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1

Honest signalling among gametes.  

PubMed

The gametes of many lower eukaryotic organisms emit pheromones that attract gametes of the opposite mating type or sex. Gametes move or grow in the direction of the highest pheromone concentration, suggesting that the strength of the pheromonal signal is used to infer proximity, or that the strongest signal is most likely to be notice. Here I offer a new explanation of pheromonal signalling and chemotaxis in gametes. I show that pheromonal signals can be interpreted as sexually selected traits that honestly advertise variation in quality among gametes, given that signals are costly to produce and that gametes compete; by 'quality' I refer to some aspect of a gamete's fitness. A gamete's preference for a mating partner, then, is predicted to vary with the quality of a prospective partner as inferred from the strength of its signal. This view can explain characteristics of the signalling and mate selection behaviours of gametes that are not predicted by models of mate choice based on proximity or 'passive attraction' to the strongest signal. These include repeated partner exchanges, escalated exchanges of mating pheromones, and rejection of gametes that signal at low levels. PMID:8505979

Pagel, M

1993-06-10

2

Gametic Differentiation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1  

PubMed Central

Gametic differentiation of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii proceeds in two steps controlled by the extrinsic signals nitrogen deficiency and light. Nitrogen deprivation induces the differentiation of vegetative cells to sexually immature pregametes. A light signal is required to convert the pregametes to gametes. Both signals are also required for the maintenance of mating competence. Two converging signal transduction chains are proposed to control gamete formation. For the differentiation of pregametes to gametes, a fluence rate-dependent reaction, requiring continuous irradiation, is suggested by photobiological experiments. PMID:16668754

Beck, Christoph F.; Acker, Axel

1992-01-01

3

Quranic description of gametes.  

PubMed

There are several important characteristic properties of reproductive fluid. Gametes are the reproductive cells consisting of sperms in males and ovum in females. These cells combine to form Zygote in the process of fertilization. The characters of Gametes have been narrated by Holy Quran in a very well-suited and selected terminology. This paper enumerates various Quranic terms related to gametes, and then discusses their scientific significance. PMID:12587566

Hussain, S

1999-07-01

4

Gamete attachment process revealed in flowering plant fertilization.  

PubMed

Sex-possessing organisms perform sexual reproduction, in which gametes from different sexes fuse to produce offspring. In most eukaryotes, one or both sex gametes are motile, and gametes actively approach each other to fuse. However, in flowering plants, the gametes of both sexes lack motility. Two sperm cells (male gametes) that are contained in a pollen grain are recessively delivered via pollen tube elongation. After the pollen tube bursts, sperm cells are released toward the egg and central cells (female gametes) within an ovule ( Fig. 1 ). The precise mechanism of sperm cell movement after the pollen tube bursts remains unknown. Ultimately, one sperm cell fuses with the egg cell and the other one fuses with the central cell, producing an embryo and an endosperm, respectively. Fertilization in which 2 sets of gamete fusion events occur, called double fertilization, has been known for over 100 y. The fact that each morphologically identical sperm cell precisely recognizes its fusion partner strongly suggests that an accurate gamete interaction system(s) exists in flowering plants. PMID:25517689

Mori, Toshiyuki; Igawa, Tomoko

2014-12-01

5

Gamete-competition models.  

PubMed

The gamete-competition model is an application of the Bradley-Terry model for ranking of sports teams. If allele i of a marker locus is assigned parameter taui>0, then the probability that a parent with heterozygous genotype i/j transmits allele i is Pr(i/j-->)=tau(i)/(tau(i) + tau(j). Mendelian segregation corresponds to the choice tau(i)=1 for all i. To test whether Mendelian segregation is true, one can estimate the tau(i) from pedigree data and perform a likelihood-ratio test under the constraint that one tau(i) equals 1. Although this procedure generates an interesting method for performance of segregation analysis with a marker locus, its real promise lies in generalization of the transmission/disequilibrium test. Quantitative as well as qualitative outcomes can be considered. The gamete-competition model uses full pedigree data and gives an estimate of the strength of transmission distortion to affected children for each allele. Covariates are incorporated by rewriting of tau(i)=exp(beta(t)x(k)), where beta is a parameter vector and xk is a covariate vector for the kth transmitted gamete. Examples of covariates include disease-severity indicators for the child, sex of the child, or repeat number for tandem-repeat alleles. PMID:10712230

Sinsheimer, J S; Blangero, J; Lange, K

2000-03-01

6

Power, Control, and Intimate Partner Sexual Violence in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine how power and control in intimate relationships influenced women's exposure to sexual violence.\\u000a Multilevel modeling was used to determine the risk of partner sexual violence in the past 12 months among 2240 women aged\\u000a 15–49 years who were currently married or cohabiting. The data were drawn from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey.\\u000a Strong

Anastasia J. Gage; Paul L. Hutchinson

2006-01-01

7

In Vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity  

EPA Science Inventory

Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...

8

Intimate partner violence, coercive control, and child adjustment problems.  

