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Sample records for partners controls gamete

  1. A Wolbachia-Sensitive Communication between Male and Female Pupae Controls Gamete Compatibility in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pontier, Stéphanie M; Schweisguth, François

    2015-09-21

    Gamete compatibility is fundamental to sexual reproduction. Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate gamete compatibility in many arthropod species. In Drosophila, the fertilization of uninfected eggs by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males often results in early developmental arrest. This gamete incompatibility is called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is highest in young males, suggesting that Wolbachia affect sperm properties during male development. Here, we show that Wolbachia modulate testis development. Unexpectedly, this effect was associated with Wolbachia infection in females, not males. This raised the possibility that females influenced testis development by communicating with males prior to adulthood. Using a combinatorial rearing protocol, we provide evidence for such a female-to-male communication during metamorphosis. This communication involves the perception of female pheromones by male olfactory receptors. We found that this communication determines the compatibility range of sperm. Wolbachia interfere with this female-to-male communication through changes in female pheromone production. Strikingly, restoring this communication partially suppressed CI in Wolbachia-infected males. We further identified a reciprocal male-to-female communication at metamorphosis that restricts the compatibility range of female gametes. Wolbachia also perturb this communication by feminizing male pheromone production. Thus, Wolbachia broaden the compatibility range of eggs, promoting thereby the reproductive success of Wolbachia-infected females. We conclude that pheromone communication between pupae regulates gamete compatibility and is sensitive to Wolbachia in Drosophila. PMID:26344089

  2. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  3. Quranic description of gametes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S

    1999-07-01

    There are several important characteristic properties of reproductive fluid. Gametes are the reproductive cells consisting of sperms in males and ovum in females. These cells combine to form Zygote in the process of fertilization. The characters of Gametes have been narrated by Holy Quran in a very well-suited and selected terminology. This paper enumerates various Quranic terms related to gametes, and then discusses their scientific significance. PMID:12587566

  4. Perimortem gamete retrieval: should we worry about consent?

    PubMed

    Smajdor, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Perimortem gamete retrieval has been a possibility for several decades. It involves the surgical extraction of gametes which can then be cryo-preserved and stored for future use. Usually, the request for perimortem gamete retrieval is made by the patient's partner after the patient himself, or herself, has lost the capacity to consent for the procedure. Perimortem gamete retrieval allows for the partner of a dead patient to pursue jointly held reproductive aspiration long after their loved one's death. But how can we know if the dying patient would have consented to gamete retrieval? In the UK, consent is a legal necessity for storing or using gametes-but this is not always enforced. Moreover, although the issues related to posthumous reproduction have been discussed at length in the literature, few commentators have addressed the specific question of retrieval. Gamete retrieval is an invasive and sensitive operation; as with any other intervention performed on the bodies of dead or dying patients, the nature and justification for this procedure needs to be carefully considered. In particular, it is important to question the idea that consent for such an intervention can be inferred solely from a person's known wishes or plans concerning reproduction. PMID:24994620

  5. Gamete Dialogs in Green Lineages.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Igawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Gamete fusion is a core process of sexual reproduction and, in both plants and animals, different sex gametes fuse within species. Although most of the molecular factors involved in gamete interaction are still unknown in various sex-possessing eukaryotes, reports of such factors in algae and land plants have been increasing in the past decade. In particular, knowledge of gamete interaction in flowering plants and green algae has increased since the identification of the conserved gamete fusion factor GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1/HAPLESS 2 (GCS1/HAP2). GCS1 was first identified as a pollen generative cell-specific transmembrane protein in the lily (Lilium longiflorum), and was then shown to function not only in flowering plant gamete fusion but also in various eukaryotes, including unicellular protists and metazoans. In addition, although initially restricted to Chlamydomonas, knowledge of gamete attachment in flowering plants was also acquired. This review focuses on recent progress in the study of gamete interaction in volvocine green algae and flowering plants and discusses conserved mechanisms of gamete recognition, attachment, and fusion leading to zygote formation. PMID:26145252

  6. In Vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...

  7. Artificial gametes from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn. PMID:26161331

  8. Gamete Donor Consent and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus on whether the derivation and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from embryos remaining after infertility treatment morally require the informed consent of third-party gamete donors who contributed to the creation of the embryos. The principal guidelines for oversight and funding of hESC research in the United States make minimal or no demands for consent from gamete donors. In this article, I consider the arguments supporting and opposing gamete donor consent for hESC research and embryo research more broadly. I argue that it is not morally permissible to use leftover embryos in research without the informed consent of gamete donors, and that we should place restrictions on the use of existing hESC lines that may have been derived without informed consent. While the standard argument for this position relies on an appeal to gamete donors' interest in controlling what happens with their genetic material, I identify shortcomings with the standard approach and seek instead to locate the deeper moral foundations for gamete donor consent in rights to bodily integrity. PMID:26144537

  9. Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…

  10. Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program" 

    E-print Network

    Cook, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Demand side management programs like Energy Partners can provide an effective peak reducing capability which within a carefully designed integrated resource plan can help to ensure that the system's load requirements are met in the most cost...

  11. "Manejar la Situacion": Partner Notification, Partner Management, and Conceptual Frameworks for HIV/STI Control Among MSM in Peru.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jesse L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Salazar, Ximena

    2015-12-01

    Previous analyses of partner notification (PN) have addressed individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues influencing PN outcomes but have paid less attention to the conceptual framework of PN itself. We conducted 18 individual interviews and 8 group discussions, in a two-stage qualitative research process, to explore the meanings and contexts of PN for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Lima, Peru. Participants described PN as the open disclosure of private, potentially stigmatizing information that could strengthen or disrupt a partnership, structured by the tension between concealment and revelation. In addition to informing partners of an STI diagnosis, the act of PN was believed to reveal other potentially stigmatizing information related to sexual identity and practices such as homosexuality, promiscuity, and HIV co-infection. In this context, the potential development of visible, biological STI symptoms represented a risk for disruption of the boundary between secrecy and disclosure that could result in involuntary disclosure of STI status. To address the conflict between concealment and disclosure, participants cited efforts to "manejar la situacion" (manage the situation) by controlling the biological risks of STI exposure without openly disclosing STI status. We use this concept of "managing the situation" as a practical and theoretical framework for comprehensive Partner Management for HIV/STI control systems among MSM in Latin America. PMID:25821149

  12. Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Chang, S-M; Reid, J M

    2014-06-01

    One key objective in evolutionary ecology is to understand the magnitude of inbreeding depression expressed across sex-specific components of fitness. One major component of male fitness is fertilization success, which depends on male gametic performance (sperm and pollen performance in animals and plants, respectively). Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could create sex-specific inbreeding depression in fitness, increase the benefit of inbreeding avoidance and reduce the efficacy of artificial insemination and pollination. However, there has been no assessment of the degree to which inbreeding generally depresses male gametic performance and hence post-copulatory or post-pollination fertilization success. Because inbreeding depression is understood to be a property of diploid entities, it is not clear what degree of inbreeding depression in haploid gametic performance should be expected. Here, we first summarize how inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could potentially arise through gene expression in associated diploid cells and/or reduced genetic diversity among haploid gametes. We then review published studies that estimate the magnitude of inbreeding depression in traits measuring components of sperm or pollen quantity, quality and competitiveness. Across 51 published studies covering 183 study traits, the grand mean inbreeding load was approximately one haploid lethal equivalent, suggesting that inbreeding depresses male gametic performance across diverse systems and traits. However, there was an almost complete lack of explicit estimates from wild populations. Future studies should quantify inbreeding depression in systematic sets of gametic traits under naturally competitive and noncompetitive conditions and quantify the degree to which gamete phenotypes and performance reflect haploid vs. diploid gene expression. PMID:24820115

  13. Is Partner Violence Worse in the Context of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    M. P. Johnson's (1995) proposal that there are two qualitatively distinct types of intimate partner violence--intimate terrorism and situational couple violence--has been an influential explanation for disparate findings on sex symmetry in domestic violence. This study examines whether this typology increases our ability to explain variations in…

  14. 76 FR 67790 - National Express Acquisition Corporation-Control-Petermann Partners, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board National Express Acquisition Corporation--Control--Petermann Partners, Inc...), both noncarriers, have filed an application under 49 U.S.C. 14303 for NEAC's acquisition of control of... all motor carrier parties and all motor carriers controlling, controlled by, or under common...

  15. Natural variation in epigenetic pathways affects the specification of female gamete precursors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  16. Natural Variation in Epigenetic Pathways Affects the Specification of Female Gamete Precursors in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  17. How safe is gamete micromanipulation by laser tweezers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.

    1998-04-01

    Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.

  18. Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Ludlow, A M; Magurran, A E

    2006-10-01

    Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a 'native' male from the female's own population and a 'foreign' male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation. PMID:16959638

  19. Comprehensive Cancer Control Partners’ Use of and Attitudes About Evidence-Based Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John M.; Townsend, Julie S.; Fonseka, Jamila; Richardson, Lisa C.; Chovnick, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are encouraged to work with partners (eg, nonprofit organizations) to develop and implement plans to reduce the cancer burden in their jurisdictions using evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, the extent of EBP use among awardees and their partners is not well understood. Methods From March through July 2012, we conducted a web-based survey of program partners referred by NCCCP program directors who were involved in implementation of cancer control plans. Results Approximately 53% of referred partners (n = 83) completed surveys, 91.6% of whom represented organizations. Most partners reported involvement in helping to identify (80.5%), adapt (81.7%), implement (90.4%), and evaluate (81.9%) EBPs. The factors rated most frequently as very important when selecting EBPs were “consistent with our organization’s mission” (89.2%) and “cost-effective” (81.9%). Although most respondents said that their organizations understood the importance of using EBPs (84.3%) and had adequate access to cancer registry data (74.7%), few reported having sufficient financial resources to develop new EBPs (7.9%). The most frequently mentioned benefit of using EBPs was that they are proven to work. Resource limitations and difficulty adapting EBPs for specific populations and settings were challenges. Conclusions Our findings help indicate how NCCCP partners are involved in using EBPs and can guide ongoing efforts to encourage the use of EBPs for cancer control. The challenges of using EBPs that partners identified highlight the need to improve strategies to translate cancer prevention and control research into practice in real-world settings and for diverse populations. PMID:26182148

  20. Developing and testing accelerated partner therapy for partner notification for people with genital Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Copas, Andrew; Mercer, Catherine H; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Symonds, Merle; Tickle, Laura; Muniina, Pamela; Rait, Greta; Johnson, Anne M; Aderogba, Kazeem; Creighton, Sarah; Cassell, Jackie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a promising partner notification (PN) intervention in specialist sexual health clinic attenders. To address its applicability in primary care, we undertook a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two APT models in community settings. Methods Three-arm pilot RCT of two adjunct APT interventions: APTHotline (telephone assessment of partner(s) plus standard PN) and APTPharmacy (community pharmacist assessment of partner(s) plus routine PN), versus standard PN alone (patient referral). Index patients were women diagnosed with genital chlamydia in 12 general practices and three community contraception and sexual health (CASH) services in London and south coast of England, randomised between 1 September 2011 and 31 July 2013. Results 199 women described 339 male partners, of whom 313 were reported by the index as contactable. The proportions of contactable partners considered treated within 6?weeks of index diagnosis were APTHotline 39/111 (35%), APTPharmacy 46/100 (46%), standard patient referral 46/102 (45%). Among treated partners, 8/39 (21%) in APTHotline arm were treated via hotline and 14/46 (30%) in APTPharmacy arm were treated via pharmacy. Conclusions The two novel primary care APT models were acceptable, feasible, compliant with regulations and capable of achieving acceptable outcomes within a pilot RCT but intervention uptake was low. Although addition of these interventions to standard PN did not result in a difference between arms, overall PN uptake was higher than previously reported in similar settings, probably as a result of introducing a formal evaluation. Recruitment to an individually randomised trial proved challenging and full evaluation will likely require service-level randomisation. Trial registration number Registered UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio id number 10123. PMID:26019232

  1. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N?=?1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077

  2. [Cultural diversity in gamete and embryos donation].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, S

    2014-09-01

    Through gamete and embryo donation have successively emerged new ways of designing individuals who, in turn, have generated mutations in the concept of parenthood. A debate is open to the society, which often raises ideological cleavages. Indeed, donation practices mobilize the conflicting interests of donor of gametes, the recipient couple, child, whose origins are complex, although his filiation is legally clear. Its place in the family genealogy can be examined in relation to other societies, which admit plural concepts called "classificatory" kinship. They set up role partition between parents and educators. Setting anthropological perspective provides a broadening of the reflection to answer questions from the donation practices, including genealogical questions of revelation to the child of his conception, his incorporation in family and social group and the importance of compensation of donation. PMID:25153433

  3. The conserved plant sterility gene HAP2 functions after attachment of fusogenic membranes in Chlamydomonas and Plasmodium gametes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Tewari, Rita; Ning, Jue; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Garbom, Sara; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.; Steele, Robert E.; Sinden, Robert E.; Snell, William J.; Billker, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie species-specific membrane fusion between male and female gametes remain largely unknown. Here, by use of gene discovery methods in the green alga Chlamydomonas, gene disruption in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, and distinctive features of fertilization in both organisms, we report discovery of a mechanism that accounts for a conserved protein required for gamete fusion. A screen for fusion mutants in Chlamydomonas identified a homolog of HAP2, an Arabidopsis sterility gene. Moreover, HAP2 disruption in Plasmodium blocked fertilization and thereby mosquito transmission of malaria. HAP2 localizes at the fusion site of Chlamydomonas minus gametes, yet Chlamydomonas minus and Plasmodium hap2 male gametes retain the ability, using other, species-limited proteins, to form tight prefusion membrane attachments with their respective gamete partners. Membrane dye experiments show that HAP2 is essential for membrane merger. Thus, in two distantly related eukaryotes, species-limited proteins govern access to a conserved protein essential for membrane fusion. PMID:18367645

  4. Ancestor embryos: embryonic gametes and genetic parenthood.

    PubMed

    Watt, Helen

    2014-11-01

    The proposal for reproducing human generations in vitro raises the question to what extent parenthood is possible in embryos and to what extent human rights and interests are dependent on conscious awareness. This paper argues that the interest in not being made a parent non-consensually for the benefit of others persists throughout the lifespan of the individual human organism. We do not become genetic parents by learning that we are parents; rather, we discover (or fail to discover) an existing genetic relationship between our offspring and ourselves. The claim to genetic parenthood of an embryo used for reproduction in vitro is, if anything, clearer than the claim of the adult for whom gametes are derived via ips cells, in that an embryo's cells, unlike an adult's somatic cells, are already functionally geared to producing gametes (among other types of cell). An embryo used to make gametes that are used in reproduction is immediately and non-consensually made a genetic parent and to that extent is wronged whether or not the parent embryo survives-as some could survive-the harvesting of cells. All human individuals carry objective interests in benefits appropriate to the kind of being they are; these include the stake in not being made a parent without one's consent, whether posthumously or otherwise. PMID:25012847

  5. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  6. Drug Use Trajectories After a Randomized Controlled Trial of MTFC: Associations with Partner Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Kimberly A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Kim, Hyoun; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of drug use were examined in a sample of women with prior juvenile-justice system involvement. One hundred fifty-three young women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) in adolescence were assessed on five occasions over a 24-month period in young adulthood (mean age = 22.29 years at T1). Participants assigned to the MTFC condition during adolescence reported greater decreases in drug use than girls assigned to the treatment as usual (TAU) condition. Partner drug use was significantly associated with women’s concurrent drug use, although participants in the MTFC condition were more resilient to partner drug use than in the TAU condition. Implications for drug use prevention and intervention programs during adolescence are discussed. PMID:24729667

  7. Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete’s positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645

  8. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society. PMID:21714854

  9. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) Live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  10. 9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.904 Section 93...Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) General . All live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of...

  11. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) For all live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes offered for importation...

  12. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) Live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  13. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) Live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  14. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) Live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  15. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) For all live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes offered for importation...

  16. 9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.904 Section 93...Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) General . All live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of...

  17. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) For all live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes offered for importation...

  18. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) For all live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes offered for importation...

  19. Sampling the genetic diversity of tall fescue utilizing gamete selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamete Selection is a plant breeding selection methodology that has been traditionally shown to be effective in the development of a wide array of plant species. Widely utilized in corn, wheat, rye and legumes, a gamete selection approach has not been applied toward tall fescue germplasm developmen...

  20. Selection on Gamete Recognition Proteins Depends on Sex, Density,

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Selection on Gamete Recognition Proteins Depends on Sex, Density, and Genotype Frequency Don R. Levitan* and David L. Ferrell* Gamete recognition proteins can evolve at astonishing rates and lie at the heart of reproductive isolation and speciation in diverse taxa. However, the source of selection driving

  1. Cleaner wrasse prefer client mucus: support for partner control mechanisms in cleaning interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Bshary, Redouan

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies on cleaning behaviour suggest that there are conflicts between cleaners and their clients over what cleaners eat. The diet of cleaners usually contains ectoparasites and some client tissue. It is unclear, however, whether cleaners prefer client tissue over ectoparasites or whether they include client tissue in their diet only when searching for parasites alone is not profitable. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we trained cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus to feed from plates and offered them client mucus from the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus, parasitic monogenean flatworms, parasitic gnathiid isopods and boiled flour glue as a control. We found that cleaners ate more mucus and monogeneans than gnathiids, with gnathiids eaten slightly more often than the control substance. Because gnathiids are the most abundant ectoparasites, our results suggest a potential for conflict between cleaners and clients over what the cleaner should eat, and support studies emphasizing the importance of partner control in keeping cleaning interactions mutualistic. PMID:14667394

  2. Issues of gender in gamete donation.

    PubMed

    Haimes, E

    1993-01-01

    Gamete donation refers to the practice whereby either semen or eggs are donated by a third party to enable infertile individuals or couples to become parents. This paper examines the way in which gender is deployed as a resource for organizing the meanings attached to that practice. The gender aspects of gamete donation are not always immediately apparent since semen and egg donation are often described as being essentially the same. However, a closer examination indicates that behind the claim of equivalence lies a set of unstated assumptions about their difference. These assumptions are tied to ideas about the ways in which men and women are thought to behave more generally in relation to reproduction and the family. This paper draws on two sources of empirical data to reveal how these assumptions are used: first, data from a detailed analysis of the Warnock Report (established by the British Government in 1982 to inquire into and make recommendations on techniques of human fertilization and embryology), which includes a cross-national and historical comparison with other government reports; second, data from a series of in-depth interviews with members of the Warnock Committee. The analysis of the reports suggests that historically semen donation was associated with 'deviant' sexuality (masturbation, adultery, illegitimacy) though paradoxically the extant nature of semen donation was then used to justify the acceptance of egg donation in later reports. This is despite the fact that in these later reports there are clear, albeit implicit, distinctions drawn between the two procedures in terms of donor motivation, the risks of being a donor, and the consequences of donation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8424188

  3. Do clinicians benefit from gamete donor anonymity?

    PubMed

    Haimes, E V

    1993-09-01

    Two groups of participants are frequently omitted from discussions and studies of donor anonymity in assisted conception: the children conceived and the clinicians providing the service. Past secrecy explains the absence of the children's views, but the absence of a systematic consideration of the clinician's views is more puzzling. Evidence from the history of donor insemination suggests that clinicians have supported keeping such practices secret, not just for the protection of donors, recipients and resultant children but also to protect their own position from the detailed scrutiny of others who had expressed doubts about the practice. However, the various important developments in both the practice and the regulation of assisted conception in the 1980s and the early 1990s may well have alleviated such earlier anxieties. None the less, a growing willingness by clinicians to consider greater openness in gamete donation may be counter-balanced by the nature of their relationship with recipients, the majority of whom still appear to favour secrecy, and by the wider cultural uncertainty about the physiological and symbolic importance of genetic relationships in the development of the individual. It is concluded therefore that future studies of donor anonymity should include clinicians, in order to explore these questions in detail. PMID:8253945

  4. Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner switching?emi_2269 2051..2059

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Minireview Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner). In the symbiosis between the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and its host squid, Euprymna scolopes, colonization numerous Vibrio species, in which it is predicted to promote bacterial persistence in the environment and

  5. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  6. Exploitation of induced 2n-gametes for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-02-01

    Unreduced gamete formation derived via abnormal meiotic cell division is an important approach to polyploidy breeding. This process is considered the main driving force in spontaneous polyploids formation in nature, but the potential application of these gametes to plant breeding has not been fully exploited. An effective mechanism for their artificial induction is needed to attain greater genetic variation and enable efficient use of unreduced gametes in breeding programs. Different approaches have been employed for 2n-pollen production including interspecific hybridization, manipulation of environmental factors and treatment with nitrous oxide, trifluralin, colchicine, oryzalin and other chemicals. These chemicals can act as a stimulus to produce viable 2n pollen; however, their exact mode of action, optimum concentration and developmental stages are still not known. Identification of efficient methods of inducing 2n-gamete formation will help increase pollen germination of sterile interspecific hybrids for inter-genomic recombination and introgression breeding to develop new polyploid cultivars and increase heterozygosity among plant populations. Additionally, the application of genomic tools and identification and isolation of genes and mechanisms involved in the induction of 2n-gamete will enable increased exploitation in different plant species, which will open new avenues for plant breeding. PMID:24311154

  7. Fungal polyketide synthase product chain-length control by partnering thiohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Angelica O; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Choi, Moon Seok; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Tang, Yi

    2014-07-18

    Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) are an enigmatic group of multidomain enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of structurally diverse compounds. This variety stems from their intrinsic programming rules, which permutate the use of tailoring domains and determine the overall number of iterative cycles. From genome sequencing and mining of the producing strain Eupenicillium brefeldianum ATCC 58665, we identified an HRPKS involved in the biosynthesis of an important protein transport-inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), followed by reconstitution of its activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in vitro. Bref-PKS demonstrated an NADPH-dependent reductive tailoring specificity that led to the synthesis of four different octaketide products with varying degrees of reduction. Furthermore, contrary to what is expected from the structure of BFA, Bref-PKS is found to be a nonaketide synthase in the absence of an associated thiohydrolase Bref-TH. Such chain-length control by the partner thiohydrolase was found to be present in other HRPKS systems and highlights the importance of including tailoring enzyme activities in predicting fungal HRPKS functions and their products. PMID:24845309

  8. The role of gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) in the treatment of oligospermic infertility.

    PubMed

    Matson, P L; Blackledge, D G; Richardson, P A; Turner, S R; Yovich, J M; Yovich, J L

    1987-10-01

    Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) was used to treat 32 couples where the male partner was oligospermic (less than 12 X 10(6) motile spermatozoa per milliliter of semen). Initially, 100,000 motile spermatozoa were transferred per fallopian tube and no pregnancies were achieved in 11 cases. The technique was then modified so that a maximal number of motile spermatozoa were transferred (range, 0.11 to 0.90 X 10(6) spermatozoa) and 6 of 21 (29%) pregnancies resulted, with 325,000 spermatozoa being the lowest number associated with pregnancy. It appears that the modified GIFT technique, whereby an increased number of motile spermatozoa are replaced with the oocytes, is an effective therapy in the treatment of oligospermic infertility. PMID:3653417

  9. Genetic generations: artificial gametes and the embryos produced with them.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this topic for discussion, it also wades into the ethical fray over the practice. Several possible lines of objection can be raised against this practice, but these accounts are by and large insufficient as an ethical analysis of this possible, future way of conceiving human children. PMID:23966423

  10. Does respect for embryos entail respect for gametes?

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Respect for human embryos is often defended on the basis of the potentiality argument: embryos deserve respect because they already possess potentially the features that in adults are fully actualized. Opponents of this argument challenge it by claiming that if embryos should be respected because they are potentially adults, then gametes should be respected because they are potentially embryos. This article rejects this reductio ad absurdum argument by showing that there are two different types of potentiality involved so that the transitivity of potentiality does not hold up in this case. Respect for embryos does not logically entail respect for gametes. PMID:15529806

  11. Gamete Compatibility and Sperm Competition Affect Paternity and Hybridization Between Sympatric

    E-print Network

    zone in the northwest Atlantic. In crosses be- tween single males and single females, gametes of both- portant component of prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatric Asterias. The interaction between gametes of these closely related sea stars is consistent with the function of gamete recognition systems

  12. A Chromosome-Specific Estimate of Transmission of Heterozygosity by 2n Gametes in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyploid plants are formed when numerically unreduced (2n) gametes participate in fertilization. Based on cytological and genetic analyses, modes of 2n gamete formation have been determined for a number of plant species. Gametes formed by a first division (FDR) restitution mechanism contain non-s...

  13. Mammalian gamete plasma membranes re-assessments and reproductive implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of the diploid status occurs with the fusion of female and male gametes. Both the mammalian oocyte and spermatozoa are haploid cells surrounded with plasma membranes that are rich in various proteins playing a crucial role during fertilization. Fertilization is a complex and ordered st...

  14. Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of non-domestic species.

    PubMed

    Leibo, S P; Songsasen, N

    2002-01-01

    Many species of mammals are threatened or endangered. Methods of assisted reproduction that are being used with increasing frequency to produce offspring of domestic animals and humans are often viewed as offering innovative ways to reproduce non-domestic species as well. Uncounted millions of live young of domestic or laboratory species have been produced from gametes and embryos stored at -70 degrees C or below, sometimes for as long as 25 to 35 yrs. Such methods of cryopreservation are now being applied with increasing frequency and urgency to preserve gametes and embryos of non-domestic and threatened species to establish "genome resource banks" or "frozen zoos." But levels of success to produce live young from such cryopreserved gametes or embryos vary considerably from species to species, as well as from individual to individual. It is sometimes thought that differences among species in fundamental characteristics of their gametes may determine the efficacy of cryopreservation and the production of live young. However, it may not be that ineffective cryopreservation is responsible for low success rates. Rather, the limiting factor may be insufficient information and knowledge of the most basic reproductive biology of such non-domestic species. Even standard methods of cryopreservation may be completely adequate to act as a "temporary" expedient to preserve germplasm of non-domestic species to permit time to acquire a fuller understanding of the biology and behavior of non-domestic species. PMID:11775977

  15. Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes

    PubMed Central

    Cutas, Daniela; Smajdor, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from nonreproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised—and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow, geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs. PMID:26074667

  16. Mechanism of male gamete motility in araphid pennate diatoms from the genus Tabularia (Bacillariophyta).

    PubMed

    Davidovich, Nickolai A; Kaczmarska, Irena; Karpov, Sergey A; Davidovich, Olga I; MacGillivary, Michael L; Mather, Laura

    2012-05-01

    During sexual reproduction, araphid pennate diatoms of the genus Tabularia (Kützing) D. M. Williams and Round released male gametes directly into the medium, sometimes at a considerable distance from the female gametes. This raised the question of how male gametes, suspended in water, manage to reach female ones, given that no locomotive organelles have been described in gametes of pennate diatoms. Optical microscopic investigation revealed cytoplasmic projections produced by male gametes of Tabularia tabulata (C. A. Agardh) Snoeijs and T. fasciculata (C. A. Agardh) D. M. Williams and Round. Morphology and behavior of these projections is consistent with pseudopodia, however, which specific type of pseudopodia they may be, remains inconclusive. The growth and retraction of the pseudopodia coincided with gamete motility and so we postulate that it explains the otherwise apparent random movement of male gametes. Spinning, shuffling and chaotic patterns of motility were documented. In theory, gamete mobility increases the probability of gamete encounter thus enhancing the probability of syngamy. This is the first known case where cytoplasmic projections have been described in diatom gametes, and possibly in mature gametes in general. PMID:22104585

  17. Cardiac Arrest during Gamete Release in Chum Salmon Regulated by the Parasympathetic Nerve System

    PubMed Central

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39±1.61 s in females and for 5.20±0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a ?-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release. PMID:19543389

  18. Cyclic AMP functions as a primary sexual signal in gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    When Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gametes of opposite mating type are mixed together, they adhere by a flagella-mediated agglutination that triggers three rapid mating responses: flagellar tip activation, cell wall loss, and mating structure activation accompanied by actin polymerization. Here we show that a transient 10-fold elevation of intracellular cAMP levels is also triggered by sexual agglutination. We further show that gametes of a single mating type can be induced to undergo all three mating responses when presented with exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP). These events are also induced by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous cAMP levels and act synergistically with db-cAMP. Non-agglutinating mutants of opposite mating type will fuse efficiently in the presence of db- cAMP. No activation of mating events is induced by calcium plus ionophores, 8-bromo-cGMP, dibutyryl-cGMP, nigericin at alkaline pH, phorbol esters, or forskolin. H-8, an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide- dependent protein kinase, inhibits mating events in agglutinating cells and antagonizes the effects of cAMP on non-agglutinating cells. Adenylate cyclase activity was detected in both the gamete cell body and flagella, with the highest specific activity displayed in flagellar membrane fractions. The flagellar membrane adenylate cyclase is preferentially stimulated by Mn++, unresponsive to NaF, GTP, GTP gamma S, AlF4-, and forskolin, and is inhibited by trifluoperazine. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity is also present in flagella. Our observations indicate that cAMP is a sufficient initial signal for all of the known mating reaction events in C. reinhardtii, and suggest that the flagellar cyclase and/or phosphodiesterase may be important loci of control for the agglutination-stimulated production of this signal. PMID:2824527

  19. Does Screening or Providing Information on Resources for Intimate Partner Violence Increase Women’s Knowledge? Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Klevens, Joanne; Sadowski, Laura S.; Kee, Romina; Garcia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for IPV in health care settings might increase women's knowledge or awareness around its frequency and its impact on health. When IPV is disclosed, assuring women it is not their fault should improve their knowledge that IPV is the perpetrator's responsibility. Providing information about IPV resources may also increase women's knowledge about the availability of solutions. Methods Women (n=2708) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) partner violence screen plus video referral and list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) a no-screen, no-partner violence resource list control group (n=898). One year later, 2364 women (87%) were re-contacted and asked questions assessing their knowledge of the frequency of partner violence, its impact on physical and mental health, the availability of resources to help women experiencing partner violence, and that it is the perpetrator's fault. Results There were no differences between women screened and provided with a partner violence resource list compared to a control group as to women's knowledge of the frequency of IPV, its impact on physical or mental health, or the availability of IPV services in their community. However, among women who experienced IPV in the year before or year after enrolling in the trial, those who were provided a list of IPV resources without screening were significantly less likely to know that IPV is not the victim's fault than those in the control or list plus screening conditions. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that providing information on partner violence resources, with or without asking questions about partner violence, did not result in improved knowledge.

