative cells causes reduced small RNAdirected DNA methylation of transposons in sperm. Our results demonstrate that demethylation in companion cells reinforces transposon methylation in plant gametes and likely contributes to stable silencing of transposable elements across generations. PMID:22984074

  18. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984

  19. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984

  20. Effect of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in the North American bison (Bison bison bison).

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Whiteside, D P; Elkin, B; Thundathil, J C

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in plains bison (Bison bison bison). Epididymal sperm (n = 61 per season), collected during the breeding season (July-September), had significantly higher post-thaw total motility (36.76 14.18 vs 31.24 12.74%), and lower linearity (0.36 0.06 vs 0.39 0.04) and wobbliness (0.49 0.04 vs 0.51 0.03; mean SD) compared to non-breeding season (January-March) samples. Representative samples (n = 4) from each season were used in heterologous IVF trials using cattle oocytes. Cleavage, morulae and blastocyst percentage were higher for breeding vs non-breeding season sperm samples (81.88 6.8 vs 49.94 6.77; 41.89 13.40 vs 27.08 23.21; and 30.49 17.87 vs 13.72 18.98%, respectively). Plains bison ovaries collected during the breeding (n = 97 pairs) and non-breeding (n = 100 pairs) seasons were classified as luteal or follicular. Oocytes recovered from these ovaries were classified into five grades based on morphology. There was no significant difference in the number of luteal ovaries or grades of oocytes recovered. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (with frozen sperm from three bison bulls) and cultured in vitro. Cleavage percentage was higher for oocytes collected during breeding vs non-breeding season (83.72 6.42 vs 73.98 6.43), with no significant difference in subsequent development to blastocysts. In summary, epididymal sperm from non-breeding season had decreased total motility and resulted in reduced embryo production in vitro. Oocytes collected during non-breeding season had reduced ability to be matured, fertilized and/or undergo cleavage in vitro. Data suggested that season influenced gamete quality in plains bison. PMID:25529116

  1. Comparative cryobiological traits and requirements for gametes and gonadal tissues collected from wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Songsasen, N; Hagedorn, M; Wildt, D E

    2012-11-01

    A major challenge to retaining viability of frozen gametes and reproductive tissues is to understand and overcome species-specificities, especially because there is substantial diversity in cryobiological properties and requirements among cell types and tissues. Systematic studies can lead to successful post-thaw recovery, especially after determining: 1) membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant, 2) cryoprotectant toxicity, 3) tolerance to osmotic changes, and 4) resistance to cooling and freezing temperatures. Although species-dependency ultimately dictates the ability of specific cells and tissues to survive freeze-thawing, there are commonalities between taxa that allow a protocol developed for one species to be useful information for another. This is the reason for performing comparative cryopreservation studies among diverse species. Our laboratory has compared cellular cryotolerance, especially in spermatozoa, in a diverse group of animals-from corals to elephants-for more than 30 yrs. Characterizing the biophysical traits of gametes and tissues is the most efficient way to develop successful storage and recovery protocols, but, such data are only available for a few laboratory, livestock, and fish species, with virtually all others (wild mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) having gone unstudied. Nonetheless, when a rare animal unexpectedly dies, there is no time to understand the fundamentals of biophysics. In these emergencies, it is necessary to rely on experience and the best data from taxonomically-related species. Fortunately, there are some general similarities among most species, which, for example, allow adequate post-thaw viability. Regardless, there is a priority for more information on biophysical traits and freezing tolerance of distinctive biomaterials, especially for oocytes and gonadal tissues, and even for common, domesticated animals. Our colleague, Dr John Critser was a pioneer in cryobiology, earning that moniker because of his advocacy and devotion to understanding the differences (and similarities) among species to better store living genetic material. PMID:22704386

  2. Influence of sperm dilution and gamete contact time on the fertilization rate of scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Yoko; Isomura, Naoko; Fukami, Hironobu

    2015-12-01

    This study presents new information on the influence of sperm dilution on the fertilization rates of eight broadcast-spawning scleractinian coral species [three Acropora species and five merulinid species (three genera)]. The presented information nearly doubled the existing information, now totaling 17 species comprising eight acroporid species and nine merulinid species. No obvious differences in the fertilization rates were observed at the family and genus levels; furthermore, the fertilization curve estimated uniquely for Favites pentagona exhibited a strong sigmoid shape, indicating the existence of species-specific variation. In addition, a general fertilization response against sperm dilution was observed for the first time in broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals. The fertilization rate peaked (>75 %) at a sperm concentration of approximately 106 sperm mL-1 (optimal concentration) and rapidly declined to <50 % at a concentration of 104 sperm mL-1. The influence of gamete contact time (10, 30, and 60 min) on fertilization rates was also examined in two Acropora and four merulinid species, at the optimal sperm concentration. No influence of gamete contact time on fertilization rates was observed in two of the examined species ( Acropora papillare and Platygyra ryukyuensis), whereas reduced fertilization rates occurred mostly in the 10-min treatment for the other species. These results suggested that broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals can rapidly fertilize, indicating that these corals have a fair chance of achieving high fertilization success in the field under optimal conditions. The sperm concentration values (e.g., 104 sperm mL-1, indicating <50 % fertilization rates) may be useful in estimating the success of in situ fertilization of broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals, particularly in degraded, low-density populations where the degree of fertilization success is of management concern. Information on the fertilization ecology of scleractinian corals remains insufficient, and further study is necessary to understand fertilization dynamics in the field.

  3. Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

  4. Does dietary folic acid supplementation in mouse NTD models affect neural tube development or gamete preference at fertilization?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common birth defect in humans. Dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation effectively and safely reduces the incidence of these often debilitating congenital anomalies. FA plays an established role in folate and homocysteine metabolism, but the means by which it suppresses occurrence of NTDs is not understood. In addition, many cases remain resistant to the beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation. To better understand the molecular, biochemical and developmental mechanisms by which FA exerts its effect on NTDs, characterized mouse models are needed that have a defined genetic basis and known response to dietary supplementation. Results We examined the effect of FA supplementation, at 5-fold the level in the control diet, on the NTD and vertebral phenotypes in Apob tm1Unc and Vangl2 Lp mice, hereafter referred to as Apob and Lp respectively. The FA supplemented diet did not reduce the incidence or severity of NTDs in Apob or Lp mutant homozygotes or the loop-tail phenotype in Lp mutant heterozygotes, suggesting that mice with these mutant alleles are resistant to FA supplementation. Folic acid supplementation also did not affect the rate of resorptions or the size of litters, but instead skewed the embryonic genotype distribution in favor of wild-type alleles. Conclusion Similar genotypic biases have been reported for several NTD models, but were interpreted as diet-induced increases in the incidence and severity of NTDs that led to increased embryonic lethality. Absence of differences in resorption rates and litter sizes argue against induced embryonic lethality. We suggest an alternative interpretation, namely that FA supplementation led to strongly skewed allelic inheritance, perhaps from disturbances in polyamine metabolism that biases fertilization in favor of wild-type gametes. PMID:25154628

  5. Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  7. Do Love Styles Predict Lifetime Number of Sex Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hans, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between love styles and lifetime number of sexual partners was explored using survey data from 507 college students. Love styles significantly (p less than 0.001) contributed to the prediction of number of lifetime sex partners after controlling for demographic characteristics and attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such

  9. Do Love Styles Predict Lifetime Number of Sex Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hans, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between love styles and lifetime number of sexual partners was explored using survey data from 507 college students. Love styles significantly (p less than 0.001) contributed to the prediction of number of lifetime sex partners after controlling for demographic characteristics and attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections.…

  10. FEAR OF PAST ABUSIVE PARTNER(S) IMPACTS CURRENT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS AMONG WOMEN EXPERIENCING PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Jaquier, Vronique; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514

  11. Changing partners at the dance

    PubMed Central

    Kallal, Lara E.; Biron, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Differential use of cellular and molecular components shapes immune responses, but understanding of how these are regulated to promote defense and health during infections is still incomplete. Examples include signaling from members of the Janus activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) cytokine family. Following receptor stimulation, individual JAK-STAT cytokines have preferences for particular key STAT molecules to lead to specific cellular responses. Certain of these cytokines, however, can conditionally activate alternative STATs as well as elicit pleiotropic and paradoxical effects. Studies examining basal and infection conditions are revealing intrinsic and induced cellular differences in various intracellular STAT concentrations to control the biological consequences of cytokine exposure. The system can be likened to changing partners at a dance based on competition and relative availability, and sets a framework for understanding the particular conditions promoting subset biological functions of cytokines as needed during evolving immune responses to infections. PMID:24058795

  12. Classifying partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisoned for the murder of their female partner or spouse in England were identified from two prison samples. A content dictionary defining offense and offender characteristics associated with two dimensions of psychopathology and criminality was developed. These variables were extracted from institutional records via content analysis and analyzed for thematic structure using multidimensional scaling procedures. The resultant framework classified 80% (n = 72) of the sample into three subgroups of men characterized by (a) low criminality/low psychopathology (15%), (b) moderate-high criminality/ high psychopathology (36%), and (c) high criminality/low-moderate psychopathology (49%). The latter two groups are akin to Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) generally violent/antisocial and dysphoric/borderline offender, respectively. The implications for intervention, developing consensus in research methodology across the field, and examining typologies of domestic violent men prospectively are discussed. PMID:18087033

  13. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

  14. Expression patterns within the Arabidopsis C/S1 bZIP transcription factor network: availability of heterodimerization partners controls gene expression during stress response and development.

    PubMed

    Weltmeier, Fridtjof; Rahmani, Fatima; Ehlert, Andrea; Dietrich, Katrin; Schütze, Katia; Wang, Xuan; Chaban, Christina; Hanson, Johannes; Teige, Markus; Harter, Klaus; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesus; Smeekens, Sjef; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Arabidopsis group C/S1 basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor (TF) network are proposed to implement transcriptional reprogramming of plant growth in response to energy deprivation and environmental stresses. The four group C and five group S1 members form specific heterodimers and are, therefore, considered to cooperate functionally. For example, the interplay of C/S1 bZIP TFs in regulating seed maturation genes was analyzed by expression studies and target gene regulation in both protoplasts and transgenic plants. The abundance of the heterodimerization partners significantly affects target gene transcription. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the developmental and stress related expression patterns was performed by comparing promoter: GUS and transcription data. The idea that the C/S1 network plays a role in the allocation of nutrients is supported by the defined and partially overlapping expression patterns in sink leaves, seeds and anthers. Accordingly, metabolic signals strongly affect bZIP expression on the transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional level. Sucrose induced repression of translation (SIRT) was demonstrated for all group S1 bZIPs. In particular, transcription of group S1 genes strongly responds to various abiotic stresses, such as salt (AtbZIP1) or cold (AtbZIP44). In summary, heterodimerization and expression data provide a basic framework to further determine the functional impact of the C/S1 network in regulating the plant energy balance and nutrient allocation. PMID:18841482

  15. Gamete ripening and hormonal correlates in three strains of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17beta (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17alpha-hydroxy-20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. Strain had no effect on any hormones in females and only on T and F in males. The lack of pronounced interstrain differences in gamete ripening dates and reproductive endocrinology and the similarity of the temporal patterns and relative concentrations of hormones to those reported for other salmonids suggest nothing unusual or dysfunctional about these reproductive traits that would impede lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes.

  16. Localized bleaching in Hawaii causes tissue loss and a reduction in the number of gametes in Porites compressa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudek, M.; Aeby, G. S.; Davy, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Localized bleaching (a discrete white area on the coral) was observed in one of the main framework-building corals in Hawaii, Porites compressa. This study aimed to determine the degree of virulence of the lesion. We investigated the whole-colony effects by following disease progression through time and examining the effect of localized bleaching on coral fecundity. After two months, 35 of 42 (83.3%) individually tagged colonies affected by localized bleaching showed tissue loss and partial colony mortality. Histological slides of healthy P. compressa and samples from colonies showing signs of localized bleaching were compared showing that affected colonies had a significant reduction (almost 50%) in gamete development, egg numbers, and egg size in the affected tissue. The observed localized bleaching results in both partial colony mortality and a reduced number of gametes and was termed Porites Bleaching with Tissue Loss (PBTL).

  17. China seeks Korean partners

    SciTech Connect

    Hyoungjin Kim

    1993-03-03

    In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May.

  18. Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

  19. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  20. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sabatello, Maya

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children). Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins (“the right to know”), and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right. PMID:26388996

  1. [Gamete and embryo transfer in conjunction with microsurgical treatment of sterility].

    PubMed

    Ventruba, P; Pilka, L; Cupr, Z; Soska, J; Vesel, J; Trvnk, P; Tesark, J

    1990-03-01

    The authors evaluate the results of the programme of transfer of gametes into the oviduct or of embryos into the uterus in conjunction with microsurgery of sterile women. During the period between August 1981 and December 1988 a total of 211 microsurgical operations were made in stimulated cycles. The ovaries were stimulated with clomiphene citrate or in combination with human menopausal gonadotropin. The operation was made 36 hours after administration of human choriogonadotropic hormone. In 146 women at least one oocyte was obtained. A total of 72 gametotransfers into the oviduct were made and in eight, i. e. 11.1%; pregnancy was achieved. Of 43 embryotransfers five pregnancies were achieved, i. e. 11.6%. A total of 13 pregnancies were achieved with four spontaneous deliveries, seven miscarriages and two extrauterine pregnancies. The combination of selected cases of microsurgery of sterility with the IVF programme increases the rate of successful operations without a further burden for the patient, and it extends the possibilities of sterility treatment. PMID:2344639

  2. Toward culture of single gametes: the development of microfluidic platforms for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, M B; Walters, E M; Beebe, D J

    2007-09-01

    During the last few decades in vitro production of mammalian embryos and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, cryopreservation, and cloning have been used to produce and propagate genetically superior livestock. However, efficiencies of these technologies remain low. For these technologies to become more commercially viable, the efficiencies must improve. Despite this importance of reproduction for the livestock industry, little progress in decreasing embryonic mortality has been made. The livestock industry has succeeded in achieving large increases in average milk production of dairy cattle, growth rate in beef cattle and leanness in swine but reproductive efficiency has actually decreased. For example, research has provided little progress toward developing an objective method to examine viability of a single living embryo. At the same time, the growth of miniaturization technologies beyond integrated circuits and toward small mechanical systems has created opportunities for fresh examination of a wide range of existing problems. While the investigation and application of miniaturization technologies to medicine and biology is progressing rapidly, there has been limited exploration of microfabricated systems in the area of embryo production. Microfluidics is an emerging technology that allows a fresh examination of the way assisted reproduction is performed. Here we review the progress in demonstrating microfluidic systems for in vitro embryo production (IVP) and embryo manipulation. Microfluidic technology could have a dramatic impact on the development of new techniques as well as on our basic understanding of gamete and embryo physiology. PMID:17524470

  3. Direct Gamete Sequencing Reveals No Evidence for Segregation Distortion in House Mouse Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Corbett-Detig, Russell; Jacobs-Palmer, Emily; Hartl, Daniel; Hoekstra, Hopi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of species formation is an important goal in evolutionary genetics, and Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities are thought to be a common source of postzygotic reproductive isolation between closely related lineages. However, the evolutionary forces that lead to the accumulation of such incompatibilities between diverging taxa are poorly understood. Segregation distorters are believed to be an important source of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities between hybridizing species of Drosophila as well as hybridizing crop plants, but it remains unclear if these selfish genetic elements contribute to reproductive isolation in other taxa. Here, we collected viable sperm from first-generation hybrid male progeny of Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus, two subspecies of rodent in the earliest stages of speciation. We then genotyped millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these gamete pools and tested for a skew in the frequency of parental alleles across the genome. We show that segregation distorters are not measurable contributors to observed infertility in these hybrid males, despite sufficient statistical power to detect even weak segregation distortion with our novel method. Thus, reduced hybrid male fertility in crosses between these nascent species is attributable to other evolutionary forces. PMID:26121240

  4. Transfer of intracolonial genetic variability through gametes in Acropora hyacinthus corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweinsberg, M.; González Pech, R. A.; Tollrian, R.; Lampert, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the new phenomenon of intracolonial genetic variability within a single coral colony has been described. This connotes that coral colonies do not necessarily consist of only a single genotype, but may contain several distinct genotypes. Harboring more than one genotype could improve survival under stressful environmental conditions, e.g., climate change. However, so far it remained unclear whether the intracolonial genetic variability of the adult coral is also present in the gametes. We investigated the occurrence of intracolonial genetic variability in 14 mature colonies of the coral Acropora hyacinthus using eight microsatellite loci. A grid was placed over each colony before spawning, and the emerging egg/sperm bundles were collected separately in each grid. The underlying tissues as well as the egg/sperm bundles were genotyped to determine whether different genotypes were present. Within the 14 mature colonies, we detected 10 colonies with more than one genotype (intracolonial genetic variability). Four out of these 10 mature colonies showed a transfer of different genotypes via the eggs to the next generation. In two out of these four cases, we found additional alleles, and in the two other cases, we found only a subset of alleles in the unfertilized eggs. Our results suggest that during reproduction of A. hyacinthus, more than one genotype per colony is able to reproduce. We discuss the occurrence of different genotypes within a single coral colony and the ability for those to release eggs which are genetically distinct.

  5. Effects of protracted cadmium exposure on gametes of the purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, W.J. III; Engel, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Gametes and larvae of sea urchins and more specifically Arbacia punctulata have been used extensively in embryological studies and toxicity bioassay testing. Most of the experiments and bioassays have used the fertilized eggs of different sea urchin species and measured abnormal growth, malformations, or changes in the rates of growth as a function of contaminant exposure. Guida demonstrated that cupric ion activities of <10{sup -10.5} M caused reductions in the rates of growth of Arbacia Punctulata larvae and caused incomplete or malformed pluteal skeletons. These effects occurred at cupric ion concentrations that were in the same ranges as some measured in the more contaminated estuaries in the northeastern U.S. Sunda and coworkers also used sea urchin embryonic development to test potential trace metal toxicity in water samples collected from those same estuaries, and demonstrated toxicity potentially attributable to dissolved trace metals in the water column. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if protracted sublethal exposure of sexually mature sea urchins to dissolved cadmium in sea water would affect the viability of eggs and sperm, and whether it would affect fertilization and embryonic development and ultimately the larvae. The results of the experiments support the hypothesis that spermatogenesis and oogenesis were affected by cadmium exposure.

  6. Pre-meiotic endomitosis in the cytokinesis-defective tomato mutant pmcd1 generates tetraploid meiocytes and diploid gametes.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    Sexual polyploidization through the formation and functioning of 2n gametes is considered a major route for plant speciation and diversification. The cellular mechanism underlying 2n gamete formation mostly involves a restitution of the meiotic cell cycle, generating dyads and triads instead of tetrad meiotic end-products. As an alternative mechanism, the tomato mutant pmcd1 (for pre-meiotic cytokinesis defect 1), which generates diploid gametes through the ectopic induction of pre-meiotic endomitosis, is presented here. Using cytological approaches, it is demonstrated that male pmcd1 meiocyte initials exhibit clear alterations in cell cycle progression and cell plate formation, and consequently form syncytial cells that display different grades of cellular and/or nuclear fusion. In addition, it was found that other somatic tissue types (e.g. cotyledons and petals) also display occasional defects in cell wall formation and exhibit alterations in callose deposition, indicating that pmcd1 has a general defect in cell plate formation, most probably caused by alterations in callose biosynthesis. In a broader perspective, these findings demonstrate that defects in cytokinesis and cell plate formation may constitute a putative route for diplogamete formation and sexual polyploidization in plants. PMID:23580753

  7. Food-Nonfood Discrimination in Ancestral Vertebrates: Gamete Cannibalism and the Origin of the Adaptive Immune System.