PubMed

Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems. PMID:24923886

Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee

2015-02-01

9

Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the motivator for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of 762 divorcing

Marieh Tanha; Connie J. A. Beck; Aurelio José Figueredo; Chitra Raghavan

2010-01-01

10

SACY-1 DEAD-Box Helicase Links the Somatic Control of Oocyte Meiotic Maturation to the Sperm-to-Oocyte Switch and Gamete Maintenance in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

In sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest at diplotene or diakinesis and resume meiosis (meiotic maturation) in response to hormones. In Caenorhabditis elegans, major sperm protein triggers meiotic resumption through a mechanism involving somatic G?s–adenylate cyclase signaling and soma-to-germline gap-junctional communication. Using genetic mosaic analysis, we show that the major effector of G?s–adenylate cyclase signaling, protein kinase A (PKA), is required in gonadal sheath cells for oocyte meiotic maturation and dispensable in the germ line. This result rules out a model in which cyclic nucleotides must transit through sheath-oocyte gap junctions to activate PKA in the germ line, as proposed in vertebrate systems. We conducted a genetic screen to identify regulators of oocyte meiotic maturation functioning downstream of G?s–adenylate cyclase–PKA signaling. We molecularly identified 10 regulatory loci, which include essential and nonessential factors. sacy-1, which encodes a highly conserved DEAD-box helicase, is an essential germline factor that negatively regulates meiotic maturation. SACY-1 is a multifunctional protein that establishes a mechanistic link connecting the somatic control of meiotic maturation to germline sex determination and gamete maintenance. Modulatory factors include multiple subunits of a CoREST-like complex and the TWK-1 two-pore potassium channel. These factors are not absolutely required for meiotic maturation or its negative regulation in the absence of sperm, but function cumulatively to enable somatic control of meiotic maturation. This work provides insights into the genetic control of meiotic maturation signaling in C. elegans, and the conserved factors identified here might inform analysis in other systems through either homology or analogy. PMID:22887816

Kim, Seongseop; Govindan, J. Amaranath; Tu, Zheng Jin; Greenstein, David

2012-01-01

11

SACY-1 DEAD-Box helicase links the somatic control of oocyte meiotic maturation to the sperm-to-oocyte switch and gamete maintenance in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

In sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest at diplotene or diakinesis and resume meiosis (meiotic maturation) in response to hormones. In Caenorhabditis elegans, major sperm protein triggers meiotic resumption through a mechanism involving somatic G?(s)-adenylate cyclase signaling and soma-to-germline gap-junctional communication. Using genetic mosaic analysis, we show that the major effector of G?(s)-adenylate cyclase signaling, protein kinase A (PKA), is required in gonadal sheath cells for oocyte meiotic maturation and dispensable in the germ line. This result rules out a model in which cyclic nucleotides must transit through sheath-oocyte gap junctions to activate PKA in the germ line, as proposed in vertebrate systems. We conducted a genetic screen to identify regulators of oocyte meiotic maturation functioning downstream of G?(s)-adenylate cyclase-PKA signaling. We molecularly identified 10 regulatory loci, which include essential and nonessential factors. sacy-1, which encodes a highly conserved DEAD-box helicase, is an essential germline factor that negatively regulates meiotic maturation. SACY-1 is a multifunctional protein that establishes a mechanistic link connecting the somatic control of meiotic maturation to germline sex determination and gamete maintenance. Modulatory factors include multiple subunits of a CoREST-like complex and the TWK-1 two-pore potassium channel. These factors are not absolutely required for meiotic maturation or its negative regulation in the absence of sperm, but function cumulatively to enable somatic control of meiotic maturation. This work provides insights into the genetic control of meiotic maturation signaling in C. elegans, and the conserved factors identified here might inform analysis in other systems through either homology or analogy. PMID:22887816

Kim, Seongseop; Govindan, J Amaranath; Tu, Zheng Jin; Greenstein, David

2012-11-01

12

Speciation and the evolution of gamete recognition genes: pattern and process.  

PubMed

Proteins on gamete surfaces are major determinants of fertilization success, particularly in free-spawning animals. Molecular analyses of these simple genetic systems show rapid evolution, positive selection, accelerated coalescence and, sometimes, extensive polymorphism. Careful analysis of the behavior of sperm produced by males with different gamete alleles shows that these alleles can deliver significant functional differences. Three forms of allele-specific fertilization advantage have been shown: assortative mating based on gamete type, rare allele advantage and heterozygote superiority. Models suggest that sperm and egg proteins may be coevolutionary partners that can alternate between directional selection for high fertilization ability and cyclic adaptation of eggs and sperm driven by sexual conflict. These processes act within allopatric populations and may accelerate their divergence if gamete adaptations in separate demes reduce cross-fertilization. Reproductive character displacement by reinforcement may play a diversifying role when previously allopatric populations rejoin. In circumstance that might prove to be common, divergence in sympatry can be driven by sexual conflict or by association of mating types with ecological differences. The ecology of fertilization, especially the degree of sperm competition and egg death via polyspermy, are important determinants of the strength and direction of selection on gametes. Free-spawning animals allow careful analysis of gamete recognition -from the behavior of adults and interactions of gametes, to molecular patterns of allele divergence. Future research efforts on the evolutionary consequences of fertilization ecology, and the interaction between extensive variation in egg surface proteins and sperm fertilization ability, are particularly needed. PMID:19018273