  20. Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells have recently been shown to be capable of differentiating in vitro into oocytes or sperm. Should these findings be duplicated using human embryonic stem cells, this would raise a number of social and ethical concerns, some specific to these particular developments, others shared with other aspects of stem cell research. This review outlines the properties of stem cells and their conversion to gametes. Concerns raised include embryo destruction, quality of gametes derived in this way, possibility for children with two male biological parents, movement towards germ line gene therapy and 'designer babies', and the future impacts on health service provisions. It is important that public discussion of some of these issues should take place. PMID:17454202

  1. Gametic interactions promote inbreeding avoidance in house mice.

    PubMed

    Firman, Renée C; Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-09-01

    Reproduction among related individuals is generally maladaptive. Inbreeding imposes significant costs on individual reproductive success, and can decrease population fitness. Theory predicts that polyandrous females can avoid inbreeding by exploiting paternity-biasing mechanisms that enable differential sperm 'use'. Evidence of sperm selection is difficult to demonstrate because patterns of non-random paternity can be generated by a variety of different mechanisms. Here, using in vitro fertilisation in mice, we provide evidence of sperm selection at the gametic level. We mixed the sperm of sibling and non-sibling males, and observed a fertilisation bias towards the sperm of non-sibling males. The number of motile sperm and sperm swimming performance did not differ between competitors among the replicate assays. Therefore, our result can only be ascribed to egg-driven sperm selection against related sperm. We conclude that the expression or secretion of gametic proteins could provide the molecular basis for this mechanism of cryptic female choice. PMID:26154782

  2. Using family members as gamete donors or surrogates.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    The use of intrafamilial gamete donors and surrogates is generally ethically acceptable when all participants are fully informed and counseled, but arrangements that replicate the results of true consanguineous or incestuous unions should be prohibited, child to parent arrangements are generally unacceptable, and parent to child arrangements are acceptable in limited situations. Programs that choose to participate in intrafamilial arrangements should be prepared to spend additional time counseling participants and ensuring that they have made free, informed decisions. PMID:22835449

  3. Motile male gametes of the araphid diatom Tabularia fasciculata search randomly for mates.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Robyn; Drolet, David; Ehrman, James M; Kaczmarska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality in the marine araphid diatom Tabularia involves an unusual type of gamete, not only among diatoms but possibly in all of nature. The non-flagellated male gamete is free and vigorously motile, propelled by pseudopodia. However, the cues (if any) in their search for compatible female gametes and the general search patterns to locate them are unknown. We tracked and compared male gamete movements in the presence and absence of receptive female gametes. Path linearity of male movement was not affected by presence of female gametes. Male gametes did not move towards female gametes regardless of their proximity to each other, suggesting that the detection range for a compatible mate is very small compared to known algal examples (mostly spermatozoids) and that mate recognition requires (near) contact with a female gamete. We therefore investigated how male gametes move to bring insight into their search strategy and found that it was consistent with the predictions of a random-walk model with changes in direction coming from an even distribution. We further investigated the type of random walk by determining the best-fit distribution on the tail of the move length distribution and found it to be consistent with a truncated power law distribution with an exponent of 2.34. Although consistent with a Lévy walk search pattern, the range of move lengths in the tail was too narrow for Lévy properties to emerge and so would be best described as Brownian motion. This is somewhat surprising because female gametes were often outnumbered by male gametes, thus contrary to the assumption that a Brownian search mode may be most optimal with an abundant target resource. This is also the first mathematically analysed search pattern of a non-flagellated protistan gamete, supporting the notion that principles of Brownian motion have wide application in biology. PMID:24991803

  4. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. PMID:25801423

  5. Mandatory counseling for gamete donation recipients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Benward, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Mental health professionals have engaged in mandatory pretreatment counseling and assessment of patients seeking treatment at IVF programs in the United States since the 1980s. At present, most recipient patients undergoing IVF with egg or embryo donation in the United States are required to meet with a mental health professional for one pretreatment session. Mandatory counseling of gamete recipients is fraught with ethical questions for the mental health professional. Attention to issues of autonomy, confidentiality, role clarity, along with self-evaluation and openness with the patient can help lessen the impact of these ethical challenges. PMID:26235569

  6. Regulatory considerations for global transfer of cryopreserved fish gametes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Federal and state resource managers, scientists, lawmakers, business and development investors, and the general public all struggle with issues surrounding the conservation of our biological heritage, especially in the face of increased population growth and consequent anthropogenic disturbances. Conservation interests include recovering exploited aquatic populations, decreasing the loss of genetic diversity, and reintroducing locally depleted species. However, research on husbandry and other techniques critical to implementing conservation strategies is often not started until few individuals remain. A program in the cryopreservation of gametes and embryos from aquatic species would address several of these conservation concerns by allowing the establishment of gene banks

  7. Recruiting gamete donors: response to Craft and Thornhill.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Ken

    2005-04-01

    This response challenges the notion that paying more money, in whatever form, will overcome the anxieties of gamete donors regarding the removal of anonymity. An overview of the literature on payment and donor recruitment indicates that this is a complex issue. That literature does provide 'pointers' to the types of persons who should be 'targeted' in an information sharing and non-payment system. The experience in Sweden, both in relation to donor recruitment and parents' information-sharing with their children, is clarified, as the evidence is not always presented accurately. PMID:15901446

  8. Cell–cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller–detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  9. The gametic synapse: RNA transfer to the bovine oocyte.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Angus D; Gilbert, Isabelle; Caballero, Julieta; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fournier, Eric; Tossou, Prudencio; Sirard, Marc-André; Clarke, Hugh J; Khandjian, Édouard W; Richard, Francois J; Hyttel, Poul; Robert, Claude

    2014-10-01

    Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build the reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between the gamete and the surrounding cells that is limited to paracrine signaling and direct transfer of small molecules via gap junctions existing at the end of the somatic cells' projections that are in contact with the oolemma. The purpose of this work was to explore the role of cumulus cell projections as a means of conductance of large molecules, including RNA, to the mammalian oocyte. By studying nascent RNA with confocal and transmission electron microscopy in combination with transcript detection, we show that the somatic cells surrounding the fully grown bovine oocyte contribute to the maternal reserves by actively transferring large cargo, including mRNA and long noncoding RNA. This occurrence was further demonstrated by the reconstruction of cumulus-oocyte complexes with transfected cumulus cells transferring a synthetic transcript. We propose selective transfer of transcripts occurs, the delivery of which is supported by a remarkable synapselike vesicular trafficking connection between the cumulus cells and the gamete. This unexpected exogenous contribution to the maternal stores offers a new perspective on the determinants of female fertility. PMID:25143353

  10. A controlled trial of Partners in Dementia Care: veteran outcomes after six and twelve months

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction “Partners in Dementia Care” (PDC) tested the effectiveness of a care-coordination program integrating healthcare and community services and supporting veterans with dementia and their caregivers. Delivered via partnerships between Veterans Affairs medical centers and Alzheimer’s Association chapters, PDC targeted both patients and caregivers, distinguishing it from many non-pharmacological interventions. Hypotheses posited PDC would improve five veteran self-reported outcomes: 1) unmet need, 2) embarrassment about memory problems, 3) isolation, 4) relationship strain and 5) depression. Greater impact was expected for more impaired veterans. A unique feature was self-reported research data collected from veterans with dementia. Methods and Findings Five matched communities were study sites. Two randomly selected sites received PDC for 12 months; comparison sites received usual care. Three structured telephone interviews were completed every 6 months with veterans who could participate. Results Of 508 consenting veterans, 333 (65.6%) completed baseline interviews. Among those who completed baseline interviews, 263 (79.0%) completed 6-month follow-ups and 194 (58.3%) completed 12-month follow-ups. Regression analyses showed PDC veterans had significantly less adverse outcomes than those receiving usual care, particularly for more impaired veterans after 6 months, including reduced relationship strain (B?=??0.09; p?=?0.05), depression (B?=??0.10; p?=?0.03), and unmet need (B?=??0.28; p?=?0.02; and B?=??0.52; p?=?0.08). PDC veterans also had less embarrassment about memory problems (B?=??0.24; p?=?0.08). At 12 months, more impaired veterans had further reductions in unmet need (B?=??0.96; p?

  11. A Gamete-specific, Sex-limited Homeodomain Protein in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Kurvari, Venkatesh; Grishin, Nick V.; Snell, William J.

    1998-01-01

    During fertilization in Chlamydomonas, gametes of opposite mating types interact with each other through sex-specific adhesion molecules on their flagellar surfaces. Flagellar adhesion brings the cell bodies of the gametes into close contact and initiates a signal transduction pathway in preparation for cell–cell fusion. We have identified a cDNA, gsp1, whose transcript levels are upregulated during flagellar adhesion. The GSP1 polypeptide is a novel, gamete-specific homeodomain protein, the first to be identified in an alga. Its homeodomain shows significant identity with several higher plant homeodomain proteins. Although encoded by a single copy gene present in cells of both mating types, immunoblot analysis showed that GSP1 was expressed in mating type (mt)+ gametes, but was not detectable in mt? gametes or in vegetative cells of either mating type. Moreover, GSP1 appeared late during gametogenesis, suggesting that it may function during adhesion with mt? gametes or after zygote formation. GSP1 is expressed in imp11, mt? mutant gametes, which have a lesion in the mid gene involved in sex determination and exhibit many phenotypic characteristics of mt+ gametes. Thus, gsp1 is negatively regulated by mid and is the first molecule to be identified in Chlamydomonas that shows sex-limited expression. PMID:9864368

  12. Utilizing a dihaploid-gamete selection strategy for tall fescue development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamete selection as originally defined by Stadler is based on the principal that selection exerted at the gametophytic level can increase desirable allelic frequencies detectable at the sporophytic level. If superior gametes can be recognized with certainty through a selection cycle, then such a sy...

  13. A Model for Signal Transduction during Gamete Release in the Fucoid Alga Pelvetia compressa1

    E-print Network

    Borges, Rita

    and gamete expulsion: a photosynthetic pathway and a photosynthesis- independent pathway in which red light water motion (Pear- son and Brawley, 1996; Serra~o et al., 1996). Gamete release is photosynthesis required for photosynthesis (Pearson et al., 1998). We dem- onstrated this with experiments in which

  14. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) The following...ports of entry for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  15. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) The following...ports of entry for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  16. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) The following...ports of entry for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  17. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) The following...ports of entry for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  18. The treatment of normospermic infertility by gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).

    PubMed

    Yovich, J L; Matson, P L; Blackledge, D G; Turner, S R; Richardson, P A; Yovich, J M; Edirisinghe, W R

    1988-04-01

    Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) was applied in 207 treatment cycles in 73 couples. The pregnancy rate in cycles with only one (2/21, 9.5%) or two (2/29, 6.9%) oocytes transferred was significantly less than that in which four oocytes (36/116, 31.0%) were replaced. The collection of more than four oocytes did not influence the pregnancy rate in that treatment cycle. The overall pregnancy rate was 24.2% (50 of 207) and was similar in the four infertility groups studied (non-occlusive tubal disorders, endometriosis, cervical factor and unexplained infertility) with 28 (56%) of the pregnancies delivered at greater than or equal to 20 weeks. The pregnancy wastage included 4 (8%) ectopic pregnancies and 3 (6%) late pregnancy losses. The 12 multiple pregnancies occurred following the transfer of three and four oocytes. PMID:3382609

  19. Flagellar tip activation stimulated by membrane adhesions in Chlamydomonas gametes.

    PubMed

    Mesland, D A; Hoffman, J L; Caligor, E; Goodenough, U W

    1980-03-01

    Membrane adhesions between the flagella of mating-type "plus" and "minus" gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardi are shown to stimulate a rapid change in the ultrastructure of the flagellar tips, designated as flagellar tip activation (FTA). A dense substance, termed fibrous tip material (FTM), accumulates between the flagellar membrane and the nine single A microtubules of the tip. The A microtubules then elongate, growing into the distal region of the tip, increasing tip length by 30%. This study describes FTA kinetics during normal and mutant matings, presents experiments designed to probe its role in the mating reaction, and offers the following conclusions: (a) FTA is elicited by agents that cross-link flagellar membrane components (including natural sexual agglutinins, antiflagellar antisera, and concanavalin A) but not by flagellar adherence to polylysine-coated films. (b) FTA is reversed by flagellar disadhesion. (c) Gametes can undergo repeated cycles of FTA during successive rounds of adhesion/disadhesion. (d) FTA, flagellar tipping, and sexual signaling are simultaneously blocked by colchicine and by vinblastine, suggesting that tubulinlike molecules, perhaps exposed at the membrane surface, are involved in all three responses. (e) FTA is not blocked by short exposure to chymotrypsin, by cytochalasins B and D, nor by concanavalin A, even though all block cell fusion; the response is therefore autonomous and experimentally dissociable from later stages in the mating reaction. (f) Under no experimental conditions is mating-structure activation observed to occur unless FTA also occurs. This study concludes that FTA is a necessary event in the sexual signaling sequence, and presents a testable working model for its mechanism. PMID:7358792

  20. Civic Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pew Partnership for Civic Change, Charlottesville, VA.

    This issue of "Civic Partners" is a call to action on behalf of American's cities. The issue opens with John W. Gardner's discussion of the "responsibles" whose vision and energy sustain communities. He stresses that all of us are "responsibles." Among the many tasks that face those responsible for urban improvement is the teaching of conflict…

  1. Synchronous multispecific spawning on coral reefs: potential for hybridization and roles of gamete recognition.

    PubMed

    Babcock, R

    1995-01-01

    Problems of gamete recognition in corals and other mass-spawning invertebrates are potentially great. In 'mass spawnings', closely-related species or genera commonly spawn at the same time, or within 1 or 2 h of each other, increasing the potential for hybridization. Among mass-spawning corals, most of the species involved are hermaphrodites that package the gametes in buoyant bundles that float to the sea surface before breaking up. Local hydrodynamic features frequently act to aggregate gametes from many different species into slicks where both eggs and sperm can be viable for extended periods. Other mass-spawning invertebrate taxa, such as molluscs, polychaetes and various echinoderms, do not have buoyant gametes but also spawn with a high level of synchrony. Gametes of organisms participating in these spawning events must be able to successfully recognize conspecifics. If they cannot do this, either through sperm chemotaxis or by mechanisms at the level of sperm binding and penetration, there may be high levels of gamete wastage through hybridization. Alternatively, viable hybrids may be formed, a factor that could have contributed to the evolutionary history of mass-spawning taxa, as well as to the taxonomic difficulties that have plagued the taxonomy of groups such as reef-building corals. Within some mass-spawning taxa, pre-zygotic barriers to fertilization suggest relatively recent molecular evolution at gamete recognition loci. PMID:8711225

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

    2002-02-26

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

  3. Involvement in Child Rearing and Firm Control Parenting by Male Cohabiting Partners in Black Low-Income Stepfamilies: Forecasting Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. PMID:26007695

  4. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  5. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

  6. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

  7. 9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.904 Health...

  8. GAMETES: a fast, direct algorithm for generating pure, strict, epistatic models with random architectures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geneticists who look beyond single locus disease associations require additional strategies for the detection of complex multi-locus effects. Epistasis, a multi-locus masking effect, presents a particular challenge, and has been the target of bioinformatic development. Thorough evaluation of new algorithms calls for simulation studies in which known disease models are sought. To date, the best methods for generating simulated multi-locus epistatic models rely on genetic algorithms. However, such methods are computationally expensive, difficult to adapt to multiple objectives, and unlikely to yield models with a precise form of epistasis which we refer to as pure and strict. Purely and strictly epistatic models constitute the worst-case in terms of detecting disease associations, since such associations may only be observed if all n-loci are included in the disease model. This makes them an attractive gold standard for simulation studies considering complex multi-locus effects. Results We introduce GAMETES, a user-friendly software package and algorithm which generates complex biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) disease models for simulation studies. GAMETES rapidly and precisely generates random, pure, strict n-locus models with specified genetic constraints. These constraints include heritability, minor allele frequencies of the SNPs, and population prevalence. GAMETES also includes a simple dataset simulation strategy which may be utilized to rapidly generate an archive of simulated datasets for given genetic models. We highlight the utility and limitations of GAMETES with an example simulation study using MDR, an algorithm designed to detect epistasis. Conclusions GAMETES is a fast, flexible, and precise tool for generating complex n-locus models with random architectures. While GAMETES has a limited ability to generate models with higher heritabilities, it is proficient at generating the lower heritability models typically used in simulation studies evaluating new algorithms. In addition, the GAMETES modeling strategy may be flexibly combined with any dataset simulation strategy. Beyond dataset simulation, GAMETES could be employed to pursue theoretical characterization of genetic models and epistasis. PMID:23025260

  9. Innovative Partnering 

    E-print Network

    Lowe, Emilie

    2008-01-01

    Innovative partnering Texas A&M, McKinney develop water conservation venture The University of Texas at Arlington?s Program in Landscape Architect assisted in the design of a one-acre water conservation garden for McKinney. The garden will demonstrate...,? said Brian Loughmiller, a McKinney city council member. ?We looked for creative measures that we could imple- ment in water conservation that would last beyond the end of the drought and hopefully result in a greater appreciation for water con...

  10. High resistance of Acropora coral gametes facing copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4 ± 4.8 ?g L(-1) and 75.4 ± 6.4 ?g L(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220 ?g Cu L(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity. PMID:25462298

  11. Gametic selection, developmental trajectories, and extrinsic heterogeneity in Haldane's rule.

    PubMed

    Bundus, Joanna D; Alaei, Ravin; Cutter, Asher D

    2015-08-01

    Deciphering the genetic and developmental causes of the disproportionate rarity, inviability, and sterility of hybrid males, Haldane's rule, is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation between species. Moreover, extrinsic and prezygotic factors can contribute to the magnitude of intrinsic isolation experienced between species with partial reproductive compatibility. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni to quantify the sensitivity of hybrid male viability to extrinsic temperature and developmental timing, and test for a role of mito-nuclear incompatibility as a genetic cause. We demonstrate that hybrid male inviability manifests almost entirely as embryonic, not larval, arrest and is maximal at the lowest rearing temperatures, indicating an intrinsic-by-extrinsic interaction to hybrid inviability. Crosses using mitochondrial substitution strains that have reciprocally introgressed mitochondrial and nuclear genomes show that mito-nuclear incompatibility is not a dominant contributor to postzygotic isolation and does not drive Haldane's rule in this system. Crosses also reveal that competitive superiority of X-bearing sperm provides a novel means by which postmating prezygotic factors exacerbate the rarity of hybrid males. These findings highlight the important roles of gametic, developmental, and extrinsic factors in modulating the manifestation of Haldane's rule. PMID:26102479

  12. Viability assessment for artificial gametes: the need for biomarkers of functional competency.

    PubMed

    Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Child, Tim; Williams, Suzannah A; Coward, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has resulted in more than 5 million births worldwide. However, mainstream ART techniques are not always successful for an estimated 30% of infertile patients in whom gametes are nonviable. Most patients would clearly prefer genetic parenthood, currently possible only via the use of donated gametes or, in future, via the clinical use of artificial gametes (AGs) incorporating parental DNA. Despite much recent progress in the derivation of AGs, significant obstacles remain. Although it is possible to create artificial cells exhibiting some of the molecular and physiological traits of human gametes, they do not yet exhibit the same level of functionality as their in vivo counterparts. Most current effort pays scant attention to confirmation of molecular integrity and clinical applicability of AGs. Here we discuss the various clinical parameters used to assess gamete and embryo viability and discuss markers of gamete function that may be used within future studies attempting to derive AGs. The use of AGs may prove controversial to some members of the general public, and, as such, there is significant need for an appropriate ethical and legal framework governing the clinical use of such cells. However, provided these issues can be successfully overcome, it is highly likely that AGs will represent powerful biological tools for reproductive science, a valuable training resource for embryologists and for potential use in the clinical treatment of human infertility. PMID:23018181

  13. [Issues surrounding the preservation and subsequent use of transsexual persons' gametes].

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Some transsexual persons wish to have their gametes frozen before gender transition, in order to preserve their fertility. This measure should be carried out, in strict compliance with the law, in case of orchidectomy, oophorectomy or hysterectomy However, as hormonal treatments do not irreversibly alter gonadal function, the reproductive capacity of trans-sexual persons can be maintained by avoiding surgical sterilization. There is therefore no obvious medical indication for cryopreserving gametes or germinal tissue in the absence of surgical sterilization. Moreover, the use of such cryopreserved gametes would, in principle, be considered mainly by a same-sex couple, something that French law currently prohibits. Regardless of these legal aspects, the issues surrounding the use of cryopreserved gametes, and its consequences, must not be ignored. If transsexual persons who are already parents may find ways of managing the change in both their personal and parental identity, the use of gametes stored prior to gender transition raises issues of identity whose consequences are difficult to assess, especially for the future child. Cryopreservation of gametes or germinal tissue cannot be undertaken without first considering whether their potential use is in keeping with what is, at present, medically and legally possible. In any case, it is up the physician to decide, on a case by case basis, whether or not to implement cryopreservation, taking into account the situation of the persons who request the procedure and their plans for parenthood. PMID:26427299

  14. Recruiting male partners for couple HIV testing and counselling in Malawi’s option B+ programme: an unblinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Mtande, Tiwonge K; Saidi, Friday; Stanley, Christopher; Jere, Edward; Paile, Lusubiro; Kumwenda, Kondwani; Mofolo, Innocent; Ng’ambi, Wingston; Miller, William C; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Couples HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is encouraged but is not widely done in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to compare two strategies for recruiting male partners for CHTC in Malawi’s option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme: invitation only versus invitation plus tracing and postulated that invitation plus tracing would be more effective. Methods We did an unblinded, randomised, controlled trial assessing uptake of CHTC in the antenatal unit at Bwaila District Hospital, a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. Women were eligible if they were pregnant, had just tested HIV-positive and therefore could initiate antiretroviral therapy, had not yet had CHTC, were older than 18 years or 16–17 years and married, reported a male sex partner in Lilongwe, and intended to remain in Lilongwe for at least 1 month. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the invitation only group or the invitation plus tracing group with block randomisation (block size=4). In the invitation only group, women were provided with an invitation for male partners to present to the antenatal clinic. In the invitation plus tracing group, women were provided with the same invitation, and partners were traced if they did not present. When couples presented they were offered pregnancy information and CHTC. Women were asked to attend a follow-up visit 1 month after enrolment to assess social harms and sexual behaviour. The primary outcome was the proportion of couples who presented to the clinic together and received CHTC during the study period and was assessed in all randomly assigned participants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02139176. Findings Between March 4, 2014, and Oct 3, 2014, 200 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the invitation only group (n=100) or the invitation plus tracing group (n=100). 74 couples in the invitation plus tracing group and 52 in the invitation only group presented to the clinic and had CHTC (risk difference 22%, 95% CI 9–35; p=0·001) during the 10 month study period. Of 181 women with follow-up data, two reported union dissolution, one reported emotional distress, and none reported intimate partner violence. One male partner, when traced, was confused about which of his sex partners was enrolled in the study. No other adverse events were reported. Interpretation An invitation plus tracing strategy was highly effective at increasing CHTC uptake. Invitation plus tracing with CHTC could have many substantial benefits if brought to scale. PMID:26520928

  15. The Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Exploring Personal Attitudes and Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health and social problem. However, our understanding of how the geographic community or neighborhood influences its distribution is underdeveloped. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence that neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, are…

  16. Controlling for Selection Effects in the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Clifton R.

    2011-01-01

    This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…

  17. [Gamete donor karyotyping: between real usefulness and safety rules].

    PubMed

    Siffroi, J-P

    2004-09-01

    The Commission de génétique de la Fédération française des CECOS has recently sent a questionnaire to each CECOS asking for the year of activity starting, the number of karyotypes performed every year, the number and the type of chromosomal abnormalities and the consequences for the donation process. For sperm donors, 9410 karyotypes have been realized during a mean number of 21.3 years. Fifty-seven chromosomal abnormalities (0.6%) have led to the exclusion of the donors, twenty of which being directly dangerous for the offspring [eight t(13;14), three reciprocal translocations, two structural abnormalities of unknown origin and seven inversions]. Twenty-three anomalies (three supernumerary markers, five 47,XYY, five fragile sites and ten mosaicism) as well as nine other (three Y chromosome inversions and six pericentric inversions of chromosome 9), although considered either as innocuous or as chromosomal variants, have also been excluded. Lastly, five miscellaneous abnormalities have also been considered as exclusion factors. Familial data and sperm counts were known for 28 of these donors. For egg donors, only 681 karyotypes have been performed during a mean number of 7.8 years of activity. Five karyotype abnormalities have led to the exclusion of the donor: one 47,XXX, one mosaicism 45,X/47,XXX/46,XX, one case of non specific rearrangements in half of mitosis and two reciprocal translocations [t(8;20) (q13;p13) et t(3;17) (q26;p13)]. The consequences of this study on gamete donor genetic screening are discussed. PMID:15380766

  18. Examination of relaxin and its receptors expression in pig gametes and embryos

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relaxin is a small peptide also known as pregnancy hormone in many mammals. It is synthesized by both male and female tissues, and its secretions are found in various body fluids such as plasma serum, ovarian follicular fluid, utero-oviduct secretions, and seminal plasma of many mammals, including pigs. However, the presence and effects of relaxin in porcine gametes and embryos are still not well-known. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in pig gametes and embryos. Methods Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from sows' ovaries collected at the abattoir. After in vitro-maturation, COCs were in vitro-fertilized and cultured. For studies, immature and mature COCs were separately collected, and oocytes were freed from their surrounding cumulus cells. Denuded oocytes, cumulus cells, mature boar spermatozoa, zygotes, and embryos (cleaved and blastocysts) were harvested for temporal and spatial gene expression studies. Sections of ovary, granulosa and neonatal porcine uterine cells were also collected to use as controls. Results Using both semi-quantitative and quantitative PCRs, relaxin transcripts were not detected in all tested samples, while RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA were present. Both receptor gene products were found at higher levels in oocytes compared to cumulus cells, irrespective of the maturation time. Cleaved-embryos contained higher levels of RXFP2 mRNA, whereas, blastocysts were characterized by a higher RXFP1 mRNA content. Using western-immunoblotting or in situ immunofluorescence, relaxin and its receptor proteins were detected in all samples. Their fluorescence intensities were consistently more important in mature oocytes than immature ones. The RXFP1 and RXFP2 signal intensities were mostly located in the plasma membrane region, while the relaxin ones appeared homogeneously distributed within the oocytes and embryonic cells. Furthermore, spermatozoa displayed stronger RXFP2 signal than RXFP1 after western-immunoblotting. Conclusion All together, our findings suggest potential roles of relaxin and its receptors during oocyte maturation, early embryo development, and beyond. PMID:21251292

  19. Telomere-to-centromere ratio of bovine clones, embryos, gametes, fetal cells, and adult cells.

    PubMed

    Meerdo, Lora N; Reed, William A; White, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell, was born. It was announced in 1999 that Dolly might be aging faster than normal because her telomeres were shorter than age-matched control sheep. Telomeres, a repeated DNA sequence located at the ends of linear chromosomes, allow for base pair loss during DNA replication. Telomere shortening acts as a "mitotic clock," leading to replicative senescence. By using whole cell lysate and slot-blot analysis, we determined the telomere-to-centromere ratio (T/C) for bovine gametes, embryos, fetal tissues (brain, heart, lung, kidney, uterus, ovary, and skin), adult donor cells, and cloned embryos. Our data indicates a consistency in T/C among the various fetal tissues. The T/C of sperm is significantly lower than in oocytes. The T/C decreases from the oocyte to the 2-8-cell stage embryo, increases dramatically at the morula stage, and decreases at the blastocyst stage. Our data shows no significant difference in T/C between cloned embryos and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos, but there is a significant difference between cloned embryos and adult donor cells. In conclusion, the enucleated bovine oocyte has the ability to reestablish the telomere length of adult somatic cell donor nuclei. PMID:15996118

  20. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs. PMID:26492133

  1. The meaning of synthetic gametes for gay and lesbian people and bioethics too.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Some commentators indirectly challenge the ethics of using synthetic gametes as a way for same-sex couples to have children with shared genetics. These commentators typically impose a moral burden of proof on same-sex couples they do not impose on opposite-sex couples in terms of their eligibility to have children. Other commentators directly raise objections to parenthood by same-sex couples on the grounds that it compromises the rights and/or welfare of children. Ironically, the prospect of synthetic gametes neutralises certain of these objections, insofar as they would ensure that children have parents whom they can know as their genetic parents, which outcome is not always possible when same-sex couples involve third parties as the source of gametes or embryos. Not all commentators in bioethics throw the use of synthetic gametes into doubt as far as same-sex couples are concerned, but even these commentators put parenting by gay men and lesbians at the conclusion of an argument rather than presupposing parental legitimacy from the outset. Synthetic gametes do raise questions of ethics in regard to parenthood for gay men and lesbians, but these are largely questions of access and equity, not questions of parental fitness and/or child welfare. PMID:24489106

  2. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  3. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).

  4. Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

    2013-04-01

    A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

  5. Novel glycopolypeptide synthesis induced by gametic cell fusion in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Within the first hour of zygote maturation, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells stop synthesizing certain polypeptides that characterize the vegetative and gametic stages of the life cycle and initiate the synthesis of novel, zygote-specific polypeptides. At least six of these polypeptides are secreted into the medium, and fine-structural studies indicate that they represent components of the cell wall that is synthesized and secreted early in zygote development. We conclude that a new program of protein synthesis, and possibly also gene transcription, is initiated shortly after gametic cells fuse, a program that appears highly suited to cell-differentiation studies. PMID:659511

  6. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition... Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...in property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their...

  7. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition... Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...in property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their...

  8. A Design to Investigate the Feasibility and Effects of Partnered Ballroom Dancing on People With Parkinson Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa; Pickering, Ruth; Roberts, Helen Clare; Wiles, Rose; Kunkel, Dorit; Hulbert, Sophia; Robison, Judy; Fitton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-help and physical leisure activities has become increasingly important in the maintenance of safe and functional mobility among an increasingly elderly population. Preventing the cycle of deterioration, falling, inactivity, dependency, and secondary complications in people with Parkinson disease (PD) is a priority. Research has shown that people with PD are interested in dance and although the few existing trials are small, initial proof of principle trials from the United States have demonstrated beneficial effects on balance control, gait, and activity levels. To our knowledge, there has been no research into long-term effects, cost effectiveness, the influence on spinal posture and turning, or the personal insights of dance participants. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the methodological feasibility of conducting a definitive phase III trial to evaluate the benefits of dance in people with PD. We will build on the proof of principle trials by addressing gaps in knowledge, focusing on areas of greatest methodological uncertainty; the choice of dances and intensity of the program; for the main trial, the availability of partners, the suitability of the currently envisaged primary outcomes, balance and spinal posture; and the key costs of delivering and participating in a dance program to inform economic evaluation. Methods Fifty participants (mild-to-moderate condition) will be randomized to the control (usual care) or experimental (dance plus usual care) groups at a ratio of 15:35. Dance will be taught by professional teachers in a dance center in the South of England. Each participant in the experimental group will dance with his or her spouse, a friend, or a partner from a bank of volunteers. A blinded assessor will complete clinical measures and self-reported ability at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. A qualitative study of a subgroup of participants and partners will examine user’s views about the appropriateness and acceptability of the intervention, assessment protocol, and general trial procedures. Procedures for an economic evaluation of dance for health care will be developed for the main trial. Results Recruitment began in January 2013 and the last participant is expected to complete the trial follow-up in June 2014. Conclusions Findings from our study may provide novel insights into the way people with PD become involved in dance, their views and opinions, and the suitability of our primary and secondary outcomes. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 63088686; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN63088686/63088686 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6QYyjehP7). PMID:25051989

  9. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    1999-03-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  10. All males are not created equal: Fertility differences depend on gamete recognition polymorphisms in

    E-print Network

    Palumbi, Stephen

    All males are not created equal: Fertility differences depend on gamete recognition polymorphisms of fertility differences, but direct tests of how alleles at reproductive loci affect fertility are rare different males, showing that variable egg­sperm interactions determine fertility. Eggs select sperm

  11. Origin and frequency of 2n gametes in Citrus sinensis Poncirus trifoliata and their reciprocal crosses

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Origin and frequency of 2n gametes in Citrus sinensis  Poncirus trifoliata and their reciprocal of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL 33850, USA b University of California a majority of diploid zygotic hybrids, as high as 24% triploid hybrids were produced, only by Citrus sinensis

  12. Revisiting synchronous gamete release by fucoid algae in the intertidal zone: fertilization success and beyond?

    E-print Network

    Borges, Rita

    Revisiting synchronous gamete release by fucoid algae in the intertidal zone: fertilization success fertilization and settlement are critical processes linking adult and early juvenile life-history phases of fertilization success in this group. Temporal patterns and synchrony of spawning in natural populations

  13. Experimental approach to prezygotic chromosome screening using only a single pair of gametes in mice

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Hiroyuki; KOHDA, Atsushi; TATENO, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    During in vitro embryo production, chromosome screening is essential to prevent pregnancy losses caused by embryonic chromosome aberrations. When the chromosome screening is completed before fertilization, gametes are effectively utilized as genetic resources. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chromosome screening of gametes accompanied by fertilization would be feasible using a single mouse spermatozoon and oocyte. Metaphase II oocytes were divided into a cytoplast and a karyoplast. For genome cloning of the gametes, androgenic and gynogenic embryos were produced by microinjection of sperm into cytoplasts and parthenogenetic activation of karyoplasts, respectively. Pairs of blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were fused electrically to produce diploid embryos, which were transferred into pseudopregnant surrogate mothers to examine fetal development. Blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were individually treated with calyculin A—a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases—for 2 h to induce premature chromosome condensation. Thereafter, chromosome analysis of blastomeres, reflecting the genetic constitution of individual spermatozoa and oocytes, was performed, and we confirmed that most of the androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos had a haploid set of chromosomes in their sister blastomeres. The reconstructed embryos from blastomeres of androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos could be implanted and develop into live fetuses, albeit at low efficiency. This study indicates that prezygotic chromosome screening and embryo production using a single pair of gametes may be practicable. PMID:26234555

  14. Experimental approach to prezygotic chromosome screening using only a single pair of gametes in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Atsushi; Tateno, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-18

    During in vitro embryo production, chromosome screening is essential to prevent pregnancy losses caused by embryonic chromosome aberrations. When the chromosome screening is completed before fertilization, gametes are effectively utilized as genetic resources. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chromosome screening of gametes accompanied by fertilization would be feasible using a single mouse spermatozoon and oocyte. Metaphase II oocytes were divided into a cytoplast and a karyoplast. For genome cloning of the gametes, androgenic and gynogenic embryos were produced by microinjection of sperm into cytoplasts and parthenogenetic activation of karyoplasts, respectively. Pairs of blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were fused electrically to produce diploid embryos, which were transferred into pseudopregnant surrogate mothers to examine fetal development. Blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were individually treated with calyculin A-a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases-for 2 h to induce premature chromosome condensation. Thereafter, chromosome analysis of blastomeres, reflecting the genetic constitution of individual spermatozoa and oocytes, was performed, and we confirmed that most of the androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos had a haploid set of chromosomes in their sister blastomeres. The reconstructed embryos from blastomeres of androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos could be implanted and develop into live fetuses, albeit at low efficiency. This study indicates that prezygotic chromosome screening and embryo production using a single pair of gametes may be practicable. PMID:26234555

  15. Selection in the rapid evolution of gamete recognition proteins in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vacquier, Victor D; Swanson, Willie J