    PubMed

    Corcos, D

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity is a complex system that appeared twice in vertebrates (in gnathostomes and in jawless fish) although it is not required for invertebrate defence. The adaptive immune system is tightly associated with self-non-self discrimination, and it is now clear that this interplay is not limited to the prevention of autoreactivity. Micro-organisms are usually considered for their pathogenicity or symbiotic ability, but, for most small metazoans, they mainly constitute food. Vertebrates are characterized by feeding by predation on larger preys, when compared to their ancestors who were filter feeders and ate micro-organisms. Predation gives a strong selective advantage, not only due to the availability of new food resources but also by the ability to eliminate competitors for environmental resources (intraguild predation (IGP)). Unlike size-structured IGP, intraspecific predation of juveniles, zygotes or gametes can be detrimental for species fitness in some circumstances. The ability of individuals to recognize highly polymorphic molecules on the surface of gametes present in the plankton and so distinguish self versus non-self gametes might have constituted a strong selective advantage in intraspecific competition. Here, I propose the theory that the capacity to rearrange receptors has been selected in ancestral vertebrates as a consequence of this strong need for discriminating between hetero-cannibalism versus filial cannibalism. This evolutionary origin sheds light on presently unexplained features of the immune system, including the existence of regulatory T cells and of non-pathogenic natural autoimmunity. PMID:26286030

  8. Evolution of gamete attraction molecules: evidence for purifying selection in speract and its receptor, in the pantropical sea urchin Diadema.

    PubMed

    Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Coppard, Simon E; Lessios, Harilaos A

    2015-01-01

    Many free-spawning marine invertebrates, such as sea urchins, lack any courtship or assortative mating behavior. Mate recognition in such cases occur at the gametic level, and molecules present on the sperm and egg are major determinants of species-specific fertilization. These molecules must also coevolve in relation to each other in order to preserve functional integrity. When sea urchins release their gametes in seawater, diffusible molecules from the egg, termed sperm-activating peptides, activate and attract the sperm to swim toward the egg, initiating a series of interactions between the gametes. Although the compositions and diversity of such sperm-activating peptides have been characterized in a variety of sea urchins, little is known about the evolution of their genes. Here we characterize the genes encoding the sperm-activating peptide of the egg (speract) and its receptor on the sperm, and examine their evolutionary dynamics in the sea urchin genus Diadema, in the interest of determining whether they are involved in reproductive isolation between the species. We found evidence of purifying selection on several codon sites in both molecules and of selectively neutral evolution in others. The diffusible speract peptide that activates sperm is invariant across species, indicating that Diadema egg peptides do not discriminate between con- and hetero-specific sperm at this stage of the process. Speract and its receptor do not contribute to reproductive isolation in Diadema. PMID:25627716

  9. A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Avella, Matteo A.; Baibakov, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular zona pellucida surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates gamete recognition that is essential for mammalian fertilization. Zonae matrices contain three (mouse) or four (human) glycoproteins (ZP14), but which protein binds sperm remains controversial. A defining characteristic of an essential zona ligand is sterility after genetic ablation. We have established transgenic mice expressing human ZP4 that form zonae pellucidae in the absence of mouse or human ZP2. Neither mouse nor human sperm bound to these ovulated eggs, and these female mice were sterile after in vivo insemination or natural mating. The same phenotype was observed with truncated ZP2 that lacks a restricted domain within ZP251149. Chimeric human/mouse ZP2 isoforms expressed in transgenic mice and recombinant peptide bead assays confirmed that this region accounts for the taxon specificity observed in humanmouse gamete recognition. These observations in transgenic mice document that the ZP251149 sperm-binding domain is necessary for human and mouse gamete recognition and penetration through the zona pellucida. PMID:24934154

  10. An essential role of the basal body protein SAS-6 in Plasmodium male gamete development and malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Sara R; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Blagborough, Andrew M; Delves, Michael J; Talman, Arthur M; Sinden, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Gametocytes are the sole Plasmodium parasite stages that infect mosquitoes; therefore development of functional gametes is required for malaria transmission. Flagellum assembly of the Plasmodium male gamete differs from that of most other eukaryotes in that it is intracytoplasmic but retains a key conserved feature: axonemes assemble from basal bodies. The centriole/basal body protein SAS-6 normally regulates assembly and duplication of these organelles and its depletion causes severe flagellar/ciliary abnormalities in a diverse array of eukaryotes. Since basal body and flagellum assembly are intimately coupled to male gamete development in Plasmodium, we hypothesized that SAS-6 disruption may cause gametogenesis defects and perturb transmission. We show that Plasmodium berghei?sas6 knockouts display severely abnormal male gametogenesis presenting reduced basal body numbers, axonemal assembly defects and abnormal nuclear allocation. The defects in gametogenesis reduce fertilization and render Pbsas6 knockouts less infectious to mosquitoes. Additionally, we show that lack of Pbsas6 blocks transmission from mosquito to vertebrate host, revealing an additional yet undefined role in ookinete to sporulating oocysts transition. These findings underscore the vulnerability of the basal body/SAS-6 to malaria transmission blocking interventions. PMID:25154861

  11. Proteomic Analysis of the Low Mutation Rate of Diploid Male Gametes Induced by Colchicine in Ginkgo biloba L.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nina; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Yaru; Long, Cui; Li, Yingyue; Li, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Colchicine treatment of G. biloba microsporocytes results in a low mutation rate in the diploid (2n) male gamete. The mutation rate is significantly lower as compared to other tree species and impedes the breeding of new economic varieties. Proteomic analysis was done to identify the proteins that influence the process of 2n gamete formation in G. biloba. The microsporangia of G. biloba were treated with colchicine solution for 48 h and the proteins were analyzed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and compared to protein profiles of untreated microsporangia. A total of 66 proteins showed difference in expression levels. Twenty-seven of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the 27 proteins, 14 were found to be up-regulated and the rest 13 were down-regulated. The identified proteins belonged to five different functional classes: ATP generation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism; protein metabolism; ROS scavenging and detoxifying enzymes; cell wall remodeling and metabolism; transcription, cell cycle and signal transduction. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins and their function could help in analysing the mechanism of lower mutation rate of diploid male gamete when the microsporangium of G. biloba was induced by colchicine. PMID:24167543

  12. A single mutation results in diploid gamete formation and parthenogenesis in a Drosophila yemanuclein-alpha meiosis I defective mutant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual reproduction relies on two key events: formation of cells with a haploid genome (the gametes) and restoration of diploidy after fertilization. Therefore the underlying mechanisms must have been evolutionary linked and there is a need for evidence that could support such a model. Results We describe the identification and the characterization of yem1, the first yem-alpha mutant allele (V478E), which to some extent affects diploidy reduction and its restoration. Yem-alpha is a member of the Ubinuclein/HPC2 family of proteins that have recently been implicated in playing roles in chromatin remodeling in concert with HIRA histone chaperone. The yem1 mutant females exhibited disrupted chromosome behavior in the first meiotic division and produced very low numbers of viable progeny. Unexpectedly these progeny did not display paternal chromosome markers, suggesting that they developed from diploid gametes that underwent gynogenesis, a form of parthenogenesis that requires fertilization. Conclusions We focus here on the analysis of the meiotic defects exhibited by yem1 oocytes that could account for the formation of diploid gametes. Our results suggest that yem1 affects chromosome segregation presumably by affecting kinetochores function in the first meiotic division. This work paves the way to further investigations on the evolution of the mechanisms that support sexual reproduction. PMID:21080953

  13. WASPs (Wives As Senior Partners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline

    For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under

  14. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  15. Gamete quality of streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) after GnRHa and dopamine antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Gonçalves, Antônio C S; Di Chiacchio, Isabela M; Nascimento, Ariane F; Romagosa, Elizabeth; Leal, Marcelo C

    2015-04-01

    The efficiency of Ovaprim™ salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and dopamine antagonist on the induction of spawning and spermiation in Prochilodus lineatus in comparison with the commonly used method using pituitary extract (PE) was evaluated. Females received PE at 0.5 + 5.0 mg/kg and Ovaprim™ at 0.05 + 0.45 ml/kg or at 0.125 + 0.375 ml/kg. All males received a first dose of PE at 0.4 mg/kg and then PE at 4.0 mg/kg or Ovaprim™ at 0.25 ml/kg. Oocyte, egg, larvae and sperm quality were evaluated. All females spawned and oocyte, egg and larvae quality were similar between Ovaprim™-treated (both doses) and PE-treated females. Data from females were pooled and the mean values were: 242 g ova weight, 15% ova index, 1209 oocytes/g ova, 284,539 oocytes/female, 183 oocytes/g body weight, 1.18 mm oocyte diameter, 49% fertilization rate, 43% hatching rate and 89% normal larvae. Sperm quality was similar between Ovaprim™-treated and PE-treated males. Data from males were pooled and the mean values of semen were: volume of 3.0 ml, 14.9 × 109 sperm/ml, osmolality of 283 mOsm/kg, pH of 7.4, 71% motile sperm, 217 μm/s curvilinear velocity, 102 μm/s straight-line velocity and 189 μm/s average path velocity. Ovaprim™ treatment can be used for commercial reproduction of P. lineatus, without any loss of gamete quality in comparison with PE treatment. PMID:24134911

  16. The decay of linkage disequilibrium under random union of gametes: how to calculate Bennett's principal components.

    PubMed

    Dawson, K J

    2000-08-01

    How rapidly does an arbitrary pattern of statistical association among a set of loci decay under meiosis and random union of gametes? This problem is non-trivial, even in the case of an infinitely large population where selection and other forces are absent. J. H. Bennett (1954, Ann. Hum. Genet. 18, 311-317) found that, for an arbitrary number of loci with an arbitrary linkage map, it is possible to define measures of linkage disequilibrium that decay geometrically with time. He found a recursive method for deriving expressions for these variables in terms of "allelic moments" (the factorial moments about the origin of the "allelic indicators"), and expressions for the allelic moments in terms of his new variables. However, Bennett no where stated his recursive algorithm explicitly, nor did he give a general formula for his measures of linkage disequilibrium, for an arbitrary number of loci. Recursive definitions of Bennett's variables were obtained by Lyubich. However, the expressions generated by these recursions are not the same as those found by Bennett. (They do not express Bennett's variables as functions of the allelic moments.) Lyubich's derivations employ genetic algebras. Here, I present a method for obtaining explicit expressions for Bennett's variables in terms of the allelic moments. I show that the transformation from the allelic moments to Bennett's variables and the inverse transformation always have the form that Bennett claimed. (This transformation and its inverse have essentially the same form.) I present general recursions for calculating the coefficients in the forward transformation and the coefficients in the inverse transformation. My derivations involve combinatorial arguments and ordinary algebra only. The special case of unlinked loci is briefly discussed. PMID:10944472

  17. Clinical aspects and perinatal outcomes after cryopreservation of embryos and gametes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A

    2015-04-01

    Cryopreservation techniques play today a central role in assisted reproduction, as they enhance the overall efficacy of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments by allowing the banking of supernumerary embryos obtained in these treatments, and their later use. The transfer of frozen/thawed embryos was established nearly 30 years ago, and although it has been clinical routine for a long time, the importance of freezing embryos has been newly emphasized. As recognized downsides of IVF treatment include the high prevalence of perinatal complications due to multiple births, the recommended practice of transferring fewer embryos in the fresh IVF treatment cycle, with the goal of performing single embryo transfer and the cryostorage of remaining embryos for their later use in frozen-thawed cycles, one at a time, is currently the trend. Also of great importance, cryopreservation techniques for spermatozoa and oocytes have additionally permitted gamete storage for long-term and the implementation of several new treatment modalities for assisted reproduction. Most of these methods are applied today in clinical programs of fertility preservation and third-part reproduction, such as sperm- and egg donor programs. Use of frozen thawed sperm has been in clinical use for over 50 years and banking sperm has been routinely offered to men, usually before gonadotoxic treatments, but also in many cases, practised as a "safety policy" previously to a vasectomy. Freezing methods for women's egg have required a much longer time to achieve a comparable effective clinical standard. Only recently, with the development of vitrification of oocytes, the clinical standard was recognized and since 2013 when the label "experimental" was removed, the freezing of oocytes could be regarded as an established method, and its use extended into clinical practice for fertility preservation but also performed after personal requirements, so called, "social freezing". PMID:25714875

  18. Specific transgenerational imprinting effects of the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor on male gametes.

    PubMed

    Stouder, Christelle; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2011-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), among which methoxychlor (MXC), have been reported to affect the male reproductive system. This study evaluates the possible deleterious effects of MXC on imprinted genes. After administration of the chemical in adult male mice or in pregnant mice we analyzed by pyrosequencing possible methylation defects in two paternally imprinted (H19 and Meg3 (Gtl2)) and three maternally imprinted (Mest (Peg1), Snrpn, and Peg3) genes in the sperm and in the tail, liver, and skeletal muscle DNAs of the adult male mice and of the male offspring. MXC treatment of adult mice decreased the percentages of methylated CpGs of Meg3 and increased those of Mest, Snrpn, and Peg3 in the sperm DNA. MXC treatment of pregnant mice decreased the mean sperm concentrations by 30% and altered the methylation pattern of all the imprinted genes tested in the F1 offspring. In the latter case, MXC effects were transgenerational but disappeared gradually from F1 to F3. MXC did not affect imprinting in the somatic cells, suggesting that it exerts its damaging effects via the process of reprogramming that is unique to gamete development. A systematic analysis at the CpG level showed a heterogeneity in the CpG sensitivity to MXC. This observation suggests that not only DNA methylation but also other epigenetic modifications can explain the transgenerational effects of MXC. The reported effects of EDCs on human male spermatogenesis might be mediated by complex imprinting alterations analogous to those described in this study. PMID:21062904

  19. Divergent evolution of vitamin B9 binding underlies Juno-mediated adhesion of mammalian gametes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Nishimura, Kaoru; Sadat Al Hosseini, Hamed; Bianchi, Enrica; Wright, Gavin J.; Jovine, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Summary The interaction between egg and sperm is the first necessary step of fertilization in all sexually reproducing organisms. A decade-long search for a protein pair mediating this event in mammals culminated in the identification of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein Juno as the egg plasma membrane receptor of sperm Izumo1 1, 2. The JunoIzumo1 interaction was shown to be essential for fertilization since mice lacking either gene exhibit sex-specific sterility, making these proteins promising non-hormonal contraceptive targets 1, 3. No structural information is available on how gamete membranes interact at fertilization, and it is unclear how Juno which was previously named folate receptor (FR) 4, based on sequence similarity considerations triggers membrane adhesion by binding Izumo1. Here, we report the crystal structure of Juno and find that the overall fold is similar to that of FR? and FR? but with significant flexibility within the area that corresponds to the rigid ligand-binding site of these bona fide folate receptors. This explains both the inability of Juno to bind vitamin B9/folic acid [1], and why mutations within the flexible region can either abolish or change the species specificity of this interaction. Furthermore, structural similarity between Juno and the cholesterol-binding Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) suggests how the modified binding surface of Juno may recognize the helical structure of the amino-terminal domain of Izumo1. As Juno appears to be a mammalian innovation, our study indicates that a key evolutionary event in mammalian reproduction originated from the neofunctionalization of the vitamin B9-binding pocket of an ancestral folate receptor molecule. PMID:26859261

  20. Prostaglandins and reproduction of the scallop argopecten purpuratus: II. relationship with gamete release.

    PubMed

    Martnez, G; Mettifogo, L; Lenoir, R; Olivares, A

    2000-06-15

    Levels of prostaglandins E(2) and F(2alpha) were measured in male and female gonadal portions of the functional hermaphroditic scallop Argopecten purpuratus, at the time of spawning. For these measurements, mature scallops were stimulated to initiate their chain of spawning events, and prostaglandins (PGs) were analyzed in samples before stimulation, when animals appeared stimulated to release sperm, during the release of sperm, when animals appeared stimulated to release oocytes, when most of the oocytes had been released, and 24 hr after the end of spawning. The experiment was run twice, once in winter and once in spring. An additional in vitro experiment was carried out to analyze activity of the monoamines dopamine and serotonin on the levels of these prostaglandins. For this, minced tissue of the female portion of the gonad was incubated for different time periods with each of the amines at 10(-5) M. PGs were determined in the tissue samples by radioimmunoanalysis. The results showed that the amounts of the PGs increased significantly in both parts of the gonad during the global process of spawning and decreased when it had been completed. Incubation of minced gonad with the amines affected the time course of PGs variations, i.e., the effect of these compounds depended on the incubation time used. The results support a model for the regulation of spawning which assumes the occurrence of a stimulus which is detected by receptors, processed by nerve cells, and sent to the gonad where intermediation by amines (changing the time course of the process) induces liberation of gametes, in some way modulated by prostaglandins. PMID:10861554

  1. Divergent evolution of vitamin B9 binding underlies Juno-mediated adhesion of mammalian gametes.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Nishimura, Kaoru; Sadat Al Hosseini, Hamed; Bianchi, Enrica; Wright, Gavin J; Jovine, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between egg and sperm is the first necessary step of fertilization in all sexually reproducing organisms. A decade-long search for a protein pair mediating this event in mammals culminated in the identification of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein Juno as the egg plasma membrane receptor of sperm Izumo1 [1,2]. The Juno-Izumo1 interaction was shown to be essential for fertilization since mice lacking either gene exhibit sex-specific sterility, making these proteins promising non-hormonal contraceptive targets [1,3]. No structural information is available on how gamete membranes interact at fertilization, and it is unclear how Juno - which was previously named folate receptor (FR) 4, based on sequence similarity considerations - triggers membrane adhesion by binding Izumo1. Here, we report the crystal structure of Juno and find that the overall fold is similar to that of FRα and FRβ but with significant flexibility within the area that corresponds to the rigid ligand-binding site of these bona fide folate receptors. This explains both the inability of Juno to bind vitamin B9/folic acid [1], and why mutations within the flexible region can either abolish or change the species specificity of this interaction. Furthermore, structural similarity between Juno and the cholesterol-binding Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) suggests how the modified binding surface of Juno may recognize the helical structure of the amino-terminal domain of Izumo1. As Juno appears to be a mammalian innovation, our study indicates that a key evolutionary event in mammalian reproduction originated from the neofunctionalization of the vitamin B9-binding pocket of an ancestral folate receptor molecule. PMID:26859261

  2. Telling Your Partner You Have an STD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Who Cuts? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD KidsHealth > For Teens > Telling Your Partner You Have ... necessary, treated. Telling a New Partner About an STD If you have an STD, it's normal to ...