Palumbi, S R

2009-01-01

13

Oviductal secretion and gamete interaction.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence from the last 30 years supports the fact that the oviduct is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in eutherian mammals. Oviductal secretion contains molecules that contribute to regulation of gamete function, gamete interaction, and the early stages of embryo development. The oviductal environment would act as a sperm reservoir, maintaining sperm viability, and modulating the subpopulation of spermatozoa that initiates the capacitation process. It could also contribute to prevent the premature acrosome reaction and to reduce polyspermy. Many studies have reported the beneficial effects of the oviductal environment on fertilization and on the first stages of embryo development. Some oviductal factors have been identified in different mammalian species. The effects of oviductal secretion on the reproductive process could be thought to result from the dynamic combined action (inhibitory or stimulatory) of multiple factors present in the oviductal lumen at different stages of the ovulatory cycle and in the presence of gametes or embryos. It could be hypothesized that the absence of a given molecule would not affect fertility as its action could be compensated by another factor with similar functions. However, any alteration in this balance could affect certain events of the reproductive process and could perhaps impair fertility. Thus, the complexity of the reproductive process warrants a continuous research effort to unveil the mechanisms and factors behind its regulation in the oviductal microenvironment. PMID:25190504

Ghersevich, Sergio; Massa, Estefanía; Zumoffen, Carlos

2015-01-01

14

Short gamete co-incubation during in vitro fertilization decreases the fertilization rate and does not improve embryo quality: a prospective auto controlled study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Evaluate the effect of short gamete incubation on fertilization rate and embryo quality. Methods A prospective study has been performed. Two thousand five hundred and forty seven sibling oocytes from 240 couples undergoing IVF attempts were allocated to a short (1 h) or a standard (18 h) insemination procedure. Diploid fertilization rate (two pronuclei, 2PN), polyspermy (>2PN) and embryo quality were compared. Results The fertilization rate was statistically lower in the short insemination group compared to the standard insemination one (64.9% and 70.1%; P?=?0.039), with a similar polyspermy rate observed between the two groups. A slight, but non significant, increase was observed concerning good embryo quality rate in the short insemination group when compared to the standard insemination, both at day 2 (60.1 vs. 58.1%; P?=?0.06) and day 3 (53.2 vs. 48.5%; P?=?0.22). Conclusion This new study highlights that a 1 h gamete exposure decreases the fertilization rate and does not improve embryo quality compared with a standard 18 h insemination procedure. PMID:18670871

Sifer, C.; Pocaté, K.; Ziyyat, A.; Martin-Pont, B.; Porcher, R.; Hugues, J. N.; Wolf, J. P.

2008-01-01

15

Partner notification for control of HIV: results after 2 years of a statewide program in Utah.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. We sought to evaluate the utility of partner notification for control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to identify subgroups in which it may be most effective. METHODS. All persons reported to be HIV-positive during a 2-year period were interviewed. Outcome measures included proportion of index patients cooperating; number of partners named, located, counseled, and tested; number of persons newly testing positive; and costs. RESULTS. Of 308 index patients, 244 (79%) cooperated. They named 890 partners; 499 (70%) of in-state partners were located. Of these, 154 (34%) had previously tested HIV-positive. Of 279 partners tested for the first time, 39 (14%) were HIV-positive. Injecting drug users were significantly more likely to cooperate than persons in other risk groups (93% vs 76%) and named more partners (median 4 vs 1). Women and persons choosing confidential testing were more likely to cooperate and named more partners. The estimated cost of the program was $62,500 per year. CONCLUSIONS. Partner notification identified a group with a high seroprevalence of HIV. It was not successful among populations that may be difficult to reach with other interventions. PMID:8214231

Pavia, A T; Benyo, M; Niler, L; Risk, I

1993-01-01

16

The Genic Nature of Gamete Eliminator in Rice  

PubMed Central

The two cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, are morphologically alike but are reproductively isolated from each other by hybrid sterility. The hybrid is male sterile but partially female fertile. Backcross experiments were conducted to introduce an alien factor controlling hybrid sterility from O. glaberrima (W025) into O. sativa (T65wx) and examine the genetic basis. An extracted sterility factor, closely linked to the wx locus, induced gametic abortion due to allelic interaction and was tentatively designated as S((t)). The segregation patterns for infertility was explained by assuming that W025 and T65wx carried S((t)) and S((t))(a), respectively, and gametes with S((t))(a) aborted only in the heterozygote (S((t))/S((t))(a)) although the elimination of female gametes was incomplete. Thus, S((t)) seemed to be intermediate between a gamete eliminator and pollen killer. However, S((t)) was proven to be likely the same as S(1) which was formerly reported as gamete eliminator in a different genetic background of O. sativa. In addition, a chromosomal segment containing S(1) (or S((t))) caused a marked suppression of crossing over around it, suggesting the presence of an inversion. Further, female transmission of S(1)(a) increased as the segment containing S(1) became small by recombination. After S(1) was further purified by successive backcrosses up to the BC(15) generation, it became pollen killer. The present results give evidence that a profound sterility gene such as gamete eliminator can be made from accumulation of pollen killer and its modifier(s) when pollen killer and modifier(s) are linked, they behave as a gene complex in the hybrid. PMID:2341030

Sano, Y.

1990-01-01

17

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gametes will be allowed to enter the United States only if they meet all applicable requirements of the permit and regulations. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

2010-01-01

18

Relative effects of gamete compatibility and hydrodynamics on fertilization in the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis.  