    2011-11-01

    Animal fertilization is governed by the interaction (binding) of proteins on the surfaces of sperm and egg. In many examples presented herein, fertilization proteins evolve rapidly and show the signature of positive selection (adaptive evolution). This review describes the molecular evolution of fertilization proteins in sea urchins, abalone, and oysters, animals with external fertilization that broadcast their gametes into seawater. Theories regarding the selective forces responsible for the rapid evolution driven by positive selection seen in many fertilization proteins are discussed. This strong selection acting on divergence of interacting fertilization proteins might lead to prezygotic reproductive isolation and be a significant factor in the speciation process. Since only a fraction of all eggs are fertilized and only an infinitesimal fraction of male gametes succeed in fertilizing an egg, gametes are obviously a category of entities subjected to intense selection. It is curious that this is never mentioned in the literature dealing with selection, perhaps because we know so little about fitness differences among gametes. (Ernst Mayr, 1997). PMID:21730046

  16. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  17. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  18. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  19. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  20. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  1. A surface glycoprotein indispensable for gamete fusion in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Hideki D; Saeki, Kentaro; Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Ishida, Kentaro; Sawada, Hitoshi; Urushihara, Hideko

    2012-05-01

    Sexual reproduction is essential for the maintenance of species in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, and even unicellular organisms that normally proliferate asexually possess a sexual cycle because of its contribution to increased genetic diversity. Information concerning the molecules involved in fertilization is accumulating for many species of the metazoan, plant, and fungal lineages, and the evolutionary consideration of sexual reproduction systems is now an interesting issue. Macrocyst formation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a sexual process in which cells become sexually mature under dark and submerged conditions and fuse with complementary mating-type cells. In the present study, we isolated D. discoideum insertional mutants defective in sexual cell fusion and identified the relevant gene, macA, which encodes a highly glycosylated, 2,041-amino-acid membrane protein (MacA). Although its overall similarity is restricted to proteins of unknown function within dictyostelids, it contains LamGL and discoidin domains, which are implicated in cell adhesion. The growth and development of macA-null mutants were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. The overexpression of macA using the V18 promoter in a macA-null mutant completely restored its sexual defects. Although the macA gene encoded exactly the same protein in a complementary mating-type strain, it was expressed at a much lower level. These results suggest that MacA is indispensable for gamete interactions in D. discoideum, probably via cell adhesion. There is a possibility that it is controlled in a mating-type-dependent manner. PMID:22389384

  2. Effect of Different Media and Protein Source on Equine Gametes: Potential Impact During In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, L; Macedo, S; Lopes, J S; Rocha, A; Macías-García, B

    2015-12-01

    Equine in vitro fertilization (IVF) is still inconsistent. In the present work, we studied how modified Whitten's (MW) medium and Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM) added with Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS; 10% v/v) or Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA; 7 mg/ml) affected equine gametes to subsequently run IVF trials. Compact (Cp) and expanded (Ex) cumuli equine oocytes were matured and placed in TCM or MW supplemented with BSA or FBS for 18-20 h (no sperm added). In Ex oocytes, TCM-199 added with FBS or BSA resulted in higher metaphase II (MII) rates (75.7% and 62.7%, respectively) than MW added with BSA (54%) or FBS (52.2%; p < 0.05); this was not observed for Cp oocytes. Equine sperm were capacitated in the same media at 10 × 10(6)  sperm/ml for 4 h at 37°C; total motility and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY) were evaluated. While motility remained unchanged, TCM or MW added with FBS enhanced the number of sperm showing PY-stained tails (25 ± 4.8% and 31 ± 6.6%; mean ± SEM, respectively) over BSA supplemented media (3 ± 1.2% and 11.7 ± 1.1%) for TCM and MW (p < 0.05). In view of the previous results, sperm were capacitated in TCM + FBS and MW + BSA (control); IVF trials were run in the same media supplemented with 200 ng/ml of progesterone, but no fertilization occurred. Our results show that TCM + FBS enhances Ex equine oocyte's meiotic competence over MW + BSA and TCM or MW added with FBS successfully induce equine PY over media supplemented with BSA. PMID:26482800

  3. Improvement of gamete quality and its short-term storage: an approach for biotechnology in laboratory fish.

    PubMed

    Yasui, G S; Senhorini, J A; Shimoda, E; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O; Fujimoto, T; Arias-Rodriguez, L; Silva, L A

    2015-03-01

    In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) - mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1 ± 4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5 ± 5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6 ± 27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4 ± 7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1 ± 26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization. PMID:25391393

  4. Hyposalinity stress compromises the fertilization of gametes more than the survival of coral larvae.

    PubMed

    Hédouin, Laetitia; Pilon, Rosanne; Puisay, Antoine

    2015-03-01

    The life cycle of coral is affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations occurring in the marine environment. In the context of global changes, it is likely that rainfall events will be more intense and that coastal reefs will be exposed to sudden drops in salinity. Therefore, a better understanding of how corals-especially during the pelagic life stages-are able to deal with declines in salinity is crucial. To fill this knowledge gap, this work investigated how gametes and larva stages of two species of Acropora (Acropora cytherea and Acropora pulchra) from French Polynesia cope with drops in salinity. An analysis of collected results highlights that both Acropora coral gametes displayed the same resistance to salinity changes, with 4h30-ES50 (effective salinity that decrease by 50% the fertilization success after 4h30 exposure) of 26.6 ± 0.1 and 27.5 ± 0.3‰ for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively. This study also revealed that coral gametes were more sensitive to decreases in salinity than larvae, for which significant changes are only observed at 26‰ for A. cytherea after 14 d of exposure. Although rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are often perceived as the main threat for the survival of coral reefs, our work indicates that 70% of the gametes could be killed during a single night of spawning by a rainfall event that decreases salinity to 26‰. This suggests that changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events associated with climate changes should be taken seriously in efforts to both preserve coral gametes and ensure the persistence and renewal of coral populations. PMID:25562765

  5. Date _____________________ Language Partner Program

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Date _____________________ Language Partner Program Volunteer Application Form The purpose of the Language Partner Program is to provide English as an Additional Language (EAL) students with the opportunity to practice English in a casual conversation outside the classroom. A volunteer language partner

  6. Reverse Correlating Love: Highly Passionate Women Idealize Their Partner’s Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E.

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization—evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner’s facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships. PMID:25806540

  7. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

  8. Gene expression profiles in rice gametes and zygotes: identification of gamete-enriched genes and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Abiko, Mafumi; Maeda, Hiroki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation. PMID:23570690

  9. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression in Crassostrea gigas male gametes

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Claire E.; Roberts, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns and functions are variable across invertebrate taxa. In order to provide a better understanding of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), we characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in male gamete cells using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to examine the relationship between DNA methylation and transcript expression. Methylation status of over 7.6 million CpG dinucleotides was described with a majority of methylated regions occurring among intragenic regions. Overall, 15% of the CpG dinucleotides were determined to be methylated and the mitochondrial genome lacked DNA methylation. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data revealed a positive association between methylation status, both in gene bodies and putative promoter regions, and expression. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the distribution of DNA methylation in the oyster male gamete tissue and suggests that DNA methylation is involved in gene regulatory activity. PMID:24987376

  10. Activation for cell fusion in Chlamydomonas: analysis of wild-type gametes and nonfusing mutants.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, U W; Detmers, P A; Hwang, C

    1982-02-01

    Gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardi become activated for cell fusion as the consequence of sexual adhesion between membranes of mating-type plus and minus flagella. By using tannic acid plus en bloc uranyl acetate staining, and by fixing at very early stages in the mating reaction, we have demonstrated the following. (a) Activation of the minus mating structure entails major modifications in the structure of the organelle, causing it to double in size and to concentrate surface coat material, termed fringe, into a central zone. (b) The unactivated plus mating structure is endowed with fringe that moves with the tip of the actin-filled fertilization tubule during activation. Pre-fusion images suggest the occurrence of a specific recognition event between the plus and minus fringes. (c) Gametes carrying the imp-1 mutation fail to form a fringe and are unable to fuse. The imp-1 mutation is linked to the mating-type plus (mt+) locus, suggesting that the gene specifying the synthesis or insertion of fringe is encoded in this sector of the genome. (d) Gametes carrying the imp-11 mutation fail to form both a normal fringe and a normal submembranous density beneath the fringe, and are also unable to fuse. The imp-11 mutation converted a wild-type minus cell into a pseudo-plus strain; a model to explain this conversion proposes that the normal imp-11 gene product represses plus-specific genes concerned with Chlamydomonas gametogenesis. PMID:7061589

  11. Chemically moderated gamete preferences predict offspring fitness in a broadcast spawning invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Mathew; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-06-01

    Sperm chemoattraction, where sperm locate unfertilized eggs by following a concentration gradient of egg-derived chemoattractants, has been widely documented across numerous taxa. While marine invertebrates are favoured models for understanding the underlying mechanisms of sperm chemoattraction, the evolutionary forces underpinning the process remain enigmatic. Here, we show that in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), chemically moderated gamete preferences promote assortative fertilizations between genetically compatible gametes. When offered the choice of egg clutches from two females, sperm exhibited consistent but differential 'preferences' for chemical cues secreted from conspecific eggs. Critically, our data reveal that the preferences shown by sperm during the egg-choice trials are highly predictive of early embryonic viability when eggs and sperm from the same individuals are mixed during standard (no-choice) fertilization assays. Moreover, we demonstrate that by experimentally separating chemoattractants from eggs, sperm swimming behaviour is differentially regulated by egg-derived chemoattractants, and that these changes in sperm behaviour are highly consistent with observed patterns of gamete preferences, fertilization and larval survival. Together, this integrated series of experiments reveals that the behaviour of sperm is fine-tuned to respond differentially to the chemical signals emitted from different conspecific eggs, and that these choices have measurable fitness benefits. PMID:24741014

  12. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  13. Estimating gametic introgression rates in a risk assessment context: a case study with Scots pine relicts.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Navascués, M; González-Martínez, S C; Gil, L

    2009-11-01

    The estimation of recent gene immigration is fundamental to a wide range of evolutionary and conservation studies. In a risk assessment context, gene flow estimation procedures are needed that are both accurate and readily amenable to formal evaluation of statistical uncertainty. However, genetic methods for estimating recent migration rates that are specific and have been thoroughly evaluated are scarce. Here we use an original and straightforward maximum-likelihood method to estimate recent uniparental gametic immigration from non-local plantations into an endangered population of the Iberian relict pine variety Pinus sylvestris var. nevadensis D. H. Christ. Our approach is not intended to ascertain population membership of individuals, but rather to obtain accurate immigration rate estimates with reliable confidence limits. We found very high (approximately 40%) pollen introgression at the seed-crop level into the Scots pine relict, and substantial (10-15%) male gametic introgression among naturally regenerated recruits. Using numerical simulation, we show that our method yields uniparental gametic immigration estimates that are expected to be virtually unbiased and usually accurate under our sampling conditions. Among four tested methods to estimate the confidence intervals for immigration estimates, the profile-likelihood method was the best, as it outperformed bootstrapping procedures and yielded coverage close to nominal limits under different sample sizes and migration rates. This study presents a method by which researchers can facilitate decision making within a gene flow risk assessment context. PMID:19603058

  14. Beneath the rhetoric: the role of rights in the practice of non-anonymous gamete donation.

    PubMed

    Frith, L

    2001-10-01

    The use of rights based arguments to justify claims that donor offspring should have access to information identifying their gamete donor has become increasingly widespread. In this paper, I do not intend to revisit the debate about the validity of such rights. Rather, the purpose is to examine the way such alleged rights have been implemented by those legislatures that have allowed access to identifying information. I will argue that serious inconsistencies exist between the claim that donor offspring have a right to know the identity of their gamete donor and the way such a right is currently met in practice. I hope to show that in systems where non-anonymous donation is practised, an understanding of the proclaimed right of donor offspring to know their genetic identity is one composed of two different rights--the right to know the circumstances of their conception and the right to information identifying the gamete donor--can provide important insights into this important area of public policy. PMID:12058771

  15. Counselling on disclosure of gamete donation to donor offspring: a search for facts

    PubMed Central

    Visser, M.; Kop, P.A.L.; van Wely, M.; van der Veen, F.; Gerrits, G.J.E.; van Zwieten, M.C.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High quality counseling of potential parents is needed in the process of disclosure to donor offspring, which is important for the child and for family relationships. We performed a search for facts to identify the role of counseling in couples undergoing gamete donation. Methods: We systematically searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Psychinfo. Studies were included if they reported on counseling in gamete donation. Results: A total of 20 studies were included. Twelve studies stated that counselling was offered. The reported studies reflected no consensus about when and how counselling in gamete donation should be offered and no theoretical background of the disclosure/ secrecy issue. About 50% of the parents expressed the need for guidance and support of a counsellor. Special concerns were the disclosure issue and the future contact with the donor. Parents did not receive the guidance and support they needed in the disclosure process after treatment. Conclusion: Empirical knowledge on counselling is lacking. This review demonstrates the need to know more precisely at what moments couples should be counselled, and which specific information and guidelines couples need to receive to be more confident in the disclosure process to donor offspring. PMID:24753905

  16. Making muslim babies: Ivf and gamete donation in sunni versus shi’a islam

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the “local moral worlds” of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt’s famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims, with Iran’s leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi’ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  17. Chemically moderated gamete preferences predict offspring fitness in a broadcast spawning invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Mathew; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm chemoattraction, where sperm locate unfertilized eggs by following a concentration gradient of egg-derived chemoattractants, has been widely documented across numerous taxa. While marine invertebrates are favoured models for understanding the underlying mechanisms of sperm chemoattraction, the evolutionary forces underpinning the process remain enigmatic. Here, we show that in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), chemically moderated gamete preferences promote assortative fertilizations between genetically compatible gametes. When offered the choice of egg clutches from two females, sperm exhibited consistent but differential ‘preferences’ for chemical cues secreted from conspecific eggs. Critically, our data reveal that the preferences shown by sperm during the egg-choice trials are highly predictive of early embryonic viability when eggs and sperm from the same individuals are mixed during standard (no-choice) fertilization assays. Moreover, we demonstrate that by experimentally separating chemoattractants from eggs, sperm swimming behaviour is differentially regulated by egg-derived chemoattractants, and that these changes in sperm behaviour are highly consistent with observed patterns of gamete preferences, fertilization and larval survival. Together, this integrated series of experiments reveals that the behaviour of sperm is fine-tuned to respond differentially to the chemical signals emitted from different conspecific eggs, and that these choices have measurable fitness benefits. PMID:24741014

  18. Making Muslim babies: IVF and gamete donation in Sunni versus Shi'a Islam.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2006-12-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the "local moral worlds" of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt's famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims, with Iran's leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi'ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  19. Female and male gamete mitochondria are distinct and complementary in transcription, structure, and genome function.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Wilson B M; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Missirlis, Fanis; Ashworth, Rachel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lucas, Cathy H; Allen, John F

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals. Mitochondrial DNA mutation then accumulates with age, and may set a limit to the lifespan of individual, multicellular organisms. Why is this mutation not inherited? Here we demonstrate that female gametes-oocytes-have unusually small and simple mitochondria that are suppressed for DNA transcription, electron transport, and free radical production. By contrast, male gametes-sperm-and somatic cells of both sexes transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory electron carriers and produce oxygen free radicals. This germ-line division between mitochondria of sperm and egg is observed in both the vinegar fruitfly and the zebrafish-species spanning a major evolutionary divide within the animal kingdom. We interpret these findings as an evidence that oocyte mitochondria serve primarily as genetic templates, giving rise, irreversibly and in each new generation, to the familiar energy-transducing mitochondria of somatic cells and male gametes. Suppressed mitochondrial metabolism in the female germ line may therefore constitute a mechanism for increasing the fidelity of mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24068653

  20. Reactions to a Partner-Assisted Emotional Disclosure Intervention: Direct Observation and Self-Report of Patient and Partner Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Laura S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Keefe, Francis J.; Patterson, Emily S.

    2012-01-01

    Partner-assisted emotional disclosure is a couple-based intervention designed to help patients disclose cancer-related concerns to their spouses-partners. We previously found that, compared with an education/support control condition, partner-assisted emotional disclosure led to significant improvements in relationship quality and intimacy for…

  1. Mixing a Grounded Theory Approach with a Randomized Controlled Trial Related to Intimate Partner Violence: What Challenges Arise for Mixed Methods Research?

    PubMed Central

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase. PMID:23577245

  2. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the family partners for health study: a cluster randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young children who are overweight are at increased risk of becoming obese and developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Therefore, early intervention is critical. This paper describes the rationale, design, methodology, and sample characteristics of a 5-year cluster randomized controlled trial being conducted in eight elementary schools in rural North Carolina, United States. Methods/Design The first aim of the trial is to examine the effects of a two-phased intervention on weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy in overweight or obese 2nd, 3 rd, and 4th grade children and their overweight or obese parents. The primary outcome in children is stabilization of BMI percentile trajectory from baseline to 18 months. The primary outcome in parents is a decrease in BMI from baseline to 18 months. Secondary outcomes for both children and parents include adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy from baseline to 18 months. A secondary aim of the trial is to examine in the experimental group, the relationships between parents and children's changes in weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy. An exploratory aim is to determine whether African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children and parents in the experimental group benefit differently from the intervention in weight status, adiposity, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. A total of 358 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic children with a BMI ? 85th percentile and 358 parents with a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 have been inducted over 3 1/2 years and randomized by cohort to either an experimental or a wait-listed control group. The experimental group receives a 12-week intensive intervention of nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training and exercise (Phase I), 9 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II) and then 6 months (follow-up) on their own. Safety endpoints include adverse event reporting. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied to all data. Discussion Findings from this trial may lead to an effective intervention to assist children and parents to work together to improve nutrition and exercise patterns by making small lifestyle pattern changes. Trial registration NCT01378806. PMID:22463125

  3. Actin-based spindle positioning: new insights from female gametes.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, Maria; Terret, Marie-Émilie; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetric divisions are essential in metazoan development, where they promote the emergence of cell lineages. The mitotic spindle has astral microtubules that contact the cortex, which act as a sensor of cell geometry and as an integrator to orient cell division. Recent advances in live imaging revealed novel pools and roles of F-actin in somatic cells and in oocytes. In somatic cells, cytoplasmic F-actin is involved in spindle architecture and positioning. In starfish and mouse oocytes, newly discovered meshes of F-actin control chromosome gathering and spindle positioning. Because oocytes lack centrosomes and astral microtubules, F-actin networks are key players in the positioning of spindles by transmitting forces over long distances. Oocytes also achieve highly asymmetric divisions, and thus are excellent models to study the roles of these newly discovered F-actin networks in spindle positioning. Moreover, recent studies in mammalian oocytes provide a further understanding of the organisation of F-actin networks and their biophysical properties. In this Commentary, we present examples of the role of F-actin in spindle positioning and asymmetric divisions, with an emphasis on the most up-to-date studies from mammalian oocytes. We also address specific technical issues in the field, namely live imaging of F-actin networks and stress the need for interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:24413163

  4. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens/AR mediate sperm death which is a novel field of investigation in sperm biology.

  5. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  6. Diploid clone produces unreduced diploid gametes but tetraploid clone generates reduced diploid gametes in the Misgurnus loach.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Kagayaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2012-02-01

    Most individuals of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus reproduce bisexually, but cryptic clonal lineages reproduce by natural gynogenesis of unreduced diploid eggs that are genetically identical to maternal somatic cells. Triploid progeny often occur by the accidental incorporation of a sperm nucleus into diploid eggs. Sex reversal from a genetic female to a physiological male is easily induced in this species by androgen treatment and through environmental influences. Here, we produced clonal tetraploid individuals by two methods: 1) fertilization of diploid eggs from a clonal diploid female with diploid sperm of a hormonally sex-reversed clonal diploid male and 2) artificial inhibition of the release of the second polar body in eggs of clonal diploid females just after initiation of gynogenetic development. There is no genetic difference between the clonal diploid and tetraploid individuals except for the number of chromosome sets or genomes. Clonal tetraploid males never produced unreduced tetraploid sperm, only diploid sperm that were genetically identical to those of a clonal diploid. Likewise, clonal tetraploid females did not form unreduced tetraploid eggs, just diploid eggs. However, the eggs' genotypes were identical to those of the original clone, and almost all the eggs initiated natural gynogenesis. Thus, gametogenesis of the clonal tetraploid loach is controlled by the presence of two chromosome sets to pair, thereby preserving the normal meiotic process, i.e., the formation of bivalents and subsequently two successive divisions. PMID:21998169

  7. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C), warm (25°C/15°C), cool (18°C/13°C) and cold (10°C/5°C) treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29%) at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%). In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5%) was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%). Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid bridge hypothesis of allopolyploid evolution, are readily available in some Brassica interspecific hybrid genotypes, especially at cold temperatures. PMID:21663695

  8. In Vitro Fertilization with Isolated, Single Gametes Results in Zygotic Embryogenesis and Fertile Maize Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, E; Lorz, H

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed. PMID:12271084

  9. Topography of cell wall lytic enzyme in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: form and location of the stored enzyme in vegetative cell and gamete

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Chlamydomonas lytic enzyme of the cell wall (gamete wall-autolysin) is responsible for shedding of cell walls during mating of opposite mating- type gametes. This paper reports some topographic aspects of lytic enzyme in cells. Both vegetative and gametic cells contain the same wall lytic enzyme. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kD by gel filtration and 62 kD by SDS PAGE, and is sensitive to metal ion chelators and SH-blocking agents. These properties are the same as those of the gamete wall-autolysin released into the medium by mating gametes. However, the storage form of the enzyme proves to be quite different between the two cell types. In vegetative cells, the lytic enzyme is found in an insoluble form in cell homogenates and activity is released into the soluble fraction only by sonicating the homogenates or freeze-thawing the cells, whereas gametes always yield lytic activity in the soluble fractions of cell homogenates. When vegetative cells are starved for nitrogen, the storage form of enzyme shifts from its vegetative state to gametic state in parallel with the acquisition of mating ability. Adding nitrogen to gametes converts it to the vegetative state concurrently with the loss of mating ability. We also show that protoplasts obtained by treatment of vegetative cells or gametes with exogenously added enzyme have little activity of enzyme in the cell homogenates, suggesting that lytic enzyme is stored outside the plasmalemma. When the de-walled gametes or gametes of the wall-deficient mutant, cw-15, of opposite mating types are mixed together, they mate normally but the release of lytic enzyme into the medium is practically negligible. When the de-walled vegetative cells are incubated, the lytic enzyme is again accumulated in the cells after the wall regeneration is almost complete. PMID:2879847

  10. Working with men to prevent intimate partner violence in a conflict-affected setting: a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from armed conflict settings points to high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Current knowledge on how to prevent IPV is limited—especially within war-affected settings. To inform prevention programming on gender-based violence in settings affected by conflict, we evaluated the impact of adding a targeted men’s intervention to a community-based prevention programme in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods We conducted a two-armed, non-blinded cluster randomized trial in Côte d’Ivoire among 12 pair-matched communities spanning government-controlled, UN buffer, and rebel–controlled zones. The intervention communities received a 16-week IPV prevention intervention using a men’s discussion group format. All communities received community-based prevention programmes. Baseline data were collected from couples in September 2010 (pre-intervention) and follow-up in March 2012 (one year post-intervention). The primary trial outcome was women’s reported experiences of physical and/or sexual IPV in the last 12 months. We also assessed men’s reported intention to use physical IPV, attitudes towards sexual IPV, use of hostility and conflict management skills, and participation in gendered household tasks. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis was used to compare outcomes between intervention and control communities at follow-up. Results At follow-up, reported levels of physical and/or sexual IPV in the intervention arm had decreased compared to the control arm (ARR 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-1.51, not significant). Men participating in the intervention reported decreased intentions to use physical IPV (ARR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.06) and improved attitudes toward sexual IPV (ARR 1.21, 95% CI 0.77-1.91). Significant differences were found between men in the intervention and control arms’ reported ability to control their hostility and manage conflict (ARR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.58), and participation in gendered household tasks (ARR 2.47, 95% CI 1.24-4.90). Conclusions This trial points to the value of adding interventions working with men alongside community activities to reduce levels of IPV in conflict-affected settings. The intervention significantly influenced men’s reported behaviours related to hostility and conflict management and gender equitable behaviours. The decreased mean level of IPV and the differences between intervention and control arms, while not statistically significant, suggest that IPV in conflict-affected areas can be reduced through concerted efforts to include men directly in violence prevention programming. A larger-scale trial is needed to replicate these findings and further understand the mechanisms of change. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01803932 PMID:24716478

  11. Assisted conception and South Asian communities in the UK: public perceptions of the use of donor gametes in infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Rapport, Frances

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores 'public' attitudes to the use of donated gametes in infertility treatment amongst members of British South Asian communities in the UK. The study included 14 single-sex focus groups with a total of 100 participants of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origins in three English cities and 20 individual semi-structured interviews with key informants. It explores five themes from the data: childlessness and stigma; using sperm and using eggs; cultural connections; choosing gametes; religion and the use of donated gametes; and disclosure and the management of information. The paper demonstrates that the socio-cultural context of fertility treatment is highly relevant and those delivering services and those consulting the public need to be aware of cultural and gender differences. Third party assisted conception represents a challenge to received ideas of identity and has implications for social reproduction and kinship which go well beyond immediate conjugal relationships. PMID:23477468

  12. The right to know your genetic parents: from open-identity gamete donation to routine paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Over the years a number of countries have abolished anonymous gamete donation and shifted toward open-identity policies. Donor-conceived children are said to have a fundamental "right to know" the identity of their donor. In this article, we trace the arguments that underlie this claim and question its implications. We argue that, given the status attributed to the right to know one's gamete donor, it would be discriminatory not to extend this right to naturally conceived children with misattributed paternity. One way to facilitate this would be through routine paternity testing at birth. While this proposal is likely to raise concerns about the conflicting interests and rights of other people involved, we show that similar concerns apply to the context of open-identity gamete donation. Unless one can identify a rational basis for treating the two groups differently, one's stance toward both cases should be the same. PMID:23557045

  13. Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale.

    PubMed

    Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N

    2013-09-01

    Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284

  14. Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.

    PubMed

    Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

    2014-06-01

    Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417

  15. Gamete derivation from stem cells: revisiting the concept of genetic parenthood.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi

    2014-11-01

    Genetic parenthood is usually portrayed as a value-neutral concept that can be confirmed or rejected based on objective, scientific tests. However, on inspection, it is exposed as a very complex idea that we might need to consider as something that comes in different shapes and forms and that is open to interpretation rather than being clearly defined and fixed. Different people may therefore also desire different aspects of the general concept of genetic parenthood, which implies that some may not even be satisfied with gametes that have all the properties that their own natural gametes would have, whereas others may be satisfied with a much simpler solution. Encouraging infertility patients to gain insight into what it is exactly that they hope to gain by pursuing genetic parenthood (rather than choosing for donor conception or adoption) may lead them to recognise that the added advantage may be limited and may be acquired in other ways as well. Nevertheless, many people will find it difficult to let go of the desire for genetic parenthood as it is deeply rooted in our genes. Infertility is experienced as a grave medical condition and entails an intense grieving process for many. For that reason alone it is important that the medical and research community develop and apply methods to help people in their quest for genetic parenthood. On the other hand, it is important not to reinforce the dogma that genetic parenthood is 'the best kind of parenthood'. PMID:24951670

  16. Role of melatonin on production and preservation of gametes and embryos: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; da Cruz, Jurandir Ferreira; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this brief review is to clarify the role of melatonin in the production and preservation of mammalian gametes and embryos. Melatonin is an indoleamine synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and other organs that operates as a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis modulator and regulates the waxing and waning of seasonal reproductive competence in photoperiodic mammals. A major function of the melatonin rhythm is to transmit information about the length of the daily photoperiod to the circadian and circannual systems in order to provide time-of-day and time-of-year information, respectively, to the organism. Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent, which is due to its direct scavenging of toxic oxygen derivatives and its ability to reduce the formation of reactive species. Mammalian gametes and embryos are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to the presence of high lipid levels; during artificial breeding procedures, these structures are exposed to dramatic changes in the microenvironment, which have a direct bearing on their function and viability. Free radicals influence the balance between oxidation-reduction reactions, disturb the transbilayer-phospholipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane and enhance lipid peroxidation. Melatonin, due to its amphiphilic nature, is undoubtedly useful in tissues by protecting them from free radical-mediated oxidative damage and cellular death. The supplementation of melatonin to semen extender or culture medium significantly improves sperm viability, oocyte competence and blastocyst development in vitro. PMID:24559971

  17. Intraspecific genetic analysis, gamete release performance, and growth of Sargassum muticum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng

    2013-11-01

    Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24°C and an irradiance of 60-100 ?mol photons/(m2·s). Under ambient conditions (12-25°C and 60-125 ?mol photons/(m2·s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.

  18. All Partner Organizations

    Cancer.gov

    The following Universities and organizations partner with the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium with the ultimate goal of improving our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer. Accadia

  19. Understanding Intimate Partner Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abuse. This behavior can progress to physical or sexual assault. Several types of IPV may occur together. Why ... in 10 men in the US have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by a partner ...

  20. PARTNERS IN ASTHMA CARE

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    i NURSES: PARTNERS IN ASTHMA CARE NIH PUBLICATION NO. 95-3308 OCTOBER 1995 NATIONAL INSTITUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi NURSES' ASTHMA EDUCATION WORKING GROUP . . . . . . vii 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. PRACTICAL GUIDE TO ASTHMA MANAGEMENT. . . . . . 3 GOALS OF ASTHMA MANAGEMENT

  1. Modeling forage legume polycross pollen-parent gamete contributions to progeny based on empirical measurements with implications for effective polycross size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Random mating is a fundamental assumption in quantitative genetic theory and assumes pollen-parents contribute uniform gamete numbers to the progeny generation; polycross-size-expected-inbreeding rests on this assumption. This study empirically determined polycross pollen-parent gamete frequency con...

  2. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2001, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU). Two large freezer tanks are located at each university. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, an emphasis on cryopreserving wild unmarked fish, continued fertility trials, and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

  3. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous donors' needs and desires are not homogeneous; policy and practice should be sensitive and responsive to a wide range of circumstances and preferences. Decisions made to restrict or facilitate contact or the exchange of information have ramifications for donors as well as for donor-conceived people. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was funded by the Victorian Department of Health. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. PMID:24549216

  4. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions. PMID:25935214

  5. Sex-Specific Posttranslational Regulation of the Gamete Fusogen GCS1 in the Isogamous Volvocine Alga Gonium pectorale

    PubMed Central

    Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Hamaji, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao

    2014-01-01

    Male and female, generally defined based on differences in gamete size and motility, likely have multiple independent origins, appearing to have evolved from isogamous organisms in various eukaryotic lineages. Recent studies of the gamete fusogen GCS1/HAP2 indicate that this protein is deeply conserved across eukaryotes, and its exclusive and/or functional expression generally resides in males or in male homologues. However, little is known regarding the conserved or primitive molecular traits of males and females within eukaryotes. Here, using morphologically indistinguishable isogametes of the colonial volvocine Gonium pectorale, we demonstrated that GCS1 is differently regulated between the sexes. G. pectorale GCS1 molecules in one sex (homologous to male) are transported from the gamete cytoplasm to the protruded fusion site, whereas those of the other sex (females) are quickly degraded within the cytoplasm upon gamete activation. This molecular trait difference might be conserved across various eukaryotic lineages and may represent male and female prototypes originating from a common eukaryotic ancestor. PMID:24632243

  6. Function of the Male Gamete-Specific Fusion Protein, HAP2, in a Seven-Sexed Ciliate

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Eric S.; Cassidy-Hanley, Donna; Pinello, Jennifer Fricke; Zeng, Hong; Hsueh, Marion; Kolbin, Daniel; Ozzello, Courtney; Giddings, Thomas; Winey, Mark; Clark, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary HAP2, a male gamete-specific protein conserved across vast evolutionary distances has garnered considerable attention as a potential membrane fusogen required for fertilization in taxa ranging from protozoa and green algae to flowering plants and invertebrate animals [1–6]. However, its presence in Tetrahymena thermophilaa ciliated protozoan with seven sexes or mating types that bypasses the production of male gametes raises interesting questions regarding the evolutionary origins of gamete-specific functions in sexually dimorphic species. Here we show that HAP2 is expressed in all seven mating types of T. thermophila and that fertility is only blocked when the gene is deleted from both cells of a mating pair. HAP2 deletion strains of complementary mating types can recognize one another and form pairs, however pair stability is compromised and membrane pore formation at the nuclear exchange junction is blocked. The absence of pore formation is consistent with previous studies suggesting a role for HAP2 in gamete fusion in other systems. We propose a model in which each of the several hundred membrane pores established at the conjugation junction of mating Tetrahymena represents the equivalent of a male/female interface, and that pore formation is driven on both sides of the junction by the presence of HAP2. Such a model supports the idea that many of the disparate functions of sperm and egg were shared by the “isogametes” of early eukaryotes, and became partitioned to either male or female sex cells later in evolution. PMID:25155508

  7. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, L; Gregoire, D

    2004-01-01

    In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed. PMID:15574437

  8. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  9. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  10. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  11. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  12. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  13. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  14. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  15. Likelihood Analysis of Recombinational Disequilibrium in Multiple-Locus Gametic Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Smouse, Peter E.