  3. Incidence, Explanations, and Treatment of Partner Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, David M.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of partner violence research as it pertains to incidence, partner abuse typologies, etiology/explanation, and treatment. Developmental and integrated models for explaining and treating partner abuse are given particular consideration. (Contains 129 references.) (GCP)

  4. Effects of CognitiveBehavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD on Partners Psychological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in one partner are negatively associated with their intimate partners psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitivebehavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitivebehavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. PMID:24706354

  5. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  6. Partnering to improve the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alan; Baker, Gary; Carmody, Martin; Demien, Kent; DeRoo, Todd; Inacker, Stephen; Jacobson, Tim; Markoski, David; Solovy, Alden

    2006-02-01

    Successful materials management extends far beyond the hospital walls. More than ever, effective materials managers are partnering with suppliers, distributors, manufacturers and group purchasing organizations to reduce costs, improve inventory control and increase operational efficiency. This requires partners who are intimately familiar with both the unique requirements of individual health care settings and best practices throughout the industry. Beyond achieving better balance-sheet results, this consultative approach ultimately leads to standardized, proven processes that help ensure quality care is delivered safely. Health Forum convened a group of health care executives and industry vendors Nov. 4, 2005, in Chicago to discuss hospital-vendor partnerships. The closed-door dialogue focused on how hospitals can work with vendors to improve operations. Health Forum would like to thank all of the participants for their open and candid discussion, as well as the sponsors for supporting this event. PMID:16583613

  7. Gamete donation, information sharing and the best interests of the child: an overview of the psychosocial evidence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Tabitha

    2015-03-01

    This paper overviews key empirical findings from social science research regarding the impact of gamete donation on child wellbeing. In particular, the paper addresses current regulatory debates concerning information sharing and the best interests of the child by considering psychosocial aspects of telling--or not telling--children about their donor conception and the identity of their donor. The paper identifies three core sets of empirical, ethical and policy concerns underpinning these debates relating to (i) the psychosocial impact of gamete donation per se on child wellbeing, (ii) the psychosocial impact of parental disclosure decisions on child wellbeing, and (iii) the psychosocial implications of donor identification for donor-conceived offspring. The paper illustrates how these concerns are framed by ideas about the significance-or not-of 'genetic relatedness'; ideas which have come to the fore in contemporary discussions about the potential consequences of donor-conceived individuals gaining access to their donor's identity. By drawing together research findings that may be pertinent to the regulation of gamete donation and information sharing, a further aim of this paper is to explore the potential use and misuse of empirical 'evidence' in ethical and policy debates. Whilst this paper starts from the premise that psychosocial data has a vital role in grounding normative discussions, it seeks to contribute to this dialogue by highlighting both the value and limitations of social science research. In particular, the paper argues for a cautious approach to applying psychosocial evidence to ethical issues that is sensitive to the caveats and nuances of research findings and the changing cultural and regulatory context. PMID:25743051

  8. Making gametes from pluripotent stem cells--a promising role for very small embryonic-like stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Hinduja, Indira; Patel, Hiren; Bhilawadikar, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    The urge to have one's own biological child supersedes any desire in life. Several options have been used to obtain gametes including pluripotent stem cells (embryonic ES and induced pluripotent iPS stem cells); gonadal stem cells (spermatogonial SSCs, ovarian OSCs stem cells), bone marrow, mesenchymal cells and fetal skin. However, the field poses a huge challenge including inefficient existing protocols for differentiation, epigenetic and genetic changes associated with extensive in vitro manipulation and also ethical/regulatory constraints. A tremendous leap in the field occurred using mouse ES and iPS cells wherein they were first differentiated into epiblast-like cells and then primordial germ cell-like cells. These on further development produced sperm, oocytes and live offspring (had associated genetic problems). Evidently differentiating pluripotent stem cells into primordial germ cells (PGCs) remains a major bottleneck. Against this backdrop, we propose that a novel population of pluripotent stem cells termed very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may serve as an alternative, potential source of autologus gametes, keeping in mind that they are indeed PGCs surviving in adult mammalian ovaries and testes. Both VSELs and PGCs are pluripotent, relatively quiescent because of epigenetic modifications of parentally imprinted genes loci like Igf2-H19 and KCNQ1p57, share several markers like Stella, Fragilis, Mvh, Dppa2, Dppa4, Sall4, Blimp1 and functional receptors. VSELs are localized in the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules in testis and in the ovary surface epithelium. Ovarian stem cells from mouse, rabbit, sheep, marmoset and humans (menopausal women and those with premature ovarian failure) spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro with no additional requirement of growth factors. Thus a more pragmatic option to obtain autologus gametes may be the pluripotent VSELs and if we could manipulate them in vivo - existing ethical and epigenetic/genetic concerns associated with in vitro culture may also be minimized. The field of oncofertility may undergo a sea-change and existing strategies of cryopreservation of gametes and gonadal tissue for fertility preservation in cancer patients will necessitate a revision. However, first the scientific community needs to arrive at a consensus about VSELs in the gonads and then work towards exploiting their potential. PMID:25421462

  9. Importing and exporting gametes and embryos under the Infertility Treatment Act 1995 (Vic): an unconstitutional restraint on free trade?

    PubMed

    Miller, Solomon

    2003-11-01

    Since the introduction of the Infertility Treatment Act 1995 (Vic), it has been illegal to import into or export from Victoria a gamete or embryo outside the human body without the approval of the Infertility Treatment Authority. But is s 56 unconstitutional and therefore invalid by reason of contravening the freedom of interstate trade guarantee by s 92 of the Commonwealth Constitution? By exploring the nature and effect of s 56 this article demonstrates that s 56 may impose a "discriminatory" and "protectionist" burden that renders s 56 invalid. PMID:14655587

  10. GPSy: a cross-species gene prioritization system for conserved biological processes--application in male gamete development.

    PubMed

    Britto, Ramona; Sallou, Olivier; Collin, Olivier; Michaux, Grgoire; Primig, Michael; Chalmel, Frdric

    2012-07-01

    We present gene prioritization system (GPSy), a cross-species gene prioritization system that facilitates the arduous but critical task of prioritizing genes for follow-up functional analyses. GPSy's modular design with regard to species, data sets and scoring strategies enables users to formulate queries in a highly flexible manner. Currently, the system encompasses 20 topics related to conserved biological processes including male gamete development discussed in this article. The web server-based tool is freely available at http://gpsy.genouest.org. PMID:22570409

  11. Resemblance talk: a challenge for parents whose children were conceived with donor gametes in the US.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gay; Butler, Anneliese; Nachtigall, Robert D

    2005-09-01

    The normative folk model of kinship in the US continues to attach great significance to "blood" relationships. These implicit genetic links are commonly reinforced through observations about a child's physical similarity to parents or other family members, i.e., "resemblance talk". This paper explores the meanings of resemblance and resemblance talk for parents drawing on semi-structured interviews with 148 heterosexual couples who had used a donor gamete to conceive at least one living child. For parents of children conceived with donor eggs or sperm, resemblance talk represents the ongoing threat that comments about physical appearance could stigmatize their children or cast doubt on the legitimacy of their family structure. Furthermore, these concerns were present regardless of whether a sperm or egg donor had been used and irrespective of the parents' disclosure decision, i.e., whether or not their children were told of the true nature of their conception. Parents found that resemblance talk was not only ubiquitous, unavoidable, and uncontrollable, but it also had the capacity to exacerbate ongoing uncertainties about their disclosure decision (or lack of one), worries about establishing their child within the extended family, and apprehension that insensitive remarks could make the child feel different from other family members. As a result, many couples spent considerable energy developing a variety of strategies for managing resemblance talk that included genetic plausibility arguments, "passing", and strategic silence. We conclude that parents of children conceived with a donor address and contest normative definitions of kinship and family, including stigma and otherness, resist challenges to the family they have created, and, to some extent, rework their allegiance to cultural norms to suit their own needs. Because resemblance talk and disclosure decisions are frequently tied to each other, it is likely that if the public were more accepting of difference, parents would likely feel more comfortable with disclosure. Yet resemblance talk may make it more difficult for parents to disclose, not easier, as long as attitudes about the implicit primacy of genetic connectedness prevail. PMID:15970239

  12. Automated monitoring to detect H1N1 symptoms among urban, Medicaid-eligible, pregnant women: a community-partnered randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Amy Filmore; Alemi, Farrokh; Hetmyer, Alisha; Alemi, Yara; Randolph, Linda A; Ramey, Sharon Landesman

    2014-02-01

    In response to the H1N1 epidemic, we used community health workers to design and implement a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a new automated call-monitoring system for second and third trimester predominantly Medicaid-eligible pregnant women in an urban free standing birth center to promptly detect symptoms of influenza and assure rapid treatment to prevent adverse outcomes from influenza. Daily automated telephone call to second and third trimester pregnant women asking if the woman experienced flu-like symptoms. Calls continued daily until 38 weeks gestation. A community health worker's voice was used for the automated call recording. Positive responses triggered an immediate referral to a nurse-midwife for prompt treatment with anti-viral medication. Fifty pregnant participants were randomized into daily-automated call group (n = 26) or health information group (n = 24). The automated call group participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 (mean = 23.5, SD = 6.3), 84.7 % identified their race/ethnicity as African-American Non-Hispanic, and 80.7 % were Medicaid-Eligible. In the automated call group, 11.5 % chose to be immunized against H1N1. The mean percent of patients reached daily was 45.1 % (SD = 3.2 %) and at least once every 3 days was 65.1 % (SD = 3.1 %). One pregnant woman in the automated call group contracted H1N1 influenza and received prompt anti-viral treatment without any serious outcomes. Participation in daily-automated telephone calls did not differ significantly between patients younger than 18 years old versus patients 18 years or older. There was also no difference in participation between patients with parity of 0 versus patients with parity ≥1. Participation in daily telephone calls significantly (alpha ≤0.05) increased when a community health worker provided personal follow-up of non-responsive participants. 93.3 % of surveyed pregnant women, who received automated daily calls, recommended to use a similar daily call system in response to a future health crisis. Automated daily phone calls, designed and produced by community health workers, is a feasible, well received strategy to provide urgent health information to an urban, Medicaid-eligible group of pregnant women, regardless of age or parity. PMID:23990336

  13. Empowerment, partners behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of womens empowerment and partners behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. Methods The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. Results The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Womens occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. Conclusion In the Ugandan context, womens empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence. PMID:24289495

  14. In-vitro fertilization, gamete donation and surrogacy: perceptions of women attending an infertility clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo

    2014-06-01

    Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149

  15. Epithelial and neural cadherin expression in the mammalian reproductive tract and gametes and their participation in fertilization-related events.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Levin, Mnica Hebe; Marn-Briggiler, Clara Isabel; Caballero, Julieta Natalia; Veiga, Mara Florencia

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian fertilization involves a series of well-orchestrated cell-cell interaction steps between gametes, as well as among spermatozoa and somatic cells of both the male and female reproductive tracts. Cadherins are Ca(2+)-dependent glycoproteins that have been involved in cellular adhesion and signaling in somatic cells. Taking into account that Ca(2+) ions are required during fertilization, the involvement of these proteins in adhesion events during this process can be anticipated. This report presents an overview on two members of classical cadherins, Epithelial (E-) and Neural (N-) cadherin in reproductive biology. Its provides evidence of studies done by several research groups about the expression of E- and N-cadherin during spermatogenesis, oogenesis and folliculogenesis, and their involvement in gamete transport in the reproductive tracts. Moreover, it describes current knowledge of E- and N-cadherin presence in cells of the cumulus-oocyte complex and spermatozoa from several mammalian species, and shows gathered evidence on their participation in different steps of the fertilization process. A brief summary on general information of both proteins is also presented. PMID:25576029

  16. Susceptibility of gametes and embryos of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to Karenia brevis and its toxins.

    PubMed

    Rolton, Anne; Soudant, Philippe; Vignier, Julien; Pierce, Richard; Henry, Michael; Shumway, Sandra E; Bricelj, V Monica; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-06-01

    The bivalve mollusc, Crassostrea virginica, is frequently exposed to blooms of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida during periods of spawning and early larval development. A continuous 4-day exposure of gametes and 2-4 cell stage embryos of C. virginica to whole-cell and culture filtrate of K. brevis at 500 and 5000 cells mL(-1), was followed by a 4-day 'recovery' period. Larval growth, percent of normal, abnormal and dead larvae, and the presence of food in the larval gut were measured throughout the exposure period. Results suggest that negative effects mainly occur during embryogenesis and early development. Damage to feeding apparatus/gut may occur during embryonic development or exposure to toxins may act as a feeding deterrent on non-toxic algae. Following 2-h in vitro exposure of gametes, differences in oocyte and sperm cell parameters were investigated using flow cytometry. The reduced sperm viability in the whole-cell 5000 cells mL(-1) treatment suggests the involvement of extracellular brevetoxins (PbTx) and perhaps other harmful, uncharacterized compounds associated with the K. brevis cell membrane. The cumulative effects of reduced sperm viability, fertilization success, embryonic and larval survival, and the near-annual exposure to blooms of K. brevis could cause significant bottlenecks on oyster recruitment. PMID:25771241

  17. When does intimate partner violence continue after separation?

    PubMed

    Ornstein, Petra; Rickne, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Over their lifetime, approximately 10% of all women become victims of postseparation stalking or assault. We use a nationally representative survey of separated Swedish women to examine whether men who strive to control their partners during their relationships are more likely to stalk or assault their ex-partners after separation. The empirical analysis shows that basic measures of control behaviors explain 18% of the variance in stalking victimization and 8% of the assault victimization. Moreover, the predictive values of our measures of control by far surpass those of other common risk markers included in the analysis. PMID:23743350

  18. Prevalence estimate of intimate partner violence in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Clark, C J; Bloom, D E; Hill, A G; Silverman, J G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Jordan among a sample of 517 reproductive health clinic attendees. Intimate partner violence was measured using the World Health Organization's domestic violence questionnaire which was modified by the results of focus group discussions conducted in Amman. The percentages of women experiencing at least 1 form of control or violence since marriage were: control, 97.2%; psychological violence, 73.4%; physical violence, 31.2%; and sexual violence, 18.8%. Modifications of the WHO questionnaire were needed to measure control and psychological violence in Jordan. Similar modifications might be required when conducting research in the Region. PMID:20187539

  19. Partnering. New Opportunities for Partnering, CAUSE94. Track I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers are presented from the 1994 CAUSE conference track on partnering within and among higher education institutions in regard to information resources and technology. The papers include: (1) "Having Your Cake and Eating It Too: A Recipe for a Collaborative CWIS in a Decentralized Environment," which discusses the development of Johns

  20. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-2 - Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. 301... Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. (a) Pass-thru partner binds unidentified indirect...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-2 - Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. 301... Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. (a) Pass-thru partner binds unidentified indirect...

  2. Treaty verification with an uncertain partner

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is used to analyze the performance of a system for verifying compliance with an arms control treaty. Blue and Red are partners in to a treaty. Blue prefers to comply, but is uncertain whether Red similarly prefers compliance (in the absence of threatened violation detection). Blue's uncertainty is modeled as a probability distribution over three different Red types: Violators, Compilers, and Deterrables. Criteria are derived to determine the level at which Blue should set his detection threshold, and when it is best for Blue not to verify at all. The results involve both game-theoretic and Bayes solutions. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  3. From Recipients to Partners: Children in Malaria Education in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakiwala, Aisha Sembatya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Health education that integrates community participation is essential for malaria control. However, children's participation is not generally as active as that of adults, thus turning children into recipients, as opposed to partners in malaria control. The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of how children can

  4. From Recipients to Partners: Children in Malaria Education in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakiwala, Aisha Sembatya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Health education that integrates community participation is essential for malaria control. However, children's participation is not generally as active as that of adults, thus turning children into recipients, as opposed to partners in malaria control. The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of how children can…

  5. The Computer as Lab Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also

  6. Measuring Collaboration among Grant Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Lohmeier, Jill H.; Lee, Stephen W.; Tollefson, Nona

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration is a prerequisite for the sustainability of interagency programs, particularly those programs initially created with the support of time-limited grant-funding sources. From the perspective of evaluators, however, assessing collaboration among grant partners is often difficult. It is also challenging to present collaboration data to

  7. Partnering for Diversity. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Morgan

    To increase the diversity and retention levels of underrepresented faculty and staff, Cerritos College implemented the Partnering for Diversity program. Specifically, the program sought to: increase participation of underrepresented employees in positions of leadership; increase the diverse applicant pool for tenure track position by mentoring

  8. The Computer as Lab Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also…

  9. Paraprofessionals: Partners for Employment Counselors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keune, Carmen Th.; Gelauff-Hanzon, Caroline W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from the Research Group on the Evaluation of the Social Welfare Program for 0-18 Year Olds of Ethnic Minority Backgrounds, which studied the use of paraprofessionals in the Netherlands. Recommends that counselors use paraprofessionals as partners in the process of reaching out to target groups, particularly ethnic minorities. (GCP)

  10. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  11. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew Jg

    2014-04-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  12. Pregnancy following gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT) with cryopreserved semen from infertile men following therapy to lymphomas or testicular tumour: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    al-Shawaf, T; Nolan, A; Harper, J; Serhal, P; Craft, I

    1991-03-01

    Cryopreserved spermatozoa from men having treatment for lymphoma or testicular tumour have been reported to function sub-optimally. We report on three successful pregnancies following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) using such cryopreserved sperm samples. In one case, ovum donation was required since the woman had premature ovarian failure. PMID:1955542

  13. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  14. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies.

    PubMed

    Bernier, L; Grgoire, D

    2004-12-01

    In Canada, the Assisted Human Reproduction Act received royal assent on 29 March 2004. The approach proposed by the federal government responds to Canadians' strong desire for an enforceable legislative framework in the field of reproduction technologies through criminal law. As a result of the widening gap between the rapid pace of technological change and governing legislation, a distinct need was perceived to create a regulatory framework to guide decisions regarding reproductive technologies. In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed. PMID:15574437

  15. Reproductive semi-cloning respecting biparental embryo origin: embryos from syngamy between a gamete and a haploidized somatic cell.

    PubMed

    Tesarik, J

    2002-08-01

    Embryos formed by somatic cell nuclear transfer to enucleated oocytes (cloning) have given rise to viable offspring in several mammalian species. The possibility of future application of this technique to human assisted reproduction (reproductive cloning) has been widely debated. On this background there is current discussion of the potential for a cloning-derived technique, which aims at syngamy between a gamete nucleus from one parent and a somatic cell nucleus from the other. Critical analysis of the clinical indications, the current state of the art, biological concerns and ethical considerations relative to this technique, called here reproductive semi-cloning, are presented. Such a technique requires validation by further research before it can be considered as a treatment option. This debate explores issues raised by the technique. PMID:12151415

  16. The contradictory information on the distribution of non-disjunction and pre-division in female gametes.

    PubMed

    Rosenbusch, B

    2006-11-01

    Valuable information on the cytogenetic constitution of female gametes has been deduced from the direct, so-called conventional analysis of oocytes remaining unfertilized in programmes of assisted reproduction. Additional, indirect conclusions have become possible by PGD of the polar bodies. Both techniques provided evidence for the co-existence of two aneuploidy-causing mechanisms during first maternal meiosis; non-disjunction (ND) of bivalents results in the loss or gain of whole chromosomes in metaphase II complements, whereas a precocious division (pre-division, PD) of univalents leads to the loss or gain of single chromatids. As to the distribution of ND and PD, however, direct oocyte chromosome studies and PGD tell surprisingly different stories. Moreover, first and second polar body analyses contradict the data derived from DNA polymorphism studies concerning the distribution of first and second meiotic division errors. An increased awareness of these problems appears necessary because important decisions are made on the basis of PGD results. PMID:16982661

  17. Effects of lactoferrin, a protein present in the female reproductive tract, on parameters of human sperm capacitation and gamete interaction.