PubMed

Intraspecific variation in gamete compatibility among male/female pairs causes variation in the concentration of sperm required to achieve equivalent fertilization levels. Gamete compatibility is therefore potentially an important factor controlling mating success. Many broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, however, also live in a dynamic environment where hydrodynamic conditions can affect the concentration of sperm reaching eggs during spawning. Thus flow conditions may moderate the effects of gamete compatibility on fertilization. Using the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis as a model system, we assessed the relative effects of gamete compatibility (the concentration of sperm required to fertilize 50% of the eggs in specific male/female pairs; F50) and the root-mean-square of total velocity (urms; 0.01-0.11 m s(-1)) on fertilization in four locations near a spawning female (water column, wake eddy, substratum, and aboral surface) in both unidirectional and oscillatory flows. Percent fertilization decreased significantly with increasing urms at all locations and both flow regimes. However, although gamete compatibility varied by almost 1.5 orders of magnitude, it was not a significant predictor of fertilization for most combinations of position and flow. The notable exception was a significant effect of gamete compatibility on fertilization on the aboral surface under unidirectional flow. Our results suggest that selection on variation in gamete compatibility may be strongest in eggs fertilized on the aboral surface of sea urchins and that hydrodynamic conditions may add environmental noise to selection outcomes. PMID:25216500

Kregting, Louise T; Thomas, Florence I M; Bass, Anna L; Yund, Philip O

2014-08-01

19

Parental age, gametic age, and inbreeding interact to modulate offspring viability in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In principle, parental relatedness, parental age, and the age of parental gametes can all influence offspring fitness through inbreeding depression and the parental effects of organismal and postmeiotic gametic senescence. However, little is known about the extent to which these factors interact and contribute to fitness variation. Here, we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, offspring viability is strongly affected by a three-way interaction between parental relatedness, parental age, and gametic age at successive developmental stages. Overall egg-to-adult viability was lowest for offspring produced with old gametes of related, young parents. This overall effect was largely determined at the pupa-adult stage, although three-way interactions between parental relatedness, parental age and gametic age also explained variation in egg hatchability and larva-pupa survival. Controlling for the influence of parental and gametic age, we show that inbreeding depression is negligible for egg hatchability but significant at the larva-pupa and pupa-adult stages. At the pupa-adult stage, where offspring could be sexed, parental relatedness, parental age, and gametic age interacted differently in male and female offspring, with daughters suffering higher inbreeding depression than sons. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the architecture of offspring fitness is strongly influenced by a complex interaction between parental effects, inbreeding depression and offspring sex. PMID:24094353

Tan, Cedric K W; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

2013-10-01

20

Gamete competition, gamete limitation, and the evolution of the two sexes.  

PubMed

Males and females are a fundamental aspect of human reproduction, yet procreation is perfectly possible without this division into two sexes. Biologically, males are defined as the sex that produces the smaller gametes (e.g. sperm), implying that the male and female sexes only exist in species with gamete dimorphism (anisogamy). Our ancestors were isogamous, meaning that only one gamete size was produced. The question of the evolutionary origin of males and females is then synonymous to asking what evolutionary pressures caused gamete sizes to diverge. Studying the ancestral evolutionary divergence of males and females relies largely on mathematical modelling. Here, we review two classes of models explaining the evolutionary origin of males and females: gamete competition and gamete limitation. These seemingly alternative explanations are not mutually exclusive, but two aspects of a single evolutionary process. Once evolved, anisogamy and the two sexes are evolutionarily very stable. This explains the maintenance of anisogamy in organisms with internal fertilization, which can cause large decreases in both gamete competition and gamete limitation. The ancestral divergence and maintenance of gamete sizes subsequently led to many other differences we now observe between the two sexes, sowing the seeds for what we have become. PMID:25323972

Lehtonen, Jussi; Parker, Geoff A

2014-12-01

21

How safe is gamete micromanipulation by laser tweezers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.

Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.

1998-04-01

22

Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

2012-01-01

23

Identification of gametes and treatment of linear dependencies in the gametic QTL-relationship matrix and its inverse  

PubMed Central

The estimation of gametic effects via marker-assisted BLUP requires the inverse of the conditional gametic relationship matrix G. Both gametes of each animal can either be identified (distinguished) by markers or by parental origin. By example, it was shown that the conditional gametic relationship matrix is not unique but depends on the mode of gamete identification. The sum of both gametic effects of each animal – and therefore its estimated breeding value – remains however unaffected. A previously known algorithm for setting up the inverse of G was generalized in order to eliminate the dependencies between columns and rows of G. In the presence of dependencies the rank of G also depends on the mode of gamete identification. A unique transformation of estimates of QTL genotypic effects into QTL gametic effects was proven to be impossible. The properties of both modes of gamete identification in the fields of application are discussed. PMID:15496284

Tuchscherer, Armin; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert

2004-01-01

24

Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India  

PubMed Central

Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were ­conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be ­maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, ­professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using ­relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, ­unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing ­information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring ­monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

2011-01-01

25

Centrality of control-seeking in men's intimate partner violence perpetration.  

PubMed

Two million women and one million men experience rape, stalking, or physical assault by a current or former romantic partner each year in the U.S. Not only do women report twice the incidents, but intimate partner violence (IPV) that women experience is typically more severe. Explanations for IPV gender asymmetry include male dominance attitudes, hostile sexism, and men's control-seeking. There are gaps in our knowledge of how attitudes and control-seeking co-relate to influence IPV. This study demonstrates a mediation analysis to investigate these relationships. Data were from a cross-sectional online survey of male undergraduate students from a public Southeastern university. The survey measured attitudes of male dominance and hostile sexism, desire for control, and IPV perpetration. After including age and academic level in the model, male dominance remained a significant predictor of likelihood of physical IPV (OR?=?1.16, p?=?.004) but not psychological IPV. The addition of control-seeking (physical OR?=?1.65, p?control-seeking (psychological IPV OR?=?1.27, p?control-seeking mediates the relationship between male dominance and physical IPV and partially mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and IPV. Practical implications for IPV prevention programs and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23400847

Whitaker, M Pippin

2013-10-01

26

Rethinking the moral permissibility of gamete donation.  