    1974-01-01

    Likelihood methods are developed for the estimation and testing of multiple-locus gametic disequilibria, using log-linear models of parametric effects. The estimates of disquilibrium are related to Kimura's Z-measure, and may be extended to multiple alleles and multiple loci. Likelihood ratio test criteria are constructed, which are asymptotically distributed as ?2. The analysis is partitioned into various components corresponding to two-locus, residual three-locus, and higher order disequilibria. A four-locus example from Hordeum vulgare L. is utilized to illustrate the analysis. Most of the multiple-locus disequilibrium is accounted for by two-locus effects, and closely linked loci show considerably more disequilibrium than unlinked loci. It is shown that all possible pairwise comparisons are not statistically independent. PMID:4833576

  16. Effect of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in the North American bison (Bison bison bison).

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Whiteside, D P; Elkin, B; Thundathil, J C

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in plains bison (Bison bison bison). Epididymal sperm (n = 61 per season), collected during the breeding season (July-September), had significantly higher post-thaw total motility (36.76 ± 14.18 vs 31.24 ± 12.74%), and lower linearity (0.36 ± 0.06 vs 0.39 ± 0.04) and wobbliness (0.49 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.03; mean ± SD) compared to non-breeding season (January-March) samples. Representative samples (n = 4) from each season were used in heterologous IVF trials using cattle oocytes. Cleavage, morulae and blastocyst percentage were higher for breeding vs non-breeding season sperm samples (81.88 ± 6.8 vs 49.94 ± 6.77; 41.89 ± 13.40 vs 27.08 ± 23.21; and 30.49 ± 17.87 vs 13.72 ± 18.98%, respectively). Plains bison ovaries collected during the breeding (n = 97 pairs) and non-breeding (n = 100 pairs) seasons were classified as luteal or follicular. Oocytes recovered from these ovaries were classified into five grades based on morphology. There was no significant difference in the number of luteal ovaries or grades of oocytes recovered. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (with frozen sperm from three bison bulls) and cultured in vitro. Cleavage percentage was higher for oocytes collected during breeding vs non-breeding season (83.72 ± 6.42 vs 73.98 ± 6.43), with no significant difference in subsequent development to blastocysts. In summary, epididymal sperm from non-breeding season had decreased total motility and resulted in reduced embryo production in vitro. Oocytes collected during non-breeding season had reduced ability to be matured, fertilized and/or undergo cleavage in vitro. Data suggested that season influenced gamete quality in plains bison. PMID:25529116

  17. Gamete donors' satisfaction; gender differences and similarities among oocyte and sperm donors in a national sample

    PubMed Central

    Svanberg, Agneta Skoog; Lampic, Claudia; Gejerwall, Ann-Louise; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Karlström, Per-olof; Solensten, Nils-Gunnar; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore oocyte and sperm donors' emotional stress, experiences of care and satisfaction after donation. DesignProspective multicenter study. SettingsAll fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden during the period 2005 to 2008. PopulationOf 220 eligible oocyte donors who were approached, 181 agreed to complete the first questionnaire and 165 completed the second questionnaire 2?months after oocyte donation. Of 156 eligible sperm donors 119 accepted to complete the first questionnaire before donation. Eighty-nine participants completed the second questionnaire 2?months after sperm donation. MethodsStandardized and study-specific questionnaires. Main outcome measuresSatisfaction with the donation, respondents' mental health and overall care. ResultsA larger percentage of sperm donors (97.8%) were satisfied with their overall experience of being a donor than oocyte donors (85.9%, p?=?0.003). Some oocyte and sperm donors did not receive sufficient information about practical issues (9.1% and 13.5%, respectively) and future consequences (12.8% and 3.4%, respectively, p?=?0.014). The donors' symptoms of anxiety and depression did not show any differences in relation to negative or positive perceptions of satisfaction. The donors who did not indicate ambivalence before treatment were on average almost five times more satisfied compared with those who did indicate ambivalence (odds ratio 4.71; 95% CI 1.34–16.51). ConclusionsMost donors were satisfied with their contribution after the donation. Oocyte and sperm donors who expressed ambivalence before donation were less satisfied after donation. In vitro fertilization staff fulfilled most of the donors' needs for information and care. Please cite this article as: Skoog Svanberg A, Lampic C, Gejerwall A-L, Gudmundsson J, Karlström P-O, Solensten N-G, Sydsjö G. Gamete donors’ satisfaction; gender differences and similarities among oocyte and sperm donors in a national sample. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2013; 92:1049–1056. PMID:23611727

  18. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 ?g DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 ?g DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  19. Partners of the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

  20. Panhandle AgriPartners 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    | pg. 5 Panhandle AgriPartners Story by Kathy Wythe After 33 years in agribusiness, Dennis Beiluefound he wasn?t ready to hang up hisagricultural hat when he retired in 2000.Three years later he was back in the busi- ness as a Texas Cooperative...

  1. Parents as Writing Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

  2. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  3. Anti-HPV16 E2 Protein T-Cell Responses and Viral Control in Women with Usual Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Their Healthy Partners

    PubMed Central

    Jacobelli, Simon; Sanaa, Fedoua; Moyal-Barracco, Micheline; Pelisse, Monique; Berville, Sophie; Villefroy, Pascale; North, Marie Odile; Figueiredo, Suzanne; Charmeteau, Bénédicte; Clerici, Thierry; Plantier, Françoise; Arnold, Françoise; Touzé, Antoine; Dupin, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Guillet, Jean-Gérard; Cheynier, Rémi; Bourgault-Villada, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    T-cell responses (proliferation, intracellular cytokine synthesis and IFN? ELISPOT) against human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E2 peptides were tested during 18 months in a longitudinal study in eight women presenting with HPV16-related usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and their healthy male partners. In six women, anti-E2 proliferative responses and cytokine production (single IFN? and/or dual IFN?/IL2 and/or single IL2) by CD4+ T lymphocytes became detectable after treating and healing of the usual VIN. In the women presenting with persistent lesions despite therapy, no proliferation was observed. Anti-E2 proliferative responses were also observed with dual IFN?/IL2 production by CD4+ T-cells in six male partners who did not exhibit any genital HPV-related diseases. Ex vivo IFN? ELISPOT showed numerous effector T-cells producing IFN? after stimulation by a dominant E2 peptide in all men and women. Since the E2 protein is absent from the viral particles but is required for viral DNA replication, these results suggest a recent infection with replicative HPV16 in male partners. The presence of polyfunctional anti-E2 T-cell responses in the blood of asymptomatic men unambiguously establishes HPV infection even without detectable lesions. These results, despite the small size of the studied group, provide an argument in favor of prophylactic HPV vaccination of young men in order to prevent HPV16 infection and viral transmission from men to women. PMID:22590583

  4. The comparative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) and substance abuse treatment alone: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Method Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N?=?52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Results Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Conclusions Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00847873 PMID:24059784

  5. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  6. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

  7. Language Partner Program Information Package

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    1 Language Partner Program Information Package What is a Language Partner? Language partners are native (or fluent) English speaking volunteers who give EAL (English as an Additional Language) students/week). The English Language Program runs year round, with a new term starting every four months. The Winter term

  8. A single mutation results in diploid gamete formation and parthenogenesis in a Drosophila yemanuclein-alpha meiosis I defective mutant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual reproduction relies on two key events: formation of cells with a haploid genome (the gametes) and restoration of diploidy after fertilization. Therefore the underlying mechanisms must have been evolutionary linked and there is a need for evidence that could support such a model. Results We describe the identification and the characterization of yem1, the first yem-alpha mutant allele (V478E), which to some extent affects diploidy reduction and its restoration. Yem-alpha is a member of the Ubinuclein/HPC2 family of proteins that have recently been implicated in playing roles in chromatin remodeling in concert with HIRA histone chaperone. The yem1 mutant females exhibited disrupted chromosome behavior in the first meiotic division and produced very low numbers of viable progeny. Unexpectedly these progeny did not display paternal chromosome markers, suggesting that they developed from diploid gametes that underwent gynogenesis, a form of parthenogenesis that requires fertilization. Conclusions We focus here on the analysis of the meiotic defects exhibited by yem1 oocytes that could account for the formation of diploid gametes. Our results suggest that yem1 affects chromosome segregation presumably by affecting kinetochores function in the first meiotic division. This work paves the way to further investigations on the evolution of the mechanisms that support sexual reproduction. PMID:21080953

  9. "He won't be my son": Middle Eastern Muslim men's discourses of adoption and gamete donation.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2006-03-01

    In the Sunni Muslim world, religious mandates prohibit both adoption and gamete donation as solutions to infertility, including in the aftermath of in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures. However, both of these options are now available in two Middle Eastern countries with significant Shi'ite Muslim populations (Iran and Lebanon). On the basis of fieldwork in multisectarian Lebanon, I examine in this article attitudes toward both adoption and gamete donation among childless Muslim men who are undertaking IVF with their wives. No matter the religious sect, most Muslim men in Lebanon continue to resist both adoption and gamete donation, arguing that such a child "won't be my son". However, against all odds, some Muslim men are considering and undertaking these alternatives to family formation as ways to preserve their loving marriages, satisfy their fatherhood desires, and challenge religious dictates, which they view as out of step with new developments in science and technology. Thus, in this article I examine the complicated intersections of religion, technology, marriage, and parenthood in a part of the world that is both poorly understood and negatively stereotyped, particularly in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. PMID:16612995

  10. Food-Nonfood Discrimination in Ancestral Vertebrates: Gamete Cannibalism and the Origin of the Adaptive Immune System.

    PubMed

    Corcos, D

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity is a complex system that appeared twice in vertebrates (in gnathostomes and in jawless fish) although it is not required for invertebrate defence. The adaptive immune system is tightly associated with self-non-self discrimination, and it is now clear that this interplay is not limited to the prevention of autoreactivity. Micro-organisms are usually considered for their pathogenicity or symbiotic ability, but, for most small metazoans, they mainly constitute food. Vertebrates are characterized by feeding by predation on larger preys, when compared to their ancestors who were filter feeders and ate micro-organisms. Predation gives a strong selective advantage, not only due to the availability of new food resources but also by the ability to eliminate competitors for environmental resources (intraguild predation (IGP)). Unlike size-structured IGP, intraspecific predation of juveniles, zygotes or gametes can be detrimental for species fitness in some circumstances. The ability of individuals to recognize highly polymorphic molecules on the surface of gametes present in the plankton and so distinguish self versus non-self gametes might have constituted a strong selective advantage in intraspecific competition. Here, I propose the theory that the capacity to rearrange receptors has been selected in ancestral vertebrates as a consequence of this strong need for discriminating between hetero-cannibalism versus filial cannibalism. This evolutionary origin sheds light on presently unexplained features of the immune system, including the existence of regulatory T cells and of non-pathogenic natural autoimmunity. PMID:26286030

  11. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sabatello, Maya

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children). Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins (“the right to know”), and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right. PMID:26388996

  12. Direct Gamete Sequencing Reveals No Evidence for Segregation Distortion in House Mouse Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Corbett-Detig, Russell; Jacobs-Palmer, Emily; Hartl, Daniel; Hoekstra, Hopi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of species formation is an important goal in evolutionary genetics, and Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities are thought to be a common source of postzygotic reproductive isolation between closely related lineages. However, the evolutionary forces that lead to the accumulation of such incompatibilities between diverging taxa are poorly understood. Segregation distorters are believed to be an important source of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities between hybridizing species of Drosophila as well as hybridizing crop plants, but it remains unclear if these selfish genetic elements contribute to reproductive isolation in other taxa. Here, we collected viable sperm from first-generation hybrid male progeny of Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus, two subspecies of rodent in the earliest stages of speciation. We then genotyped millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these gamete pools and tested for a skew in the frequency of parental alleles across the genome. We show that segregation distorters are not measurable contributors to observed infertility in these hybrid males, despite sufficient statistical power to detect even weak segregation distortion with our novel method. Thus, reduced hybrid male fertility in crosses between these nascent species is attributable to other evolutionary forces. PMID:26121240

  13. Transfer of intracolonial genetic variability through gametes in Acropora hyacinthus corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweinsberg, M.; González Pech, R. A.; Tollrian, R.; Lampert, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the new phenomenon of intracolonial genetic variability within a single coral colony has been described. This connotes that coral colonies do not necessarily consist of only a single genotype, but may contain several distinct genotypes. Harboring more than one genotype could improve survival under stressful environmental conditions, e.g., climate change. However, so far it remained unclear whether the intracolonial genetic variability of the adult coral is also present in the gametes. We investigated the occurrence of intracolonial genetic variability in 14 mature colonies of the coral Acropora hyacinthus using eight microsatellite loci. A grid was placed over each colony before spawning, and the emerging egg/sperm bundles were collected separately in each grid. The underlying tissues as well as the egg/sperm bundles were genotyped to determine whether different genotypes were present. Within the 14 mature colonies, we detected 10 colonies with more than one genotype (intracolonial genetic variability). Four out of these 10 mature colonies showed a transfer of different genotypes via the eggs to the next generation. In two out of these four cases, we found additional alleles, and in the two other cases, we found only a subset of alleles in the unfertilized eggs. Our results suggest that during reproduction of A. hyacinthus, more than one genotype per colony is able to reproduce. We discuss the occurrence of different genotypes within a single coral colony and the ability for those to release eggs which are genetically distinct.

  14. Direct Gamete Sequencing Reveals No Evidence for Segregation Distortion in House Mouse Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Corbett-Detig, Russell; Jacobs-Palmer, Emily; Hartl, Daniel; Hoekstra, Hopi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of species formation is an important goal in evolutionary genetics, and Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities are thought to be a common source of postzygotic reproductive isolation between closely related lineages. However, the evolutionary forces that lead to the accumulation of such incompatibilities between diverging taxa are poorly understood. Segregation distorters are believed to be an important source of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities between hybridizing species of Drosophila as well as hybridizing crop plants, but it remains unclear if these selfish genetic elements contribute to reproductive isolation in other taxa. Here, we collected viable sperm from first-generation hybrid male progeny of Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus, two subspecies of rodent in the earliest stages of speciation. We then genotyped millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these gamete pools and tested for a skew in the frequency of parental alleles across the genome. We show that segregation distorters are not measurable contributors to observed infertility in these hybrid males, despite sufficient statistical power to detect even weak segregation distortion with our novel method. Thus, reduced hybrid male fertility in crosses between these nascent species is attributable to other evolutionary forces. PMID:26121240

  15. [Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 ?L, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 ?m and 3.8 ± 1.0 ?m (p < 0.05); the largest diameter was recorded 30 seconds after the contact with water. For oocytes, the smaller and larger diameters were recorded at 10 and 30s, respectively (both with/without water contact); the oocytes diameters after 10 and 30 seconds of contact with water were 1.11 and 1.55 mm, respectively. A higher ovulation rate was recorded using the in vitro fertilization: 250 ± 50 oocytes versus 28 ± 09 oocytes (during natural fertilization; p < 0.05). Nevertheless, fertilization and hatching rates were higher for the natural fertilization (80 and 60%, respectively). Considering the number of larvae obtained after 72 hours, our results showed a higher value for the in vitro fertilization (75 ± 18 compared to 13.4 ± 12 of the natural fertilization; p < 0.05). We propose this fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro fertilization is a very high viable option to optimize and maximize resources; besides, the reproduction management optimization under controlled conditions may enhance wild fish stocks preservation. PMID:25720172

  16. FEAR OF PAST ABUSIVE PARTNER(S) IMPACTS CURRENT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS AMONG WOMEN EXPERIENCING PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514

  17. Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be done to integrate violence prevention and HIV programming and response into health services, including family planning, ... for Injury Prevention and Control. 2. Black, M.C., et al., (2011). The National Intimate Partner and ...

  18. Transcriptomic changes following synthesis of a Populus full-sib diploid and allotriploid population with different heterozygosities driven by three types of 2n female gamete.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shiping; Yang, Jun; Liao, Ting; Zhu, Xiaohu; Suo, Yujing; Zhang, Pingdong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Diploid gametes are usually applied to produce triploids of Populus [originating from first-division restitution (FDR), second-division restitution (SDR), and postmeiotic restitution (PMR) 2n eggs]. Three types of 2n gametes transmitted different parental heterozygosities in Populus. Failed spindle formation and no chromosomal separation to opposite poles during meiosis I mean that FDR 2n gametes carry nonsister chromatids that are potentially heterozygous. By contrast, SDR 2n gametes result from failed sister chromatid separation in meiosis II, and therefore, they carry sister chromatid that are potentially homozygous. Completely homozygous 2n gametes can arise from the PMR mechanism. The alteration of gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants. We compared gene expression in the full-sib progeny of three allotriploid Populus populations (triploid-F, triploid-S, and triploid-P) with that in its parent species, and their full-sib diploid F1 hybrid. Genome-wide expression level dominance was biased toward the maternal in the diploid F1 hybrid and three allotriploid populations, whereas our data indicated important, but different, effects of the transmission of different heterozygosity by 2n female gametes in the expression patterns of allopolyploids. Because of the higher level of heterozygosity, the triploids had higher rates of non-additive and transgressive expression patterns in the triploid-F than in triploid-S and triploid-P. Compared with diploid F1, about 30-fold more genes (251) were differently expressed in the triploid-F than in the triploid-S (9) and triploid-P (8), respectively. These findings indicate that hybridization and polyploidization have immediate and distinct effects on the large-scale patterns of gene expression, and different effects on the transmission of heterozygosity by three 2n female gametes. PMID:26419948

  19. Activity of a bacterial cell envelope stress response is controlled by the interaction of a protein binding domain with different partners.

    PubMed

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    The bacterial phage shock protein (Psp) system is a highly conserved cell envelope stress response required for virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica. In non-inducing conditions the transcription factor PspF is inhibited by an interaction with PspA. In contrast, PspA associates with the cytoplasmic membrane proteins PspBC during inducing conditions. This has led to the proposal that PspBC exists in an OFF state, which cannot recruit PspA, or an ON state, which can. However, nothing was known about the difference between these two states. Here, we provide evidence that it is the C-terminal domain of Y. enterocolitica PspC (PspC(CT)) that interacts directly with PspA, both in vivo and in vitro. Site-specific photocross-linking revealed that this interaction occurred only during Psp-inducing conditions in vivo. Importantly, we have also discovered that PspC(CT) can interact with the C-terminal domain of PspB (PspC(CT)·PspB(CT)). However, the PspC(CT)·PspB(CT) and PspC(CT)·PspA interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo, PspC(CT) contacted PspB(CT) in the OFF state, whereas it contacted PspA in the ON state. These findings provide the first description of the previously proposed PspBC OFF and ON states and reveal that the regulatory switch is centered on a PspC(CT) partner-switching mechanism. PMID:25802329

  20. Effects of Cognitive–Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD on Partners’ Psychological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in “one” partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner’s psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners’ mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners’ psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. PMID:24706354

  1. HR Partners: Checklist, Forms & Reports

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    HR Partners: Checklist, Forms & Reports VCU Human Resources September 17 & 18 #12;Agenda Opening Checklist Review Improvement Areas from HR Operations #12;Purpose of HR Partners Q & A about HR Issues by the 29-hour rule 1. Provide clarity on the purpose, function and changes related to HR checklist, forms

  2. WASPs (Wives As Senior Partners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline

    For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under…

  3. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  4. Gamete donation, information sharing and the best interests of the child: an overview of the psychosocial evidence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Tabitha

    2015-03-01

    This paper overviews key empirical findings from social science research regarding the impact of gamete donation on child wellbeing. In particular, the paper addresses current regulatory debates concerning information sharing and the best interests of the child by considering psychosocial aspects of telling--or not telling--children about their donor conception and the identity of their donor. The paper identifies three core sets of empirical, ethical and policy concerns underpinning these debates relating to (i) the psychosocial impact of gamete donation per se on child wellbeing, (ii) the psychosocial impact of parental disclosure decisions on child wellbeing, and (iii) the psychosocial implications of donor identification for donor-conceived offspring. The paper illustrates how these concerns are framed by ideas about the significance-or not-of 'genetic relatedness'; ideas which have come to the fore in contemporary discussions about the potential consequences of donor-conceived individuals gaining access to their donor's identity. By drawing together research findings that may be pertinent to the regulation of gamete donation and information sharing, a further aim of this paper is to explore the potential use and misuse of empirical 'evidence' in ethical and policy debates. Whilst this paper starts from the premise that psychosocial data has a vital role in grounding normative discussions, it seeks to contribute to this dialogue by highlighting both the value and limitations of social science research. In particular, the paper argues for a cautious approach to applying psychosocial evidence to ethical issues that is sensitive to the caveats and nuances of research findings and the changing cultural and regulatory context. PMID:25743051

  5. Care Partners and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quig, Mary Elizabeth; Tyry, Tuula; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Shearin, Edward; Johnson, Kamau; Simsarian, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be a stressful experience that requires clinical attention. We investigated the impact of caregiver stress on the emotional well-being and physical health of the MS care partner using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods: Care partners of NARCOMS participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire that captured demographic characteristics, health status, caregiver burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and impact of caregiving on employment. Results: Of 1446 care partners who agreed to participate, 1333 had complete data. Most were men (n = 825, 61.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 51.1 (11.2) years. The mean (SD) Zarit total score was 24.6 (15.1), placing the overall group in the mild caregiver burden range. Compared with male care partners, female care partners reported higher levels of burden and stress and more medication use for stress/anxiety and mood disorders. Male care partners were more likely to report physical concerns. Care partners of people with primary progressive MS reported greater perceived burden than did partners of people with secondary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. More than 40% of care partners (559 of 1288) had missed work during the past year owing to caregiving responsibilities. Conclusions: Care partners of people with MS have substantial physical and psychological health concerns and experience an adverse impact on employment. Future research should evaluate how to mitigate the adverse effects of caregiving and evaluate positive aspects of the role.

  6. In-vitro fertilization, gamete donation and surrogacy: perceptions of women attending an infertility clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo

    2014-06-01

    Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149

  7. Prevalence estimate of intimate partner violence in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Clark, C J; Bloom, D E; Hill, A G; Silverman, J G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Jordan among a sample of 517 reproductive health clinic attendees. Intimate partner violence was measured using the World Health Organization's domestic violence questionnaire which was modified by the results of focus group discussions conducted in Amman. The percentages of women experiencing at least 1 form of control or violence since marriage were: control, 97.2%; psychological violence, 73.4%; physical violence, 31.2%; and sexual violence, 18.8%. Modifications of the WHO questionnaire were needed to measure control and psychological violence in Jordan. Similar modifications might be required when conducting research in the Region. PMID:20187539

  8. 26 CFR 1.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the donee in the control and management of the business (including...b ) Control of business bank accounts. (c ) Recognition...services and participation in management by a donee in a limited...unlike a limited partner, risks his credit in the...

  9. Empowerment, partner’s behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners’ behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women’s empowerment and partners’ behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. Methods The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. Results The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women’s occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. Conclusion In the Ugandan context, women’s empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners’ negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence. PMID:24289495

  10. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  11. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...

  13. Treaty verification with an uncertain partner

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is used to analyze the performance of a system for verifying compliance with an arms control treaty. Blue and Red are partners in to a treaty. Blue prefers to comply, but is uncertain whether Red similarly prefers compliance (in the absence of threatened violation detection). Blue's uncertainty is modeled as a probability distribution over three different Red types: Violators, Compilers, and Deterrables. Criteria are derived to determine the level at which Blue should set his detection threshold, and when it is best for Blue not to verify at all. The results involve both game-theoretic and Bayes solutions. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Transcriptomes of isolated Oryza sativa gametes characterized by deep sequencing: evidence for distinct sex-dependent chromatin and epigenetic states before fertilization.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah N; Johnson, Cameron S; Jones, Daniel S; Conrad, Liza J; Gou, Xiaoping; Russell, Scott D; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2013-12-01

    The formation of a zygote by the fusion of egg and sperm involves the two gametic transcriptomes. In flowering plants, the embryo sac embedded within the ovule contains the egg cell, whereas the pollen grain contains two sperm cells inside a supporting vegetative cell. The difficulties of collecting isolated gametes and consequent low recovery of RNA have restricted in-depth analysis of gametic transcriptomes in flowering plants. We isolated living egg cells, sperm cells and pollen vegetative cells from Oryza sativa (rice), and identified transcripts for approximately 36 000 genes by deep sequencing. The three transcriptomes are highly divergent, with about three-quarters of those genes differentially expressed in the different cell types. Distinctive expression profiles were observed for genes involved in chromatin conformation, including an unexpected expression in the sperm cell of genes associated with active chromatin. Furthermore, both the sperm cell and the pollen vegetative cell were deficient in expression of key RNAi components. Differences in gene expression were also observed for genes for hormonal signaling and cell cycle regulation. The egg cell and sperm cell transcriptomes reveal major differences in gene expression to be resolved in the zygote, including pathways affecting chromatin configuration, hormones and cell cycle. The sex-specific differences in the expression of RNAi components suggest that epigenetic silencing in the zygote might act predominantly through female-dependent pathways. More generally, this study provides a detailed gene expression landscape for flowering plant gametes, enabling the identification of specific gametic functions, and their contributions to zygote and seed development. PMID:24215296

  15. Partnering. New Opportunities for Partnering, CAUSE94. Track I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers are presented from the 1994 CAUSE conference track on partnering within and among higher education institutions in regard to information resources and technology. The papers include: (1) "Having Your Cake and Eating It Too: A Recipe for a Collaborative CWIS in a Decentralized Environment," which discusses the development of Johns…

  16. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-19

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013: ? 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered. ? 797 new participants installed a HAN. ? Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components. ? Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program. ? On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly. ? An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  17. The Computer as Lab Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also…

  18. SWANSEA UNIVERSITY PATERNITY/PARTNER

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    to care for a child after birth or adoption. This procedure is designed to ensure that all members for a parental order in the 6 months after the baby's birth. 3. Pay Entitlement If you meet the eligibility period of paternity/partner leave at a time even if more than one baby is born as a result of the same

  19. Measuring Collaboration among Grant Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Lohmeier, Jill H.; Lee, Stephen W.; Tollefson, Nona

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration is a prerequisite for the sustainability of interagency programs, particularly those programs initially created with the support of time-limited grant-funding sources. From the perspective of evaluators, however, assessing collaboration among grant partners is often difficult. It is also challenging to present collaboration data to…

  20. Reverse correlating love: highly passionate women idealize their partner's facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization--evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships. PMID:25806540

  1. Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Business Partnering

    E-print Network

    Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Business Partnering Steven Chiang, Director Agribusiness Incubator a productive bioenergy industry, successful partnering amongst industry "players" is essential. This section of the Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan specifically evaluates facilitating the bioenergy industry through

  2. Construction project partnering in Texas' public universities 

    E-print Network

    Francis, Paul

    2007-09-17

    Partnering is a tool used in the construction industry to reduce claims and litigations and also to deliver a quality product in a cost efficient and timely manner. This research analyzes the impact of the partnering process on the outcome...

  3. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at the top of your (or your partner's) penis. This gets rid of trapped air, which can ... Remove the condom immediately after ejaculation, before the penis softens. You or your partner should hold the ...

  4. Conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Valdés-Navarro, Manuel A; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar Eliezar; Fernández-Espinosa, Martín Cesar; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    To compare the incidence of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with newly diagnosed adult inclusion conjunctivitis (AIC) and a control group with healthy eyes. We also compare the observed signs and symptoms of conjunctival infection in patients with newly diagnosed AIC and their sexual partners. We performed a prospective comparative case-control study between patients with newly diagnosed AIC confirmed with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) (n = 11), their sexual partners (n = 11), and a control group of healthy subjects (n = 11). Clinical history, physical examination, and a DFA test for C. trachomatis of a conjunctival scrapping from the tarsal conjunctiva were performed in all patients. A significantly higher frequency of positive DFA tests for C. trachomatis was observed in the sexual partner group (n = 8, 73 %) compared with the healthy control group (n = 2, 18.2 %) (P = 0.03). Ocular symptoms and signs were observed significantly more often in patients from the confirmed clinically active AIC group (n = 11, 100 %) than in their sexual partners (n = 2, 12.5 %). Sexual partners of patients with AIC are at greater risk of having an asymptomatic conjunctival infection with C. trachomatis than healthy subjects. Sexual partners might be considered a bacterial reservoir and a possible source for chlamydia reinfection. Not treating sexual partners might increase the probability of reinfection. More extended studies with a greater sample size should be done. PMID:24643518

  5. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  6. DOES NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT DIFFERENTIATE INTIMATE PARTNER FEMICIDES FROM OTHER FEMICIDES?

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Layde, Peter M.; Hamberger, L. Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared to other femicides, while neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  7. 48 CFR 715.70 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Partner Vetting 715.70 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable procedures and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  8. 48 CFR 715.70 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Partner Vetting 715.70 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable procedures and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  9. 48 CFR 715.70 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Partner Vetting 715.70 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable procedures and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  10. Partnering: The foundation for performance

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, L.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past several decades, the US has experienced an unprecedented increase in the number of disputes in litigation. The environmental area, particularly contracts involving remediation projects, have not been immune from this situation. The adverse impact of this litigation mindset on the financial and personnel resources of the contracting parties has escalated and the detrimental effect on contractual relationships has become more apparent. Both owners and contractors are confronted with unrealized contract expectations, hostility on the jobsite and disappointment in the traditional dispute resolution processes. Relying exclusively on litigation when negotiations fail to settle contract disputes is time consuming, costly and frustrating. Now in the 1990s, the Corps along with the construction industry are moving to establish a new relationship beneficial to all contracting parties that focus on disputes avoidance. This new relationship is fostered by a process called Partnering. In undertaking environmental remediation work, Partnering can lay the foundation for a successful relationship among all involved parties.

  11. "Program for Partners": Support Groups for Partners of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena; Sussman-Skalka, Carol; Goodman, Caryn

    2004-01-01

    This study of time-limited support groups attended by partners of individuals with visual impairments found that participation increased the attendees' knowledge of their visually impaired partners' situations, improved the quality of communication between the partners, and reduced the sighted partners' negative appraisal of their role.

  12. Parents, Reading Partners, Library Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deskins, Liz

    2011-01-01

    According to the author, one of her most important goals as a school librarian is to inspire her students to become lifelong lovers of reading. She recognizes that she cannot do this alone, and one of her most powerful partners is a parent. She can encourage a child to check out a book that may open their eyes to the wonders of literature, but if…

  13. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J

    2015-03-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction. PMID:25655701

  14. Desistance From Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483

  15. Production of Diploid Male Gametes in Arabidopsis by Cold-Induced Destabilization of Postmeiotic Radial Microtubule Arrays1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Geelen, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication through the formation of diploid gametes is a major route for polyploidization, speciation, and diversification in plants. The prevalence of polyploids in adverse climates led us to hypothesize that abiotic stress conditions can induce or stimulate diploid gamete production. In this study, we show that short periods of cold stress induce the production of diploid and polyploid pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using a combination of cytological and genetic analyses, we demonstrate that cold stress alters the formation of radial microtubule arrays at telophase II and consequently leads to defects in postmeiotic cytokinesis and cell wall formation. As a result, cold-stressed male meiosis generates triads, dyads, and monads that contain binuclear and polynuclear microspores. Fusion of nuclei in binuclear and polynuclear microspores occurs spontaneously before pollen mitosis I and eventually leads to the formation of diploid and polyploid pollen grains. Using segregation analyses, we also found that the majority of cold-induced dyads and triads are genetically equivalent to a second division restitution and produce diploid gametes that are highly homozygous. In a broader perspective, these findings offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate male gametogenesis in plants and demonstrate that their sensitivity to environmental stress has evolutionary significance and agronomic relevance in terms of polyploidization. PMID:23096158

  16. Season-dependent effects of elevated temperature on stress biomarkers, energy metabolism and gamete development in mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Sokolova, I M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-02-01

    In coastal areas, sessile species can be severely affected by thermal stress associated to climate change. Presently, the effect of elevated temperature on metabolic, cellular and tissue-level responses of mussels was determined to assess whether the responses vary seasonally with seawater temperature and reproductive stage. Mussels were collected in fall, winter and summer, and (a) maintained at 16, 12, and 20 °C respectively or (b) subject to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (+1 °C per day; from 16 to 24 °C in fall, from 12 to 20 °C in winter and from 20 to 28 °C in summer) and further maintained at 24 °C (fall), 20 °C (winter) and 28 °C (summer) for the following 6 days. Temperature elevation induced membrane destabilization, lysosomal enlargement, and reduced the aerobic scope in fall and summer whereas in winter no significant changes were found. Changes at tissue-level were only evident at 28 °C. Gamete development was impaired irrespective of season. Since the threshold of negative effects of warming was close to ambient temperatures in summer (24 °C or above) studied mussel populations would be vulnerable to the global climate change. PMID:25460056

  17. The limits of evidence: evidence based policy and the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2015-03-01

    This paper will critically examine the use of evidence in creating policy in the area of reproductive technologies. The use of evidence in health care and policy is not a new phenomenon. However, codified strategies for evidence appraisal in health care technology assessments and attempts to create evidence based policy initiatives suggest that the way evidence is used in practice and policy has changed. This paper will examine this trend by considering what is counted as 'good' evidence, difficulties in translating evidence into policy and practice and how evidence interacts with principles. To illustrate these points the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK in 2005 and the debates that preceded this change in the law will be examined. It will be argued that evidence will only ever take us so far and attention should also be paid to the underlying principles that guide policy. The paper will conclude with suggestions for how underlying principles can be more rigorously used in policy formation. PMID:25743050

  18. Influence of treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy with intravaginal prasterone on the male partner.