    PubMed

    Zumoffen, C M; Massa, E; Caille, A M; Munuce, M J; Ghersevich, S A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent study, lactoferrin (LF) was detected in human oviductal secretion. The protein was able to bind to oocytes and sperm, and modulated gamete interaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of LF on parameters related to human sperm capacitation and sperm-zona pellucida interaction. Semen samples were obtained from healthy normozoospermic donors (n=7). Human follicular fluids and oocytes were collected from patients undergoing invitro fertilization. Motile sperm obtained by swim-up were incubated for 6 or 22h under capacitating conditions with LF (0-100?g/mL). After incubations, viability, motility, presence of ?-d-mannose receptors (using a fluorescent probe on mannose coupled to bovine serum albumin), spontaneous and induced acrosome reaction (assessed with Pisum sativum agglutinin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate), and tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins were evaluated. Sperm-zona pellucida interaction in the presence of LF was investigated using the hemizone assay. The presence of LF did not affect sperm viability or motility, but caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in sperm ?-d-mannose-binding sites, and the effect was already significant with the lowest concentration of the protein used after 22h incubation. Dose-dependent significant increases in both induced acrosome reaction and tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins were observed in the presence of LF. The present data indicate that LF modulates parameters of sperm function. The inhibition of gamete interaction by LF could be partially explained by the decrease in sperm d-mannose-binding sites. The presence of the LF promoted sperm capacitation invitro. PMID:26445132

  18. Transcriptomes of isolated Oryza sativa gametes characterized by deep sequencing: evidence for distinct sex-dependent chromatin and epigenetic states before fertilization.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah N; Johnson, Cameron S; Jones, Daniel S; Conrad, Liza J; Gou, Xiaoping; Russell, Scott D; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2013-12-01

    The formation of a zygote by the fusion of egg and sperm involves the two gametic transcriptomes. In flowering plants, the embryo sac embedded within the ovule contains the egg cell, whereas the pollen grain contains two sperm cells inside a supporting vegetative cell. The difficulties of collecting isolated gametes and consequent low recovery of RNA have restricted in-depth analysis of gametic transcriptomes in flowering plants. We isolated living egg cells, sperm cells and pollen vegetative cells from Oryza sativa (rice), and identified transcripts for approximately 36 000 genes by deep sequencing. The three transcriptomes are highly divergent, with about three-quarters of those genes differentially expressed in the different cell types. Distinctive expression profiles were observed for genes involved in chromatin conformation, including an unexpected expression in the sperm cell of genes associated with active chromatin. Furthermore, both the sperm cell and the pollen vegetative cell were deficient in expression of key RNAi components. Differences in gene expression were also observed for genes for hormonal signaling and cell cycle regulation. The egg cell and sperm cell transcriptomes reveal major differences in gene expression to be resolved in the zygote, including pathways affecting chromatin configuration, hormones and cell cycle. The sex-specific differences in the expression of RNAi components suggest that epigenetic silencing in the zygote might act predominantly through female-dependent pathways. More generally, this study provides a detailed gene expression landscape for flowering plant gametes, enabling the identification of specific gametic functions, and their contributions to zygote and seed development. PMID:24215296

  19. Translational control in the C. elegans hermaphrodite germ line.

    PubMed

    Racher, Hilary; Hansen, Dave

    2010-02-01

    The formation of a fully developed gamete from an undifferentiated germ cell requires progression through numerous developmental stages and cell fate decisions. The precise timing and level of gene expression guides cells through these stages. Translational regulation is highly utilized in the germ line of many species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, to regulate gene expression and ensure the proper formation of gametes. In this review, we discuss some of the developmental stages and cell fate decisions involved in the formation of functional gametes in the C. elegans germ line in which translational control has been implicated. These stages include the mitosis versus meiosis decision, the sperm/oocyte decision, and gamete maturation. We also discuss some of the techniques used to identify mRNA targets; the identification of these targets is necessary to clearly understand the role each RNA-binding protein plays in these decisions. Relatively few mRNA targets have been identified, thus providing a major focus for future research. Finally, we propose some reasons why translational control may be utilized so heavily in the germ line. Given that many species have this substantial reliance on translational regulation for the control of gene expression in the germ line, an understanding of translational regulation in the C. elegans germ line is likely to increase our understanding of gamete formation in general. PMID:20140027

  20. Million Solar Roofs: Partners Make Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Million Solar Roofs (MSR) Partners Make Markets Executive Summary is a summary of the MSR Annual Partnership Update, a report from all the partners and partnerships who participate in the MSR Initiative.

  1. Parents, Reading Partners, Library Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deskins, Liz

    2011-01-01

    According to the author, one of her most important goals as a school librarian is to inspire her students to become lifelong lovers of reading. She recognizes that she cannot do this alone, and one of her most powerful partners is a parent. She can encourage a child to check out a book that may open their eyes to the wonders of literature, but if

  2. Intimate partner violence towards women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Between 10% and 70% of women may have been physically or sexually assaulted by a partner at some stage, with assault rates against men reported at about one quarter of the rate against women. In at least half of people studied, the problem lasts for 5 years or more. Women reporting intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely than other women to complain of poor physical or mental health, and of disability. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions initiated by healthcare professionals aimed at female victims of intimate partner violence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other relevant databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advocacy; career counselling plus critical consciousness awareness; cognitive behavioural counselling; cognitive trauma therapy; counselling; nurse support and guidance; peer support groups; safety planning; and shelters. PMID:21733197

  3. Desistance From Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483

  4. 48 CFR 715.70 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Partner Vetting 715.70 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable procedures and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  5. 48 CFR 715.70 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Partner Vetting 715.70 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable procedures and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  6. 48 CFR 715.70 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Partner Vetting 715.70 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable procedures and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  7. Partner Pressure, Victimization History, and Alcohol: Women's Condom-Decision Abdication Mediated by Mood and Anticipated Negative Partner Reaction.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R; Staples, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Highly intoxicated versus sober women were evaluated using multi-group path analyses to test the hypothesis that sexual victimization history would interact with partner pressure to forgo condom use, resulting in greater condom-decision abdication-letting the man decide whether or not to use a condom. After beverage administration, community women (n=408) projected themselves into a scenario depicting a male partner exerting high or low pressure for unprotected sex. Mood, anticipated negative reactions from the partner, and condom-decision abdication were assessed. In both control and alcohol models, high pressure increased anticipated negative partner reaction, and positive mood was associated with increased abdication. In the alcohol model, victimization predicted abdication via anticipated negative partner reaction, and pressure decreased positive mood and abdication. In the control model, under high pressure, victimization history severity was positively associated with abdication. Findings implicate condom-decision abdication as an important construct in understanding how women's sexual victimization histories may exert sustained impact on sexual interactions. PMID:26340952

  8. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners....6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners. (a) In general. In the absence of a...

  9. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  10. Experiences and socialization of Jamaican men with multiple sex partners.

    PubMed

    Simeon, D T; LeFranc, E; Bain, B; Wyatt, G E

    1999-12-01

    One of the goals of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) control programme in Jamaica is to encourage persons to have a single sex partner. Before this can be achieved in men, it is important to identify the demographic characteristics as well as the sexual attitudes and socialization of men who have multiple sex partners. A national survey was conducted on sexual decision-making in Jamaica in which a random sample of 3,001 persons was selected for study and of 2,580 (86%) interviewed 979 were men. The following analyses included the 769 men who were sexually active. Thirty-four per cent (34%), 95% CI, 30.6-37.4%) of these men said that they were currently having sex with more than one woman. Although condom use was higher in men with multiple sex partners, 33% of them said that they never used condoms. Independent predictors of having multiple sex partners were: not being in a stable union; being raised by fathers only; and having a secondary school education. There was no significant association with church attendance or with occupation. Compared with other males, men who had multiple sex partners started having sex at an earlier age and were more likely to engage in high-risk sex behaviours such as having sex with prostitutes and abusing drugs prior to coitus. They were also more likely to believe in the use of sex as a means to control their partners and were less likely to think that being married or involved in a long-term relationship was important. These data must be taken into consideration by the AIDS control programme in Jamaica when formulating policies to promote monogamy. There may also be a need to implement parenting support or education programmes for single men who raise their sons. PMID:10639842

  11. Psychological Interventions for Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Their Partners: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane; Ski, Chantal F.; Thompson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Despite evidence that patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and their partners report significant psychological distress, and suggestions that involving partners in interventions alleviates such distress, no systematic reviews have examined this. The objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners. Methods CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched through October 2012. Randomized controlled trials evaluating psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners were included. Selection of studies, study appraisal, data extraction and analysis were undertaken using standard methods. Results Seven studies comprising 673 dyads (patient and partner) were included. Psychological interventions result in modest improvements in patients' health-related quality of life, blood pressure, knowledge of disease and treatment, and satisfaction with care, and in partners' anxiety, knowledge and satisfaction. There was a non-significant trend for improvements in anxiety for patients, and depressive symptoms for both patients and partners. There was no evidence of a significant effect on mortality, morbidity or other cardiovascular risk factors for patients, or social support for patients and partners. Conclusions Psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners were found to improve health-related quality of life, blood pressure, knowledge, and satisfaction with care for patients, and anxiety, knowledge, and satisfaction with care for partners. However, as the overall quality of the evidence was low, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24039950

  12. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  13. DOES NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT DIFFERENTIATE INTIMATE PARTNER FEMICIDES FROM OTHER FEMICIDES?

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Layde, Peter M.; Hamberger, L. Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared to other femicides, while neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  14. Characteristics of cocaine-addicted individuals who abuse their partners.

    PubMed

    Lee, W V; Gottheil, E; Sterling, R C; Weinstein, S P; Serota, R D

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what proportion of individuals entering treatment for cocaine dependence admitted to battering an intimate partner and to compare the characteristics of those who were not identified as batterers. Of the 77 men in the sample, 38% were characterized as cocaine-dependent batterers. The batterers and nonbatterers were found to differ on a variety of background and assessment variables. Cocaine-dependent batterers more often reported a history of serious conflict with their sexual partner, trouble controlling violent behavior, greater psychiatric disturbance, difficulty relaxing, and being easily annoyed. A summary of the findings as well as implications for future research are discussed. PMID:9368213

  15. Anger Problem Profiles among Partner Violent Men: Differences in Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christopher M.; Taft, Casey T.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    Cluster analysis of 139 partner violent men's self-reports on the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory identified profiles reflecting pathological anger (PA), low anger control (LAC), and normal anger (NA). The PA group self-reported higher pretreatment partner abuse, interpersonal dysfunction, distress, and substance abuse and had lower

  16. Conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Valds-Navarro, Manuel A; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar Eliezar; Fernndez-Espinosa, Martn Cesar; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jess

    2015-04-01

    To compare the incidence of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with newly diagnosed adult inclusion conjunctivitis (AIC) and a control group with healthy eyes. We also compare the observed signs and symptoms of conjunctival infection in patients with newly diagnosed AIC and their sexual partners. We performed a prospective comparative case-control study between patients with newly diagnosed AIC confirmed with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) (n=11), their sexual partners (n=11), and a control group of healthy subjects (n=11). Clinical history, physical examination, and a DFA test for C. trachomatis of a conjunctival scrapping from the tarsal conjunctiva were performed in all patients. A significantly higher frequency of positive DFA tests for C. trachomatis was observed in the sexual partner group (n=8, 73%) compared with the healthy control group (n=2, 18.2%) (P=0.03). Ocular symptoms and signs were observed significantly more often in patients from the confirmed clinically active AIC group (n=11, 100%) than in their sexual partners (n=2, 12.5%). Sexual partners of patients with AIC are at greater risk of having an asymptomatic conjunctival infection with C. trachomatis than healthy subjects. Sexual partners might be considered a bacterial reservoir and a possible source for chlamydia reinfection. Not treating sexual partners might increase the probability of reinfection. More extended studies with a greater sample size should be done. PMID:24643518

  17. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility. PMID:18388488

  18. Virtual Conversation Partner for Adults with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Trepagnier, Cheryl Y.; Olsen, Dale E.; Bell, Corinne A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD. PMID:21329439

  19. Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

  20. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J

    2015-03-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction. PMID:25655701

  1. Evidence that human epididymal protein ARP plays a role in gamete fusion through complementary sites on the surface of the human egg.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D J; Ellerman, D A; Busso, D; Morgenfeld, M M; Piazza, A D; Hayashi, M; Young, E T; Kasahara, M; Cuasnicu, P S

    2001-10-01

    Human epididymal sperm protein ARP, a member of the cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) family, exhibits significant homology with rat epididymal protein DE, a candidate molecule for mediating sperm-egg fusion in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ARP in human gamete fusion. Sequential extraction of proteins from ejaculated human sperm revealed the existence of a population of ARP that is tightly associated with the sperm surface and thus, potentially capable of participating in gamete interaction. Exposure of capacitated human sperm to a polyclonal antibody against recombinant ARP (anti-ARP) produced a significant and concentration-dependent inhibition in the ability of human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs. This inhibition was not due to a deleterious effect on the gametes because anti-ARP affected neither sperm viability or motility, nor egg penetrability. The antibody did not inhibit the occurrence of spontaneous or Ca(2+) ionophore-induced acrosome reaction, nor did it inhibit the ability of sperm to bind to the oolema, supporting a specific inhibition of the antibody at the sperm-egg fusion level. As a relevant evidence for a role of ARP in gamete fusion, the existence of complementary sites for this protein on the surface of human eggs was investigated. Experiments in which zona-free human oocytes discarded from in vitro fertilization programs were exposed to ARP, fixed, and subjected to indirect immunofluorescence revealed the presence of specific ARP-binding sites on the entire surface of the human egg, in agreement with the fusogenic properties of the human oolema. Together, these results strongly support the participation of ARP in the sperm-egg fusion process, suggesting that this protein would be the functional homologue of DE in humans. PMID:11566719

  2. Secondary use of empirical research data in medical ethics papers on gamete donation: forms of use and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Provoost, Veerle

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to provide a description of how authors publishing in medical ethics journals have made use of empirical research data in papers on the topic of gamete or embryo donation by means of references to studies conducted by others (secondary use). Rather than making a direct contribution to the theoretical methodological literature about the role empirical research data could play or should play in ethics studies, the focus is on the particular uses of these data and the problems that can be encountered with this use. In the selection of papers examined, apart from being used to describe the context, empirical evidence was mainly used to recount problems that needed solving. Few of the authors looked critically at the quality of the studies they quoted, and several instances were found of empirical data being used poorly or inappropriately. This study provides some initial baseline evidence that shows empirical data, in the form of references to studies, are sometimes being used in inappropriate ways. This suggests that medical ethicists should be more concerned about the quality of the empirical data selected, the appropriateness of the choice for a particular type of data (from a particular type of study) and the correct integration of this evidence in sound argumentation. Given that empirical data can be misused also when merely cited instead of reported, it may be worthwhile to explore good practice requirements for this type of use of empirical data in medical ethics. PMID:25835327

  3. The limits of evidence: evidence based policy and the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2015-03-01

    This paper will critically examine the use of evidence in creating policy in the area of reproductive technologies. The use of evidence in health care and policy is not a new phenomenon. However, codified strategies for evidence appraisal in health care technology assessments and attempts to create evidence based policy initiatives suggest that the way evidence is used in practice and policy has changed. This paper will examine this trend by considering what is counted as 'good' evidence, difficulties in translating evidence into policy and practice and how evidence interacts with principles. To illustrate these points the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK in 2005 and the debates that preceded this change in the law will be examined. It will be argued that evidence will only ever take us so far and attention should also be paid to the underlying principles that guide policy. The paper will conclude with suggestions for how underlying principles can be more rigorously used in policy formation. PMID:25743050

  4. ATP-binding cassette transporters protect sea urchin gametes and embryonic cells against the harmful effects of ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Leite, Jocelmo Cássio de Araujo; de Vasconcelos, Raianna Boni; da Silva, Suélenn Guedes; de Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Embryos of marine organisms whose development occurs externally are particularly sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light (bands A and B, respectively, UVA and UVB). ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the first line of cellular defense against chemical or physical stress. The present work investigated the involvement of ABC transporters on UVA or UVB effects on eggs, spermatozoa, and embryonic cells of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. Gametes or embryos were exposed to UVA (3.6-14.4 kJ m(-2)) or UVB (0.112-14.4 kJ m(-2)), and embryonic development was monitored by optical microscopy at different developmental stages in the presence or absence of the ABC-transporter blockers reversin205 (ABCB1 blocker) or MK571 (ABCC1 blocker). E. lucunter eggs, spermatozoa and embryos were resistant to UVA exposure. Resistance to the harmful effects of UVB was strongly associated to ABC transporter activity (embryos > eggs > spermatozoa). ABCB1 or ABCC1 blockage promoted the injurious effects of UVA on spermatozoa. ABCC1 transporter blockage increased UVB-dependent damage in eggs while ABCB1 transporter inhibition increased harmful effects of UVB in embryonic cells. ABC-transporter activity was not, however, affected by UVB exposure. In conclusion, the present study is the first report on the protective role of ABC transporters against harmful effects of UVA and UVB on sea urchin eggs and embryonic cells. PMID:24254332

  5. Gamete derivation from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Generating gametes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has many scientific justifications and several biomedical rationales. Here, we consider several strategies for deriving gametes from PSCs from mice and primates (human and non-human) and their anticipated strengths, challenges and limitations. Although the Weismann barrier, which separates the mortal somatic cell lineages from the potentially immortal germline, has long existed, breakthroughs first in mice and now in humans are artificially creating germ cells from somatic cells. Spermatozoa with full reproductive viability establishing multiple generations of seemingly normal offspring have been reported in mice and, in humans, haploid spermatids with correct parent-of-origin imprints have been obtained. Similar progress with making oocytes has been published using mouse PSCs differentiated in vitro into primordial germ cells, which are then cultured after xenografting reconstructed artificial ovaries. Progress in making human oocytes artificially is proving challenging. The usefulness of these artificial gametes, from assessing environmental exposure toxicity to optimising medical treatments to prevent negative off-target effects on fertility, may prove invaluable, as may basic discoveries on the fundamental mechanisms of gametogenesis. PMID:25472048

  6. Microsatellite analyses of artificial and spontaneous dogrose hybrids reveal the hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha by the contribution of unreduced gametes.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Christiane M; Wissemann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Dogroses are characterized by a unique meiosis system, the so-called canina meiosis, which facilitates sexual reproduction at odd-number ploidy. The mostly pentaploid somatic level of dogroses is restored by a merger of haploid sperm cells and tetraploid egg cells. We analyzed experimental hybrids between different dogrose species using microsatellites to determine pollen-transmitted alleles. This information was used to reconstruct the putative hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha and R. dumalis and to estimate the frequency of spontaneous hybridization in a natural population. We found no evidence for the hybrid origin of R. dumalis, but our data suggest that R. micrantha presumably arose by hybridization between R. rubiginosa and R. canina or R. corymbifera. We observed only hexaploid individuals of R. micrantha, thus the establishment of this hybridogenic species was favored when unreduced gametes contributed to their origin. We demonstrate that spontaneous hybrids originated infrequently from the parental species in a natural population, but hybridization was often associated with the formation of unreduced gametes. We postulate that unreduced gametes play a major role in the evolutionary success of dogrose hybrids because they provide highly homologous chromosomes crucial for bivalent formation during canina meiosis and thus ensuring this unique form of sexual reproduction. PMID:21220743

  7. Gamete derivation from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Easley, Charles A; Simerly, Calvin R; Schatten, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Generating gametes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has many scientific justifications and several biomedical rationales. Here, we consider several strategies for deriving gametes from PSCs from mice and primates (human and non-human) and their anticipated strengths, challenges and limitations. Although the 'Weismann barrier', which separates the mortal somatic cell lineages from the potentially immortal germline, has long existed, breakthroughs first in mice and now in humans are artificially creating germ cells from somatic cells. Spermatozoa with full reproductive viability establishing multiple generations of seemingly normal offspring have been reported in mice and, in humans, haploid spermatids with correct parent-of-origin imprints have been obtained. Similar progress with making oocytes has been published using mouse PSCs differentiated in vitro into primordial germ cells, which are then cultured after xenografting reconstructed artificial ovaries. Progress in making human oocytes artificially is proving challenging. The usefulness of these artificial gametes, from assessing environmental exposure toxicity to optimising medical treatments to prevent negative off-target effects on fertility, may prove invaluable, as may basic discoveries on the fundamental mechanisms of gametogenesis. PMID:25472048

  8. Influence of treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy with intravaginal prasterone on the male partner.