PubMed

The dominant philosophical view of gamete donation as morally permissible (when practiced in the right way) rests on two premises: (1) parental obligations are triggered primarily by playing a causal role (as agent cause) in procreation, not by genetic ties, and (2) those obligations are transferable-that is, they are obligations to make adequate provision for the child's needs, not necessarily to raise the child oneself. Thus while gamete donors are indeed agent causes of the children that their donation helps to bring into existence, most think that donors' obligations are discharged insofar as they know that competent others intend to care for those children. In this article, I call into question this dominant view by challenging both of its premises. Challenging the first premise, I argue that genetic parenthood is what primarily triggers parental obligations. Challenging the second premise, I claim that those obligations are non-transferable-i.e., that they are obligations not simply to ensure that someone will raise one's genetic child, but to raise that child oneself (unless one is incompetent). The implication of my argument is that gamete donation is inherently wrong insofar as it involves acquiring non-transferable obligations that one has no intention of fulfilling. PMID:25359235

Moschella, Melissa

2014-12-01

27

Unreduced gametes in diploid Medicago and their importance in alfalfa breeding.  

PubMed

In the genus Medicago, it is known that 2n gametes have been important in the evolution and breeding of cultivated alfalfa, which is a natural polysomic polyploid (2n=4x=32), however little is known on the frequency of male and female 2n gametes in diploid relatives of alfalfa. To obtain data on the frequency of 2n gametes, more than 12,000 2x-4x and 4x-2x crosses were made in 1982 at Madison (USA). Diploid parents in crosses were from four populations of M. coerulea, two of M. falcata and one diploid population of cultivated M. sativa which was derived by haploidy. The tetraploid seed parent in the crosses was a male-sterile M. sativa clone and vigorous tetraploid M. sativa plants were used as pollen parents. Each of 274 diploid plants was utilized both as male and as female. Of the 548 cross combinations, 266 crosses produced variable quantities of seeds which were sown in 1983 in a greenhouse at Perugia (Italy); the plants were subsequently space transplanted in the field in 1984. The identification of ploidy level of these genotypes was made on the basis of morphological characters, plant fertility, pollen stainability and chromosome counts.Of the 515 plants analyzed, the majority behaved as normal tetraploids indicating that many diploid plants produced 2n gametes. Diplogynous and diplandrous gamete production was not correlated with each other, which indicated a different genetic control of 2n sporogenesis in the 2 sexes. Only 4 F1 triploid plants confirmed the presence of a very effective triploid block in alfalfa. In consequence, bilateral sexual polyploidization is a more likely alternative for the origin of tetraploid alfalfa than triploid bridges. The present study showed that it is possible to efficiently identify genotypes able to produce high frequencies of 2n gametes within natural populations of diploids Medicago that are useful in alfalfa breeding. PMID:24247768

Veronesi, F; Mariani, A; Bingham, E T

1986-04-01

28

Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions  

PubMed Central

The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete’s positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645

Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

2011-01-01

29

Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

2006-01-01

30

SHORT REVIEW Speciation and the evolution of gamete recognition  

E-print Network

and interactions of gametes, to molecular patterns of allele divergence. Future research effortsSHORT REVIEW Speciation and the evolution of gamete recognition genes: pattern and process SR for high fertilization ability and cyclic adaptation of eggs and sperm driven by sexual conflict

Palumbi, Stephen

31

Smart Men, Beautiful Women: Social Values and Gamete Commodification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For couples for whom assisted reproduction is the only way to have genetically related offspring, the donation of gametes by others makes available enhanced reproductive options. There has been an increasing demand for such services, as evidenced by the Web site launched by fashion photographer Ron Harris in the fall of 1999. Although the sale of such gametes is not

Toby L. Schonfeld

2003-01-01

32

A Theoretical Understanding of Abusive Intimate Partner Relationships that Become Non-violent: Shifting the Pattern of Abusive Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our theoretical understanding of abusive intimate partner relationships has ignored relationships that have become non-violent.\\u000a We interviewed a community convenience sample of 27 women whose relationships had become non-violent. Using the constant comparative\\u000a analysis of grounded theory, we generated a substantive theory, shifting the pattern of abusive control with three sub-processes, counteracting abuse, taking control, and living differently. Women’s acquisition

Judith Wuest; Marilyn Merritt-Gray

2008-01-01

33

A Randomized Controlled Trial for Reducing Risks for Sexually Transmitted Infections Through Enhanced Patient-Based Partner Notification  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to assess the effectiveness of approaches targeting improved sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual partner notification through patient referral. Methods. From January 2002 through December 2004, 600 patients with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis were recruited from STI clinics and randomly assigned to either a standard-of-care group or a group that was counseled at the time of diagnosis and given additional follow-up contact. Participants completed an interview at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months and were checked at 6 months for gonorrhea or chlamydial infection via nucleic acid amplification testing of urine. Results. Program participants were more likely to report sexual partner notification at 1 month (86% control, 92% intervention; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 3.0) and were more likely to report no unprotected sexual intercourse at 6 months (38% control, 48% intervention; AOR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1). Gonorrhea or chlamydial infection was detected in 6% of intervention and 11% of control participants at follow-up (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 4.1), with greatest benefits seen among men (for gender interaction, P = .03). Conclusions. This patient-based sexual partner notification program can help reduce risks for subsequent STIs among urban, minority patients presenting for care at STI clinics. PMID:18556619

Hogben, Matthew; Malka, Edmond S.; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M.; Rubin, Steve R.; Augenbraun, Michael A.