    PubMed

    Labrie, F; Montesino, M; Archer, D F; Lavoie, L; Beauregard, A; Côté, I; Martel, C; Vaillancourt, M; Balser, J; Moyneur, E

    2015-12-01

    Objective The aim was to analyze the opinion of the male partner of women treated for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) with intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (prasterone), thus providing information on both members of the couple. Methods On a voluntary basis, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled phase-III clinical trial, the male partner filled a questionnaire at baseline and at 12 weeks stating his observations related to his penis and intercourse before and after VVA treatment. Results Sixty-six men having a partner treated with intravaginal DHEA and 34 others having a partner treated with placebo answered the questionnaires. Concerning the feeling of vaginal dryness of their female partner, the severity score following DHEA treatment improved by 81% (0.76 units) over placebo (p?=?0.0347). Thirty-six percent of men having a partner treated with DHEA did not feel the vaginal dryness of the partner at the end of treatment compared to 7.8% in the placebo group. When analyzing the situation at 12 weeks compared to baseline, an improved score of 1.09 units was the difference found for the DHEA group compared to 0.76 for the placebo group (p?=?0.05 vs. placebo). In the DHEA group, 38% of men scored very improved compared to 18% in the placebo group. No adverse event has been reported. Conclusion The male partner had a very positive evaluation of the treatment received by his female partner. PMID:26517756

  19. 76 FR 30974 - Jason Incorporated, Janesville Accoustics Division, Subsidiary of Jason Partners Holdings LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Adjustment Assistance on April 26, 2011, applicable to workers of Jason Incorporated, Janesville Acoustics... under the control of Jason Incorporated, Janesville Acoustics Division, Subsidiary of Jason Partners... Rapids, Michigan location of Jason Incorporated, Janesville Acoustics Division, Subsidiary of...

  20. Mandatory Partner Rotation and Audit Quality: Evidence from U.S. Audit Firm Archival Data 

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Brant E

    2015-06-29

    audit environment. Using proprietary data from a large international audit firm, I investigate the effect of mandatory lead partner rotation in the U.S. on three proxies for audit quality: audit fees, identifying and reporting a material control weakness...

  1. Dancing cheek to cheek : haptic communication between partner dancers and swing as a finite state machine

    E-print Network

    Gentry, Sommer Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    To see two expert partners, one leading and the other following, swing dance together is to watch a remarkable two-agent communication and control system in action. Even blindfolded, the follower can decode the leader's ...

  2. Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

  3. Infectious disease and quality assurance considerations for the transfer of cryopreserved fish gametes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Although cryopreservation of sperm has become an accepted technique for selective breeding and genetic improvement in livestock industries, no systematic approach is available for banking germplasm of aquatic species (i.e. embryos, semen and ova). The intent of this chapter is not to provide recommendations for specific measures to eliminate particular pathogens and subsequent diseases, but rather to develop a general framework and strategies for facing the new and unexpected. This chapter presents microbiological and quality assurance concerns for a cryopreservation program. In particular, the chapter identifies organisms transmittable in semen of animals, microorganisms and diseases of importance to aquatic species, pathogen detection issues, methods for prevention and control and how sperm quality can be assessed. 

  4. The stress response in gametes and embryos after paternal chemical exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Barbara F. . E-mail: barbara.hales@mcgill.ca; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Robaire, Bernard

    2005-09-01

    There is increasing concern that paternal exposure to toxic chemicals impacts negatively on progeny outcome. Exposure of male rats to a model male-mediated developmental toxicant and anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss, as well as in malformations. We hypothesize that the stage specificity of the effects of paternal cyclophosphamide exposure on progeny depends on the ability of germ cells to respond to stress, repair DNA or undergo apoptosis. Acute high dose exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide increased the expression of heat shock proteins and DNA repair genes, predominantly in round spermatids. In contrast, chronic low dose treatment dramatically decreased the expression of stress response genes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in elongated spermatids; this reduced ability to respond to stress may allow damage to accumulate, resulting in altered sperm function. Increased DNA damage was maximal 3 weeks after drug exposure, during spermiogenesis, a key point in sperm chromatin remodelling. Drug exposure for 9 weeks increased the frequency of spermatozoa with chromosome 4 disomy and nullisomy. DNA damage found in cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa was imparted to the newly fertilized zygote. Drug-exposed spermatozoa decondensed more rapidly than control spermatozoa and male pronuclear formation was earlier. RNA synthesis was higher in 1-cell embryos sired by drug-treated fathers than in controls. Significantly, the profile of gene expression was altered in embryos sired by drug-treated males as early as the 1-cell stage. Thus, exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide altered male germ cell quality with a consequent temporal and spatial disruption of the zygotic genome activation.

  5. Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

  6. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  7. Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

    2014-05-01

    Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

  8. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility. PMID:18388488

  9. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranjeet; Prabha, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function) seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent. PMID:25110702

  10. Putting intimate partner violence on your radar.

    PubMed

    Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870

  11. Beyond the minimal top partner decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Javi

    2015-09-01

    Light top partners are the prime sign of naturalness in composite Higgs models. We explore here the possibility of non-standard top partner phenomenology. We show that even in the simplest extension of the minimal composite Higgs model, featuring an extra singlet pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, the branching ratios of the top partners into standard channels can be significantly altered, with no substantial change in the generated Higgs potential. Together with the variety of possible final states from the decay of the pseudo-scalar singlet, this motivates more extensive analyses in the search for the top partners.

  12. Partner notification uptake for sexually transmitted infections in China: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Alberta L; Peng, Rui-Rui; Tucker, Joseph D; Cohen, Myron S; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective China’s sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic requires comprehensive control programmes. Partner services are traditional pillars of STI control but have not been widely implemented in China. This study was a systematic literature review to examine STI partner notification (PN) uptake in China. Methods Four English and four Chinese language databases were searched up to March 2011 to identify articles on PN of STIs including HIV in China. PN uptake was defined as the number of partners named, notified, evaluated or diagnosed per index patient. Results A total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria. For STI (excluding HIV) PN, a median 31.6% (IQR 27.4%–65.8%) of named partners were notified, 88.8% (IQR 88.4%–90.8%) of notified partners were evaluated and 37.9% (IQR 33.1%–43.6%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. For HIV PN, a median 15.7% (IQR 13.2%–36.5%) of named partners were notified, 86.7% (IQR 72.9%–90.4%) of notified partners were evaluated and 27.6% (IQR 24.1%–27.7%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. A mean of 80.6% (SD=12.6%) of patients attempted PN, and 72.4% (IQR 63.8%–81.1%) chose self-referral when offered more than one method of PN. Perceived patient barriers included social stigma, fear of relationship breakdown, uncertainty of how to notify and lack of partner contact information. Perceived infrastructure barriers included limited time and trained staff, mistrust of health workers and lack of PN guidelines. Conclusion PN programmes are feasible in China. Further research on STI PN, particularly among men who have sex with men and other high-risk groups, is an important public health priority. PN policies and guidelines are urgently needed in China. PMID:22427489

  13. Perceived Partner Support in Pregnancy Predicts Lower Maternal and Infant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Westling, Erika; Rini, Christine; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal postpartum emotional distress is quite common and can pose significant risk to mothers and infants. The current study investigated mothers’ relationships with their partners during pregnancy and tested the hypotheses that perception of prenatal partner support is a significant predictor of changes in maternal emotional distress from midpregnancy to postpartum, and contributes to maternal ratings of infant distress to novelty. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 272 adult pregnant women were interviewed regarding their partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security (attachment style and willingness to seek out support), and they completed standardized measures of prenatal symptoms of depression and anxiety (distress). At 6 to 8 weeks’ postpartum, mothers reported these symptoms again and completed measures of their infants’ temperament. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect contributions of partner support, relationship satisfaction, and interpersonal security to maternal and infant postpartum distress. Mothers who perceived stronger social support from their partners midpregnancy had lower emotional distress postpartum after controlling for their distress in early pregnancy, and their infants were reported to be less distressed in response to novelty. Partner support mediated the effects of mothers’ interpersonal security and relationship satisfaction on maternal and infant outcomes. A high-quality, supportive partner relationship during pregnancy may contribute to improved maternal and infant well-being postpartum, indicating a potential role for partner relationships in mental health interventions, with possible benefits for infants as well. PMID:22662772

  14. Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2013-12-10

    The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women. PMID:24277856

  15. ECHO Status for International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO) is a clearinghouse of spatial and temporal metadata, inclusive of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data holdings, that enables the science community to more easily exchange NASA data and information. Currently, ECHO has metadata descriptors for over 55 million individual data granules and 13 million browse images. The majority of ECHO's holdings come directly from data held in the NASA DAACs. The science disciplines and domains represented in ECHO are diverse and include metadata for all of NASA's Science Focus Area data. As middleware for a service-oriented enterprise, ECHO offers access to its capabilities through a set of publicly available Application Program Interfaces (APIs). More information about ECHO is available at http://eos.nasa.gov.echo. The presentation will discuss the status of the ECHO Partners, holdings, and activities, including the transition from the EOS Data Gateway to the Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST)

  16. The Write Partner: Senior Partners in Education, January-December 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookman, Joyce McMahan, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This collection of 10 "Write Partner" newsletters presents articles and other materials that help seniors ("Senior Partners") to use their experience and good will to write to children ("Junior Partners") and to assure the children of their intrinsic value and encourage them to learn and succeed. Each issue in the collection presents a thematic…

  17. The Relationship Talk: Assessing Partner Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    "The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211…

  18. Involving Support Partners in Obesity Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Amy; Phelan, Suzanne; Tate, Deborah; Sherwood, Nancy; Jeffery, Robert; Wing, Rena

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether the number or success of weight loss partners influences participants' outcomes in behavioral weight loss treatment. Overweight participants (n=109) assigned to an exercise intensive group in a larger trial were encouraged to invite up to 3 partners to attend treatment. Weight losses at 6, 12, and 18…

  19. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner’s Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners’ untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  20. Young victims and their later partners.

    PubMed

    Wageningen, A

    1989-01-01

    Sexual abuse can seriously traumatize the victim, especially if she is a young girl Ambivalent feelings regarding herself and others make it difficult and often impossible for her to find a partner later. Most relationships are brief. If the victim is able to form a lasting relationship both she and her partner will be confronted with the effects of her trauma. They face relational and sexual problems. It is difficult for the partner to accept her trauma emotionally. Therapy, usually carried out individually or in groups and without the partner, often fails to prevent the breakdown of their relationship or marriage. The partner's presence in or involvement with the treatment has proved very helpful provided the relationship has possibilities for change. PMID:2516591

  1. BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

  2. Emotional Bookkeeping and High Partner Selectivity Are Necessary for the Emergence of Partner-Specific Reciprocal Affiliation in an Agent-Based Model of Primate Groups

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed) rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation. PMID:25785601

  3. Emotional bookkeeping and high partner selectivity are necessary for the emergence of partner-specific reciprocal affiliation in an agent-based model of primate groups.

    PubMed

    Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-01-01

    Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed) rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation. PMID:25785601

  4. Adaptive evolution of signaling partners.

    PubMed

    Urano, Daisuke; Dong, Taoran; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Jones, Alan M

    2015-04-01

    Proteins that interact coevolve their structures. When mutation disrupts the interaction, compensation by the partner occurs to restore interaction otherwise counterselection occurs. We show in this study how a destabilizing mutation in one protein is compensated by a stabilizing mutation in its protein partner and their coevolving path. The pathway in this case and likely a general principle of coevolution is that the compensatory change must tolerate both the original and derived structures with equivalence in function and activity. Evolution of the structure of signaling elements in a network is constrained by specific protein pair interactions, by requisite conformational changes, and by catalytic activity. The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling is a paragon of this protein interaction/function complexity and our deep understanding of this pathway in diverse organisms lends itself to evolutionary study. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the G? subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. An important RGS-contact site is a hydroxyl-bearing residue on the switch I region of G? subunits in animals and most plants, such as Arabidopsis. The exception is the grasses (e.g., rice, maize, sugarcane, millets); these plants have G? subunits that replaced the critical hydroxyl-bearing threonine with a destabilizing asparagine shown to disrupt interaction between Arabidopsis RGS protein (AtRGS1) and the grass G? subunit. With one known exception (Setaria italica), grasses do not encode RGS genes. One parsimonious deduction is that the RGS gene was lost in the ancestor to the grasses and then recently acquired horizontally in the lineage S. italica from a nongrass monocot. Like all investigated grasses, S. italica has the G? subunit with the destabilizing asparagine residue in the protein interface but, unlike other known grass genomes, still encodes an expressed RGS gene, SiRGS1. SiRGS1 accelerates GTP hydrolysis at similar concentration of both G? subunits containing either the stabilizing (AtGPA1) or destabilizing (RGA1) interface residue. SiRGS1 does not use the hydroxyl-bearing residue on G? to promote GAP activity and has a larger G?-interface pocket fitting to the destabilizing G?. These findings indicate that SiRGS1 adapted to a deleterious mutation on G? using existing polymorphism in the RGS protein population. PMID:25568345

  5. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  6. Effects of a Randomized Couple-Based Intervention on Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…

  7. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC (Celerity Holdings), and Celerity Partners IV, LLC (Celerity Partners) (collectively, Applicants) have filed an application under 49 U.S.C. 14303 for their acquisition of control of Sureride Charter, Inc. d/b/a Sundiego Charter Company (Sundiego). The Board is tentatively approving and authorizing the transaction, and, if......

  8. Two O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase genes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. have overlapping functions necessary for gamete and seed development.

    PubMed Central

    Hartweck, Lynn M; Scott, Cheryl L; Olszewski, Neil E

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY) proteins are similar to animal O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferases (OGTs). OGTs catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from UDP-GlcNAc to Ser/Thr residues of proteins. In animals, O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to affect protein activity, stability, and/or localization. SEC protein expressed in Escherichia coli had autocatalytic OGT activity. To determine the function of SEC in plants, two tDNA insertional mutants were identified and analyzed. Although sec mutant plants did not exhibit obvious phenotypes, sec and spy mutations had a synthetic lethal interaction. This lethality was incompletely penetrant in gametes and completely penetrant postfertilization. The rate of both female and male sec spy gamete transmission was higher in plants heterozygous for both mutations than in plants heterozygous for sec and homozygous for spy. Double-mutant embryos aborted at various stages of development and no double-mutant seedlings were obtained. These results indicate that OGT activity is required during gametogenesis and embryogenesis with lethality occurring when parentally derived SEC, SPY, and/or O-GlcNAcylated proteins become limiting. PMID:12136030

  9. 76 FR 58849 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ...No. 29789; File No. 812-13892] Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice...financial instruments. Applicants: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust...

  10. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-09-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network.

  11. Partner Caregiving in Older Cohabiting Couples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of cohabitation among older adults, the caregiving literature has exclusively focused on formally married individuals. Extending prior work on intra-couple care, this study contrasts frail cohabitors’ patterns of care receipt from a partner to that of frail spouses. Methods. Using nationally representative panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006), we estimate random effects cross-sectional times series models predicting frail cohabitors’ likelihood of receiving partner care compared with their married counterparts’. Conditional on the receipt of intra-couple care, we also examine differences in marital and nonmarital partners’ caregiving hours and caregiving involvement relative to other helpers. Results. Net of sociodemographic, disability, and comorbidity factors, we find that cohabitors are less likely to receive partner care than married individuals. However, caregiving nonmarital partners provide as many hours of care as spouses while providing a substantially larger share of disabled respondents’ care than marital partners. Discussion. Cohabitation and marriage have distinct implications for older adults’ patterns of partner care receipt. This study adds weight to a growing body of research emphasizing the importance of accounting for older adults’ nontraditional union forms and of examining the ramifications of cohabitation for older adults’ well-being. PMID:21482588

  12. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  13. Value-based partnering in health care.

    PubMed

    Young, D W; Pinakiewicz, D C; McCarthy, S M; Barrett, D; Kenagy, J

    2001-01-01

    Many companies are beginning to focus on value in their health care purchasing decisions, and some are going beyond value-based purchasing to value-based partnering. Value-based partnering recognizes the interdependencies among stakeholder groups in the health care system and creates a strategic reason for them to exchange information and create long-term strategic alliances. This article discusses the principles of value-based partnering, impediments to practicing it and its future role in the health care system. PMID:11372470

  14. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  15. Is sexual function in female partners of men with premature ejaculation compromised?

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cevdet; Gunes, Mustafa; Gokce, Ali Murat; Kalkan, Senad

    2015-01-01

    The authors enrolled 32 female partners of sexually active men with premature ejaculation to investigate their sexual functions. An age-matched sample of the same number women whose partners had no sexual dysfunction was also included. Premature ejaculation was defined for all participants as ejaculation that nearly always occurs before or within 2 min of vaginal penetration. An invitation letter was given to men with premature ejaculation to ask whether their female partners could be contacted about completing a questionnaire to measure female sexual status. On the basis of the Female Sexual Function Index, the average sexual function score was significantly lower in partners of men with premature ejaculation (21.8 ± 7.6) compared with that in healthy controls (25.9 ± 6.6). Female sexual dysfunction was diagnosed in 78% of women who has a male partner with premature ejaculation, while 40% of female partner of healthy men. All of the domain scores of Female Sexual Function Index, except the desire and pain levels, were significantly lower in female partners of men with premature ejaculation group than those of healthy subjects. PMID:24779361

  16. Partner Support and Maternal Depression in the Context of the Iowa Floods

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Rebecca L.; O’Hara, Michael W.; Hart, Kimberly J.; McCabe, Jennifer E.; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P.; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from N=145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386

  18. Effect of Screening for Partner Violence on Women's Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Klevens, Joanne; Kee, Romina; Trick, William; Garcia, Diana; Angulo, Francisco R.; Jones, Robin; Sadowski, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Although partner violence screening has been endorsed by many health organizations, there is insufficient evidence that it has beneficial health outcomes. Objective To determine the effect of computerized screening for partner violence plus provision of a partner violence resource list vs provision of a partner violence list only on women's health in primary care settings, compared with a control group. Design, Setting, and Participants A 3-group blinded randomized controlled trial at 10 primary health care centers in Cook County, Illinois. Participants were enrolled from May 2009–April 2010 and reinterviewed 1 year (range, 48–56 weeks) later. Participants were English- or Spanish-speaking women meeting specific inclusion criteria and seeking clinical services at study sites. Of 3537 women approached, 2727 were eligible, 2708 were randomized (99%), and 2364 (87%) were recontacted 1 year later. Mean age of participants was 39 years. Participants were predominantly non-Latina African American (55%) or Latina (37%), had a high school education or less (57%), and were uninsured (57%). Intervention Randomization into 3 intervention groups: (1) partner violence screen (using the Partner Violence Screen instrument) plus a list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) no-screen, no-partner violence list control group (n=898). Main Outcome Measures Quality of life (QOL, physical and mental health components) was the primary outcome, measured on the 12-item Short Form (scale range 0–100, mean of 50 for US population). Results At 1-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in the QOL physical health component between the screen plus partner violence resource list group (n=801; mean score, 46.8; 95% CI, 46.1–47.4), the partner violence resource list only group (n=772; mean score, 46.4; 95% CI, 45.8–47.1), and the control group (n=791; mean score, 47.2; 95% CI, 46.5–47.8), or in the mental health component (screen plus partner violence resource list group [mean score, 48.3; 95% CI, 47.5–49.1], the partner violence resource list only group [mean score, 48.0; 95% CI, 47.2–48.9], and the control group [mean score, 47.8; 95% CI, 47.0–48.6]). There were also no differences between groups in days unable to work or complete housework; number of hospitalizations, emergency department, or ambulatory care visits; proportion who contacted a partner violence agency; or recurrence of partner violence. Conclusions Among women receiving care in primary care clinics, providing a partner violence resource list with or without screening did not result in improved health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00526994 PMID:22893165

  19. Cheating Partners, Conditional Probability and Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Developing statistical literacy for older school students includes recognizing and interpreting conditional statements in the media. Data on couples' success in predicting whether their partners have cheated provides a motivating context for teachers to lead their students through this process.

  20. MONTANA HEALTHY COMMUNITIES: NEW KNOWLEDGE. NEW PARTNERS.

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    MONTANA HEALTHY COMMUNITIES: NEW KNOWLEDGE. NEW PARTNERS. BETTER SOLUTIONS. David;PROGRESS TOWARD COLLABORATION #12;New Funds Flowing to Population Health · Bank Capital · Healthy Futures Fund · Healthy Neighborhoods Equity Fund · Strong Families Fund · EXPANDING SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS · Early

  1. Telling Your Partner You Have an STD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... were in your shoes? Be proud of your intentions. Your willingness to have this difficult conversation shows ... Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on ...

  2. Robot Partners: Collaborative Perceptual Robotic Systems

    E-print Network

    Little, Jim

    Robot Partners: Collaborative Perceptual Robotic Systems Working paper Cooperative Distributed robotic systems, including remote-brained soccer players, visually guided mobile robots, and visual been supported by the the Networks of Centres of Excellence Institute for Robotics and Intelligent

  3. Partner violence against Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Han, Angela D; Kim, Eun Jung; Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this review article is to explore the phenomenon of partner violence against Korean immigrant women in the United States by using an ecological model. Analysis of the macrosystem (Korean cultural factors), exosystem (immigration stress), and microsystem (marital power dynamic, family role transitions) factors and personal history and characteristics of Korean male batterers (alcohol use and avoidant attachment style) are examined. The health impact of partner violence in family members and recommendations to decrease the violence are discussed. PMID:20592059

  4. 76 FR 66012 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...)(iii)(e) The de minimis partner rule in Sec. 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)(e) (TD 9398, 73 FR 28699-01) was... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue... through Friday between the hours of 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. to CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG- 109564-10), Courier's...

  5. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  6. Change in relationship quality for partners from lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Kurdek, Lawrence A

    2008-10-01

    Growth curves for relationship quality over the first 10 years of cohabitation, controlling for separation, were estimated on the basis of survey data obtained over part or all of this time interval. Participants were both partners from 95 lesbian, 92 gay male, and 226 heterosexual couples living without children, and both partners from 312 heterosexual couples living with children. Relative to other partners, those from lesbian couples showed the highest levels of relationship quality averaged over all assessments. Pattern of change in relationship quality varied by type of couple. Partners from lesbian and gay male couples showed no change, those from heterosexual couples without children showed an early phase of accelerated decline followed by a leveling off, and those from heterosexual couples with children showed an early phase of accelerated decline followed by a 2nd phase of accelerated decline. PMID:18855506

  7. National Laboratories and Internatioanl Partnering

    SciTech Connect

    Eagan, R.J.; Gauster, W.B.; Hartley, D.L.; Jones, G.J.

    1998-12-07

    For nearly fifty years the US held a dominant position in research and development in the free world. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade. Countries around the world realize that to foster sustainable economic growth, they must build and maintain a foundation in science and technology. The time in which a country could base its gross national product solely on extraction of raw materials or on people-intensive manufacturing is drawing to a close. The funding for research and development has been growing in the rest of the world, while US expenditures have not kept pace. In 1961, the United States funded 71 `?40 of the world's R&D. It is estimated that the US contribution to research and development fimding today has reached the 3 3o/0 level, and will drop to 26o/0 of the world's total by 2003.1 In 1981 US government spending per capita on non-defense research and development was nearly fifty percent above our major competitors; by 2002 it is projected to be f@ percent below them.2 This trend has a profound impact on how research and development institutions in the United States plan for their future technical growth. Sandia National Laboratories, as one of the largest US-government tided research establishments, has been watching this trend for some time. %ndi~ focusing on the Laboratories' missions in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, environmental integrity, and emerging national challenges, is committed to bringing the best in world-class technology to bear on the nation's problems. We realize maintaining our state-of-the-art technolo=~ base requires we look not only to domestic sources in universities, industries and other laboratories, but also to sources overseas. The realization that we must be "worldwide gatherers of technology" has led Sandia National Laboratories to consider the question of international partnering in some detaiI. As a national laboratory with a national security mission we are well aware of the issues that we face in pursuing international collaborations. In order to make the proper decisions, we are interested in understanding the history of such partnerships, when they are appropriate, why we expect them to be important, the risks they present and what we can do to mitigate those risks.

  8. Impaired gamete production and viability in Atlantic croaker collected throughout the 20,000km(2) hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Rahman, Md Saydur; Picha, Matthew E; Tan, Wenxian

    2015-12-15

    The long-term impacts of recent marked increases in the incidence and extent of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen <2mg/L) in coastal regions worldwide on fisheries and ecosystems are unknown. Reproductive impairment was investigated in Atlantic croaker collected in 2010 from the extensive coastal hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Potential fecundity was significantly lower in croaker collected throughout the ~20,000km(2) hypoxic region than in croaker from normoxic sites. In vitro bioassays of gamete viability showed reductions in oocyte maturation and sperm motility in croaker collected from the hypoxic sites in response to reproductive hormones which were accompanied by decreases in gonadal levels of membrane progestin receptor alpha, the receptor regulating these processes. The finding that environmental hypoxia exposure reduces oocyte viability in addition to decreasing oocyte production in croaker suggests that fecundity estimates need to be adjusted to account for the decrease in oocyte maturation. PMID:26547103

  9. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  10. A Community-Academic Partnered Grant Writing Series to Build Infrastructure for Partnered Research.

    PubMed

    King, Keyonna M; Pardo, Yvette-Janine; Norris, Keith C; Diaz-Romero, Maria; Morris, D'Ann; Vassar, Stefanie D; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Grant writing is an essential skill necessary to secure financial support for community programs and research projects. Increasingly, funding opportunities for translational biomedical research require studies to engage community partners, patients, or other stakeholders in the research process to address their concerns. However, there is little evidence on strategies to prepare teams of academic and community partners to collaborate on grants. This paper presents the description and formative evaluation of a two-part community-academic partnered grant writing series designed to help community organizations and academic institutions build infrastructure for collaborative research projects using a partnered approach. The first phase of the series was a half-day workshop on grant readiness, which was open to all interested community partners. The second phase, open only to community-academic teams that met eligibility criteria, was a 12-week session that covered partnered grant writing for foundation grants and National Institutes of Health grants. Participants in both phases reported an increase in knowledge and self-efficacy for writing partnered proposals. At 1-year follow-up, participants in Phase 2 had secured approximately $1.87 million in funding. This community-academic partnered grant writing series helped participants obtain proposal development skills and helped community-academic teams successfully compete for funding. PMID:26365589

  11. Beyond the Farm Day of Service 2014 Community Partner Tipsheet Community Partner Tipsheet

    E-print Network

    Jurafsky, Daniel

    a food bank near you and inquire about group service opportunities. o Rebuilding Together and HabitatBeyond the Farm Day of Service 2014 Community Partner Tipsheet Community Partner Tipsheet most. Find or Create a Project The goal of the day of service is to provide hands-on service

  12. University Safety Partners Mission Statement The University Safety Partners (USP) is a group of appointed representatives

    E-print Network

    , Procurement, and Housing and Food Services; The Director of Environmental Health and Safety (EHUniversity Safety Partners Mission Statement The University Safety Partners (USP) is a group of appointed representatives who are responsible for the administration of the University's health and safety

  13. Teenage Mothers' Anger over Twelve Years: Partner Conflict, Partner Transitions and Children's Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Sorenson, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of maternal anger, partner transitions and partner conflict on later oppositional and angry behavior of the children of teenage mothers. Methods: One hundred and twenty-one teenage women were interviewed prior to the birth of the baby and at 3 points subsequently, when children were newborn, 7 years old…

  14. Sexuality and the Commission of Physical Violence to Partners and Non-Partners by Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Rosemary; Fennell, Tiffanie

    2007-01-01

    In 2 studies of physical violence and sexuality among college students, more than 75% of men and more than 60% of women reported committing physical violence in the past year, including more women to partners and more men to non-partners. More than 90% of men who committed violence to partners were also violent to non-partners. In Study 1, among…

  15. Intimate partner violence: prevalence, health consequences, and intervention.

    PubMed

    Sugg, Nancy

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be defined in many ways and encompasses many different types of physical and emotional abuse. IPV affects the health, safety, and quality of life for women, men, and children worldwide, regardless of race, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. The health effects include acute trauma; a wide range of physical and mental sequelae; and, for some, death. Because of the serious consequences of IPV, both the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization identify IPV as a significant public health issue. PMID:25841604

  16. Partners: serendipity in arbovirus research.

    PubMed

    Reeves, W C

    2001-06-01

    A review of 60 years of research on mosquito-borne arboviruses in the Western U.S.A. revealed a number of instances when serendipity influenced the development of new concepts or novel approaches to solve ecological or epidemiological problems. Eight such events were selected as examples. The need for effective mosquito traps to collect live mosquitoes to be tested for virus infection posed design problems and also led to the use of CO2 (dry ice) as a mosquito attractant. This research also led to identification of Culex tarsalis as a primary target for vector control programs in the western U.S.A. Attendance at a movie led to development of fluorescent dusts to mark mosquitoes for studies of their numbers, life tables and movements. Knowledge of vector-virus associations was used to influence state legislative action to provide funding for vector control and further discovery of vector-virus associations. Derivation of the term "Arbovirus" started as laboratory jargon and evolved into being the classification for over 500 vector-borne viruses. Sociobiological changes resulting from the use of television and air conditioning fortuitously decreased exposure of California residents to vector attack. These two changes were introduced into households in California in the early 1950s. The prime time when C. tarsalis, the primary vector of encephalitis, bites people is around sundown which also is primetime for television watching. These sociological changes are a valuable adjunct to vector control programs. PMID:11469177

  17. Alcohol and Tobacco Use Disorder Comorbidity in Young Adults and the Influence of Romantic Partner Environments

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Meredith C.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Epstein, Marina; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is considerable evidence that the development of tobacco dependence (TD) and that of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are intertwined, less is known about the comorbid development of these disorders. The present study examines tobacco dependence and alcohol use disorder comorbidity in young adulthood within the context of romantic partner relationships. Methods Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a contemporary, ethnically diverse, and gender balanced longitudinal panel including 808 participants. A typological person-centered approach was used to assign participants to four outcome groups: no disorder, tobacco dependence (TD) only, alcohol use disorder (AUD) only, and comorbid (both). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between partner general and substance-specific environments and single or dual alcohol and tobacco use disorder diagnosis in young adulthood (ages 24–33, n = 628). Previous heavy alcohol and tobacco use were controlled for, as were dispositional characteristics, gender, ethnicity, adult SES, and adult depression. Results Greater partner conflict increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having TD only or AUD only. Having a smoking partner increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having AUD only, but having a drinking partner did not significantly distinguish being comorbid from having TD only. Conclusions Findings demonstrated the utility of a comorbidity-based, person-centered approach and the influence of general and tobacco-specific, but not alcohol-specific, partner environments on comorbid alcohol and tobacco use disorders in young adulthood. PMID:23428316

  18. Cohabiting partners' economic circumstances and marriage.

    PubMed

    Smock, P J; Manning, W D

    1997-08-01

    Past studies of the transition to marriage generally have relied on information about only one individual or have attempted to measure characteristics of potential spouses indirectly. Drawing on data from the two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), we examine the effects of economic circumstances of both partners in cohabiting unions on the transition to marriage. Focusing on both partners in a relationship affords a more direct test of the relative importance of men's versus women's economic circumstances. Our findings suggest that only the male partner's economic resources affect the transition to marriage, with positive economic situations accelerating marriage and deterring separation. Our results imply that despite trends toward egalitarian gender-role attitudes and increasing income provision among women, cohabiting men's economic circumstances carry far more weight than women's in marriage formation. PMID:9275243

  19. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  20. Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships. PMID:25402720

  1. Male Circumcision and Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Female Partners: a Randomized Trial in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Gaydos, Charlotte; Gray, Ronald H.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Nicole; Grabowski, Mary K.; Musoke, Richard; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Nalugoda, Fred; Wawer, Maria J.; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous randomized trial data have demonstrated that male circumcision reduces Mycoplasma genitalium prevalence in men. We assessed whether male circumcision also reduces M. genitalium infection in female partners of circumcised men. Methods HIV-negative men were enrolled and randomized to either male circumcision or control. Female partners of male trial participants from the intervention (n=437) and control (n=394) arms provided interview information and self-collected vaginal swabs that were tested for M. genitalium by APTIMA transcription-mediated-amplification-based assay. Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of M. genitalium prevalence in intervention versus control group were estimated using Poisson regression. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. An as-treated analysis was conducted to account for study-group crossovers. Results Male and female partner enrollment sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and symptoms of STIs were similar between study arms. Female M. genitalium prevalence at year-two was 3.2% (14/437) in intervention arm and 3.6% (14/394) in control arm (PRR=0.90, 95%CI 0.43–1.89, p=0.78). In an as-treated analysis, the prevalence of M. genitalium was 3.4% in female partners of circumcised men and 3.3% in female partners of uncircumcised men (PRR= 1.01, 95%CI 0.48–2.12, p=0.97). Conclusions Contrary to findings in men, male circumcision did not affect Mycoplasma genitalium infection in female partners. PMID:24259189

  2. Citizens and the Schools: Partners in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Because most decisions that affect quality of schools are made in the community, citizens should become school partners in education. This booklet offers the following suggestions for citizen actions: (1) Get informed. As "owners" of the local school board, citizens have a right to know what students are expected to learn. Individuals should…

  3. Lesbian Partner Abuse: Implications for Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.; Hawxhurst, Donna M.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses nature, severity, and prevalence of abuse in lesbian relationships. Analyzes current counseling and treatment models dealing with battering relationships. Suggests counselor advocacy model for working with lesbian partner abuse, drawing from the experience of activists in the battered women's movement and clinical experience. (Author/ABL)

  4. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  5. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  6. 244 Dispatch Circadian rhythms: Partners in time

    E-print Network

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    244 Dispatch Circadian rhythms: Partners in time Russell N. Van Gelder* and Mark A. Krasnow of the rhythms he discovered. Circadian rhythms -- self- sustained, nearly 24 hour rhythms of behavior in insects. Despite intensive analysis of the physiological properties of circadian rhythms, no clear insight

  7. Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Marc; Bress, Kent

    Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners When NASA was created in 1958, it was given a goal of "cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application of the results." As science has become increasingly globalized during the past 50 years, NASA and its many partners in space and Earth science research have benefited enormously from pooling ideas, skills, and resources for joint undertakings. The discoveries made have powerfully advanced public awareness of science and its importance all over the world. Today, the U.S. Administra-tion is encouraging NASA to expand its cooperation with new and emerging partners. NASA space and Earth science cooperation is founded on scientist-to-scientist research collaboration. Space missions are very costly and technically challenging, but there are many other important areas for international cooperation. Areas ripe for expansion with new partners include space data sharing, scientist-to-scientist collaborative research, international research program plan-ning and coordination, Earth applications for societal benefit, ground-based measurements for Earth system science, and education and public outreach. This presentation lays out NASA's general principles for international science cooperation, briefly describes each of these opportu-nity areas, and suggests avenues for initiating new cooperative relationships.