    PubMed

    Labrie, F; Montesino, M; Archer, D F; Lavoie, L; Beauregard, A; Ct, I; Martel, C; Vaillancourt, M; Balser, J; Moyneur, E

    2015-12-01

    Objective The aim was to analyze the opinion of the male partner of women treated for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) with intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (prasterone), thus providing information on both members of the couple. Methods On a voluntary basis, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled phase-III clinical trial, the male partner filled a questionnaire at baseline and at 12 weeks stating his observations related to his penis and intercourse before and after VVA treatment. Results Sixty-six men having a partner treated with intravaginal DHEA and 34 others having a partner treated with placebo answered the questionnaires. Concerning the feeling of vaginal dryness of their female partner, the severity score following DHEA treatment improved by 81% (0.76 units) over placebo (p?=?0.0347). Thirty-six percent of men having a partner treated with DHEA did not feel the vaginal dryness of the partner at the end of treatment compared to 7.8% in the placebo group. When analyzing the situation at 12 weeks compared to baseline, an improved score of 1.09 units was the difference found for the DHEA group compared to 0.76 for the placebo group (p?=?0.05 vs. placebo). In the DHEA group, 38% of men scored very improved compared to 18% in the placebo group. No adverse event has been reported. Conclusion The male partner had a very positive evaluation of the treatment received by his female partner. PMID:26517756

  9. Putting intimate partner violence on your radar.

    PubMed

    Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870

  10. Partner Characteristics Predicting HIV-1 Set Point in Sexually Acquired HIV-1 Among African Seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine K.; Hughes, James P.; Baeten, Jared M.; Wald, Anna; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Fife, Kenneth H.; Campbell, Mary S.; Kapiga, Saidi; Mullins, James I.; Celum, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected “source partner” and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point (+0.44 log10 copies/ml per log10 source partner plasma HIV-1, p<0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters (+0.49 log10, p=0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision (−0.63 log10, p=0.03) and assignment to acyclovir (−0.44 log10, p=0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners' genital compartment. PMID:23061422

  11. ECHO Status for International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO) is a clearinghouse of spatial and temporal metadata, inclusive of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data holdings, that enables the science community to more easily exchange NASA data and information. Currently, ECHO has metadata descriptors for over 55 million individual data granules and 13 million browse images. The majority of ECHO's holdings come directly from data held in the NASA DAACs. The science disciplines and domains represented in ECHO are diverse and include metadata for all of NASA's Science Focus Area data. As middleware for a service-oriented enterprise, ECHO offers access to its capabilities through a set of publicly available Application Program Interfaces (APIs). More information about ECHO is available at http://eos.nasa.gov.echo. The presentation will discuss the status of the ECHO Partners, holdings, and activities, including the transition from the EOS Data Gateway to the Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST)

  12. Reluctant partners: Implementing federal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Reluctant Partners examines how the federal government can secure the cooperation it needs to effect national policy goals whtn the implementation process itself empowers potential adversaries. The current battle over how and where to permanently store the nation's high-level nuclear waste poses one of the greatest challenges to federalism since the Civil War. Authority has been legislatively diffused among the federal government, the states, the counties, and certain affected Indian tribes. The situation also epitomizes the conflict that arises when Congress delegates final decisionmaking authority to the bureaucracy. The book contributes to the body of implementation literature by moving past organizational theory to consider issues of governance and leadership. However, it will disappoint the empiricist who sees an opportunity for the application of a theory go by the boards.

  13. Gamete Therapeutics: Recombinant Protein Adsorption by Sperm for Increasing Fertility via Artificial Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E.; Moreno, Juan F.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Randel, Ronald D.; Lammoglia, Miguel A.; Prez-Martnez, Mario; Lara-Sagahn, Alma V.; Espern-Sumano, A. Enrique; Romo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune systems response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil (PGF2?) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 g/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 g/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P?=?0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288

  14. Production of Functional Gametes from Cryopreserved Primordial Germ Cells of the Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki; TASAI, Mariko; TAKEDA, Kumiko; NIRASAWA, Keijiro; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a valuable bird as both an experimental animal, for a wide range of scientific disciplines, and an agricultural animal, for the production of eggs and meat. Cryopreservation of PGCs would be a feasible strategy for the conservation of both male and female fertility cells in Japanese quail. However, the effects of freeze-thaw treatment on viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of quail PGCs still remain unclear. In the present study, male and female PGCs were isolated from the blood of 2-day-old embryos, which were cooled by slow freezing and then cryopreserved at –196 C for 77–185 days, respectively. The average recovery rate of PGCs after freeze-thawing was 47.0%. The viability of PGCs in the frozen group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) (85.5% vs. 95.1%). Both fresh and Frozen-thawed PGCs that were intravascularly transplanted into recipient embryos migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, although the number of PGCs settled in the gonads was 48.5% lower in the frozen group than in the unfrozen control group (P<0.05). Genetic cross analysis revealed that one female and two male recipients produced live progeny derived from the frozen-thawed PGCs. The frequency of donor-derived offspring was slightly lower than that of unfrozen controls, but the difference was not significant (4.0 vs. 14.0%). These results revealed that freeze-thaw treatment causes a decrease in viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of PGCs in quail. PMID:24077020

  15. Silenced suffering: the need for a better understanding of partner sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners. PMID:24379191

  16. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners. 301.6224(c)-1 Section 301.6224(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may...

  17. Infectious disease and quality assurance considerations for the transfer of cryopreserved fish gametes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Although cryopreservation of sperm has become an accepted technique for selective breeding and genetic improvement in livestock industries, no systematic approach is available for banking germplasm of aquatic species (i.e. embryos, semen and ova). The intent of this chapter is not to provide recommendations for specific measures to eliminate particular pathogens and subsequent diseases, but rather to develop a general framework and strategies for facing the new and unexpected. This chapter presents microbiological and quality assurance concerns for a cryopreservation program. In particular, the chapter identifies organisms transmittable in semen of animals, microorganisms and diseases of importance to aquatic species, pathogen detection issues, methods for prevention and control and how sperm quality can be assessed. 

  18. The stress response in gametes and embryos after paternal chemical exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Barbara F. . E-mail: barbara.hales@mcgill.ca; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Robaire, Bernard

    2005-09-01

    There is increasing concern that paternal exposure to toxic chemicals impacts negatively on progeny outcome. Exposure of male rats to a model male-mediated developmental toxicant and anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss, as well as in malformations. We hypothesize that the stage specificity of the effects of paternal cyclophosphamide exposure on progeny depends on the ability of germ cells to respond to stress, repair DNA or undergo apoptosis. Acute high dose exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide increased the expression of heat shock proteins and DNA repair genes, predominantly in round spermatids. In contrast, chronic low dose treatment dramatically decreased the expression of stress response genes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in elongated spermatids; this reduced ability to respond to stress may allow damage to accumulate, resulting in altered sperm function. Increased DNA damage was maximal 3 weeks after drug exposure, during spermiogenesis, a key point in sperm chromatin remodelling. Drug exposure for 9 weeks increased the frequency of spermatozoa with chromosome 4 disomy and nullisomy. DNA damage found in cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa was imparted to the newly fertilized zygote. Drug-exposed spermatozoa decondensed more rapidly than control spermatozoa and male pronuclear formation was earlier. RNA synthesis was higher in 1-cell embryos sired by drug-treated fathers than in controls. Significantly, the profile of gene expression was altered in embryos sired by drug-treated males as early as the 1-cell stage. Thus, exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide altered male germ cell quality with a consequent temporal and spatial disruption of the zygotic genome activation.

  19. Partners in Science. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Partners in Science students, aided by community professionals, learn science by designing and conducting their own research. Partners in Science brings the community and schools closer together through a mentorship program. Scientists, in fields ranging from wildlife biology to space physics, are in frequent contact with classes and home-schooled

  20. Involving Support Partners in Obesity Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Amy; Phelan, Suzanne; Tate, Deborah; Sherwood, Nancy; Jeffery, Robert; Wing, Rena

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether the number or success of weight loss partners influences participants' outcomes in behavioral weight loss treatment. Overweight participants (n=109) assigned to an exercise intensive group in a larger trial were encouraged to invite up to 3 partners to attend treatment. Weight losses at 6, 12, and 18…

  1. The Relationship Talk: Assessing Partner Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    "The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211

  2. Adaptive evolution of signaling partners.

    PubMed

    Urano, Daisuke; Dong, Taoran; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Jones, Alan M

    2015-04-01

    Proteins that interact coevolve their structures. When mutation disrupts the interaction, compensation by the partner occurs to restore interaction otherwise counterselection occurs. We show in this study how a destabilizing mutation in one protein is compensated by a stabilizing mutation in its protein partner and their coevolving path. The pathway in this case and likely a general principle of coevolution is that the compensatory change must tolerate both the original and derived structures with equivalence in function and activity. Evolution of the structure of signaling elements in a network is constrained by specific protein pair interactions, by requisite conformational changes, and by catalytic activity. The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling is a paragon of this protein interaction/function complexity and our deep understanding of this pathway in diverse organisms lends itself to evolutionary study. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the G? subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. An important RGS-contact site is a hydroxyl-bearing residue on the switch I region of G? subunits in animals and most plants, such as Arabidopsis. The exception is the grasses (e.g., rice, maize, sugarcane, millets); these plants have G? subunits that replaced the critical hydroxyl-bearing threonine with a destabilizing asparagine shown to disrupt interaction between Arabidopsis RGS protein (AtRGS1) and the grass G? subunit. With one known exception (Setaria italica), grasses do not encode RGS genes. One parsimonious deduction is that the RGS gene was lost in the ancestor to the grasses and then recently acquired horizontally in the lineage S. italica from a nongrass monocot. Like all investigated grasses, S. italica has the G? subunit with the destabilizing asparagine residue in the protein interface but, unlike other known grass genomes, still encodes an expressed RGS gene, SiRGS1. SiRGS1 accelerates GTP hydrolysis at similar concentration of both G? subunits containing either the stabilizing (AtGPA1) or destabilizing (RGA1) interface residue. SiRGS1 does not use the hydroxyl-bearing residue on G? to promote GAP activity and has a larger G?-interface pocket fitting to the destabilizing G?. These findings indicate that SiRGS1 adapted to a deleterious mutation on G? using existing polymorphism in the RGS protein population. PMID:25568345

  3. Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

  4. The Specification and Global Reprogramming of Histone Epigenetic Marks during Gamete Formation and Early Embryo Development in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Mark; Jow, Margaret M.; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Aslanian, Aaron; Saucedo, Israel; Estrada, Rodrigo; Ito, Takashi; Park, Sung-kyu Robin; Yates, John R.; Chu, Diana S.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the DNA contributed by sperm and oocytes, embryos receive parent-specific epigenetic information that can include histone variants, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), and DNA methylation. However, a global view of how such marks are erased or retained during gamete formation and reprogrammed after fertilization is lacking. To focus on features conveyed by histones, we conducted a large-scale proteomic identification of histone variants and PTMs in sperm and mixed-stage embryo chromatin from C. elegans, a species that lacks conserved DNA methylation pathways. The fate of these histone marks was then tracked using immunostaining. Proteomic analysis found that sperm harbor ∼2.4 fold lower levels of histone PTMs than embryos and revealed differences in classes of PTMs between sperm and embryos. Sperm chromatin repackaging involves the incorporation of the sperm-specific histone H2A variant HTAS-1, a widespread erasure of histone acetylation, and the retention of histone methylation at sites that mark the transcriptional history of chromatin domains during spermatogenesis. After fertilization, we show HTAS-1 and 6 histone PTM marks distinguish sperm and oocyte chromatin in the new embryo and characterize distinct paternal and maternal histone remodeling events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. These include the exchange of histone H2A that is marked by ubiquitination, retention of HTAS-1, removal of the H2A variant HTZ-1, and differential reprogramming of histone PTMs. This work identifies novel and conserved features of paternal chromatin that are specified during spermatogenesis and processed in the embryo. Furthermore, our results show that different species, even those with diverged DNA packaging and imprinting strategies, use conserved histone modification and removal mechanisms to reprogram epigenetic information. PMID:25299455

  5. Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

    2014-05-01

    Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

  6. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  7. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partners Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  8. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity. PMID:23921210

  9. Age, puberty, and exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-12-01

    This paper links sociological and epidemiologic research on violence and the life course to biosocial perspectives on pubertal maturation to examine risk factors associated with exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. While prior research has established early puberty as a risk factor for delinquent behavior, studies to date have not yet investigated whether early puberty is also linked to intimate partner violence in adolescence. Prior epidemiologic research has found that increasing age in adolescence is a risk factor for dating violence, but this work has not yet incorporated the element of pubertal maturation. The present study examines the relative effects of chronological age and maturational age in a biosocial model predicting risk for intimate partner violence among adolescent females, net of established control variables, using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. These findings indicate that early maturation in females is an additional risk factor for exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. The importance of disentangling types of age effects as raised in the developmental literature and as supported by these findings is discussed in relation to the prevention of youth violence. PMID:15817736

  10. An Essential Role for Katanin p80 and Microtubule Severing in Male Gamete Production

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Liza; Rhodes, Danielle; Smith, Stephanie J.; Merriner, D. Jo; Clark, Brett J.; Borg, Claire; Whittle, Belinda; O'Connor, Anne E.; Smith, Lee B.; McNally, Francis J.; de Kretser, David M.; Goodnow, Chris C.; Ormandy, Chris J.; Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Bryan, Moira K.

    2012-01-01

    Katanin is an evolutionarily conserved microtubule-severing complex implicated in multiple aspects of microtubule dynamics. Katanin consists of a p60 severing enzyme and a p80 regulatory subunit. The p80 subunit is thought to regulate complex targeting and severing activity, but its precise role remains elusive. In lower-order species, the katanin complex has been shown to modulate mitotic and female meiotic spindle dynamics and flagella development. The in vivo function of katanin p80 in mammals is unknown. Here we show that katanin p80 is essential for male fertility. Specifically, through an analysis of a mouse loss-of-function allele (the Taily line), we demonstrate that katanin p80, most likely in association with p60, has an essential role in male meiotic spindle assembly and dissolution and the removal of midbody microtubules and, thus, cytokinesis. Katanin p80 also controls the formation, function, and dissolution of a microtubule structure intimately involved in defining sperm head shaping and sperm tail formation, the manchette, and plays a role in the formation of axoneme microtubules. Perturbed katanin p80 function, as evidenced in the Taily mouse, results in male sterility characterized by decreased sperm production, sperm with abnormal head shape, and a virtual absence of progressive motility. Collectively these data demonstrate that katanin p80 serves an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in several aspects of male germ cell development. PMID:22654669

  11. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention. PMID:19704393

  12. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-09-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network.

  13. Alcohol Use Predicts Number of Sexual Partners for Female but not Male STI Clinic Patients.

    PubMed

    Carey, Kate B; Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that greater alcohol involvement will predict number of sexual partners to a greater extent for women than for men, and that the hypothesized sex-specific, alcohol-sexual partner associations will hold when controlling for alternative sex-linked explanations (i.e., depression and drug use). We recruited 508 patients (46% female, 67% African American) from a public sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic. Participants reported number of sexual partners, drinks per week, maximum drinks per day, frequency of heavy drinking; they also completed the AUDIT-C and a measure of alcohol problems. As expected, men reported more drinking and sexual partners. Also as expected, the association between alcohol use and number of partners was significant for women but not for men, and these associations were not explained by drug use or depression. A comprehensive prevention strategy for women attending STI clinics might include alcohol use reduction. PMID:26310596

  14. Adverse childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and emotional intelligence in partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Swopes, Rachael M; Simonet, Daniel V; Jaffe, Anna E; Tett, Robert P; Davis, Joanne L

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and low emotional intelligence (EI). Relationships among adverse childhood experiences (ACE), PTSD symptoms, and partner aggression (i.e., generalized tendency to aggress toward one's partner) were assessed in 108 male IPV offenders. It was hypothesized that ACE is positively correlated with partner aggression, PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression relationship, and the ACE-PTSD-aggression mediation varies by selected EI facets. Results indicate that ACE has an indirect effect on partner aggression via PTSD and PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression link when emotional self-regulation is low and when intuition (vs. reason) is high. Trauma-exposed IPV offenders may benefit from comprehensive treatments focusing on PTSD symptoms, emotional control, and reasoning skills to reduce aggression. PMID:23862313

  15. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranjeet; Prabha, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function) seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent. PMID:25110702

  16. Immunocontraceptives: new approaches to fertility control.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranjeet; Prabha, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is "immunocontraception" targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function) seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent. PMID:25110702

  17. Perceived Partner Support in Pregnancy Predicts Lower Maternal and Infant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Westling, Erika; Rini, Christine; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal postpartum emotional distress is quite common and can pose significant risk to mothers and infants. The current study investigated mothers relationships with their partners during pregnancy and tested the hypotheses that perception of prenatal partner support is a significant predictor of changes in maternal emotional distress from midpregnancy to postpartum, and contributes to maternal ratings of infant distress to novelty. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 272 adult pregnant women were interviewed regarding their partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security (attachment style and willingness to seek out support), and they completed standardized measures of prenatal symptoms of depression and anxiety (distress). At 6 to 8 weeks postpartum, mothers reported these symptoms again and completed measures of their infants temperament. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect contributions of partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security to maternal and infant postpartum distress. Mothers who perceived stronger social support from their partners midpregnancy had lower emotional distress postpartum after controlling for their distress in early pregnancy, and their infants were reported to be less distressed in response to novelty. Partner support mediated the effects of mothers interpersonal security and relationship satisfaction on maternal and infant outcomes. A high-quality, supportive partner relationship during pregnancy may contribute to improved maternal and infant well-being postpartum, indicating a potential role for partner relationships in mental health interventions, with possible benefits for infants as well. PMID:22662772

  18. Perceived partner support in pregnancy predicts lower maternal and infant distress.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Lynlee R Tanner; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Westling, Erika; Rini, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-06-01