2009-01-01

34

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Transfer Tokens Repeatedly with a Partner to Accumulate Rewards in a Self-Control Task  

PubMed Central

There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one’s social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees’ self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691

Parrish, Audrey E.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

2013-01-01

35

Partner notification  

PubMed Central

Partner notification is an essential part of case management for sexually transmitted infections. Done correctly it reduces persistent or recurrent infection in the index patient, identifies previously undiagnosed infections, and may thus contribute to reduced transmission in the population. The effectiveness of patient referral of partners can be enhanced through the provision of written information and easy access to tests and medication. A recent systematic review of partner notification found that enhanced partner therapy (helping get treatment to partners more rapidly) reduced re-infection in the index case by almost 30% compared with simple patient referral. Provider referral, where the healthcare worker contacts partners directly, can also be effective, and provides an important service for patients who are wary of informing partners themselves. Partner notification services should be available for all patients found to have a sexually transmitted infection, whether the diagnosis is made in specialist settings, or in primary or community-based care. For patients with HIV, partner notification should be addressed when the infection is first diagnosed and revisited for subsequent partners. Access to specialist partner notification services is an important part of any sexual healthcare system. The professional competencies required to undertake partner notification have now been clearly defined. PMID:24966787

Ward, Helen; Bell, Gill

2014-01-01

36

Gamete intrafallopian transfer vs superovulation with intrauterine insemination for the treatment of infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superovulation with intrauterine insemination (SO-IUI) has been suggested as an alternative to gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), despite the absence of controlled or comparative trials. We retrospectively analyzed all GIFT and SO-IUI cycles performed concurrently from January 1985 to August of 1987 at a single university center. Pregnancy rates were significantly better for GIFT than SO-IUI (PP=0.001). Stepwise multiple logistic regression

Carolyn R. Kaplan; David L. Olive; Vincente Sabella; Ricardo H. Asch; Jose P. Balmaceda; Robert M. Riehl; Terry R. Groff; William N. Burns; Robert S. Schenken

1989-01-01

37

Genetic generations: artificial gametes and the embryos produced with them.  

PubMed

Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this topic for discussion, it also wades into the ethical fray over the practice. Several possible lines of objection can be raised against this practice, but these accounts are by and large insufficient as an ethical analysis of this possible, future way of conceiving human children. PMID:23966423

Murphy, Timothy F

2014-11-01

38

Partner(s): Ballistic Pendulum  

E-print Network

Name: Partner(s): Date: Ballistic Pendulum 1. Purpose: Primarily, this lab is included just because of conservation of momentum, using something called a "ballistic pendulum." 2. Background: We used to teach.e., a simple pendulum). By measuring how high the pendulum would swing, one could determine the initial

Spalding, Gabriel Cooper

39

A Chromosome-Specific Estimate of Transmission of Heterozygosity by 2n Gametes in Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyploid plants are formed when numerically unreduced (2n) gametes participate in fertilization. Based on cytological and genetic analyses, modes of 2n gamete formation have been determined for a number of plant species. Gametes formed by a first division (FDR) restitution mechanism contain non-s...

40

Larval development of certain gamete-spawning scleractinian corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenesis and larval development were documented in 19 species of hermatypic scleractinians which release gametes during the summer coral spawning season on the Great Barrier Reef. Cleavage of fertilized eggs began approximately 2 h after spawning in all species, and gave rise to blastulae after 7–10 h. Endoderm formation in Platygyra sinensis was by invagination, and this appeared to occur

R. C. Babcock; A. J. Heyward

1986-01-01

41

Vibrational characterization of female gametes: a comparative study.  

PubMed

In the last few years, vibrational spectroscopies have been widely applied in biology and medicine, as a synergic support to commonly used analytical and diagnostic techniques. This review summarizes the relevant researches carried out by using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy on oviparous and mammalian gametes, including human ones. PMID:25181749

Giorgini, E; Gioacchini, G; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Vaccari, L; Borini, A; Carnevali, O; Tosi, G

2014-10-21

42

Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of non-domestic species.  

PubMed

Many species of mammals are threatened or endangered. Methods of assisted reproduction that are being used with increasing frequency to produce offspring of domestic animals and humans are often viewed as offering innovative ways to reproduce non-domestic species as well. Uncounted millions of live young of domestic or laboratory species have been produced from gametes and embryos stored at -70 degrees C or below, sometimes for as long as 25 to 35 yrs. Such methods of cryopreservation are now being applied with increasing frequency and urgency to preserve gametes and embryos of non-domestic and threatened species to establish "genome resource banks" or "frozen zoos." But levels of success to produce live young from such cryopreserved gametes or embryos vary considerably from species to species, as well as from individual to individual. It is sometimes thought that differences among species in fundamental characteristics of their gametes may determine the efficacy of cryopreservation and the production of live young. However, it may not be that ineffective cryopreservation is responsible for low success rates. Rather, the limiting factor may be insufficient information and knowledge of the most basic reproductive biology of such non-domestic species. Even standard methods of cryopreservation may be completely adequate to act as a "temporary" expedient to preserve germplasm of non-domestic species to permit time to acquire a fuller understanding of the biology and behavior of non-domestic species. PMID:11775977

Leibo, S P; Songsasen, N

2002-01-01

43

Innovative Partnering  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 14 T he city of McKinney, Texas and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Urban Solutions Center at Dallas are partnering on a six-year plan to educate and bring research-based innovations to McKinney residents. The goal... Innovative partnering Texas A&M, McKinney develop water conservation venture The University of Texas at Arlington?s Program in Landscape Architect assisted in the design of a one-acre water conservation garden for McKinney. The garden will demonstrate...