  8. Be a Partner in Clinical Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Be a Partner in Clinical Research Better Check Your Bowels Health Capsules Are You at Risk for Alcohol-Medication Interactions? Measles: Preventable with Vaccines Featured Website: National Center ...

  9. Making the Most of a Teaching Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Boni

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often miss opportunities to use their classroom computers as teaching partners because of a lack of knowledge or confidence about how the computers can support learning. Internet-connected computers can enable teachers to access well-designed websites that support literacy instruction and involve students in interactive responses to…

  10. The USGS Partners with Professional Beekeepers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Clint Otto, a research ecologist at the USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, partners with professional beekeepers in North Dakota to evaluate what plant species honey bees forage on and when.  Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use change...

  11. Mountains and Lowlands: Enemies or Partners?

    E-print Network

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Mountains and Lowlands: Enemies or Partners? Example of the High Atlas, Morocco #12;Contact Address and the International Year of Mountains 2002 Commissioned and financed by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) One-fourth of the earth's population lives in mountain areas or on their fringes

  12. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  13. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  14. Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…

  15. Sustained Engagement with a Single Community Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Darcy W.; Sanchez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    As scholarly work has recently turned its attention to the role of the community partner in Community Service-Learning (CSL) relationships, empirical frameworks for describing and executing community partnerships have emerged. This article applies those frameworks to one such partnership, which is presented from the perspective of both the…

  16. designed for engineering students from partner institutions

    E-print Network

    in engineering, technology and innovation that awards Bachelor, Master and PhD degrees · Created in 1974: « 40designed for engineering students from partner institutions around the world July 2016 Downtown Montreal Quebec, Canada The session kicks off with an around-the-clock event, the 24 Hours of Innovation

  17. 78 FR 3325 - Partners Distributive Share; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 76380) regarding the application of the substantiality de minimis rule. In the interest of... subject of FR. Doc. 2012-31155, is corrected as follows: 1. On page 76380, column 1, in the preamble... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partners Distributive Share; Correction...

  18. 77 FR 76380 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue...'s distributive share. * * * * * (b) * * * (2) * * * (iii) * * * (e) De minimis rule--(1)...

  19. A Vital K-12 Partner Teacher Professional

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    .ceismc.gatech.edu/gift Each year about 100 middle and high school teachers participate in the Georgia Intern Fellowships Foundation grant to introduce more than 5,000 middle and high school students to advanced manufac- turingA Vital K-12 Partner Teacher Professional Development Opportunities GIFT Internship www

  20. Partners for Club Collaboration Opening Mission Statement

    E-print Network

    Jurafsky, Daniel

    (Career Development Center) o Internships Haas Center for Public Service Student groups o Foreign by sharing potential partners for collaboration with your club to build a stronger Stanford community where Diversity o Professional/career o Shared Interest o Women's Regional o "Satellite areas," or concentrations

  1. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  2. Partner Violence and Psychosocial Distress among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. Findings: About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China. PMID:23626798

  3. Perceptions of Partner Drinking Problems, Regulation Strategies and Relationship Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    The current research evaluates how perceptions of one’s partner’s drinking problem relate to attempts to regulate partner behavior and relationship functioning, and whether this varies by perceptions of one’s own drinking. New measures are offered for Thinking about your Partner’s Drinking (TPD) and Partner Management Strategies (PMS). Participants included 702 undergraduates who had been in a romantic relationship for at least three months. Participants completed an online survey assessing perceptions of problematic drinking for one’s self and partner, ways in which attempts were made to regulate or restrain their partner’s drinking, relationship outcomes (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, trust, and need fulfillment), and alcohol use and consequences for self and partner. Factor analyses supported a single factor for Thinking about your Partner’s Drinking (TPD) and two factors for the Partner Management Strategies (PMS) scale (i.e., punishment and reward). Results using structural equation modeling indicated that perceiving one’s partner to have a drinking problem was associated with lower relationship functioning. Further, this association was mediated by strategies using punishment aimed at changing one’s partner’s drinking, but was not mediated by strategies using rewards. Finally, moderation results suggested that this relationship was not as detrimental for participants who perceived they also had an alcohol problem. In sum, perceiving one’s partner to have a drinking problem was associated with relationship problems through punishing regulation strategies, and was weaker among individuals who also perceived themselves to have a drinking problem. PMID:24070719

  4. Factors affecting prevalence and extent of intimate partner violence in Ukraine: evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Betty Jo; Habibov, Nazim; Chernyak, Elena

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and ecological correlates of intimate partner violence against women in Ukraine. A nationally representative sample of ever-married female respondents of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic Health Survey was used for this analysis. Findings suggest that although numerous ecological factors predict women's experiences of emotional, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence, two factors were common correlates of all three forms of violence: the frequent intoxication of women's partners and the exhibition of marital controlling behaviors by male perpetrators. Implications for the development of effective programming to prevent violence against Ukrainian women are provided. PMID:23081876

  5. Male Partner’s Role during Pregnancy, Labour and Delivery: Expectations of Pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Abiodun S.; Aboyeji, Abiodun P.; Fawole, Adegboyega A.; Balogun, Olayinka R.; Adesina, Kikelomo T.; Adeniran, Peace I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the expectations of pregnant women on the role of the male partner during conception and delivery. Methodology A prospective multi-centre observational study comprising 506 pregnant women at eight health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Consenting women were recruited at antenatal clinics using multistage purposive sampling and a self-administered questionnaire was administered with provision for interpreters in local dialects for those without western education. The data was analyzed using SPSS using percentages and chi-square test; p <0.05 was termed significant. Results Participants were aged 17 to 49 years (mean 30.23±4.81), 82.4% desire male partners company during antenatal clinic visits and 59.1% experienced this in index pregnancy. During labour and delivery, 427(84.4%) want company; 345(80.8%) chose the male partner with 211(57.7%) hoping men will appreciate the value of females afterwards although 27.9% feared the men may disturb the health workers, 72(14.2%) male partners attended previous delivery and 84.8% of the women were satisfied with the experience. Significant predictors of support for male partner’s presence at delivery were maternal age (p=0.001), secondary or higher education (p=0.001) and parity less than four (p=0.001); religion (x21.010; p>0.001) and social status (p>0.001) were statistically insignificant. Pregnant women wanted education for male partners on care of pregnant women (77.0%) and sex during conception (25.2%). Conclusion Parturient desire male partners’ presence at deliveries but their past participation was low; health facility modifications and education for men are required to meet the desires. PMID:26609295

  6. Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control

  7. Life and death partners: apoptosis, autophagy and the cross-talk between them

    E-print Network

    Kimchi, Adi

    Review Life and death partners: apoptosis, autophagy and the cross-talk between them A Eisenberg is a complex well-controlled process. Apoptosis, the first genetically programmed death process identified, has pathway, suppressing apoptosis, and in others, it can lead to death itself, either in collaboration

  8. Association of Violence against Partner and Former Victim Experiences: A Sample of Clients Voluntarily Attending Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…

  9. 76 FR 13620 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Compartment... such standard, AMD STANDARD 026--Seat, Seat Mount and Occupant Restraint Dynamic Test--Proposed (draft... seating to validate the test methods proposed. It is anticipated testing will be conducted in up to...

  10. The Role of the Social Partners in Youth and Adult Vocational Education and Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John Houman; Jensen, Grethe

    This document about Denmark has the following four aims: (1) to provide an overview on the vocational education and training system; (2) to describe and evaluate the social partners' (employers, employers' organizations, and unions) role in implementation, management, and control in relation to the vocational training system; (3) to outline the…

  11. Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

  12. The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…

  13. 75 FR 73111 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Customer and Other Partners Satisfaction Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Partners Satisfaction Surveys SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3507(A)(1)(D) of the... valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Generic Clearance for Satisfaction Surveys of... by Clinical Center personnel: (1) To evaluate the satisfaction of various Clinical Center...

  14. Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks Feng Fu,1,2

    E-print Network

    Hauert, Christoph

    , One Brattle Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA 2 Center for Systems and Control, College reputations. We manipulate the partner switching in two ways; that is, individuals can switch from the lowest at different scales of biological organization, rang- ing from genes to multicellular organisms 1 . Most impor

  15. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  16. 76 FR 50715 - Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Agency for International Development Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program... briefing. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a briefing on the Partner Vetting System (PVS) pilot...

  17. 26 CFR 1.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...distribution to partners with positive capital account balances...accordance with the partner's positive capital account balances...combination of likely investment outcomes least favorable for J, the...combination of likely investment outcomes least favorable for...

  18. PARTNERS FOR ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES

    E-print Network

    PARTNERS FOR ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES UNIVERSITY of Operations June 15, 2015 Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology works with researchers, practitioners, and industry to implement transportation research and innovation, including products and services

  19. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an intimate partner. • 81% of women who experienced rape, stalking or physical violence by an intimate partner ... their experiences. IPV-Related Impacts Among Victims of Rape, Physical Violence, and/ or Stalking by an Intimate ...

  20. 77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License...October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth...

  1. Crossing the Chasm of Mistrust: Collaborating With Immigrant Populations Through Community Organizations and Academic Partners

    PubMed Central

    Pirie, Alex

    2013-01-01

    As a community partner and an academic researcher, we experienced the direct and extended benefits of a relatively small-scale, community-engaged informed consent process that developed in an immigrant occupational health study, Assessing and Controlling Occupational Health Risks for Immigrant Populations in Somerville, Massachusetts. The practice of human participants research played a positive role in the community, and both community partners and researchers, as well as the larger academic community, reaped unexpected benefits during the five-year project (2005–2010), which continue into the present. Lessons learned from our experience may be helpful for wider application. PMID:24134386

  2. 48 CFR 752.204-71 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. As prescribed in (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.7005(b)(1) and 716.506(a), insert the following clause in all contracts subject to vetting: Partner Vetting (FEB 2012) (a) The contractor must comply... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  3. 48 CFR 752.204-71 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. As prescribed in (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.7005(b)(1) and 716.506(a), insert the following clause in all contracts subject to vetting: Partner Vetting (FEB 2012) (a) The contractor must comply... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  4. 48 CFR 752.204-71 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. As prescribed in (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.7005(b)(1) and 716.506(a), insert the following clause in all contracts subject to vetting: Partner Vetting (FEB 2012) (a) The contractor must comply... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  5. Partner's Stake in Conformity and Abused Wives' Psychological Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn…

  6. Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility among Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner

  8. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  9. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  10. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  11. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  12. 26 CFR 7.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partner's distributive share. 7.704-1 Section 7... distributive share. (a)-(c) (d) Limitation on allowance of losses. (1)-(2) (3)(i) Section 213(e) of the Tax... partners of losses incurred by a partnership. A partner is entitled to deduct the share of partnership...

  13. PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

    2010-10-01

    NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105 radio astronomical remote observations have been performed with users. Until now, more than 2,000 students have been involved in radio astronomical observations.

  14. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-07-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  15. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-05-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  16. Intimate partner violence among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. Methods The current study examined 1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and 2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (n=203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Results Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean CES-D scores (b = 0.54, 95%CI 0.07; 1.02, p < .05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (OR = 6.65, 95%CI 1.61; 27.46, p < .01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use and ethnicity. Conclusions These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment. PMID:24821357

  17. ECHO Data Partners Join Forces to Federate Access to Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, J.; Macie, M.

    2003-12-01

    During the past year the NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project has been collaborating with various Earth science data and client providers to design and implement the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). ECHO is an open, interoperable metadata clearinghouse and order broker system. ECHO functions as a repository of information intended to streamline access to digital data and services provided by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the extended Earth science community. In a unique partnership, ECHO data providers are working to extend their services in the digital era, to reflect current trends in scientific and educational communications. The multi-organization, inter-disciplinary content of ECHO provides a valuable new service to a growing number of Earth science applications and interdisciplinary research efforts. As such, ECHO is expected to attract a wide audience. In this poster, we highlight the contributions of current ECHO data partners and provide information for prospective data partners on how the project supports the incorporation of new collections and effective long-term asset management that is directly under the control of the organizations who contribute resources to ECHO.

  18. Women’s Unprotected Sex Intentions: Roles of Sexual Victimization, Intoxication, and Partner Perception

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Sexually victimized women may make sexual decisions differently than non-victimized women. This study used an eroticized scenario and laboratory alcohol administration to investigate the roles of victimization history, intoxication, and relationship context in women’s perceptions of a male partner and their subsequent intentions for unprotected sex. A community sample of 436 women completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. After random assignment to an alcohol or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into a sexual scenario which depicted the male partner as having high or low potential for a lasting relationship. Participants rated their perceptions of his intoxication, STI risk level, and anticipated reactions to insistence on condom use. They then indicated their likelihood of allowing the partner to decide how far to go sexually (abdication) and engaging in unprotected sex. SEM analyses revealed that intoxication predicted greater unprotected sex likelihood indirectly via abdication. CSA and ASA predicted partner perceptions, which in turn predicted unprotected sex likelihood. These findings indicate that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women may respond differently in sexual encounters partly as a function of their perceptions of partners’ STI risk and anticipated reactions to condom insistence. PMID:23718552

  19. The IPV-GBM Scale: A New Scale to Measure Intimate Partner Violence among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay and bisexual men. Methods Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S). Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence. Results A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90). The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures. Conclusions The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S. PMID:23755098

  20. Neutrino masses from neutral top partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batell, Brian; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    We present theories of "natural neutrinos" in which neutral fermionic top partner fields are simultaneously the right-handed neutrinos (RHN), linking seemingly disparate aspects of the Standard Model structure: (a) The RHN top partners are responsible for the observed small neutrino masses, (b) they help ameliorate the tuning in the weak scale and address the little hierarchy problem, and (c) the factor of 3 arising from Nc in the top-loop Higgs mass corrections is countered by a factor of 3 from the number of vectorlike generations of RHN. The RHN top partners may arise in pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson Higgs models such as the twin Higgs, as well as more general composite, little, and orbifold Higgs scenarios, and three simple example models are presented. This framework firmly predicts a TeV-scale seesaw, as the RHN masses are bounded to be below the TeV scale by naturalness. The generation of light neutrino masses relies on a collective breaking of the lepton number, allowing for comparatively large neutrino Yukawa couplings and a rich associated phenomenology. The structure of the neutrino mass mechanism realizes in certain limits the inverse or linear classes of seesaw. Natural neutrino models are testable at a variety of current and future experiments, particularly in tests of lepton universality, searches for lepton flavor violation, and precision electroweak and Higgs coupling measurements possible at high energy e+e- and hadron colliders.

  1. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    PubMed Central

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  2. Effects of Dance on Gait and Balance in Parkinson Disease: A Comparison of Partnered and Non-Partnered Dance Movement

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2009-01-01

    Partnered tango dance can improve balance and gait in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). Partnered dance may allow individuals with PD to challenge balance more than non-partnered dance. Alternatively, partnered practice could reduce balance gains because the patient may rely on the partner as a balance aid when challenged. We compared effects of partnered to non-partnered dance on balance and mobility in 39 people (11 females) with mild-moderate PD (Hoehn & Yahr stages I-III). Participants were randomly assigned to partnered or non-partnered tango and attended 1-hour classes twice per week, completing 20 lessons within 10 weeks. Balance and gait were evaluated in the weeks immediately before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. Both groups significantly improved on the Berg Balance scale, comfortable and fast as possible walking velocity and cadence. Improvements were maintained at the one-month follow-up. The non-partnered class improved as much as the partnered class; however, Partner participants expressed more enjoyment and interest in continuing. PMID:20008820

  3. The Influence of Individual and Partner Characteristics on the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2008-01-01

    This study examines individual and partner characteristics associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adult relationships with opposite sex partners. Using data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined 1,275 young adults' heterosexual romantic relationships.…

  4. Synchronising movements with the sounds of a virtual partner enhances partner likeability.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jacques; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that synchronising movements with other people can influence affiliative behaviour towards them. While research has focused on synchronisation with visually observed movement, synchronisation with a partner who is heard may have similar effects. We replicate findings showing that synchronisation can influence ratings of likeability of a partner, but demonstrate that this is possible with virtual interaction, involving a video of a partner. Participants performed instructed synchrony in time to sounds instead of the observable actions of another person. Results show significantly higher ratings of likeability of a partner after moving at the same time as sounds attributed to that partner, compared with moving in between sounds. Objectively quantified synchrony also correlated with ratings of likeability. Belief that sounds were made by another person was manipulated in Experiment 2, and results demonstrate that when sounds are attributed to a computer, ratings of likeability are not affected by moving in or out of time. These findings demonstrate that interaction with sound can be experienced as social interaction in the absence of genuine interpersonal contact, which may help explain why people enjoy engaging with recorded music. PMID:24805849

  5. The influences of partner accuracy and partner memory ability on social false memories.

    PubMed

    Numbers, Katya T; Meade, Michelle L; Perga, Vladimir A

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examined whether increasing the proportion of false information suggested by a confederate would influence the magnitude of socially introduced false memories in the social contagion paradigm Roediger, Meade, & Bergman (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8:365-371, 2001). One participant and one confederate collaboratively recalled items from previously studied household scenes. During collaboration, the confederate interjected 0 %, 33 %, 66 %, or 100 % false items. On subsequent individual-recall tests across three experiments, participants were just as likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from a partner who was mostly accurate (33 % incorrect) as they were from a partner who was not at all accurate (100 % incorrect). Even when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a related memory task, they were still as likely to incorporate the confederate's entirely misleading suggestions on subsequent recall and recognition tests (Exp. 2). Only when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a practice test of the experimental task itself were they able to reduce false memory, and this reduction occurred selectively on a subsequent individual recognition test (Exp. 3). These data demonstrate that participants do not always consider their partners' memory ability when working on collaborative memory tasks. PMID:25035186

  6. Partner switching can favour cooperation in a biological market.

    PubMed

    Schwagmeyer, P L

    2014-09-01

    Intraspecific cooperation and interspecific mutualisms can be promoted by mechanisms that reduce the frequency with which cooperative organisms are exploited by unhelpful partners. One such mechanism consists of changing partners after interacting with an uncooperative individual. I used McNamara et al.'s (Nature, 451, 2008, 189) partner switching model as a framework to examine whether this mechanism can select for increased cooperative investment by house sparrows (Passer domesticus) collaborating to rear offspring; previous research on this species has shown that substantial cooperative investments by both pair members are required to achieve high pay-offs from collaborating. I found that the poorer the outcome of a breeding attempt relative to the number of eggs the female invested, the greater the likelihood of partner switching. The incidence of partner switching changed seasonally, with peak switching coinciding with an increase in the number of alternative partners available to females. After females switched partners, their breeding outcomes rose to match those of females that remained with the same partner; this was not the case for males that switched partners. Consistent with the model's prediction, males in stable partnerships achieved over 25% higher than average reproductive success, which was attributable to both persistently good breeding outcomes and their older partners' high fecundity. These results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that partner switching favours increased cooperative investment levels, and they demonstrate that variation in the relative value of by-product benefits can enhance that process. PMID:25056721

  7. Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K; Cohen, Patricia; Brown, Jocelyn; Smailes, Elizabeth; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2003-08-01

    An unselected sample of 543 children was followed over 20 years to test the independent effects of parenting, exposure to domestic violence between parents (ETDV), maltreatment, adolescent disruptive behavior disorders, and emerging adult substance abuse disorders (SUDs) on the risk of violence to and from an adult partner. Conduct disorder (CD) was the strongest risk for perpetrating partner violence for both sexes, followed by ETDV, and power assertive punishment. The effect of child abuse was attributable to these 3 risks. ETDV conferred the greatest risk of receiving partner violence; CD increased the odds of receiving partner violence but did not mediate this effect. Child physical abuse and CD in adolescence were strong independent risks for injury to a partner. SUD mediated the effect of adolescent CD on injury to a partner but not on injury by a partner. Prevention implications are highlighted. PMID:12924679

  8. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for lung cancer patients and their partners: Results of a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schellekens, Melanie P. J.; Molema, Johan; Speckens, Anne E. M.; van der Drift, Miep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer patients and partners show high rates of impaired quality of life and heightened distress levels. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction has proven to be effective in reducing psychological distress in cancer patients. However, studies barely included lung cancer patients. Aim: We examined whether Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction might be a feasible and effective intervention for patients with lung cancer and partners. Design: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction is a training in which mindfulness practices are combined with psycho-education to help participants cope with distress. In this mixed methods pilot study, questionnaires on psychological distress and quality of life were administered before, directly after and 3?months after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training, in combination with semi-structured interviews. Setting/participants: Patients with lung cancer and partners were recruited at one tertiary care academic medical centre. A total of 19 lung cancer patients and 16 partners participated in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training. Results: Most patients were diagnosed with advanced stage lung cancer. Vast majority completed the training. Those receiving anti-cancer treatment did not miss more sessions than patients who were not currently treated. Patients and partners felt positive about participating in a peer group and with their partner. Among participants no significant changes were found in psychological distress. Caregiver burden in partners decreased significantly after following Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. The qualitative analysis showed that the training seemed to instigate a process of change in participants. Conclusion: The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training seemed to be feasible for patients with lung cancer and their partners. A randomized controlled trial is needed to examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in reducing psychological distress in lung cancer patients and partners. PMID:25701663

  9. Capacitation-Related Lipid Remodeling of Mammalian Spermatozoa Membrane Determines the Final Fate of Male Gametes: A Computational Biology Study.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Nicola; Greco, Luana; Ordinelli, Alessandra; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    To become fully fertile, mammalian spermatozoa must undergo a complex process of biochemical maturation within the female genital tract, which determines a marked lipid remodeling (LR) of membranes. Here, we represent this process as a biological network, which is a graph constituted by nodes (the molecules involved in LR) and by edges (their interactions). As a result, we found that LR network has a scale-free and small world topology. This implies that it is robust against random damage and that it allows a fast and specific transmission of information. In addition, the hubs in the network allow identification of the control mechanisms involved in membrane-related signaling, which could concur in determining the fate of ejaculated spermatozoa. Interestingly, different pathways involved in LR (maintenance of functional incompetence, reaching of fertilizing ability, apoptosis) are overlapped and some molecules take part in different signalling cascades; thus their role in sperm biology needs to be interpreted in a more large context. In addition, it was possible to differentiate, either based on their topological and biological characteristics, the molecules acting as global or local controller in LR. These findings may contribute to the understanding of capacitation-related signaling and of sperm physiopathology. PMID:26565605

  10. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Kian Ang, K.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  11. Characterizing the burden of premature ejaculation from a patient and partner perspective: a multi-country qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Revicki, Dennis; Howard, Kellee; Hanlon, Jennifer; Mannix, Sally; Greene, Alison; Rothman, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with PE and the female partners of men with PE on their sexual experience, distress and relationships. Methods Qualitative data were collected through 14 focus groups in the US and through one-on-one interviews in the US, UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Poland. Study participants included heterosexual men with PE and female partners of males with PE. All participants were asked about how PE affects their daily life, including emotional impacts. One-on-one interviews also included obtaining feedback on the male and female versions of 4-single item measures of PE focusing on ejaculatory control, satisfaction with intercourse, interpersonal distress, and relationship difficulty. Results Participants included 172 males with PE and 67 female partners of men with PE. Lack of control over ejaculation and dissatisfaction with intercourse emerged as central themes of PE. Lack of ejaculatory control resulted in greater dissatisfaction and greater emotional distress, including feelings of inadequacy, disappointment, and anxiety. Continued PE ultimately leads to greater problems with partners and often disrupts partner relationships. Participants indicated that PE was keeping them from attaining complete intimacy in their relationships even when their partners were generally satisfied with sexual intercourse. Impacts of PE on sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and partner relationships were consistent across countries. Feedback on the single-item PE measures confirmed relevance of the item content and further confirmed major themes identified from the qualitative data. Conclusion This qualitative study provides valuable insights on the substantial psychosocial burden of PE in the US and the Europe. Lack of control over ejaculation resulted in dissatisfaction with intercourse and increased emotional distress, and wide-ranging impact for both men with PE and their partners of men with PE. Data collected in this study may help inform the content of new patient reported measures for use in PE research. PMID:18474090

  12. Assessing resilience in preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Howell, Kathryn H; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Czyz, Ewa; Lilly, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined why some preschool-age children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) showed deleterious outcomes and others appeared more resilient. Resilience, conceptualized as strengths in emotion regulation and prosocial skills, was evaluated using the Social Competence Scale developed by the Conduct Problem Prevention Research Group. The sample consisted of 56 mothers and their 4- to 6-year-old children exposed to IPV within the past 2 years. After controlling for relevant demographic factors, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that better parenting performance, fewer maternal mental health problems, and less severe violence exposure predicted better emotion regulation and prosocial skill scores, which in turn were negatively correlated with maladaptive child behaviors. These findings can be used to inform and enhance clinical services for children exposed to IPV. PMID:20514814

  13. Setting the Stage for Social Change: Using Live Theater to Dispel Myths About Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Dill-Shackleford, Karen E; Green, Melanie C; Scharrer, Erica; Wetterer, Craig; Shackleford, Lee E

    2015-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the ability of fictional narratives to educate about social and health issues. Although some entertainment-education efforts have used live theater as a mechanism for social change, very few use social science methods to demonstrate exposure effects. This project used live theater to increase understanding and knowledge about intimate partner violence, a pervasive and costly social and health problem. Audiences watched either a play about abusive relationships-emphasizing psychological abuse and the role of coercion and control-or a control play. Compared with controls, those who watched the abuse play were more knowledgeable and less accepting of myths about abusive relationships in a way that mirrored play content. Although both plays were highly transporting, transportation did not explain a significant amount of variance in the attitudes toward intimate partner violence. These results provide rare evidence for theater as a tool for social change. PMID:26086987

  14. Hiring your next partner: AOA critical issues.

    PubMed

    Blasier, R Dale; Gagnon, Michael R; Iannotti, Joseph P; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Hiring a new partner into an orthopaedic department or group can be a daunting task. A recent American Orthopedic Association symposium sought to address three major aspects of hiring that affect orthopaedic leaders: (1) when to hire-the chairperson's role; (2) generational issues that affect hiring; and (3) the development of an initial compensation package.How does the chairperson recruit new physicians? Hiring a new partner into the academic setting requires a good deal of foresight. There must be an established game plan. Advertising and interviews need to be orchestrated. Chairpersons can find information about candidates from many unique sources. Fit within the department and community is important and must be cultivated. Spouses and families need special attention. Research candidates have individual needs. Perhaps the most important aspect of recruitment is the development of a realistic business plan. This paper provides an overview of factors to consider in managing a new hire.Generational issues are intriguing. Should they affect our hiring practices? It seems clear to established physicians that the new generation of graduates is different from their predecessors. Is this really true? Most everyone is familiar with the terms "Silent Generation," "Baby Boomers," "Generation X," and "Generation Y." Is there anything to be gained by categorizing an applicant? Is it important to hire a replica of one's self? This paper provides a thoughtful overview of generational issues as they apply to hiring new partners.Most department chairpersons are not trained as negotiators. Some preparation and experience are helpful in guiding the process of making an initial offer to a candidate. It is not all about pay. The package includes the guarantee period, expectations for the new hire, mentorship, and resources. How much should new orthopaedic academic hires be paid? Recent benchmark data from the Academic Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean income of $282,667 for physicians who have just finished a fellowship. New hires are concerned about call frequency and available time free from work. How much work should be expected from an academic surgeon? Recent survey data from the American Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean of 9200 relative value units per year. This article offers some guidelines for the chairperson who needs to formulate an initial offer for a new hire.There is a lot involved in hiring a new partner, as times are changing. This paper offers considerable food for thought about hiring. PMID:25187594

  15. Rating managed care plans as business partners.

    PubMed

    Barber, R L

    1997-03-01

    Managed care plans are driven to meet consumer quality of care demands. But, plans that meet these consumer demands do not necessarily meet provider expectations for quality business partnerships. Therefore, providers need to develop not only clinical performance indicators but also indicators that will help them evaluate managed care plans as business partners. Performance indicators should be developed to measure managed care plans' medical loss ratio, compensation cost/benefit, payment promptness, authorization convenience and promptness, insurance verification convenience and promptness, payment accuracy, medical management, provider relations responsiveness, member education effectiveness, recorded complaints, risk transfer, contract terms, and contract equity. PMID:10165437

  16. A watershed blueprint: Partners work together 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info A watershed blueprint.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6350 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name A watershed blueprint.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 txH2O... | pg. 18 A watershed blueprint Partners work together to restore Arroyo Colorado?s health In 2002 the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) set a target of 90 percent reduction of nutrients and biochemical oxygen demand for the Arroyo...