    Maternal postpartum emotional distress is quite common and can pose significant risk to mothers and infants. The current study investigated mothers' relationships with their partners during pregnancy and tested the hypotheses that perception of prenatal partner support is a significant predictor of changes in maternal emotional distress from midpregnancy to postpartum, and contributes to maternal ratings of infant distress to novelty. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 272 adult pregnant women were interviewed regarding their partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security (attachment style and willingness to seek out support), and they completed standardized measures of prenatal symptoms of depression and anxiety (distress). At 6 to 8 weeks' postpartum, mothers reported these symptoms again and completed measures of their infants' temperament. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect contributions of partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security to maternal and infant postpartum distress. Mothers who perceived stronger social support from their partners midpregnancy had lower emotional distress postpartum after controlling for their distress in early pregnancy, and their infants were reported to be less distressed in response to novelty. Partner support mediated the effects of mothers' interpersonal security and relationship satisfaction on maternal and infant outcomes. A high-quality, supportive partner relationship during pregnancy may contribute to improved maternal and infant well-being postpartum, indicating a potential role for partner relationships in mental health interventions, with possible benefits for infants as well. PMID:22662772

  19. Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner

    PubMed Central

    Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M.; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Gntrkn, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, Ren

    2013-01-01

    The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women. PMID:24277856

  20. Conducting a paediatric multi-centre RCT with an industry partner: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Jessica; Newcombe, Peter; Martin, Graham; Kimble, Roy

    2012-11-01

    There are many benefits of multi-centred research including large sample sizes, statistical power, timely recruitment and generalisability of results. However, there are numerous considerations when planning and implementing a multi-centred study. This article reviews the challenges and successes of planning and implementing a multi-centred prospective randomised control trial involving an industry partner. The research investigated the impact on psychosocial functioning of a cosmetic camouflage product for children and adolescents with burn scarring. Multi-centred studies commonly have many stakeholders. Within this study, six Australian and New Zealand paediatric burn units as well as an industry partner were involved. The inclusion of an industry partner added complexities as they brought different priorities and expectations to the research. Further, multifaceted ethical and institutional approval processes needed to be negotiated. The challenges, successes, lessons learned and recommendations from this study regarding Australian and New Zealand ethics and research governance approval processes, collaboration with industry partners and the management of differing expectations will be outlined. Recommendations for future multi-centred research with industry partners include provision of regular written reports for the industry partner; continual monitoring and prompt resolution of concerns; basic research practices education for industry partners; minimisation of industry partner contact with participants; clear roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders and utilisation of single ethical review if available. PMID:22892018

  1. Partner support and impact on birth outcomes among teen pregnancies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monisha K.; Gee, Rebekah E.; Theall, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite hypothesized relationships between lack of partner support during a womans pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, few studies have examined partner support among teens. We examined a potential proxy measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and pregnancy loss) among women who have had a teenage pregnancy in the United States. Methods In a secondary data analysis utilizing cross-sectional data from 5609 women who experienced a teen pregnancy from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we examined an alternative measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess differences in women who were teens at time of conception who had partner support during their pregnancy and those who did not, and their birth outcomes. Results Even after controlling for potential confounding factors, women with a supportive partner were 63% less likely to experience LBW [aOR: 0.37, 95% CI: (0.26 - 0.54)] and nearly two times less likely to have pregnancy loss [aOR: 0.48, 95% CI: (0.32-0.72)] compared to those with no partner support. Conclusions Having partner support or involvement during a teenagers pregnancy may reduce the likelihood of having a poor birth outcome. PMID:24316120

  2. [HPV-related diseases and screening program in male partners].

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Giuseppe; Li Destri, Natalia; Scibetta, Nunzia; Alio, Walter; Prestileo, Tullio

    2011-09-01

    HPV is a sexually transmitted virus. The main risk factor for infection of the female population is the heterosexual transmission with partners who are infected with human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV infection is very common in sexually active males, and it is the most common STDs. In our experience the prevalence of infection is just under 50%. There are careful and well-established procedures that are applied to women with HPV; on the contrary, with regard to male population, there is, often, less focus and less sensitivity during both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this study respond to two specific questions: 1. Is it useful to control male partner? 2. What tests are advisable and necessary for a proper definition of the problem? In this study 160 male patients, partners of patients with HPV infection, were examined by peniscopia, the search for HPV-DNA and biopsy of the penis. The study results show that the percentage of HPV infection of the male partners of women with HPV infection is quite high, ranging from 47 to 49% in relation to the methods used. The prevalence of patients with high-risk virus which stands at over 60%. Moreover, from 17.5% to 40.5%, we observed an infection with multiple genotypes of which is known as a hazard factor of aggravation and persistence of HPV infection. In conclusion, HPV-related diseases is a clinical infection of the couple and it is obvious that to the couple should be given great attention. For an important and effective prevention of transmission of HPV from the male subject to viruses to woman, and for the prevention ping-pong effect, it is essential to submit all the male partners of women infected with HPV peniscopia, HPV tests, and possibly a biopsy of the penis. PMID:22037438

  3. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  4. Risk assessment of minute virus of mice transmission during rederivation: detection in reproductive organs, gametes, and embryos of mice after in vivo infection.

    PubMed

    Janus, Lydia M; Smoczek, Anna; Hedrich, Hans-J; Bleich, Andre

    2009-11-01

    Murine parvoviruses, including minute virus of mice (MVM), represent major infectious disease problems encountered in contemporary laboratory animal research facilities with embryo transfer (ET), one of the most widely used techniques for rederivation. Using an in vivo approach, the objectives of this study were to assess the risk of MVM transmission during rederivation and to provide data that allow recommendation of preventive measures. Therefore, we determined whether immunosuppressive variant MVMi viral DNA is detectable in reproductive organs, gametes (oocytes and spermatozoa), and embryos collected from experimentally infected mice and whether washing as recommended before ET eliminates MVMi sufficiently from gametes and embryos. Fractions of reproductive organs tested positive from Day 5 to Day 30 postinoculation, demonstrating a risk for a minimum period of 4 wk; the highest incidence of positive organs was found between Day 9 and Day 13 postinoculation. Real-time PCR detected viral DNA to a lesser extent in male than in female reproductive organs. MVMi DNA was detected in oocytes and sperm cells derived after in vivo infection but not in two-cell embryos. In vitro contamination studies revealed that the virus firmly adheres to the zona pellucida after 10 wash steps, indicating that even extensive washing might not eliminate MVMi completely from embryos. According to this systematic in vivo approach, recommended measures to prevent transmission of MVM during rederivation include sufficient washing of embryos, accompanying testing using adequate (PCR) methods, and using embryos rather than in vitro fertilization techniques; furthermore, the exchange of gametes should be considered a risk factor. PMID:19553599

  5. Imaging-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay To Identify New Molecules with Transmission-Blocking Potential against Plasmodium falciparum Female Gamete Formation

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Blanco, Celia; Lelièvre, Joël; Delves, Michael J.; Bardera, Ana I.; Presa, Jesús L.; López-Barragán, María José; Ruecker, Andrea; Marques, Sara; Sinden, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to a call for the global eradication of malaria, drug discovery has recently been extended to identify compounds that prevent the onward transmission of the parasite, which is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum stage V gametocytes. Lately, metabolic activity has been used in vitro as a surrogate for gametocyte viability; however, as gametocytes remain relatively quiescent at this stage, their ability to undergo onward development (gamete formation) may be a better measure of their functional viability. During gamete formation, female gametocytes undergo profound morphological changes and express translationally repressed mRNA. By assessing female gamete cell surface expression of one such repressed protein, Pfs25, as the readout for female gametocyte functional viability, we developed an imaging-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify transmission-blocking compounds. This assay, designated the P. falciparum female gametocyte activation assay (FGAA), was scaled up to a high-throughput format (Z′ factor, 0.7 ± 0.1) and subsequently validated using a selection of 50 known antimalarials from diverse chemical families. Only a few of these agents showed submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations in the assay: thiostrepton, methylene blue, and some endoperoxides. To determine the best conditions for HTS, a robustness test was performed with a selection of the GlaxoSmithKline Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS) and the final screening conditions for this library were determined to be a 2 μM concentration and 48 h of incubation with gametocytes. The P. falciparum FGAA has been proven to be a robust HTS assay faithful to Plasmodium transmission-stage cell biology, and it is an innovative useful tool for antimalarial drug discovery which aims to identify new molecules with transmission-blocking potential. PMID:25801574

  6. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  7. Emotional Bookkeeping and High Partner Selectivity Are Necessary for the Emergence of Partner-Specific Reciprocal Affiliation in an Agent-Based Model of Primate Groups

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed) rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation. PMID:25785601

  8. Emotional bookkeeping and high partner selectivity are necessary for the emergence of partner-specific reciprocal affiliation in an agent-based model of primate groups.

    PubMed

    Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-01-01

    Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed) rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation. PMID:25785601

  9. National Laboratories and Internatioanl Partnering

    SciTech Connect

    Eagan, R.J.; Gauster, W.B.; Hartley, D.L.; Jones, G.J.

    1998-12-07

    For nearly fifty years the US held a dominant position in research and development in the free world. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade. Countries around the world realize that to foster sustainable economic growth, they must build and maintain a foundation in science and technology. The time in which a country could base its gross national product solely on extraction of raw materials or on people-intensive manufacturing is drawing to a close. The funding for research and development has been growing in the rest of the world, while US expenditures have not kept pace. In 1961, the United States funded 71 `?40 of the world's R&D. It is estimated that the US contribution to research and development fimding today has reached the 3 3o/0 level, and will drop to 26o/0 of the world's total by 2003.1 In 1981 US government spending per capita on non-defense research and development was nearly fifty percent above our major competitors; by 2002 it is projected to be f@ percent below them.2 This trend has a profound impact on how research and development institutions in the United States plan for their future technical growth. Sandia National Laboratories, as one of the largest US-government tided research establishments, has been watching this trend for some time. %ndi~ focusing on the Laboratories' missions in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, environmental integrity, and emerging national challenges, is committed to bringing the best in world-class technology to bear on the nation's problems. We realize maintaining our state-of-the-art technolo=~ base requires we look not only to domestic sources in universities, industries and other laboratories, but also to sources overseas. The realization that we must be "worldwide gatherers of technology" has led Sandia National Laboratories to consider the question of international partnering in some detaiI. As a national laboratory with a national security mission we are well aware of the issues that we face in pursuing international collaborations. In order to make the proper decisions, we are interested in understanding the history of such partnerships, when they are appropriate, why we expect them to be important, the risks they present and what we can do to mitigate those risks.

  10. BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

  11. Men's beliefs and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kraemer, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of men toward intimate partner violence in Pakistan. Men's beliefs and attitudes toward partner violence are shaped by the life-long process of gender socialization, where the role of wife is projected as submissive and docile. Drawing on eight in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in Lahore and Sialkot, this article presents how men perceive and justify partner violence within the context of Pakistani society. The data show that the construct of "ideal wife" inculcated among men fits into Foucault's notion of "docile bodies," which are subjected to control, discipline, and violent punishment. PMID:23448911

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West Africanborn men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  13. Developing Community Partner Training: Regulations and Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Stephanie; Piechowski, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    While funders increasingly support research that partners with communities, community partners still must submit to a regulatory oversight structure that does not reflect their unique research ethics challenges and needs. In recognition of the importance of collaborative research endeavors, the authors engaged in a process of reconnaissance and negotiations with local community partners and research ethics boards (REBs) at the University of Michigan to begin to address the mismatch between regulatory demands and community-based research realities. This preliminary process yielded both changes in the REB oversight structure and training required of community partnered research. While the ultimate impact of these changes remains to be seen, the process itself yielded insights and materials of use to both our local REBs, and hopefully those at other institutions as well. This article will present those insights and provide links to those materials. PMID:21680974

  14. Cheating Partners, Conditional Probability and Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Developing statistical literacy for older school students includes recognizing and interpreting conditional statements in the media. Data on couples' success in predicting whether their partners have cheated provides a motivating context for teachers to lead their students through this process.

  15. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a reservoir tip to catch semen after ejaculation. Lightly pinch the top of the condom and ... a new condom. Remove the condom immediately after ejaculation, before the penis softens. You or your partner ...

  16. Be a Partner in Clinical Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Be a Partner in Clinical Research Help Others, Help Yourself Did you know that you can participate in clinical research? Whether you’re healthy or sick, young ...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV partner notification in urban Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Sarah E; Brown, Lillian B; Biddle, Andrea K; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kamanga, Gift; Mmodzi, Pearson; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mofolo, Innocent; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C

    2014-01-01

    Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider-based notification strategies are potentially cost-effective for identifying new cases of HIV. These strategies offer a simple, effective and easily implementable opportunity to control HIV transmission. PMID:23325584

  18. 76 FR 66012 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...)(iii)(e) The de minimis partner rule in Sec. 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)(e) (TD 9398, 73 FR 28699-01) was... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue... through Friday between the hours of 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. to CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG- 109564-10), Courier's...

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Childrens Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and childrens memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of childrens short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the childrens sex and race, the families income-to-needs ratio, the childrens expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and childrens cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of childrens memory development. PMID:24188084

  20. California guidelines for expedited partner therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heidi M; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Guerry, Sarah; Gunn, Robert A; Bolan, Gail

    2008-03-01

    In California, medical providers have the option to provide expedited partner therapy (EPT) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. California law was amended in 2001 and 2007 to allow physicians to prescribe, and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and certified nurse-midwives to dispense, antibiotic therapy for the sex partners of individuals infected with chlamydia and gonorrhea, even if they have not been able to perform an examination of the patient's partner(s).In collaboration with the California STD Controllers Association, the California Department of Public Health STD Control Branch developed clinical guidelines for EPT for chlamydia and gonorrhea. These guidelines are focused on EPT strategies and provide information on the most appropriate patients, medications, and counseling procedures recommended to maximize patient and public health benefit while minimizing risk to partners. PMID:18166849

  1. Perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the self, current romantic partners, and former partners.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. PMID:21995611

  2. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stphane; Andr, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  3. Partner Caregiving in Older Cohabiting Couples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of cohabitation among older adults, the caregiving literature has exclusively focused on formally married individuals. Extending prior work on intra-couple care, this study contrasts frail cohabitors’ patterns of care receipt from a partner to that of frail spouses. Methods. Using nationally representative panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006), we estimate random effects cross-sectional times series models predicting frail cohabitors’ likelihood of receiving partner care compared with their married counterparts’. Conditional on the receipt of intra-couple care, we also examine differences in marital and nonmarital partners’ caregiving hours and caregiving involvement relative to other helpers. Results. Net of sociodemographic, disability, and comorbidity factors, we find that cohabitors are less likely to receive partner care than married individuals. However, caregiving nonmarital partners provide as many hours of care as spouses while providing a substantially larger share of disabled respondents’ care than marital partners. Discussion. Cohabitation and marriage have distinct implications for older adults’ patterns of partner care receipt. This study adds weight to a growing body of research emphasizing the importance of accounting for older adults’ nontraditional union forms and of examining the ramifications of cohabitation for older adults’ well-being. PMID:21482588

  4. A Descriptive Study of the Partners Experiences of Living With Severe Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Imes, Christopher C.; Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Pyper, Gail; Sullivan, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of living with severe heart failure (HF) from the perspective of the partner. METHODS In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 partners of individuals diagnosed with severe HF. Content analysis was performed to derive the main themes and sub-themes. RESULTS Three main themes were derived from the data: 1) My Experience of HF in My Loved One, 2) Experience with Healthcare Providers, and the 3) Patients Experience of HF as Perceived by the Partner. CONCLUSION The severity of the patients disease limited the partners lifestyle, resulting in social isolation and difficulties in planning for the future for both the patient and the partner. The partners were unprepared to manage the disease burden at home without consistent information and assistance by healthcare providers. Additionally, end of life planning was neither encouraged by the healthcare provider nor embraced by the patient or partner. PMID:21411148

  5. Effects of a Randomized Couple-Based Intervention on Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…

  6. Effects of a Randomized Couple-Based Intervention on Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in

  7. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  8. Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

  9. Partner Support and Maternal Depression in the Context of the Iowa Floods

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Rebecca L.; O’Hara, Michael W.; Hart, Kimberly J.; McCabe, Jennifer E.; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P.; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from N=145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576

  10. What difference does a day make? Examining temporal variations in partner maltreatment.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Randy J; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Collins, Pamela S

    2014-06-01

    Routine activities (RA) theory posits that changes in people's typical daily activities covary with increases or decreases in criminal behaviors, including, but not limited to, partner maltreatment. Using a large clinical database, we examined temporal variations among 24,460 incidents of confirmed partner maltreatment across an 11-year period within the U.S. Air Force (USAF). Specifically, we created regression models that predicted the number of partner maltreatment incidents per day. In addition to several control variables, we coded temporal variables for days of the week, month, year, and several significant days (e.g., holidays, Super Bowl Sunday), which allowed us to examine the independent influence of these variables on partner maltreatment prevalence. While accounting for the influence of all other study variables, we observed significant increases in partner maltreatment for weekend days, New Year's Day, Independence Day, and Super Bowl Sunday. Similar results were found for partner maltreatment incidents involving offender alcohol/drug use. Furthermore, the proportion of incidents involving offender alcohol/drug use increased on New Year's Day and Independence Day. Consistent with RA theory and data from civilian samples, the current results indicate that certain days are associated with increased incidents of partner maltreatment within the USAF. These findings should be used to inform future preventive efforts. PMID:24798815

  11. Is sexual function in female partners of men with premature ejaculation compromised?

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cevdet; Gunes, Mustafa; Gokce, Ali Murat; Kalkan, Senad

    2015-01-01

    The authors enrolled 32 female partners of sexually active men with premature ejaculation to investigate their sexual functions. An age-matched sample of the same number women whose partners had no sexual dysfunction was also included. Premature ejaculation was defined for all participants as ejaculation that nearly always occurs before or within 2 min of vaginal penetration. An invitation letter was given to men with premature ejaculation to ask whether their female partners could be contacted about completing a questionnaire to measure female sexual status. On the basis of the Female Sexual Function Index, the average sexual function score was significantly lower in partners of men with premature ejaculation (21.8 7.6) compared with that in healthy controls (25.9 6.6). Female sexual dysfunction was diagnosed in 78% of women who has a male partner with premature ejaculation, while 40% of female partner of healthy men. All of the domain scores of Female Sexual Function Index, except the desire and pain levels, were significantly lower in female partners of men with premature ejaculation group than those of healthy subjects. PMID:24779361

  12. Partner support and maternal depression in the context of the Iowa floods.

    PubMed

    Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576

  13. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Predicts Diurnal Cortisol Profiles 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Slatcher, Richard B; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D

    2015-07-01

    Several decades of research have demonstrated that marital relationships have a powerful influence on physical health. However, surprisingly little is known about how marriage affects health--both in terms of psychological processes and biological ones. Over a 10-year period, we investigated the associations between perceived partner responsiveness--the extent to which people feel understood, cared for, and appreciated by their romantic partners--and diurnal cortisol in a large sample of married and cohabitating couples in the United States. Partner responsiveness predicted higher cortisol values at awakening and steeper (i.e., healthier) cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up. These associations remained strong after we controlled for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, agreeableness, and other positive and negative relationship factors. Furthermore, declines in negative affect over the 10-year period mediated the prospective association between responsiveness and cortisol slope. These findings suggest that diurnal cortisol may be a key biological pathway through which social relationships affect long-term health. PMID:26015413