Lowe, Emilie

2008-01-01

44

Non-verbal behavior as courtship signals: the role of control and choice in selecting partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we provide evidence based on direct observation of behavior in encounters of opposite-sexed strangers, that women initiate and “control” the outcome. In the first minute of these videotaped 10-min interactions, neither female “solicitation” behavior nor “negative” behavior is strongly related to professed interest in the man, while female “affirmative” behavior at this stage modulates male verbal output

Karl Grammer; Kirsten Kruck; Astrid Juette; Bernhard Fink

2000-01-01

45

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - UDC and LCC Partners in Cancer Prevention and Control  

Cancer.gov

The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Cancer Center (LCC) partnership establish a planning U56 funded Partnership that build upon their successes in a funded P20 Partnership. The U56 Partnership will focus exclusively on Cancer Prevention and Control.

46

Psychosocial Predictors of Giving Health-Related Social Control to a Partner  

E-print Network

Diet and motivation were the most frequently reported obstacles to weight loss,Weight Management and Social Control Even though diet, exercise, and weight lossweight loss reported on the initial Get Fit Challenge application were content-coded into five possible categories: diet-

Vie, Loryana

2012-01-01

47

Partner notification  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many people diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) do not have symptoms, and may not inform their past or current sexual partners of their diagnosis or routinely use condoms. Several strategies have been used to notify and treat partners of people diagnosed with an STD, but only a limited number of RCTs of their effectiveness have been undertaken. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of partner notification strategies in people with different STDs? What are the effects of interventions to improve effectiveness of patient referral in people with STDs? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: contract referral; counselling (both alone and in combination with educational interventions) of index patients; educational interventions for the index patient; information for the index patient or partner; outreach assistance; patient referral; patient referral via different types of healthcare professional; patient-delivered partner therapy; patient-delivered home-sampling kits; provider referral; and reminders (any format) for the index patient. PMID:21733200

2009-01-01

48

Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function  

PubMed Central

Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB complexed with nucleotide reveals a new conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active, but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an auto-regulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to nucleotide and both replication initiation and elongation factors. PMID:24373746

Strycharska, Melania S.; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Erzberger, Jan P.; O’Shea, Valerie; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Berger, James M.

2014-01-01

49

Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go?  

PubMed

Murine embryonic stem cells have recently been shown to be capable of differentiating in vitro into oocytes or sperm. Should these findings be duplicated using human embryonic stem cells, this would raise a number of social and ethical concerns, some specific to these particular developments, others shared with other aspects of stem cell research. This review outlines the properties of stem cells and their conversion to gametes. Concerns raised include embryo destruction, quality of gametes derived in this way, possibility for children with two male biological parents, movement towards germ line gene therapy and 'designer babies', and the future impacts on health service provisions. It is important that public discussion of some of these issues should take place. PMID:17454202

Whittaker, Peter

2007-03-01

50

Non-verbal behavior as courtship signals: the role of control and choice in selecting partners.  

PubMed

In this work, we provide evidence based on direct observation of behavior in encounters of opposite-sexed strangers, that women initiate and "control" the outcome. In the first minute of these videotaped 10-min interactions, neither female "solicitation" behavior nor "negative" behavior is strongly related to professed interest in the man, while female "affirmative" behavior at this stage modulates male verbal output in later stages (4-10 min). Although the rate of female courtship-like behavior is significantly higher in the first minute, it is only in the fourth to tenth minute that the rate of female courtship-like behavior is correlated with professed female interest. We hypothesize that this serves as a strategic dynamic reflecting sexual asymmetry in parental investment and the potential cost of male deception to women. Ambiguous protean behavioral strategies veil individuals' intentions and make their future actions unpredictable. These behavioral strategies may result in men's overestimation of female sexual interest. PMID:11146304

Grammer; Kruck; Juette; Fink

2000-11-01

51

Imprinting Capacity of Gamete Lineages in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed a gamete-of-origin imprinting effect in C. elegans using a set of GFP reporter transgenes. From a single progenitor line carrying an extrachromosomal unc-54::gfp transgene array, we generated three independent autosomal integrations of the unc-54::gfp transgene. The progenitor line, two of its three integrated derivatives, and a nonrelated unc-119:gfp transgene exhibit an imprinting effect: single-genera- tion transmission of

Ky Sha; Andrew Fire

2005-01-01

52

Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

53

Talking to Your Partner about Condoms  

MedlinePLUS

Talking to Your Partner About Condoms KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Birth Control > Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Print A A A Text Size It's much smarter to talk about condoms before having ...