  17. Sub-Clinical Trauma in the Treatment of Partner Violent Offenders with Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With an established association between PTSD and the perpetration of intimate partner violence, evaluating the effectiveness of emerging integrated treatments for dual substance use and partner violent behavior on individuals with a significant trauma history may serve to improve treatment outcomes for clients with axis I psychopathology. This paper examined the association between sub-clinical trauma, treatment compliance, and recidivism in a sample of male, substance dependent intimate partner violence offenders. Design/methodology/approach The described investigation utilized violence perpetration, substance use, and trauma data collected during a larger, randomized control treatment evaluation study. Data was collected from 56 participants at 4 time points throughout treatment. Findings Participants with a significant trauma history comprised 33.9% of the sample and demonstrated poorer treatment attendance, as well as heightened partner violence recidivism throughout treatment, as compared to participants who denied experiencing a significant trauma. This finding held across participants receiving substance treatment only and combined treatment addressing substance use and violence. Practical Implications IPV perpetrators often have a trauma history themselves. The association between sub-clinical trauma symptomatology and poor treatment outcomes calls for the adaptation of current partner violence intervention models to accommodate the large subset of clients who suffer from either sub-clinical or clinically significant trauma. Originality/value This paper is the first to address the potential influence of sub-clinical trauma on the integrated treatment of substance use and partner violence within a forensic sample. Suggestions are offered to adapt existing treatment models to accommodate dual diagnosed clients. PMID:25893007

  18. Perceptions of partners' attributions for depression in relation to perceptions of support and conflict in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Blais, Rebecca K; Renshaw, Keith D

    2014-10-01

    People's attributions for their own psychological problems are linked to their interpersonal behaviors and attitudes. However, depressed individuals' inferences about their romantic partners' attributions for their depressive symptoms have yet to be studied in relation to their perceptions of relationship quality. This study examined perceived support from and conflict with partners in relation to perceptions of partners' attributions for depression in 165 individuals experiencing at least mild depressive symptoms. After controlling for relevant demographic characteristics, perceived internal/controllable psychological attributions were related to greater perceived conflict and lower perceived support, and perceived controllable biological attributions were related to greater perceived conflict. Perceived external/uncontrollable psychological and uncontrollable biological attributions were unrelated to perceived support and conflict. Findings suggest that perceived attributions may help explain the link between depression, support, and conflict in romantic relationships. PMID:24329870

  19. New Partners, More Kids: Multiple-Partner Fertility in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Declining rates of marriage and overall increases in union instability, combined with high levels of unintended and nonmarital fertility, create the possibility for parents to have children with more than one partner, called multiple-partner fertility, or MPF. The unique characteristics of families with MPF present data and other logistical challenges to researchers studying the phenomenon. Drawing from recent studies and updated data, I present new estimates of MPF that show that about 13 percent of men aged 40 to 44 and 19 percent of women aged 41 to 49 have children with more than one partner, with a higher prevalence among the disadvantaged. Compared to parents with two or more children by only one partner, people with MPF become parents at younger ages, largely with unintended first births, and often do so outside of marriage. This article touches on the implications of MPF for families and concludes by discussing the theoretical difficulties in studying MPF and the challenges it presents to public policy. PMID:25284822

  20. Polycystins and partners: proposed role in mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Retailleau, Kevin; Duprat, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the two polycystins, PC1 and PC2, lead to polycystic kidney disease. Polycystins are able to form complexes with numerous families of proteins that have been suggested to participate in mechanical sensing. The proposed role of polycystins and their partners in the kidney primary cilium is to sense urine flow. A role for polycystins in mechanosensing has also been shown in other cell types such as vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes. At the plasma membrane, polycystins interact with diverse ion channels of the TRP family and with stretch-activated channels (Piezos, TREKs). The actin cytoskeleton and its interacting proteins, such as filamin A, have been shown to be essential for these interactions. Numerous proteins involved in cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix junctions interact with PC1 and/or PC2. These multimeric protein complexes are important for cell structure integrity, the transmission of force, as well as for mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. A group of polycystin partners are also involved in subcellular trafficking mechanisms. Finally, PC1 and especially PC2 interact with elements of the endoplasmic reticulum and are essential components of calcium homeostasis. In conclusion, we propose that both PC1 and PC2 act as conductors to tune the overall cellular mechanosensitivity. PMID:24687583

  1. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  2. Evolution of equal division among unequal partners.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas; André, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of human fairness is its insensitivity to power: although strong individuals are often in a position to coerce weak individuals, fairness requires them to share the benefits of cooperation equally. The existence of such egalitarianism is poorly explained by current evolutionary models. We present a model based on cooperation and partner choice that can account for the emergence of a psychological disposition toward fairness, whatever the balance of power between the cooperative partners. We model the evolution of the division of a benefit in an interaction similar to an ultimatum game, in a population made up of individuals of variable strength. The model shows that strong individuals will not receive any advantage from their strength, instead having to share the benefits of cooperation equally with weak individuals at the evolutionary equilibrium, a result that is robust to variations in population size and the proportion of weak individuals. We discuss how this model suggests an explanation for why egalitarian behaviors toward everyone, including the weak, should be more likely to evolve in humans than in any other species. PMID:25522195

  3. Support utilization by partners of self-identified sex addicts.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Sara E; Hook, Joshua N; Corley, M Deborah; Schneider, Jennifer P

    2014-01-01

    This online survey examined the support resources used by partners of sex addicts. Partners (N = 92) answered questions about which sources of support they found most useful, relationship functioning, and demographic and background variables. Partners rated therapists, spirituality, support groups, and friends as most useful; and the mate, their children, and their other family members as least useful. Participants indicated that they used intrapersonal religious/spiritual activities (e.g., prayer and meditation) more than interpersonal religious/spiritual activities (e.g., religious services and support groups). Older partners sought more religious/spiritual support, and more educated partners rated therapy as more useful. Rating the mate as useful was most strongly associated with positive relationship outcomes. The authors conclude with recommendations for working with partners of sex addicts. PMID:24127901

  4. Self assessment of daytime sleepiness: patient versus partner.

    PubMed Central

    Kingshott, R. N.; Sime, P. J.; Engleman, H. M.; Douglas, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Patients with the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) and their spouses often differ in their assessment of the patient's sleepiness. A study was therefore undertaken to investigate whether either the patient's or partner's rating on the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was better related to illness severity. METHODS--Nocturnal variables (apnoeas+hypopnoeas/hour (AHI) and arousals/hour) and patient and partner ESS scores were compared in 103 new patients attending the sleep clinic. RESULTS--Mean patient and partner ESS scores were not different. In the whole population neither patient nor partner ESS variables correlated with AHI or arousal frequency. In the patients with SAHS (AHI > or = 15), partner ESS correlated weakly with AHI, but patient ESS did not. CONCLUSIONS--This study suggests that neither patient nor partner ESS ratings are strong predictors of SAHS severity. PMID:8539684

  5. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  6. Employment status and intimate partner violence among Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

    2015-04-01

    Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide. PMID:25031103

  7. Birth Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your health, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners and desire to have children in the future. Your health care provider can help you select the best form of birth control for you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  8. Partner Selection for Interfirm Collaboration: The Context of Ship Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solesvik, Marina Z.; Encheva, Sylvia

    There is a growing body of research devoted to the issues of cooperative design. However, there are still gaps in the existing knowledge on partner selection for cooperation. This paper intends to explore partner selection issues in the context of collaborative ship design. The study aims to fill a gap in the partner selection literature by proposing a quantitative technique based on formal concept analysis. An illustrative example of the selection of a partner for a project-based alliance in a naval architect firm is presented. The study has implications for practitioners and researchers.

  9. [Adjustment to a Stressful Event in the Couple: Depression of the Partner as Risk for Adjustment Disorder].

    PubMed

    Horn, Andrea B; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Maladaptive reactions on stressful experiences justifying a diagnosis of adjustment disorder have high prevalence. Little is known about the possible risk for clinically significant maladaptation that results from the social context. The literature on the effects of depression on communication and altered support conditions in couples is suggesting this. Aim of this study was to investigate whether clinically significant depression in the romantic partner is a risk factor for adjustment disorder following a concept of stress-response disorder. Furthermore, from a dimensional point of view a possible positive association between depressive symptoms in the partner and own adjustment symptom was studied. Thereby, own depressive symptoms were controlled for in order to exclude mere depressive contagion and isolate stress-related responses. In an online-couple-study N=294 participants (N=147 couples) reported whether or not they had experienced a stressful event that is still bothering them. N=152 participants reported such an event. N=28 of this group reached the threshold of a possible diagnosis with the screening questionnaire "Adjustment disorder New Module". N=14 romantic partners reported depressive symptoms above the cut-off of the CES-D. The risk for an adjustment disorder is elevated if the female partner reports a clinically significant level of depressive symptoms (OR 7.13). This was only true when female partners were depressed, the depression of male partners did not show any significant associations. Accordingly, dimensionally there is a positive association between depressive symptoms of the female partner and adjustment symptoms of preoccupation (stressor-related repetitive negative thoughts). Depression of the romantic partner seems to be a significant risk factor for maladaptive reactions on a stressful event. This was particularly true for male participants of the study. To sum up, results encourage taking up an interpersonal perspective in research and clinical interventions. PMID:25822103

  10. Promoting Adaptive Coping by Persons with HIV Disease: Evaluation of a Patient/Partner Intervention Model

    PubMed Central

    Fife, Betsy L.; Scott, Linda L.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Zwickl, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention to facilitate adaptive coping by persons living with HIV (PLWH), with the participation of their cohabiting partners as a dimension of the intervention. An experimental design with randomization was used, and 84 PLWH and their partners were recruited. The intervention was based on a psychosocial educational model that incorporated 4 two-hour sessions focused on communication, stress appraisal, adaptive coping strategies, and building social support. Both members of the dyad were included in each session. The comparison control included four supportive phone calls to the PLWH alone. Data were collected from both the PLWH and their partners in each of the two groups at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 3 months and 6 months post-treatment. Data were analyzed using RM ANOVA, with change scores from the partner data being covariates. Findings indicated that the design was a feasible model, which demonstrated potential for the management of stress, and possibly problems such as adherence, in PLWH. A manual was developed as a part of this intervention and is currently available. PMID:18191771

  11. EXPERIENCE WITH COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE FROM A PARTNER LAB PERSPECTIVE.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFF, L.T.

    2005-10-10

    Collaborative development and operation of large physics experiments is fairly common. Less common is the collaborative development or operation of accelerators. A current example of the latter is the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The SNS project was conceived as a collaborative effort between six DOE facilities. In the SNS case, the control system was also developed collaboratively. The SNS project has now moved beyond the collaborative development phase and into the phase where Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is integrating contributions from collaborating ''partner labs'' and is beginning accelerator operations. In this paper, the author reflects on the benefits and drawbacks of the collaborative development of an accelerator control system as implemented for the SNS project from the perspective of a partner lab.

  12. Qualitative exploration of cognition in intimate partner violence offenders and intimate partner violence sex offenders research portfolio 

    E-print Network

    Weldon, Sarah Elizabeth

    2013-11-29

    Aims: Recently, empirical literature exploring cognitive characteristics of intimate partner violence offenders has received considerable attention with both theory and practice historically focusing on victims of the ...

  13. Top Partners Searches and Composite Higgs Models

    E-print Network

    Oleksii Matsedonskyi; Giuliano Panico; Andrea Wulzer

    2015-12-14

    Colored fermionic partners of the top quark are well-known signatures of the Composite Higgs scenario and for this reason they have been and will be subject of an intensive experimental study at the LHC. Performing an assessment of the theoretical implications of this experimental effort is the goal of the present paper. We proceed by analyzing a set of simple benchmark models, characterized by simple two-dimensional parameter spaces where the results of the searches are conveniently visualized and their impact quantified. We only draw exclusion contours, in the hypothesis of no signal, but of course our formalism could equally well be used to report discoveries in a theoretically useful format.

  14. Top Partners Searches and Composite Higgs Models

    E-print Network

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii; Wulzer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Colored fermionic partners of the top quark are well-known signatures of the Composite Higgs scenario and for this reason they have been and will be subject of an intensive experimental study at the LHC. Performing an assessment of the theoretical implications of this experimental effort is the goal of the present paper. We proceed by analyzing a set of simple benchmark models, characterized by simple two-dimensional parameter spaces where the results of the searches are conveniently visualized and their impact quantified. We only draw exclusion contours, in the hypothesis of no signal, but of course our formalism could equally well be used to report discoveries in a theoretically useful format.

  15. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  16. Exploring the Paradox of Intimate Partner Violence and Increased Contraceptive Use in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Adjiwanou, Vissého; N'Bouke, Afiwa

    2015-06-01

    We question the positive effect of intimate partner violence on women's modern contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa found in previous studies. The explanations offered for this counter-intuitive result are either that women make greater efforts to avoid childbearing in conflictual relationships, or that endogeneity bias exists. Endogeneity bias stems from the inability of researchers to attribute a specific cause to one variable when they are unable to control for related missing covariates. Demographic and Health Survey data from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa provide evidence for the latter but not the former. Indeed, using simple probit regression models, we observe a positive relationship between intimate partner violence and modern contraceptive use in Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. This effect remains unchanged when controlling for various measures of women's autonomy in the household, showing that these two variables interact with contraceptive use independently. However, the use of recursive bivariate probit and Rosenbaum bounds sensitivity analysis to control for endogeneity biases erodes the initial positive effect in the five countries, although only partially in Burkina Faso. Our research shows that the previously reported findings arise from poor model specification and highlights the need for more appropriate data to assess the effect of intimate partner violence on modern contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26059986

  17. 75 FR 27551 - Keystone Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Keystone Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Filing May 10, 2010. Take notice that on December 16, 2009, Keystone Energy Partners, LP submit for filing an Updated Market...

  18. 48 CFR 714.408-170 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partner vetting. 714.408-170 Section 714.408-170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL...

  19. 48 CFR 714.408-170 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partner vetting. 714.408-170 Section 714.408-170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL...

  20. 48 CFR 714.408-170 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partner vetting. 714.408-170 Section 714.408-170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL...

  1. 48 CFR 713.106-370 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 713.106-370 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  2. 48 CFR 713.106-370 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 713.106-370 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  3. 78 FR 69802 - Partner Vetting in USAID Assistance; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ...; Email: ghigginbotham@usaid.gov . Correction In the Federal Register of August 29, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 226 RIN 0412-AA71 Partner Vetting in USAID Assistance; Correction AGENCY: Agency for... additional 15 days to provide comments on its proposed Partner Vetting in USAID Assistance Rule. There was...

  4. 48 CFR 744.202-170 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to partner vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partner vetting. 744.202-170 Section 744.202-170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL...

  5. 48 CFR 744.202-170 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to partner vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partner vetting. 744.202-170 Section 744.202-170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL...

  6. 48 CFR 713.106-370 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 713.106-370 Partner vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the applicable... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partner vetting....

  7. 48 CFR 744.202-170 - Partner vetting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vetting. If an acquisition is identified as subject to partner vetting, see (48 CFR) AIDAR 704.70 for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partner vetting. 744.202-170 Section 744.202-170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL...

  8. Writing Partners: Expanding the Audiences for Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one English teacher developed an approach to teaching writing that pairs student writers with writers in the community outside the school. Outlines the features of this writing partners project, including the responsibilities of each partner. Argues that such programs foster writer skill and self-esteem. (HB)

  9. Religious Leaders' Perspectives on Marriage, Divorce, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Heidi M.; Ware, Kimberly N.

    2006-01-01

    Religious leaders from Jewish, Christian, and Islamic faiths were interviewed about their understanding of the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and religion, and a grounded-theory analysis was conducted. The present manuscript explored the leaders' beliefs about the partners' responsibility for IPV and the role of divorce. Although…

  10. Associations between Number of Lifetime Partners and Other Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Roberta J.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between health behaviors and lifetime sexual partners. Data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey indicated that having two or more lifetime partners related to infrequent seatbelt use, driving after drinking, fighting, considering suicide, and using certain substances. Significant sex interactions…

  11. 77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2727-086. c. Dated Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth Hydroelectric Project. f....

  12. Global Energy Partners, LLC 500 Ygnacio Valley Road, Suite 450

    E-print Network

    Global Energy Partners, LLC 500 Ygnacio Valley Road, Suite 450 Walnut Creek, CA 94596 P: 925, LLC 500 Ygnacio Valley Blvd., Suite 450 Walnut Creek, CA 94596 Principal Investigator(s): I. Rohmund G Response and Energy Efficiency Potential for Midwest ISO, Global Energy Partners, LLC. Walnut Creek, CA

  13. Collaborative Partnering with Districts: Problems Encountered, Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Bryan R.; Gaddy, Barbara B.; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

    This paper examines the accomplishments of the Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) district research partners. Informed by 2 years of collaborative experience, the report documents the process McREL used in selecting partner sites and guides future field-based research partnerships by discussing problems encountered and…

  14. The Role of Partners for Employees' Recovery during the Weekend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Verena C.; Binnewies, Carmen; Haun, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of positive and negative experiences with the partner (absorption in joint activities and conflict with the partner) during the weekend on affective states at the beginning of the following work week and tested whether recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences) mediated these…

  15. Associating Pregnancy with Partner Violence against Chinese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2011-01-01

    The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence…

  16. Cooperation in wild Barbary macaques: factors affecting free partner choice.

    PubMed

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    A key aspect of cooperation is partner choice: choosing the best available partner improves the chances of a successful cooperative interaction and decreases the likelihood of being exploited. However, in studies on cooperation subjects are rarely allowed to freely choose their partners. Group-living animals live in a complex social environment where they can choose among several social partners differing in, for example, sex, age, temperament, or dominance status. Our study investigated whether wild Barbary macaques succeed to cooperate using an experimental apparatus, and whether individual and social factors affect their choice of partners and the degree of cooperation. We used the string pulling task that requires two monkeys to manipulate simultaneously a rope in order to receive a food reward. The monkeys were free to interact with the apparatus or not and to choose their partner. The results showed that Barbary macaques are able to pair up with a partner to cooperate using the apparatus. High level of tolerance between monkeys was necessary for the initiation of successful cooperation, while strong social bond positively affected the maintenance of cooperative interactions. Dominance status, sex, age, and temperament of the subjects also affected their choice and performance. These factors thus need to be taken into account in cooperative experiment on animals. Tolerance between social partners is likely to be a prerequisite for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:26350639

  17. Living with a Female Sexual Abuse Survivor: Male Partners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Brenda; Lein, Laura

    1996-01-01

    Reports the results of a qualitative study which addressed the effects of women's childhood sexual abuse on male partners and the couple relationship. Partners (n=6) expressed concerns about individually-focused survivors' therapy which can create strains in already burdened relationships. Suggestions are presented for a more systemic approach…

  18. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  19. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and…

  20. 76 FR 68745 - Seneca Power Partners, L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Seneca Power Partners, L.P. v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e and Rule 206 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Seneca Power Partners, L.P. (Complainant)...

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Partner Violence among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; Myer, Landon; Merais, Adele; Lombard, Carl; Reddy, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of partner violence among adolescents, nor of the factors with which it is associated. The objectives of this study were to document prevalence rates for partner violence among high school students in Cape Town, and to explore factors that are associated with such violence. Method: The sample…

  2. International Association for Ecology Amphipods on Seaweeds: Partners or Pests?

    E-print Network

    Duffy, J. Emmett

    International Association for Ecology Amphipods on Seaweeds: Partners or Pests? Author(s): J Amphipods on seaweeds: partners or pests? J. Emmett Duffy* University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill brown seaweed Sargassum filipendula, and peak in abundance between late winter and early summer. I used

  3. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  4. Psychopathology and Marital Satisfaction: The Importance of Evaluating Both Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisman, Mark A.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Using path analysis and hierarchical linear modeling, the authors evaluated the associations between both partners' level of depression and anxiety, as measured by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) content scales, and both partners' level of marital satisfaction among married couples (N = 774) that participated in the MMPI…

  5. Demographic and Social Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Jones, James Holland

    Demographic and Social Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia A Dyadic Power Media, LLC 2009 Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major health and human rights problem . Bargaining . Social networks A woman who has experienced violence in her life has most likely suffered

  6. A Professor's Life after Becoming the University Presidential Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Juanita Gamez

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify a public, state-supported university's role expectations of the presidential partner. The study identified various challenges and obstacles, as well as useful strategies for retaining the presidential partner's professional identity as a professor. This paper will provide a glossary of…

  7. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  8. Body ideals for heterosexual romantic partners: gender and sociocultural influences.

    PubMed

    Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. PMID:25462878

  9. Role of Partner Novelty in Sexual Functioning: A Review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men. PMID:25222339

  10. Sexual discordance and sexual partnering among heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-05-01

    This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health. PMID:24718674

  11. Sleep Disturbances and Their Association With Mental Health Among Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Cerulli, Catherine; Richards, Heidi; He, Hua; Perlis, Michael; Caine, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence puts the victim at risk for substantial medical and psychiatric morbidity. As with other stress- and trauma-related experiences, intimate partner violence is associated with sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia and nightmares. This association, however, has not been well characterized in terms of general prevalence or its further relationship with depression, suicidality, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods The present study used validated instruments to characterize insomnia and nightmares among 121 women exposed to intimate partner violence. Participants with and without depression were compared on demographic, abuse, and sleep characteristics as were those with and without suicidality. Logistic regression models were constructed to test sleep variables as independent predictors of depression controlling for demographic factors, abuse severity, and PTSD severity. Results Clinically significant insomnia and nightmares were observed in 46% and 32% of participants, respectively. Depressed women had more severe PTSD and were more likely to have insomnia and to have nightmares than nondepressed women. In models controlling for PTSD severity, the presence of insomnia was associated with an approximately eightfold greater risk of being depressed; nightmares were associated with a twofold increase in risk. Conclusions Sleep disturbances were prevalent among women experiencing intimate partner violence, with both insomnia and nightmares predicting the presence of depression even after controlling for PTSD severity. In addition to the need to address common mental health issues such as depression, given that sleep problems are modifiable and potentially less stigmatizing than mental health problems, assessing and addressing insomnia and nightmares in survivors of interpersonal violence warrants strong clinical consideration and further investigation. PMID:21988551

  12. 75 FR 20870 - Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P.; Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...79-0452] Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P.; Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312...hereby given that Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P. and Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC,...

  13. The Impact of Community-Based Outreach on Psychological Distress and Victim Safety in Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were…

  14. 76 FR 13621 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Litters and Patient Restraints to Proposed Test Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Litters and... such standard, AMD STANDARD 004--Method for Conducting Litter and Litter Retention System Dynamic Test..., and/or new litters to validate the test methods proposed. It is anticipated testing will be...

  15. Partners in Caregiving in a Special Care Environment: Cooperative Communication between Staff and Families on Dementia Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Julie; Curry, Leslie; Gruman, Cynthia; Porter, Martha; Henderson, Charles R., Jr.; Pillemer, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports the results of a randomized, controlled evaluation of Partners in Caregiving in a Special Care Environment, an intervention designed to improve communication and cooperation between staff and families of residents in nursing home dementia programs. Design and Methods: Participants included 388 family members and 384…

  16. Women's entrepreneurship and intimate partner violence: A cluster randomized trial of microenterprise assistance and partner participation in post-conflict Uganda (SSM-D-14-01580R1).

    PubMed

    Green, Eric P; Blattman, Christopher; Jamison, Julian; Annan, Jeannie

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is widespread and represents an obstacle to human freedom and a significant public health concern. Poverty alleviation programs and efforts to economically "empower" women have become popular policy options, but theory and empirical evidence are mixed on the relationship between women's empowerment and the experience of violence. We study the effects of a successful poverty alleviation program on women's empowerment and intimate partner relations and violence from 2009 to 2011. In the first experiment, a cluster-randomized superiority trial, 15 marginalized people (86% women) were identified in each of 120 villages (n = 1800) in Gulu and Kitgum districts in Uganda. Half of villages were randomly assigned via public lottery to immediate treatment: five days of business training, $150, and supervision and advising. We examine intent-to-treat estimates of program impact and heterogeneity in treatment effects by initial quality of partner relations. 16 months after the initial grants, the program doubled business ownership and incomes (p < 0.01); we show that the effect on monthly income, however, is moderated by initial quality of intimate partner relations. We also find small increases in marital control (p < 0.05), self-reported autonomy (p < 0.10), and quality of partner relations (p < 0.01), but essentially no change in intimate partner violence. In a second experiment, we study the impact of a low-cost attempt to include household partners (often husbands) in the process. Participants from the 60 waitlist villages (n = 904) were randomly assigned to participate in the program as individuals or with a household partner. We observe small, non-significant decreases in abuse and marital control and large increases in the quality of relationships (p < 0.05), but no effects on women's attitudes toward gender norms and a non-significant reduction in autonomy. Involving men and changing framing to promote more inclusive programming can improve relationships, but may not change gender attitudes or increase business success. Increasing women's earnings has no effect on intimate partner violence. PMID:25875324

  17. California Registered Domestic Partner Supplemental Information 01/2013 Name: ___________________________________________________ ID: __________________________

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    California Registered Domestic Partner Supplemental Information 01/2013 Name: ___________________________________________________ ID: __________________________ California Registered Domestic Partner Supplemental Information Effective January 1, 2005, Assembly Bill 205, known as the California Domestic Partner Rights

  18. 75 FR 16529 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...No. 29192; File No. 812-13681] Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice...investment companies. APPLICANTS: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust...

  19. TIME OFF FOR ANTE-NATAL APPOINTMENTS FATHER/PARTNER 1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    or the partner (including same sex) of a pregnant woman is entitled to take time off work to accompany the woman: The baby's father The expectant mothers spouse, her civil partner, or partner (of either sex

  20. 76 FR 23322 - Storage Development Partners, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...Storage Development Partners, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit...Storage Development Partners, LLC, filed an application for a...powerhouse to a planned AC-DC converter; and (8) appurtenant facilities...Storage Development Partners, LLC., 4900 Woodway, Suite...

  1. Partners in quality: managing your suppliers.

    PubMed

    Conway, B A

    1991-05-01

    Just expecting more from your supplier is not what partnership is about. We have had the experience where the quality improvement and partnership banner has been waved but the tone and spirit of the meeting did not encourage or support a joint quality improvement effort. Benefits will not be achieved until the wall truly begins to come apart and the relationship is built on mutual respect and trust. Data collection and open answers to questions often reveal embarrassing errors and obvious needs for improvements. As stated before, blame and finger-pointing must be replaced with a mutual commitment to asking and answering the question, "How can we improve?" As Dr. W. Edwards Deming has stated, "End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust." The structured approach of a quality improvement process and the application of quality methods and techniques has proven useful in removing emotion and helping the team focus on the process rather than the people and the issues involved. Quality improvement methods are focused on achieving both customer and supplier goals--customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and operational efficiency and effectiveness. Our experience with Partners in Quality as well as our experience with the quality leadership process supports a recent quote in the Harvard Business Review: "Quality is not just a slogan...(it is) the most profitable way to run a business." PMID:10110237

  2. Partners to invite bids for Qatari plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1994-05-18

    Qasenco, a joint venture planning to build a methanol plant at Umm Said, Qatar, will issue prequalification documents to contractors in early July. Partnership agreements to form the joint venture are expected to be concluded at the beginning of June. Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (Doha) will hold 50%. The remaining share will be split between Petronas (Kuala Lumpur) and Penspen (London). Other shareholders may also join. Market studies for the 2,500-m.t./day plant were based on ICI`s technology, but the partners want to look at other available processes-including Mitsubishi Gas Chemical`s-before committing to the $400-million venture. Schroder Wagg (London) has been appointed as the project`s financial adviser. About 30% of the financing is expected to come from equity and the rest as longterm credit. Petronas, the Malaysian state-owned energy company, already owns a 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant at Labuan but needs more product for its customers in the Far East. The company is interested in taking at least 50% of the output from the Umm Said plant.

  3. Prevention interventions for human immunodeficiency virus in drug-using women with a history of partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Hoffman, Monica A; Ulibarri, Monica D; Dyer, Typhanye V Penniman

    2012-01-01

    The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and partner violence disproportionately affect women who use drugs. Despite accumulating evidence throughout the world linking these epidemics, HIV prevention efforts focused on these synergistic issues as well as underlying determinants that contribute to the HIV risk environment (eg, housing instability, incarceration, policing practices, survival sex) are lacking. This article highlights selected behavior change theories and biomedical approaches that have been used or could be applied in HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence and in existing HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women that have been gender-focused while integrating histories of partner violence and/or relationship power dynamics. To date, there is a paucity of HIV prevention interventions designed for drug-using women (both in and outside of drug treatment programs) with histories of partner violence. Of the few that exist, they have been theory-driven, culture-specific, and address certain aspects of gender-based inequalities (eg, gender-specific norms, relationship power and control, partner violence through assessment of personal risk and safety planning). However, no single intervention has addressed all of these issues. Moreover, HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence are not widespread and do not address multiple components of the risk environment. Efficacious interventions should target individuals, men, couples, and social networks. There is also a critical need for the development of culturally tailored combination HIV prevention interventions that not only incorporate evidence-based behavioral and biomedical approaches (eg, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, female-initiated barrier methods) but also take into account the risk environment at the physical, social, economic and political levels. Ultimately, this approach will have a significant impact on reducing HIV infections among drug-using women with histories of partner violence. PMID:24500422

  4. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828

  5. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-05-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks. PMID:25128415

  6. New Developments in Intimate Partner Violence and Management of Its Mental Health Sequelae.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E; Vigod, Simone; Riazantseva, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and human rights problem that causes physical, sexual and psychological harms to men and women. IPV includes physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and/or controlling behaviours perpetrated by a current or previous intimate partner in a heterosexual or same-sex relationship. IPV affects both men and women, but women are disproportionately affected with nearly one third reporting IPV during their lifetime. Physical and sexual harms from IPV include injury, increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy complications and sometimes death. Psychological consequences include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, impulsivity and suicidality and non-specific physical complaints thought to be related to the traumatic nature and chronic stress of IPV. Children who witness IPV are also negatively impacted in the short and long term. This paper reviews prevalence, risk factors, adverse effects and current evidence-based mental health treatment advice for IPV victims. PMID:26711508

  7. The Continuation of Intimate Partner Violence from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Gordon, Mellissa; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to whether violence in adolescent romantic relationships is associated with relationship violence later in young adulthood. This study examined the continuation of intimate partner violence (IPV) from adolescence to young adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, results from negative binomial models and propensity score models showed that being victimized by relationship partners in adolescence was significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization in romantic relationships in young adulthood. Women reported higher levels of perpetration and lower levels of victimization than men did. Those who were living together (married or cohabiting) reported higher levels of victimization and perpetration than those who were dating. Further, such associations existed beyond the effects of parent–child violence and general aggression tendencies, suggesting the continuation of relationship-specific violence. Finally, these patterns persisted after controlling for participants’ age, race and ethnicity, parental education, and family structure. PMID:23687386

  8. Audience drives male songbird response to partner's voice.

    PubMed

    Vignal, Clémentine; Mathevon, Nicolas; Mottin, Stéphane

    2004-07-22

    According to the social intelligence hypothesis, social context represents an important force driving the selection of animal cognitive abilities such as the capacity to estimate the nature of the social relationships between other individuals. Despite this importance, the influence of this force has been assessed only in primates and never in other animals showing social interactions. In this way, avian communication generally takes place in a network of signallers and receivers, which represents an audience altering individual signalling behaviours. Indeed, vocal amplitude and repertoire are known to be socially regulated and the attitude towards the opposite sex may change depending on the audience. This 'audience effect' provides support for the reality of social awareness in some bird species. However no evidence has yet been found to suggest that birds are able to estimate the characteristics of the social relationships between group-mates. Here we show that the male of a gregarious songbird species--the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)--pays attention to the mating status of conspecific pairs, and uses this information to control its behaviour towards its female partner. PMID:15269767

  9. Partnering Strategies for Childhood Agricultural Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been the lead federal agency of the national Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative (CAIPI) since the program's inception in 1996 and in this role, collaborated with numerous partners in childhood agricultural injury prevention activities. This collaboration has likely helped achieve the current reduction in childhood agricultural injury. The paper looks at existing groups with past and current childhood agricultural injury prevention activities for partnering strategies that could contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality of childhood agricultural injuries. Based upon the review, suggestions are made for future partnering strategies to continue progress in this area. PMID:22490034

  10. METHODS OF PROMOTING SAFER SEX BEHAVIORS UTILIZED BY MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MALE CASUAL SEX PARTNERS

    PubMed Central

    Serovich, Julianne M.; Craft, Shonda M.; McDowell, Tiffany L.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Andrist, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report results of a qualitative investigation into the methods that HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) use to initiate safer sex with casual sexual partners. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 57 HIV-positive adult MSM living in a large midwestern city. Using an inductive approach to data analysis, participants revealed a typology of safer sex strategies that can be placed into four primary categorizations: having a nonnegotiable sexual behavior policy, behaviorally controlling the interaction, being verbally direct, and being verbally indirect. Strategies varied by degree of explicitness and partner involvement. Men in this study often employed multiple strategies if their partner was not initially receptive to engaging in safer sex behaviors. The strategies described can be especially beneficial to those working in the area of HIV prevention. Providing MSM a variety of options to initiate safer sex may enhance current prevention efforts. PMID:19243227

  11. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  12. Predicting Zimbabwean women's ability to tell their partners to use condoms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Zenda, A; Lavel, S

    1992-04-01

    The effectiveness of AIDS education may depend on the development of models that predict and explain HIV prevention behavior. In this study, the aim was to test Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action model in predicting women's capacity to tell their partner to use condoms. The basic theory pertains to the relationship of 1) attitude toward behavior and 2) the subjective norms to behavior; further refinements reflect factors such as 3) perceived behavioral control or self-efficacy, 4) and perceived barriers. A sample was drawn of 123 female first-year teacher trainees in Harare, Zimbabwe, in late 1990; a self-administered questionnaire was distributed and returned. 72% of the respondents were sexually experienced. The mean age of the entire sample was 24 years. The results of the multiple linear regression indicated that the model was able to predict were F(2,74)=32.81, p.0001. 47% of the variance was explained by this Fishbein model. Attitude toward behavior was significantly associated with the intention to tell one's partner to use condoms (beta = .60, p .05). Subjective norms were not significant (beta = .15, p .05). Perceived behavioral control and perceived barriers were also not significantly associated with the intention to tell one's partner to use condoms. A caveat was that the subjective norm was measured by only one item, and an improved conceptualization and measurement of this construct might have changed the relationship. The suggestion is that health educators should address women's underlying beliefs and attitudes about the benefits of telling their partners to use condoms. Future prospective studies will better delineate the relationship between attitude and behavior. PMID:1501486

  13. Living with a partner and health care use – results from the MONICA survey Augsburg in Southern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Carola A.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Mielck, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that social relationships are associated with health care use. This study aims to test if and to which extent a proximal element of social relationships, particularly living together with a partner, influences the health care utilisation in the same way as a distal element such as group membership. Methods: On the basis of a representative random sample of a southern German population (4856 participants), the associations were assessed between the following groups of variables: number of consultations with the general practitioner or internists, type of social relationships (living with a partner, friends, relatives, group memberships), need (evaluated and perceived health status), socio-demographic variables. Results: All analyses showed associations between living with a partner and health care utilisation. Individuals living with a partner had lower levels of utilisation than individuals not living with a partner (mean: 4.3 vs. 5.2). These associations persisted after controlling for socio-demographic and need variables. For the other indicators of social relationships, though, there were no significant associations with outpatient visits. Conclusions: Distinguishing between different types of social relationships is important for disentangling the overall effects of social relationships on health care utilisation. Also, the empirical findings confirm that health care research should not be restricted to medical variables, but should also include psycho-social factors. PMID:19742289

  14. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274

  15. Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding in Africa.