  14. Effect of Screening for Partner Violence on Women's Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Klevens, Joanne; Kee, Romina; Trick, William; Garcia, Diana; Angulo, Francisco R.; Jones, Robin; Sadowski, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Although partner violence screening has been endorsed by many health organizations, there is insufficient evidence that it has beneficial health outcomes. Objective To determine the effect of computerized screening for partner violence plus provision of a partner violence resource list vs provision of a partner violence list only on women's health in primary care settings, compared with a control group. Design, Setting, and Participants A 3-group blinded randomized controlled trial at 10 primary health care centers in Cook County, Illinois. Participants were enrolled from May 2009April 2010 and reinterviewed 1 year (range, 4856 weeks) later. Participants were English- or Spanish-speaking women meeting specific inclusion criteria and seeking clinical services at study sites. Of 3537 women approached, 2727 were eligible, 2708 were randomized (99%), and 2364 (87%) were recontacted 1 year later. Mean age of participants was 39 years. Participants were predominantly non-Latina African American (55%) or Latina (37%), had a high school education or less (57%), and were uninsured (57%). Intervention Randomization into 3 intervention groups: (1) partner violence screen (using the Partner Violence Screen instrument) plus a list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) no-screen, no-partner violence list control group (n=898). Main Outcome Measures Quality of life (QOL, physical and mental health components) was the primary outcome, measured on the 12-item Short Form (scale range 0100, mean of 50 for US population). Results At 1-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in the QOL physical health component between the screen plus partner violence resource list group (n=801; mean score, 46.8; 95% CI, 46.147.4), the partner violence resource list only group (n=772; mean score, 46.4; 95% CI, 45.847.1), and the control group (n=791; mean score, 47.2; 95% CI, 46.547.8), or in the mental health component (screen plus partner violence resource list group [mean score, 48.3; 95% CI, 47.549.1], the partner violence resource list only group [mean score, 48.0; 95% CI, 47.248.9], and the control group [mean score, 47.8; 95% CI, 47.048.6]). There were also no differences between groups in days unable to work or complete housework; number of hospitalizations, emergency department, or ambulatory care visits; proportion who contacted a partner violence agency; or recurrence of partner violence. Conclusions Among women receiving care in primary care clinics, providing a partner violence resource list with or without screening did not result in improved health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00526994 PMID:22893165

  15. Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Robyn L

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences. PMID:22375805

  16. A Community-Academic Partnered Grant Writing Series to Build Infrastructure for Partnered Research.

    PubMed

    King, Keyonna M; Pardo, Yvette-Janine; Norris, Keith C; Diaz-Romero, Maria; Morris, D'Ann; Vassar, Stefanie D; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Grant writing is an essential skill necessary to secure financial support for community programs and research projects. Increasingly, funding opportunities for translational biomedical research require studies to engage community partners, patients, or other stakeholders in the research process to address their concerns. However, there is little evidence on strategies to prepare teams of academic and community partners to collaborate on grants. This paper presents the description and formative evaluation of a two-part community-academic partnered grant writing series designed to help community organizations and academic institutions build infrastructure for collaborative research projects using a partnered approach. The first phase of the series was a half-day workshop on grant readiness, which was open to all interested community partners. The second phase, open only to community-academic teams that met eligibility criteria, was a 12-week session that covered partnered grant writing for foundation grants and National Institutes of Health grants. Participants in both phases reported an increase in knowledge and self-efficacy for writing partnered proposals. At 1-year follow-up, participants in Phase 2 had secured approximately $1.87 million in funding. This community-academic partnered grant writing series helped participants obtain proposal development skills and helped community-academic teams successfully compete for funding. PMID:26365589

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386

  18. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  19. Partners in caring: a partnership for healing.

    PubMed

    Durston, Paula

    2006-01-01

    This article describes one organization's effort to create a family-friendly environment that supports the choice of patients for involvement of a family member or loved one in their care. Changing a culture requires a process that can emotionally drive the caregivers to agree with the need to change and sustain the efforts over a long period. This project, Partners in Caring, describes the philosophy, the journey of changing a culture, and the results achieved over a 7-year period. The Partners in Caring philosophy is "a commitment between a patient, care partner and healthcare team to a relationship of hands-on support based on compassion, communication and choice empowering people to heal in a nurturing manner." This concept laid a foundation for the development of a new model of care, which is described. The implementation has resulted in an improved patient and staff satisfaction and a decrease in patient complaints. PMID:16648722

  20. Intimate partner violence: a global health perspective.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali

    2012-12-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious violation of human rights and a significant global health problem. As the largest health workforce worldwide, nurses are well positioned to address this health issue. Based on literature from various countries, this article presents a summary of the literature on health consequences, costs, prevalence, risk factors, perceptions, and manifestations of intimate partner violence, and women's responses to it. Next, building on the author's program of research on intimate partner violence, the article highlights a number of implications for nursing: intersectionality; micro, meso, and macro levels; social violence; violence throughout a woman's lifespan; and the migration context and process. Finally, the article presents research and practice recommendations for nurses and proposes North-South collaborations and capacity-building to address the complex nature of this global health problem. PMID:23448074

  1. Partnering to achieve success in energy management

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.C.; Caldwell, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The Army National Guard (ARNG) has over 110,000,000 square feet of heated, cooled and lighted facilities in all 50 States and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. Facilities mix runs the gamut from aviation hangers to weekend use armories. Utility costs are paid by Federal, State, and local agencies, and sometimes with different agencies sharing costs in the same facility. Facilities ages range from early 1900s converted horse stables to current ultra-modern office buildings. Each ARNG State energy manager has a formidable challenge and many innovative ideas for reducing energy costs have evolved. These ideas can be summed up in a concept referred to as {open_quotes}Partnering.{close_quotes} This concept of partnering at all levels of government has enabled the National Guard to lower its overall utility costs by 10% in the last three years. In its {open_quotes}Road Map to Facilities Energy Management,{close_quotes} an ARNG Handbook developed for Energy Managers, Partnering has a separate chapter with a mission statement of `Developing partnerships is to encourage agencies to work together to maximize energy savings and promote energy conservation awareness.` This presentation will cover how the Army National Guard has partnered with Federal, State, Regional, and local government agencies to achieve its Facility Energy Management Successes. Examples will be presented showing successful partnering with government agencies and partnerships with manufacturers and Energy Service Companies in conducting audits and ESPC contracting. The projects performed range from Eskimo Scout Armories in Alaska, installing Solar Hot Water heating in Colorado, and Waste Oil burners in Maine, developing plans for wind energy generators in Utah. and conducting lighting projects in Mississippi. Inventive partnering has allowed the Army National Guard to really stretch its utility dollars.

  2. Safe Sext: Adolescents Use of Technology to Communicate about Sexual Health with Dating Partners

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined adolescents technology-based sexual communication with dating partners, and evaluated associations between technology-based communication and condom use. Methods Participants were 176 high school students who indicated their use of technology to communicate with partners about condoms, birth control, STIs, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Sexually active youth also reported their frequency of condom use. Results Many adolescents (49%) used technology to discuss sexual health with partners, with rates varying by topic. Girls were more likely than boys to discuss HIV, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Ethnic minorities were more likely than Whites to discuss condoms, STIs, HIV, pregnancy, and birth control. Importantly, rates of consistent condom use were three-times higher among youth using technology to discuss condoms and birth control. Conclusions Results provide novel preliminary evidence about adolescents use of technology to discuss sexual health, and demonstrate links between technology-based communication and condom use among sexually active youth. PMID:24512716

  3. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  4. Sustained Engagement with a Single Community Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Darcy W.; Sanchez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    As scholarly work has recently turned its attention to the role of the community partner in Community Service-Learning (CSL) relationships, empirical frameworks for describing and executing community partnerships have emerged. This article applies those frameworks to one such partnership, which is presented from the perspective of both the

  5. Partnering for Progress: Workplace Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansoor, Inaam

    1994-01-01

    Good workplace education partnerships begin with honest assessment of the problems to be addressed, building of a vision or common mission, commitment to shared responsibility, identification of resources, and the decision to act in concert toward achieving common goals. Models include basic two-partner collaborations and multiple-industry or…

  6. HIPAA compliance questions for business partner agreements.

    PubMed

    Roach, M C

    2001-02-01

    If your organization is covered by HIPAA, do you know what's expected of you--and of your vendors--with regard to privacy of health information? To make sure your organization is in compliance, contracts with business partners will need careful review. The author offers an overview of the proposed regulations and offers some tips to get started. PMID:11216047

  7. The USGS Partners with Professional Beekeepers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Clint Otto, a research ecologist at the USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, partners with professional beekeepers in North Dakota to evaluate what plant species honey bees forage on and when.  Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use change...

  8. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The

  9. Librarians as Community Partners: An Outreach Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Including 66 focused snapshots of outreach in action, this resource reflects the creative solutions of librarians searching for new and innovative ways to build programs that meet customer needs while expanding the library's scope into the community. This contributed volume includes: (1) A huge array of program options for partnering with other

  10. Yorkie and Scalloped: partners in growth activation.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Edgar, Bruce A

    2008-03-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway limits organ growth in organisms from Drosophila to mammals by suppressing the activity of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki)/YAP. The TEAD/TEF factor Scalloped (Sd) has been identified as the first known transcription factor to partner with Yki as a downstream target of Hpo signaling. PMID:18331708

  11. PARTNER Project 8: Sonic boom mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Victor W.

    2005-09-01

    Current U.S. and international laws prohibit commercial supersonic flight over land due to the impact of conventional sonic boom noise. Aircraft manufacturers, however, now have modern computational fluid dynamics and optimization tools, unavailable when those laws were enacted, that will allow them to design and build aircraft with boom signatures that are substantially smoothed compared with traditional N-waves. One purpose of the FAA/NASA/Transport Canada PARTNER Center of Excellence Project 8 is to determine exactly which waveforms would be heard by the public if low-boom supersonic aircraft are put into service. Another purpose is to ascertain the acceptability of those waveforms. The project involves the following universities, government, and industry partners: Penn State, Purdue, Stanford, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, Boeing, Cessna, Gulfstream, Lockheed-Martin, and Wyle Laboratories. Some of the initial project work includes studies on the propagation of sonic booms through atmospheric turbulence, on the mutual reproducibility of three sonic boom simulators, and on the realism of those simulators as determined by expert listeners. The results of all the studies are intended to provide the FAA with new data to reassess current regulations. [Work supported by NASA, the FAA, and the PARTNER industrial partners.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  13. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male

  14. Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for

  15. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression

  16. 78 FR 3325 - Partners Distributive Share; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 76380) regarding the application of the substantiality de minimis rule. In the interest of... subject of FR. Doc. 2012-31155, is corrected as follows: 1. On page 76380, column 1, in the preamble... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partners Distributive Share; Correction...

  17. 77 FR 76380 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue...'s distributive share. * * * * * (b) * * * (2) * * * (iii) * * * (e) De minimis rule--(1)...

  18. U.S.-Brazil: Partners in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Partners of the Americas, a 22-year-old private organization that has arranged mutually beneficial partnerships between 44 states of the United States and 28 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, is described. The Brazil-U.S. partnerships, establishing special linkages between universities, are discussed. (MLW)

  19. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  20. Making the Most of a Teaching Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Boni

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often miss opportunities to use their classroom computers as teaching partners because of a lack of knowledge or confidence about how the computers can support learning. Internet-connected computers can enable teachers to access well-designed websites that support literacy instruction and involve students in interactive responses to

  1. Partners in Program Excellence. Instructor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This handbook is designed to help instructors and advisory committees interact effectively in the Partners in Program Excellence (PIPE) system. It describes a way to keep a local advisory committee involved throughout the life of the training program. The handbook takes the instructor and the advisory committee through the 10 activities into which

  2. Computers, Teachers, Peers: Science Learning Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Hsi, Sherry

    This book discusses making science accessible to all students, noting the role of computers as learning partners. It provides theoretical and practical insights into learning, assessment, and technology, exploring innovative ways to support students' multiple pathways in learning. It draws on experience with the Computers as Learning Partner…

  3. Perceived Neighborhood Partner Availability, Partner Selection And Risk For Sexually Transmitted Infections Within A Cohort Of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Pamela A.; Chung, Shang-en; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. Methods A clinic recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 16 -19, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Results Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceed ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.78,1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Conclusions Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for STI as they may be more likely to have non-monogamous partners. PMID:24393545

  4. Gender, Psychopathy Factors and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252

  5. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors. PMID:26795454

  6. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. Methodology: This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural), household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Results: Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73%) of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37%) and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–0.78) meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.72). When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusion and recommendations: Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence. PMID:26770687

  7. Injury Outcomes in African American and African Caribbean Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096

  8. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Arajo, Thlia Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women's and partners' sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship's quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  9. "Do you think your main partner has other sex partners?" A simple question provides insight into sexual risk in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Weir, Sharon S; Figueroa, J Peter; Byfield, Lovette L; Scott, Marion A; Hobbs, Marcia M; Edwards, Jessie E; Duncan, Jacqueline P

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the association between a simple measure of sexual partner concurrency and sexually transmitted infection (STI) we conducted a cross-sectional population-based household survey (n?=?1795) and targeted surveys of people at venues where people meet sexual partners (n?=?1580) to ask about sexual behaviour. Persons interviewed at venues were tested for HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. We compared the association between STI and reporting a partner had other partners. More women than men reported their main partner had other partners. Thirteen percent of all women in the population-based survey and 14.4% in the targeted survey reported having one partner in the past 12 months and that partner had additional partners. STI prevalence was significantly associated with reporting a partner had other partners (36.8% vs. 30.2%; prevalence ratio [PR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.4). Construction of complete sexual networks is costly and not routinely feasible. We recommend adding a question to cross-sectional surveys used to monitor sexual behaviour about whether the respondent believes his or her partner has other sexual partners. Although subject to bias, the question was useful in Jamaica to identify a group of women with only one sexual partner at increased risk of infection. PMID:24695013

  10. Intimate partner sexual aggression against Chinese women: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. Methods The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Results Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had significantly more depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships has specific mental health consequences over and above those associated with physical violence. Assessment of partner violence in Chinese relationships should include screening for sexual aggression in order to provide appropriate interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials gov NCT01206192 PMID:24886374

  11. Partner's influences and other correlates of prenatal alcohol use.

    PubMed

    van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of partners on alcohol consumption in pregnant women within the context of other factors. A Dutch nationwide online cross-sectional study among 158 pregnant women and their partners was conducted. To identify correlates of prenatal alcohol use, including perceived and reported partner norm (i.e. partner's belief regarding acceptability of prenatal alcohol use), partner modeling (i.e. partner's alcohol use during the woman's pregnancy) and partner support (i.e. partner's help in abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy), independent sample T-tests and Chi square tests were conducted. Correlation analyses tested the relationship between perceived and reported partner influence. Multivariate logistic hierarchical regression analyses tested the independent impact of partner's perceived and reported influence next to other correlates from the I-Change Model. Pregnant women who consumed alcohol perceived a weaker partner norm (p<0.001) and less partner modeling (p<0.05), with the partner reporting a weaker norm (p<0.001), more drinking days per week (p<0.05) and weaker support (p<0.05). Perceived and reported partner norm, modeling and support were positively related (respectively p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05). The multivariate analyses demonstrated that pregnant women with a higher education who perceived lower severity of harm due to prenatal alcohol use and a weaker partner norm were more likely to use alcohol (R(2)=0.42). This study demonstrated that perceived partner norm was the most critical of the constructs of perceived and reported partner influences in explaining prenatal alcohol use. PMID:25087003

  12. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to womens psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to womens severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for womens IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216

  13. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216

  14. Increased Risks of Needing Long-Term Care Among Older Adults Living With Same-Sex Partners

    PubMed Central

    Brodoff, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether older individuals living with same-sex partners face greater risks of needing long-term care than their counterparts living with different-sex partners or spouses. Methods. With data on older couples (at least 1 individual aged 60 years or older) from the 2009 American Community Survey, we estimated logistic regression models of 2 activity limitations that signal a long-term care need: difficulty dressing or bathing and difficulty doing errands alone. Results. When we controlled for age, race/ethnicity, and education, older women who lived with female partners were statistically significantly more likely than those who lived with male partners or spouses to have difficulty dressing or bathing. Older men who lived with male partners were statistically significantly more likely than those who lived with female spouses or partners to need assistance with errands. Conclusions. Older individuals living with same-sex partners face greater risks of needing long-term care than those living with different-sex partners or spouses, but the role of relationship status differs by gender. These findings suggest more broadly that older gay men and lesbians may face greater risks of needing long-term care than their heterosexual counterparts. PMID:23763396

  15. Attribution of Mild Cognitive Impairment Etiology in Patients and Their Care-Partners

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Schulz, Richard; Gentry, Amanda; Garand, Linda; Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the attribution of MCI etiology assigned by individuals with MCI and their care-partners, and the extent to which the dyads agreed on the attribution of MCI etiology. Methods We conducted secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals with MCI (n=60) and their care-partners (n=60). The mean age of the individuals with MCI was 71.09.4 and of care-partners 64.211.0 years. The primary outcome was attribution assigned to memory deficits on the Illness Perception Questionnaire. We categorized the attribution of MCI etiology as either potentially controllable or uncontrollable factors. We described the distribution of MCI etiology with descriptive and contingency tables. We determined the odds of a patient or care-partner choosing one type of MCI etiology over another. Results Although individuals with MCI and their care-partners most frequently attributed MCI to uncontrollable factors (81.7% and 61.0%, respectively), care-partners were 28.41 [95% CI, 1.26 to 645.48] times more likely to attribute MCI etiology to potentially controllable factors than individuals with MCI. No significant associations between demographic factors and attribution of MCI etiology were found for the individuals with MCI or the care-partners. Conclusion Findings demonstrated that members of the dyad attributed MCI etiology to different causes. Attributions of MCI etiology should be explored by professionals to clarify misconceptions and potentially improve subsequent voluntary actions intended to assist oneself or others. PMID:24123240

  16. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an intimate partner. • 81% of women who experienced rape, stalking or physical violence by an intimate partner ... their experiences. IPV-Related Impacts Among Victims of Rape, Physical Violence, and/ or Stalking by an Intimate ...

  17. 48 CFR 744.202-170 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 744.202-170 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to partner vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for...

  18. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-07-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  19. Geographic concentration of violence between intimate partners.