    PubMed

    Misch, Emily S; Yount, Kathryn M

    2014-04-01

    We examined the associations of maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization with early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding in eight African countries. For mothers 15-49 years with an infant aged less than 6 months from national Demographic and Health Surveys since 2007 for Ghana (n = 173), Kenya (n = 449), Liberia (n = 313), Malawi (n = 397), Nigeria (n = 2007), Tanzania (n = 549), Zambia (n = 454), and Zimbabwe (n = 480), logistic regression was used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations of lifetime maternal emotional, physical, and sexual IPV victimization with early initiation (less than 1 hour of birth) and exclusive breastfeeding in the prior 24 hours. Maternal lifetime IPV victimization often was adversely associated with optimal breastfeeding practices. Physical IPV in Zimbabwe (aOR 0.40, p = 0.002), sexual IPV in Zambia (aOR 0.42, p = 0.017), and emotional IPV in Kenya (aOR 0.54, p = 0.050) and Tanzania (aOR 0.57, p = 0.088) were associated with lower adjusted odds of early initiation. Sexual IPV in Liberia (aOR 0.09, p = 0.026), Ghana (aOR 0.17, p = 0.033), and Kenya (aOR 0.34, p = 0.085) were associated with lower adjusted odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Atypically, physical IPV in Tanzania (aOR 2.11, p = 0.042) and sexual IPV in Zambia (aOR 2.49, p = 0.025) were associated with higher adjusted odds of early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, respectively. Across several settings, maternal IPV victimization may adversely influence breastfeeding practices. Longitudinal research of these relationships is warranted. Screening for IPV victimization and breastfeeding counseling in prenatal and postpartum care may mitigate the potential intergenerational effects of IPV. PMID:23807715

  16. Partner report of paternal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Partner.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheehan D; Kopelman, Robin; O'Hara, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    Similar to maternal depression, paternal depression may have adverse effects on the family environment (e.g., partner mental health, child behavior). Detection of paternal depression is rare because the maternal-child health care system usually only screens for maternal depression. The scarcity of paternal depression screening and detection is due to fathers not usually being involved in the maternal-child health care system and, therefore, unavailable for depression screening. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Partner Version (EPDS-P) in detecting paternal depression through maternal report. The EPDS-P, rated by the mother, was found to be a reliable and valid measure of paternal depression when compared to other well-validated measures of depression. The EPDS-P has clinical utility in the maternal-child health care system by making it possible to screen for paternal depression without the father being present. Proxy screening for paternal depression can be beneficial for early detection and treatment of paternal depression both in the perinatal period and through a child's early life. Detection and treatment of paternal depression reduces the risk of long-term depression in fathers. PMID:22648681

  17. 20 CFR 404.1088 - Retirement payment to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... set out in 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-(17) and the conditions in paragraph (b) of this section are met. The... partner in the DEF partnership, retired from the partnership as of December 31, 1976. The taxable year...

  18. PARTNERING TO COLLECT IMPROVED HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partnering allows complex environmental challenges to be efficiently addressed by leveraging resources and scientific expertise. The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) routinely collaborates with other federal, state, and local governme...

  19. Partnering for the Future - Duration: 3 minutes, 54 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    With an ambitious new direction and a new way of doing business, NASA's Kennedy Space Center is embracing a new relationship with the commercial space industry and other partners to build a multi-u...

  20. 78 FR 48668 - Kalaeloa Partners, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ..., Kalaeloa Partners, L.P. (Kalaeloa) filed a petition for recertification as a qualifying cogeneration... cogeneration facility operating and efficiency standard requirements for its facility for year 2013. Any...

  1. Partnering with the Media to Present Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Providing the media and other non-technical customers with an understanding of climate change and variability requires a presentation of local climate data in formats that are readily accessible and understandable. The National Weather Service Forecast Office in Hanford, California, has worked with its media partners to develop a format to summarize monthly, and annual, climatological data for Bakersfield and Fresno. This format builds on decades of partnership between the predecessor Weather Service Offices and their local media partners.

  2. Intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Azevêdo, Ana Carolina da C; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636) women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (OR adj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11), even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services. PMID:24356686

  3. Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Power Inequity and the Role of Sexual and Social Risk Factors in the Production of Violence among Young Women Who Have Multiple Sexual Partners in a Peri-Urban Setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zembe, Yanga Z.; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This paper aims to assess the extent and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV), explore relationship power inequity and the role of sexual and social risk factors in the production of violence among young women aged 16–24 reporting more than one partner in the past three months in a peri-urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa. Recent estimates suggest that every six hours a woman is killed by an intimate partner in South Africa, making IPV a leading public health problem in the country. While there is mounting evidence that levels of IPV are high in peri-urban settings in South Africa, not much is known about how it manifests among women who engage in concomitantly high HIV risk behaviours such as multiple sexual partnering, transactional sex and age mixing. We know even less about how such women negotiate power and control if exposed to violence in such sexual networks. Methods Two hundred and fifty nine women with multiple sexual partners, residing in a predominantly Black peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa, were recruited into a bio-behavioural survey using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). After the survey, focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted among young women and men to understand the underlying factors informing their risk behaviours and experiences of violence. Findings 86% of the young women experienced IPV in the past 12 months. Sexual IPV was significantly correlated with sex with a man who was 5 years or older than the index female partner (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–3.2) and transactional sex with most recent casual partner (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.8). Predictably, women experienced high levels of relationship power inequity. However, they also identified areas in their controlling relationships where they shared decision making power. Discussion Levels of IPV among young women with multiple sexual partners were much higher than what is reported among women in the general population and shown to be associated with sexual risk taking. Interventions targeting IPV need to address sexual risk taking as it heightens vulnerability to violence. PMID:26599394

  4. Distal and Proximal Factors Associated with Aggression Towards Partners and Non-Partners among Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Sanborn, Michelle; Kraus, Shane; Blow, Fred; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of violence in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings typically focus on partner aggression (PA) although non-partner aggression (NPA) is also a common problem. This study examines potentially distinct paths of distal and proximal risk factors related to aggression towards non-partners (NPA) and partners (PA) among a SUD treatment sample. The sample included 176 adults reporting past-year violence. Bivariate analyses indicated several distal and proximal factors were associated with NPA and PA. According to multivariate, multiple mediation analyses youth aggression history was a factor for both NPA and PA. Alcohol and cocaine use and psychological distress were associated with NPA; marijuana use was associated with PA. There also was evidence of indirect effects of distal factors on NPA and PA. The results suggest that there may be substantially different dynamics associated with NPA and PA, and have implications for developing screening, assessment and treatment protocols targeting violence among individuals in SUD treatment. PMID:25012548

  5. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential. There is much more to learn about preparing students for these collaborative approaches, and the principal goal of sharing these strategies is to spark a conversation about the ways we prepare scientists and the public to work together in an increasingly collaborative scientific enterprise.

  6. Involvement of the Tyro3 receptor and its intracellular partner Fyn signaling in Schwann cell myelination

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Takada, Shuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ito, Akihito; Ogata, Toru; Terada, Nobuo; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    During early development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cell precursors proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into premyelinating Schwann cells. After birth, Schwann cells envelop neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Although some molecular mechanisms underlying myelination by Schwann cells have been identified, the whole picture remains unclear. Here we show that signaling through Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase and its binding partner, Fyn nonreceptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, is involved in myelination by Schwann cells. Impaired formation of myelin segments is observed in Schwann cell neuronal cultures established from Tyro3-knockout mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Indeed, Tyro3-knockout mice exhibit reduced myelin thickness. By affinity chromatography, Fyn was identified as the binding partner of the Tyro3 intracellular domain, and activity of Fyn is down-regulated in Tyro3-knockout mice, suggesting that Tyro3, acting through Fyn, regulates myelination. Ablating Fyn in mice results in reduced myelin thickness. Decreased myelin formation is observed in cultures established from Fyn-knockout mouse DRG. Furthermore, decreased kinase activity levels and altered expression of myelination-associated transcription factors are observed in these knockout mice. These results suggest the involvement of Tyro3 receptor and its binding partner Fyn in Schwann cell myelination. This constitutes a newly recognized receptor-linked signaling mechanism that can control Schwann cell myelination. PMID:26224309

  7. Maternal exposure to intimate partner abuse before birth is associated with autism spectrum disorder in offspring.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512 controls, 451 cases). Physical harm from abuse during pregnancy was not associated with autism spectrum disorder. However, autism spectrum disorder risk was increased in children of women who reported fear of partner or sexual, emotional, or physical abuse in the 2?years before the birth year (abuse in the year before the birth year: risk ratio?=?1.58, 95% confidence interval?=?1.04, 2.40; abuse in both of the 2?years before the birth year: risk ratio?=?2.16, 95% confidence interval?=?1.33, 3.50). Within-family results were similar, although did not reach statistical significance. Association of intimate partner abuse before the child's birth year with autism spectrum disorder in the child was not accounted for by gestation length, birth weight, maternal smoking or alcohol consumption during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or history of induced abortion. PMID:25662292

  8. Brainless but not clueless: earthworms boost their ejaculates when they detect fecund non-virgin partners

    PubMed Central

    Velando, Alberto; Eiroa, Julio; Domínguez, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    In many animals in which females store sperm, males may detect female mating status and, in order to outcompete rival sperm, increase ejaculate size when copulating with non-virgin females. Although most studies have been restricted to organisms with separate sexes, theoretical models suggest that sperm competition should also be an important selective agent shaping life-history traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Nevertheless, the empirical support for ejaculate adjustment in a mating opportunity is scarce in hermaphrodites. In the present study, we performed a double-mating experiment to determine whether earthworms (Eisenia andrei) detect the mating status of their partners and whether they respond by adjusting their ejaculate. We found that earthworms triplicated the donated sperm when mating with a non-virgin mate. Moreover, such increases were greater when the worms were mated with larger (more fecund) partners, indicating that earthworms perform a fine-tune control of ejaculate volume. The results of the present study suggest that, under high intensity of sperm competition, partner evaluation is subject to intense selection in hermaphrodite animals, and donors are selective about to whom they donate how much sperm. PMID:18252668

  9. Evaluation by Expert Dancers of a Robot That Performs Partnered Stepping via Haptic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiffany L; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; McKay, J Lucas; Borinski, Jacquelyn E; Hackney, Madeleine E; Ting, Lena H; Kemp, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to enable a robot to engage in partner dance for use in rehabilitation therapy, assessment, diagnosis, and scientific investigations of two-person whole-body motor coordination. Partner dance has been shown to improve balance and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and in older adults, which motivates our work. During partner dance, dance couples rely heavily on haptic interaction to convey motor intent such as speed and direction. In this paper, we investigate the potential for a wheeled mobile robot with a human-like upper-body to perform partnered stepping with people based on the forces applied to its end effectors. Blindfolded expert dancers (N=10) performed a forward/backward walking step to a recorded drum beat while holding the robot's end effectors. We varied the admittance gain of the robot's mobile base controller and the stiffness of the robot's arms. The robot followed the participants with low lag (M=224, SD=194 ms) across all trials. High admittance gain and high arm stiffness conditions resulted in significantly improved performance with respect to subjective and objective measures. Biomechanical measures such as the human hand to human sternum distance, center-of-mass of leader to center-of-mass of follower (CoM-CoM) distance, and interaction forces correlated with the expert dancers' subjective ratings of their interactions with the robot, which were internally consistent (Cronbach's ?=0.92). In response to a final questionnaire, 1/10 expert dancers strongly agreed, 5/10 agreed, and 1/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was a good follower." 2/10 strongly agreed, 3/10 agreed, and 2/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was fun to dance with." The remaining participants were neutral with respect to these two questions. PMID:25993099

  10. Evaluation by Expert Dancers of a Robot That Performs Partnered Stepping via Haptic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tiffany L.; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; McKay, J. Lucas; Borinski, Jacquelyn E.; Hackney, Madeleine E.; Ting, Lena H.; Kemp, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to enable a robot to engage in partner dance for use in rehabilitation therapy, assessment, diagnosis, and scientific investigations of two-person whole-body motor coordination. Partner dance has been shown to improve balance and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and in older adults, which motivates our work. During partner dance, dance couples rely heavily on haptic interaction to convey motor intent such as speed and direction. In this paper, we investigate the potential for a wheeled mobile robot with a human-like upper-body to perform partnered stepping with people based on the forces applied to its end effectors. Blindfolded expert dancers (N=10) performed a forward/backward walking step to a recorded drum beat while holding the robot's end effectors. We varied the admittance gain of the robot's mobile base controller and the stiffness of the robot's arms. The robot followed the participants with low lag (M=224, SD=194 ms) across all trials. High admittance gain and high arm stiffness conditions resulted in significantly improved performance with respect to subjective and objective measures. Biomechanical measures such as the human hand to human sternum distance, center-of-mass of leader to center-of-mass of follower (CoM-CoM) distance, and interaction forces correlated with the expert dancers' subjective ratings of their interactions with the robot, which were internally consistent (Cronbach's ?=0.92). In response to a final questionnaire, 1/10 expert dancers strongly agreed, 5/10 agreed, and 1/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was a good follower." 2/10 strongly agreed, 3/10 agreed, and 2/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was fun to dance with." The remaining participants were neutral with respect to these two questions. PMID:25993099

  11. Latent profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N = 880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: family time protected, family time sacrificed, and time balanced. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the family time sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the family time protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the time balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the family time protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the family time sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the family time protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the family time sacrificed profile. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075739

  12. Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Co-occurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts. PMID:25255940

  13. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  14. Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals.

    PubMed

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2011-04-01

    Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents. PMID:21377487

  15. CRYPTIC CHOICE OF CONSPECIFIC SPERM CONTROLLED BY THE IMPACT OF OVARIAN FLUID ON SPERM SWIMMING BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Emerson, Brent C; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew J G

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that variation in male–female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of both sperm types, conspecific sperm gained fertilization precedence. Surprisingly, the species’ identity of the eggs did not explain this cryptic female choice, which instead was primarily controlled by conspecific ovarian fluid, a semiviscous, protein-rich solution that bathes the eggs and is released at spawning. Video analyses revealed that ovarian fluid doubled sperm motile life span and straightened swimming trajectory, behaviors allowing chemoattraction up a concentration gradient. To confirm chemoattraction, cell migration tests through membranes containing pores that approximated to the egg micropyle showed that conspecific ovarian fluid attracted many more spermatozoa through the membrane, compared with heterospecific fluid or water. These combined findings together identify how cryptic female choice can evolve at the gamete level and promote reproductive isolation, mediated by a specific chemoattractive influence of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior. PMID:24299405

  16. Men’s and women’s exposure and perpetration of partner violence: an epidemiological study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past 30 years, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and its health consequences has become a well established research area and is recognized worldwide as a significant public health issue. Studies on IPV directed at men are less explored, however recently women’s use of IPV and men’s victimization is gaining growing attention. Earlier population-based studies performed in Sweden have primarily investigated men’s violence against women, while women’s use of violence and men’s exposure as well as the existence of controlling behaviours have been neglected research areas This explorative study investigated the exposure to and perpetration of intimate partner violence, the use of control behaviours and the associated risk factors among a sample of Swedish men and women. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 173 men and 251 women of age 18–65 randomly selected among the Swedish population. A questionnaire based on the revised Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the subscale ‘isolating control’ from the Controlling Behaviour Scale (CBS) was used to collect data on violence exposure and perpetration. Regression analyses were used for risk factor assessment. Results More men (11%) than women (8%) reported exposure to physical assault in the past year, while more women reported exposure to sexual coercion. Duration of present relationship ? 3 years was identified as a significant risk factor for men’s exposure. Young age, lack of social support and being single, constituted risk factors for women’s exposure. Surprisingly many men (37%) and women (41%) also reported exposure to controlling behaviours. Conclusions In partner violence research, both men’s and women’s exposure should be explored however findings need to be interpreted with caution. This first study in a Swedish sample establishes the basis for future investigations on partner violence and coercive control tactics. PMID:23116238

  17. The role of perceived partner alliance on the efficacy of CBT-I: Preliminary findings from the Partner Alliance in Insomnia Research Study (PAIRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jason G.; Deary, Vincent; Troxel, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Despite Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) being effective, barriers to adherence have been documented. Perceived partner alliance has been shown to influence adherence and treatment outcome across a range of other health conditions. The present study examined patients’ perceptions regarding the role of their partner in CBT-I and the impact of perceived partner alliance on treatment outcome. Twenty-one patients were interviewed, following CBT-I, to examine the areas where partners were thought to influence the process of CBT-I. The majority of statements made during interviews explicitly mentioned a partner’s influence (65%). Additionally, the production of more positive partner statements was associated with better treatment outcome (using the Insomnia Severity Index). The integration of perceived partner alliance, into CBT-I, is discussed. PMID:24527869

  18. A Trial of Telephone Support Services to Prevent Further Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jack; Scribano, Philip V; Marshall, Jessica; Nadkarni, Radha; Hayes, John; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized-controlled trial of telephone support services (TSS) versus enhanced usual care (EUC) for women who had reported intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past year during a visit to a pediatric emergency department. TSS nurse interventionists identified appropriate referrals to community programs, helped participants by problem-solving barriers to obtaining these local services, and provided social support. Three hundred women, ages 18 years and above were recruited. The TSS and EUC groups did not differ on any outcome variable, including IPV victimization, feelings of chronic vulnerability to a perpetrator, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. PMID:26223696

  19. Condom use among Hispanic men with secondary female sexual partners.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, B V; Gomez, C A; Tschann, J M

    1993-01-01

    Greater understanding of psychosocial predictors of the use of condoms among Hispanics is needed in prevention efforts related to the human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted disease epidemics among Hispanics in the United States. A telephone survey was carried out in nine States that have large populations of Hispanics, using a stratified clustered random digit dialing sampling strategy. The survey yielded interviews with 968 Hispanic men ages 18-49 years. Of them, 361 (37.8 percent) reported at least one secondary female sexual partner in the 12 months prior to the interview. Predictors were identified of condom use by those men with their secondary sex partners. Key predictors of the subjects' condom use with secondary partners included carrying condoms; self-efficacy, or a measure of the subject's perceived ability to use condoms under difficult circumstances; positive attitude toward condom use; having friends who used condoms; and lack of symptoms of depression in the week before the interview (R2 = 0.35). Significant predictors of condom carrying were being comfortable in sexual situations, positive attitude toward condom use, and self-efficacy to use condoms. Less acculturated men had more positive attitudes toward condom use and carried them more than did more acculturated men. The researchers found encouraging levels of condom use with secondary sexual partners among Hispanic men with multiple partners.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8265759

  20. Prenatal stress and ethanol exposure produces inversion of sexual partner preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Popova, Nina K; Morozova, Maryana V; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G

    2011-02-01

    The presence of a sexually receptive female behind perforated transparent partition induced sexual arousal and specific behavior in male mice so they spent more time near partition in an attempt to make their way to the female. Three-chambered free-choice model was used to evaluate sexual partner preference. The main pattern of sexual preference was the time spent by a male mouse at the partition dividing female (F-partition time) versus a partition dividing male (M-partition time). Pregnant mice were given ethanol (11vol.%) for 1-21 gestational days, and were exposed to restraint stress (2h daily for 15-21 day of the gestation). Control pregnant mice had free access to water and food and were not stressed. Adult male offspring of ethanol and stress exposed dams (E+S) showed decreased F-partition time and increased M-partition time. Whereas F-partition time in all control mice prevailed over M-partition time, 78% E+S mice demonstrated prevailed M-partition time. E+S mice were more active in social interaction with juvenile male. No significant differences between E+S and control mice in the open field and novelty tests were revealed. Therefore, E+S exposure during dam gestation inverted sexual partner preference in male offspring, suggesting that stress and alcohol in pregnancy produces predisposition to homosexuality. PMID:21130841

  1. Control and compensation: laws governing extracorporeal generative materials.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L B

    1989-10-01

    The Vatican Instruction advocates laws banning in vitro fertilization, gamete donation, embryo donation, and surrogate motherhood. The OTA Report Infertility provides a range of policy choices for handling these reproductive procedures. The choice among these alternative regulations needs to be developed within the framework of the right to privacy of the U.S. Constitution, which provides support for an approach that allows the progenitors to control the uses made of their generative materials and to receive compensation for them, subject to laws which facilitate informed consent and attempt to assure quality. PMID:2691614

  2. Examining women's perceptions of their mother's and romantic partner's interpersonal styles for a better understanding of their eating regulation and intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Carbonneau, Elise; Cantin, Mélynda; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively. PMID:26009203

  3. Commercial Building Partners Catalyze High Performance Buildings Across the Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Dillon, Heather E.; Bartlett, Rosemarie

    2012-08-01

    In 2008 the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Commercial Buildings Partnership (CBP) project to accelerate market adoption of commercially available energy saving technologies into the design process for new and upgraded commercial buildings. The CBP represents a unique collaboration between industry leaders and DOE to develop high performance buildings as a model for future construction and renovation. CBP was implemented in two stages. This paper focuses on lessons learned at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the first stage and discusses some partner insights from the second stage. In the first stage, PNNL and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recruited CBP partners that own large portfolios of buildings. The labs provide assistance to the partners' design teams and make a business case for energy investments.

  4. Survivors' coping with intimate partner violence: Insights and limitations.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the article, "Coping with intimate partner violence: Qualitative findings from the study of dynamics of husband to wife abuse," by Foster et al., (see record 2015-24688-001). However, most intimate partner violence relationships do not escalate to these levels, and the partnerships continue over time. Questions remain regarding how we can understand the dynamics of these continuing relationships while also effectively enhancing the safety of these women and offering them support. Fortunately, the research of Foster and colleagues reported in this issue begins to answer some of these questions. The authors of this study describe how women living with violent partners report various coping approaches that help them maintain their circumstances and survive each day. The results of this study describe the useful boundaries of the COPE Inventory in these settings, add insight to our understanding of IPV family dynamics, and provide information to support clinicians who serve these women. PMID:26348243

  5. Implicit Self-Evaluations Predict Changes in Implicit Partner Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Baker, Levi R.; Olson, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Do people who feel good about themselves have better relations with others? Although the notion that they do is central to both classic and modern theories, there is little strong evidence to support it. We argue that one reason for the lack of evidence is that prior research has relied exclusively on explicit measures of self- and relationship evaluations. The current longitudinal study of newlywed couples used explicit measures of self-, relationship, and partner evaluations as well as implicit measures of self- and partner evaluations to examine the link between self-evaluations and changes in relationship evaluations over the first three years of marriage. Whereas explicit self-evaluations were unrelated to changes in all interpersonal measures, implicit self-evaluations positively predicted changes in implicit partner evaluations. This finding joins others in highlighting the importance of automatic processes and implicit measures to the study of close interpersonal relationships. PMID:24958686

  6. Contributions of Work Stressors, Alcohol, and Normative Beliefs to Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Genevieve M.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael; Todd, Michael; Chen, Meng-Jinn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A body of research has established that lower socioeconomic populations, including blue-collar workers, are at higher risk for problem drinking and intimate partner violence. This study of married/cohabiting construction workers and their spouses/partners describes how work stressors, hazardous drinking, and couple characteristics interact to influence normative beliefs around partner violence and, thereafter, its occurrence. Method: Our survey respondents from a sample of 502 dual-earner couples were asked about drinking patterns, past-year partner violence, normative beliefs about partner violence, work-related stressors, impulsivity, and childhood exposure to violence and other adverse events. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 81 workers on context of work stress, partner violence, and drinking. Results: Analyses of data revealed that men’s and women’s normative beliefs about partner violence were positively related to male-to-female partner violence; female partner violence normative beliefs were associated with female-to-male partner violence. Both partners’ levels of impulsivity were directly associated with male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence, and male partner’s frequency of intoxication mediated the association between level of impulsivity and male-to-female partner violence. Female partner’s adverse childhood experience was directly associated with male-to-female partner violence. Both survey and qualitative interviews identified individual and work-related factors that influence the occurrence of violence between men and women. Discussion: These findings provide guidelines for prevention of partner violence that can be implemented in the workplace with attention to hazardous drinking, job stress, treatment, education, and work culture. PMID:23384367

  7. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, Stephanie; Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; LaConte, Keliann

    2015-11-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions.To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center’s Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event.Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance.Additional information about LPI’s E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO’s partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  8. Online Social Networks That Connect Users to Physical Activity Partners: A Review and Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Passarella, Ralph Joseph; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified a lack of encouragement, support, or companionship from family and friends as a major barrier to physical activity. To overcome this barrier, online social networks are now actively leveraging principles of companion social support in novel ways. Objective The aim was to evaluate the functionality, features, and usability of existing online social networks which seek to increase physical activity and fitness among users by connecting them to physical activity partners, not just online, but also face-to-face. Methods In September 2012, we used 3 major databases to identify the website addresses for relevant online social networks. We conducted a Google search using 8 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 4 prefix terms “health,” “fitness,” “workout,” or “physical” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” or “activity buddies.” We also searched 2 prominent technology start-up news sites, TechCrunch and Y Combinator, using 2 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” and “activity buddies.” Sites were defined as online social health activity networks if they had the ability to (1) actively find physical activity partners or activities for the user, (2) offer dynamic, real-time tracking or sharing of social activities, and (3) provide virtual profiles to users. We excluded from our analysis sites that were not Web-based, publicly available, in English, or free. Results Of the 360 initial search results, we identified 13 websites that met our complete criteria of an online social health activity network. Features such as physical activity creation (13/13, 100%) and private messaging (12/13, 92%) appeared almost universally among these websites. However, integration with Web 2.0 technologies such as Facebook and Twitter (9/13, 69%) and the option of direct event joining (8/13, 62%) were not as universally present. Largely absent were more sophisticated features that would enable greater usability, such as interactive engagement prompts (3/13, 23%) and system-created best fit activities (3/13, 23%). Conclusions Several major online social networks that connect users to physical activity partners currently exist and use standardized features to achieve their goals. Future research is needed to better understand how users utilize these features and how helpful they truly are. PMID:24936569

  9. REASONS FOR HIV DISCLOSURE OR NONDISCLOSURE TO CASUAL SEXUAL PARTNERS

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate reasons HIV-positive gay men give for disclosing or not disclosing their serostatus to their casual sexual partners. Participants were 78 HIV-positive gay men who were part of a larger HIV and disclosure project. A clear factor structure for disclosure emerged which suggests that issues of responsibility dominated men's decisions to disclose. No clear factor structure for nondisclosure emerged. Reasons for disclosure or nondisclosure to casual sexual partners were varied and this data could provide new insights for secondary prevention efforts. More research needs to be conducted to better understand salient issues in considering whether to disclose. PMID:12627744

  10. Partners or rivals? Strategies for the iterated prisoner's dilemma?

    PubMed Central

    Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne; Sigmund, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Within the class of memory-one strategies for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, we characterize partner strategies, competitive strategies and zero-determinant strategies. If a player uses a partner strategy, both players can fairly share the social optimum; but a co-player preferring an unfair solution will be penalized by obtaining a reduced payoff. A player using a competitive strategy never obtains less than the co-player. A player using a zero-determinant strategy unilaterally enforces a linear relation between the two players' payoffs. These properties hold for every strategy used by the co-player, whether memory-one or not. PMID:26339123

  11. Bottom partner B? and Zb production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chong-Xing; Zeng, Qing-Guo; Shi, Qiu-Yang; Liao, Meng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Some new physics models, such as "beautiful mirrors" scenario, predict the existence of the bottom partner B?. Considering the constraints from the data for the Z ? bbbar branching ratio Rb and the FB asymmetry AFBb on the relevant free parameters, we calculate the contributions of B? to the cross section ? (Zb) and the Z polarization asymmetry AZ for Zb production at the LHC. We find that the bottom partner B? can generate significant corrections to ? (Zb) and AZ, which might be detected in near future.

  12. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic places to identify and prevent intimate partner violence. PMID:25741656

  13. Soldier imprisoned for failing to disclose HIV to sex partners.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Pfc. [Name removed], a soldier at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, was sentenced to 3 years in a military prison for failing to disclose her HIV-positive status to her sexual partners. [Name removed]' commander had ordered her to use condoms and inform her sexual partners of her HIV status. She failed to inform eight of the nine men with whom she had sex and, she did not use a condom with four of them. So far, all nine men have tested negative for HIV. [Name removed] will be reduced to the rank of private, receive a bad conduct discharge, and forfeit all pay and benefits. PMID:11366267

  14. The role of perceived partner alliance on the efficacy of CBT-I: preliminary findings from the Partner Alliance in Insomnia Research Study (PAIRS).

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent; Troxel, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    Despite cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) being effective, barriers to adherence have been documented. Perceived partner alliance has been shown to influence adherence and treatment outcome across a range of other health conditions. The present study examined patients' perceptions regarding the role of their partner in CBT-I and the impact of perceived partner alliance on treatment outcome. Twenty-one patients were interviewed, following CBT-I, to examine the areas where partners were thought to influence the process of CBT-I. The majority of statements made during interviews explicitly mentioned a partner's influence (65%). Additionally, the production of more positive partner statements was associated with better treatment outcome (using the Insomnia Severity Index). The integration of perceived partner alliance into CBT-I is discussed. PMID:24527869

  15. "Notify your partners--it's the law": HIV providers and mandatory disclosure.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Whetten, Kathryn; Rubenstein, Casey

    2014-01-01

    HIV care providers in the United States must counsel clients about disclosure to sexual partners and report anyone who is suspected of noncompliance. This study compared provider attitudes and practices in relation to counseling clients about mandatory disclosure in North Carolina and Alabama, the 2 states with similar HIV epidemiology but different laws for HIV control. Personal interviews were conducted with 20 providers in each state (n = 40). The results were analyzed in a qualitative, cross-comparison method to identify patterns of convergence or difference. Providers in both states believed that clients often failed to notify sexual partners and were secretive if questioned about disclosure. Differences in counseling styles and procedures for each state were noteworthy. Compared to Alabama, North Carolina had harsher penalties for nondisclosure, stricter and more standardized procedures for counseling, and providers expressed greater support for HIV criminalization. Although most North Carolina providers viewed the stricter standards as beneficial for HIV care and control, Alabama providers were likely to view such standards as a barrier to patient care. These results indicated a direct relation between state HIV law, provider attitudes, and counseling procedures for mandatory disclosure. PMID:25513036

  16. "Notify your partners--it's the law": HIV providers and mandatory disclosure.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Whetten, Kathryn; Rubenstein, Casey

    2014-01-01

    HIV care providers in the United States must counsel clients about disclosure to sexual partners and report anyone who is suspected of noncompliance. This study compared provider attitudes and practices in relation to counseling clients about mandatory disclosure in North Carolina and Alabama, the 2 states with similar HIV epidemiology but different laws for HIV control. Personal interviews were conducted with 20 providers in each state (n = 40). The results were analyzed in a qualitative, cross-comparison method to identify patterns of convergence or difference. Providers in both states believed that clients often failed to notify sexual partners and were secretive if questioned about disclosure. Differences in counseling styles and procedures for each state were noteworthy. Compared to Alabama, North Carolina had harsher penalties for nondisclosure, stricter and more standardized procedures for counseling, and providers expressed greater support for HIV criminalization. Although most North Carolina providers viewed the stricter standards as beneficial for HIV care and control, Alabama providers were likely to view such standards as a barrier to patient care. These results indicated a direct relation between state HIV law, provider attitudes, and counseling procedures for mandatory disclosure. PMID:23873219

  17. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…

  18. Older Women and Intimate Partner Violence: Effective Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetterton, Summer; Farnsworth, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Women above the age of 60 who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have specific needs compared with younger victims. More research is emerging that assists counselors and other helping professionals with identification of these needs and aids to promote the mental health and well-being of this population. Professionals must consider…

  19. Collaborating with Others Project Collaborators non-SU partners

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    of their willingness to enter into a subaward in the event the proposal is favorably received. RECOMMENDATION: PI for subawards. What's needed from other organizations at proposal submission? What's needed from non-SU consultants, mentors or advisors at proposal submission? What's needed when SU will be a partner on another

  20. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of ‘image scores’ to summarize individuals’ past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work. PMID:26057241