    PubMed Central

    Miles-Doan, R; Kelly, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore geographic patterns of violence between intimate partners in a metropolitan area with one of the highest injury mortality rates in the nation-Duval County, Florida, which includes the city of Jacksonville. METHODS: Using police reports of all serious violent incidents in Duval County in 1992 excluding robberies, the authors analyzed patterns in the location of the incidents. Only cases for which the relationship between the offender and victim was recorded were used. RESULTS: Thematic maps reveal that census tracts with rates above the 75th percentile of assaultive violence between intimates are clustered in certain parts of the city. Concentrated poverty tracts had median rates of violence between intimate nine times higher than other tracts. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that violence between intimate partners is concentrated in central city poverty neighborhoods opens up avenues for prevention. PMID:9071275

  20. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-05-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  1. CRASP: CFP reconstitution across synaptic partners.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Guo, Aike; Li, Hao

    2016-01-15

    Mapping the pattern of connectivity between neurons is widely regarded to be critical for understanding the nervous system. GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners) has been used as a promising method for mapping neuronal connectivity, but is currently available in the green color only, limiting its potential applications. Here we demonstrate CRASP (CFP reconstitution across synaptic partners), a cyan-colored version of GRASP. We validated the system in HEK 293T cells, and generated transgenic Drosophila lines to show that the system could reliably detect neuronal contacts in the brain. Furthermore, we showed that the CRASP signal could be selectively amplified using standard immunohistochemistry methods. The CRASP system adds to the toolkit available to researchers for mapping neuronal connectivity, and substantially expands the potential application of GRASP-like strategies. PMID:26682922

  2. Partner Violence and Psychosocial Distress among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. Findings: About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China. PMID:23626798

  3. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Gregory A K; Kiers, E Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  4. Partner choice creates competitive altruism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Pat; Willer, Robb

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocal altruism has been the backbone of research on the evolution of altruistic behaviour towards non-kin, but recent research has begun to apply costly signalling theory to this problem. In addition to signalling resources or abilities, public generosity could function as a costly signal of cooperative intent, benefiting altruists in terms of (i) better access to cooperative relationships and (ii) greater cooperation within those relationships. When future interaction partners can choose with whom they wish to interact, this could lead to competition to be more generous than others. Little empirical work has tested for the possible existence of this ‘competitive altruism’. Using a cooperative monetary game with and without opportunities for partner choice and signalling cooperative intent, we show here that people actively compete to be more generous than others when they can benefit from being chosen for cooperative partnerships, and the most generous people are correspondingly chosen more often as cooperative partners. We also found evidence for increased scepticism of altruistic signals when the potential reputational benefits for dishonest signalling were high. Thus, this work supports the hypothesis that public generosity can be a signal of cooperative intent, which people sometimes ‘fake’ when conditions permit it. PMID:17255001

  5. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    PubMed Central

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  6. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gregory A. K.; Kiers, E. Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  7. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  8. Doubly heavy baryons with chiral partner structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Harada, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    The spectrum and dominant strong decay properties of the doubly heavy baryons are revisited by using a chiral effective model with the chiral partner structure. By regarding the doubly heavy baryons in the ground states and light angular momentum, jl = 1 / 2, sector of the first orbitally excited states as chiral partners, we estimate their mass splitting arising from the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to be about 430 MeV for baryons including an unflavored light quark and about 350 MeV for that including a strange quark. We point out that, similar to the heavy-light meson sector, the intermultiplet decay from a baryon with negative parity to its chiral partner and a pion is determined by the mass splitting through the generalized Goldberger-Treiman relation. Furthermore, the isospin-violating decay of the ?cc baryon, ((1 / 2) - ,(3 / 2) -) s ?((1 / 2) + ,(3 / 2) +) s +?0, through the ?-?0 mixing is the dominant decay channel of the doubly heavy baryons including a strange quark.

  9. Do aphids actively search for ant partners?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christophe Y; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges C; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, Franois J

    2015-04-01

    The aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbor ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants' services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially toward ant-frequented plants. However, our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies. PMID:24659520

  10. 48 CFR 752.204-71 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. As prescribed in (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.7005(b)(1) and 716.506(a), insert the following clause in all contracts subject to vetting: Partner Vetting (FEB 2012) (a) The contractor must comply... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  11. 48 CFR 752.204-71 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. As prescribed in (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.7005(b)(1) and 716.506(a), insert the following clause in all contracts subject to vetting: Partner Vetting (FEB 2012) (a) The contractor must comply... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  12. 48 CFR 752.204-71 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. As prescribed in (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.7005(b)(1) and 716.506(a), insert the following clause in all contracts subject to vetting: Partner Vetting (FEB 2012) (a) The contractor must comply... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  13. Partner Power: A Study of Two Distance Education Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks; Carey, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This research reports findings from a study which explored the process and criteria of partner selection--how and why partners are chosen--for two distance education consortia. The researchers reviewed recent literature on partnerships and partner selection. Two Canada-wide distance education consortia were identified as large-scale case studies

  14. Partner Status, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment during Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liese, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied partner status, social support, and psychological adjustment of pregnant women. Administered Brief Symptom Inventory to predominantly minority and lower-income pregnant women (N=157) categorized as married, single/partnered, or single/unpartnered. Found single/partnered women were at least risk for emotional disequilibrium and suggested

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner

  16. Partner's Stake in Conformity and Abused Wives' Psychological Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn…

  17. Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

  18. Partner's Stake in Conformity and Abused Wives' Psychological Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn

  19. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  20. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  1. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  2. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  3. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  4. 76 FR 58849 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 15, 2011. AGENCY... relying on rule 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust (``LMP...

  5. Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility among Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been

  6. Perceptions of partner drinking problems, regulation strategies and relationship outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; DiBello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The current research evaluates how perceptions of one's partner's drinking problem relate to attempts to regulate partner behavior and relationship functioning, and whether this varies by perceptions of one's own drinking. New measures are offered for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and Partner Management Strategies (PMS). Participants included 702 undergraduates who had been in a romantic relationship for at least three months. Participants completed an online survey assessing perceptions of problematic drinking for one's self and partner, ways in which attempts were made to regulate or restrain their partner's drinking, relationship outcomes (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, trust, and need fulfillment), and alcohol use and consequences for self and partner. Factor analyses supported a single factor for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and two factors for the Partner Management Strategies (PMS) scale (i.e., punishment and reward). Results using structural equation modeling indicated that perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with lower relationship functioning. Further, this association was mediated by strategies using punishment aimed at changing one's partner's drinking, but was not mediated by strategies using rewards. Finally, moderation results suggested that this relationship was not as detrimental for participants who perceived they also had an alcohol problem. In sum, perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with relationship problems through punishing regulation strategies, and was weaker among individuals who also perceived themselves to have a drinking problem. PMID:24070719

  7. 26 CFR 1.736-1 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interest of the retiring or deceased partner is liquidated. Therefore, if one of the members of a 2-man... partnership interest in the partnership until that time. Similarly, if a partner in a 2-man partnership...

  8. 26 CFR 1.736-1 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interest of the retiring or deceased partner is liquidated. Therefore, if one of the members of a 2-man... partnership interest in the partnership until that time. Similarly, if a partner in a 2-man partnership...

  9. 26 CFR 1.736-1 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interest of the retiring or deceased partner is liquidated. Therefore, if one of the members of a 2-man... partnership interest in the partnership until that time. Similarly, if a partner in a 2-man partnership...

  10. 26 CFR 1.736-1 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interest of the retiring or deceased partner is liquidated. Therefore, if one of the members of a 2-man... partnership interest in the partnership until that time. Similarly, if a partner in a 2-man partnership...

  11. 26 CFR 1.736-1 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... interest of the retiring or deceased partner is liquidated. Therefore, if one of the members of a 2-man... partnership interest in the partnership until that time. Similarly, if a partner in a 2-man partnership...

  12. Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the womens dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by womens reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3) compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The higher the education level of the women the less the likelihood of experiencing PIPV (ptrend?partners is a strong determinant of PIPV among women in Uganda. PIPV prevention measures should address reduction of problem drinking among men. Longerterm prevention measures should address empowerment of women including ensuring higher education, employment and increased income. PMID:22672439

  13. Synchronising movements with the sounds of a virtual partner enhances partner likeability.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jacques; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that synchronising movements with other people can influence affiliative behaviour towards them. While research has focused on synchronisation with visually observed movement, synchronisation with a partner who is heard may have similar effects. We replicate findings showing that synchronisation can influence ratings of likeability of a partner, but demonstrate that this is possible with virtual interaction, involving a video of a partner. Participants performed instructed synchrony in time to sounds instead of the observable actions of another person. Results show significantly higher ratings of likeability of a partner after moving at the same time as sounds attributed to that partner, compared with moving in between sounds. Objectively quantified synchrony also correlated with ratings of likeability. Belief that sounds were made by another person was manipulated in Experiment 2, and results demonstrate that when sounds are attributed to a computer, ratings of likeability are not affected by moving in or out of time. These findings demonstrate that interaction with sound can be experienced as social interaction in the absence of genuine interpersonal contact, which may help explain why people enjoy engaging with recorded music. PMID:24805849

  14. Communication strategies of people with ALS and their partners.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Joan

    2004-06-01

    There are wider issues relating to the communication difficulties experienced by people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) than simply the physical problems caused by diminished oral control. In addition, existing literature on ALS rarely considers communication to be a joint interaction which depends on the strategies adopted by both communication partners, nor does it present communication in real life settings. This paper presents some of the findings from a 3-year research project which investigated the communication of people with ALS and their partners in their own homes. It discusses the purpose of human communication, and through examination of conversations in people's own homes has identified a range of strategies and techniques that families with ALS employ. For some people with ALS, although speech may deteriorate, they are still able to communicate closely and in a way that is more focused on topics that are particularly important to them. The findings from this study will be of interest to those who work with people with ALS. PMID:15204014

  15. ECHO Data Partners Join Forces to Federate Access to Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, J.; Macie, M.

    2003-12-01

    During the past year the NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project has been collaborating with various Earth science data and client providers to design and implement the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). ECHO is an open, interoperable metadata clearinghouse and order broker system. ECHO functions as a repository of information intended to streamline access to digital data and services provided by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the extended Earth science community. In a unique partnership, ECHO data providers are working to extend their services in the digital era, to reflect current trends in scientific and educational communications. The multi-organization, inter-disciplinary content of ECHO provides a valuable new service to a growing number of Earth science applications and interdisciplinary research efforts. As such, ECHO is expected to attract a wide audience. In this poster, we highlight the contributions of current ECHO data partners and provide information for prospective data partners on how the project supports the incorporation of new collections and effective long-term asset management that is directly under the control of the organizations who contribute resources to ECHO.

  16. Intimate partner violence: IPV in the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263

  17. The Influence of Individual and Partner Characteristics on the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2008-01-01

    This study examines individual and partner characteristics associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adult relationships with opposite sex partners. Using data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined 1,275 young adults' heterosexual romantic relationships.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  19. Environmental concentrations of irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor induce deleterious effects on gametes and embryos of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huong; Morin, Bénédicte; Pardon, Patrick; Gonzalez, Patrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme

    2013-08-01

    Irgarol and diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replace organotin compounds in antifouling paints, and metolachlor is one of the most extensively used chloroacetamide herbicides in agriculture. The toxicity of S-metolachlor, irgarol and diuron was evaluated in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes or embryos exposed to concentrations of pesticides ranging from 0.1× to 1000×, with 1× corresponding to environmental concentrations of the three studied pesticides in Arcachon Bay (France). Exposures were performed on (1) spermatozoa alone (2) oocytes alone and (3) both spermatozoa and oocytes, and adverse effects on fertilization success and offspring development were recorded. The results showed that the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was significantly affected after gamete exposure to pesticide concentrations as low as 1× of irgarol and diuron and 10× of metolachlor. The offspring obtained from pesticide-exposed spermatozoa displayed a dose-dependent increase in developmental abnormalities. In contrast, treating oocytes with pesticide concentrations up to 10× did not alter fertilization rate and offspring quality. However, a significant decline in fertilization success and increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence were observed at higher concentrations 10× (0.1 μg L(-1)) for S-metolachlor and 100× for irgarol (1.0 μg L(-1)) and diuron (4.0 μg L(-1)). Irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor also induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence when freshly fertilized embryos were treated with pesticide concentrations as low as concentration of 1× (0.01 μg L(-1) for irgarol or S-metolachlor, and 0.04 μg L(-1) for diuron). The two bioassays on C. gigas spermatozoa and embryos displayed similar sensitivities to the studied pesticides while oocytes were less sensitive. Diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor induced spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations and therefore might be a threat to oyster recruitment in coastal areas facing chronic inputs of pesticides. PMID:23727205

  20. Association of Violence against Partner and Former Victim Experiences: A Sample of Clients Voluntarily Attending Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…

  1. Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control

  2. Association of Violence against Partner and Former Victim Experiences: A Sample of Clients Voluntarily Attending Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,

  3. Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…

  4. The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related

  5. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of

  6. The Role of the Social Partners in Youth and Adult Vocational Education and Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John Houman; Jensen, Grethe

    This document about Denmark has the following four aims: (1) to provide an overview on the vocational education and training system; (2) to describe and evaluate the social partners' (employers, employers' organizations, and unions) role in implementation, management, and control in relation to the vocational training system; (3) to outline the…

  7. The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…

  8. Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of

  9. Implicit Attitudes toward Violence among Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of

  10. Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and

  11. 24 CFR 943.150 - What procurement standards apply to a PHA's joint venture partner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), an identity-of-interest party means a party that is wholly owned or controlled by, or that is... Subsidiaries, Affiliates, Joint Ventures in Public Housing 943.150 What procurement standards apply to a PHA... administration. (b) Exception. If the joint venture partner is a subsidiary, affiliate, or identity of...

  12. Crossing the chasm of mistrust: collaborating with immigrant populations through community organizations and academic partners.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Alex; Gute, David M

    2013-12-01

    As a community partner and an academic researcher, we experienced the direct and extended benefits of a relatively small-scale, community-engaged informed consent process that developed in an immigrant occupational health study, Assessing and Controlling Occupational Health Risks for Immigrant Populations in Somerville, Massachusetts. The practice of human participants research played a positive role in the community, and both community partners and researchers, as well as the larger academic community, reaped unexpected benefits during the five-year project (2005-2010), which continue into the present. Lessons learned from our experience may be helpful for wider application. PMID:24134386

  13. Crossing the Chasm of Mistrust: Collaborating With Immigrant Populations Through Community Organizations and Academic Partners

    PubMed Central

    Pirie, Alex

    2013-01-01

    As a community partner and an academic researcher, we experienced the direct and extended benefits of a relatively small-scale, community-engaged informed consent process that developed in an immigrant occupational health study, Assessing and Controlling Occupational Health Risks for Immigrant Populations in Somerville, Massachusetts. The practice of human participants research played a positive role in the community, and both community partners and researchers, as well as the larger academic community, reaped unexpected benefits during the five-year project (20052010), which continue into the present. Lessons learned from our experience may be helpful for wider application. PMID:24134386

  14. Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Using Men: Associations by Partner Type and Partner Serostatus

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners. PMID:16736116

  15. The perpetration of intimate partner violence among LGBTQ college youth: the role of minority stress.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49% identified as men; 72% Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160

  16. Interpersonal problems and personality features as mediators between attachment and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David M; Brossart, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether hostile dominant interpersonal problems (HDIP), antisocial features, and borderline features mediated the relationship between attachment (anxiety or avoidance) and intimate partner violence (IPV) with a sample of 132 male partner abusers. We conducted two path analyses with avoidant attachment as the predictor in one model and anxious attachment as the predictor in a second model. In both models, HDIP, antisocial features, and borderline features were the mediators with IPV as the criterion. For both models, the attachment variable had statistically significant path values to the mediating variables. However, neither antisocial nor borderline features had statistically significant path values from the mediating variable to the criterion variable (IPV). Only HDIP had a statistically significant path value from the mediating variable to the criterion variable in both models. However, only the avoidant model produced a statistically significant specific indirect effect indicating that HDIP clearly mediated the relationship between attachment and IPV. Results suggest that partner abusive men with predominantly avoidant and, to a lesser degree, anxious attachment may be at increased risk for addressing conflicts in a coercive, controlling, and vengeful manner that is manifested in physical aggression toward a partner. Further, interpersonal constructs may be better measures of psychopathology and provide more relevant clinical targets than personality constructs with male partner abusers. PMID:23862307

  17. Hiring your next partner: AOA critical issues.

    PubMed

    Blasier, R Dale; Gagnon, Michael R; Iannotti, Joseph P; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Hiring a new partner into an orthopaedic department or group can be a daunting task. A recent American Orthopedic Association symposium sought to address three major aspects of hiring that affect orthopaedic leaders: (1) when to hire-the chairperson's role; (2) generational issues that affect hiring; and (3) the development of an initial compensation package.How does the chairperson recruit new physicians? Hiring a new partner into the academic setting requires a good deal of foresight. There must be an established game plan. Advertising and interviews need to be orchestrated. Chairpersons can find information about candidates from many unique sources. Fit within the department and community is important and must be cultivated. Spouses and families need special attention. Research candidates have individual needs. Perhaps the most important aspect of recruitment is the development of a realistic business plan. This paper provides an overview of factors to consider in managing a new hire.Generational issues are intriguing. Should they affect our hiring practices? It seems clear to established physicians that the new generation of graduates is different from their predecessors. Is this really true? Most everyone is familiar with the terms "Silent Generation," "Baby Boomers," "Generation X," and "Generation Y." Is there anything to be gained by categorizing an applicant? Is it important to hire a replica of one's self? This paper provides a thoughtful overview of generational issues as they apply to hiring new partners.Most department chairpersons are not trained as negotiators. Some preparation and experience are helpful in guiding the process of making an initial offer to a candidate. It is not all about pay. The package includes the guarantee period, expectations for the new hire, mentorship, and resources. How much should new orthopaedic academic hires be paid? Recent benchmark data from the Academic Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean income of $282,667 for physicians who have just finished a fellowship. New hires are concerned about call frequency and available time free from work. How much work should be expected from an academic surgeon? Recent survey data from the American Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean of 9200 relative value units per year. This article offers some guidelines for the chairperson who needs to formulate an initial offer for a new hire.There is a lot involved in hiring a new partner, as times are changing. This paper offers considerable food for thought about hiring. PMID:25187594

  18. Rating managed care plans as business partners.

    PubMed

    Barber, R L

    1997-03-01

    Managed care plans are driven to meet consumer quality of care demands. But, plans that meet these consumer demands do not necessarily meet provider expectations for quality business partnerships. Therefore, providers need to develop not only clinical performance indicators but also indicators that will help them evaluate managed care plans as business partners. Performance indicators should be developed to measure managed care plans' medical loss ratio, compensation cost/benefit, payment promptness, authorization convenience and promptness, insurance verification convenience and promptness, payment accuracy, medical management, provider relations responsiveness, member education effectiveness, recorded complaints, risk transfer, contract terms, and contract equity. PMID:10165437

  19. Partners in Science Education: SOFIA EPO Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D.; DeVore, E.; Bennett, M.

    2003-05-01

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a unique opportunity for education and public outreach (EPO) as the first research observatory designed to include by educators, journalists and others in research missions. The EPO program will include formal K-12 and undergraduate educational activities, informal education, public outreach, and media relations. SOFIA will carry educators on science flights, enabling them to partner with scientists and see science in action. Up to 200 formal and informal educators will participate in the SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program each year. The AAAs will be sustained as a national network via continued communications and material support from the observatory's EPO program office, and will constitute a wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. Scientists, engineers, and other members of the SOFIA team will partner with local teachers and visit their classrooms as a part of the SOFIA Education Partners Program. Trained via the Project ASTRO network of astronomy education sites, SOFIA team members will work with teachrs and students to forge long-lasting science education partnerships. Participating educators may fly onboard SOFIA with their scientist partners. The professors and instructors at community colleges, small colleges, and minority serving institutions teach astronomy in general education courses that include the majority of future K-12 teachers. SOFIA EPO will provide an opportunity for this important segment of the college/university faculty plus staff of science and technology centers and planetaria to learn about research astronomy through summer workshops at the observatory. Participants will be encouraged to develop partnerships with SOFIA-affiliated scientists and participate in research flights. SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by USRA. The EPO program is being developed and will be operated jointly by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and SETI Institute. For more information please contact the SOFIA EPO program director, Dr. Dana Backman: dbackman@mail.arc.nasa.gov

  20. Children's exposure to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine

    2014-04-01

    Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized as a form of child maltreatment associated with significant mental health impairment. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk, and protective factors and associated impairment, and a summary of assessment and interventions aimed at preventing its occurrence and responding to children and families. Information about evidence-based approaches to responding to children who present with impairment after exposure to IPV, such as posttraumatic-stress disorder symptoms, is discussed. Some of the challenges in understanding children's needs with regard to safety and protection are outlined with recommendations for future directions. PMID:24656581