54

The Exercising Together Project: Design and recruitment for a randomized, controlled trial to determine the benefits of partnered strength training for couples coping with prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer can threaten quality of life for the patient and his spouse and the quality of his marital relationship. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effects of “Exercising Together” – a partnered strength training program for married couples coping with prostate cancer – on the physical and emotional health of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) and their spouses and on marital quality. We are conducting a 6-month randomized controlled trial with two groups: 1) Exercising Together - a progressive, supervised strength training program and 2) a usual care control condition. The primary aims of this exploratory study are to: 1) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health (muscle strength, physical function, body composition and self-report physical and mental health) in PCS, 2) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health in spouses and 3) Explore the effect of partnered strength training on marital quality (incongruence, communication, relationship quality, intimacy) of the PCS and spouse. Target accrual has been met in this study with 64 couples enrolled and randomized to exercise (n=32) or usual care (n=32) groups. This study is the first to examine the feasibility of this exercise format in both the chronically ill patient and spouse and explore benefits at the individual and couple level. PMID:22101224

Winters-Stone, Kerri M.; Lyons, Karen S.; Nail, Lillian M.; Beer, Tomasz M.

2011-01-01

55

Gametic embryogenesis and haploid technology as valuable support to plant breeding.  

PubMed

Plant breeding is focused on continuously increasing crop production to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population, improving food quality to ensure a long and healthy life and address the problems of global warming and environment pollution, together with the challenges of developing novel sources of biofuels. The breeders' search for novel genetic combinations, with which to select plants with improved traits to satisfy both farmers and consumers, is endless. About half of the dramatic increase in crop yield obtained in the second half of the last century has been achieved thanks to the results of genetic improvement, while the residual advance has been due to the enhanced management techniques (pest and disease control, fertilization, and irrigation). Biotechnologies provide powerful tools for plant breeding, and among these ones, tissue culture, particularly haploid and doubled haploid technology, can effectively help to select superior plants. In fact, haploids (Hs), which are plants with gametophytic chromosome number, and doubled haploids (DHs), which are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication, represent a particularly attractive biotechnological method to accelerate plant breeding. Currently, haploid technology, making possible through gametic embryogenesis the single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, has already had a huge impact on agricultural systems of many agronomically important crops, representing an integral part in their improvement programmes. The aim of this review was to provide some background, recent advances, and future prospective on the employment of haploid technology through gametic embryogenesis as a powerful tool to support plant breeding. PMID:21431908

Germanà, Maria Antonietta

2011-05-01

56

Historical background of gamete and embryo culture.  

PubMed

The first tissue culture media were developed nearly 150 years ago by Ludwig and Ringer. These were simple salt solutions, which were initially based on the chemical properties of blood serum. The second generation of culture media was developed more than a century later, in the 1970s, aiming to mimic the reproductive environment. In the 1990s, simplex optimization was used to design the third group of media, to some extent ignoring existing formulations and principles. Simultaneous with the development of culture media, it became evident that it was necessary to carefully control the culture conditions, including temperature, pH, osmolarity, and air quality. Equally important was the development of instruments and tools specifically designed for cell tissue culture such as the inverted microscope, the incubator, the Petri dish, sterile plasticware, the laminar flow cabinet, and air filtration equipment. PMID:22829365

Cohen, Jacques; Rieger, Don

2012-01-01

57

Unreduced gametes in diploid Medicago and their importance in alfalfa breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the genus Medicago, it is known that 2n gametes have been important in the evolution and breeding of cultivated alfalfa, which is a natural polysomic polyploid (2n=4x=32), however little is known on the frequency of male and female 2n gametes in diploid relatives of alfalfa. To obtain data on the frequency of 2n gametes, more than 12,000 2x–4x and

F. Veronesi; A. Mariani; E. T. Bingham

1986-01-01

58

Controlling for Selection Effects in the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…

Emery, Clifton R.

2011-01-01

59

The Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Exploring Personal Attitudes and Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health and social problem. However, our understanding of how the geographic community or neighborhood influences its distribution is underdeveloped. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence that neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, are…

Frye, Victoria

2007-01-01

60

Fertilization success in marine invertebrates: the influence of gamete age.  

PubMed

Gamete age has been postulated to be unimportant to the fertilization ecology of marine invertebrates. However, recent research suggests that, for some species at least, it may have a direct impact upon fertilization success. We present comparative data on the influence of gamete age on fertilization and development success in several marine invertebrates: the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the asteroid echinoderm Asterias rubens. Oocytes are much longer lived in the polychaetes than in the echinoderm, with A. marina oocytes still capable of fertilizing and developing normally 96 h post-spawning. Developmental abnormalities and failure to reach blastula tend to occur well before the fertilizable life of the oocytes has expired. Sperm are similarly longer lived in the polychaetes; however, fertilizing capacity is markedly reduced following incubation in conspecific egg-conditioned seawater. These results are discussed in terms of the fertilization strategies of the three species. We further suggest that, for A. marina at least, longer-lived sperm and eggs are central to the fertilization strategy of this species. PMID:11842013

Williams, Mark Elliott; Bentley, Matthew Graeme

2002-02-01

61

The gametic synapse: RNA transfer to the bovine oocyte.  

PubMed

Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build the reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between the gamete and the surrounding cells that is limited to paracrine signaling and direct transfer of small molecules via gap junctions existing at the end of the somatic cells' projections that are in contact with the oolemma. The purpose of this work was to explore the role of cumulus cell projections as a means of conductance of large molecules, including RNA, to the mammalian oocyte. By studying nascent RNA with confocal and transmission electron microscopy in combination with transcript detection, we show that the somatic cells surrounding the fully grown bovine oocyte contribute to the maternal reserves by actively transferring large cargo, including mRNA and long noncoding RNA. This occurrence was further demonstrated by the reconstruction of cumulus-oocyte complexes with transfected cumulus cells transferring a synthetic transcript. We propose selective transfer of transcripts occurs, the delivery of which is supported by a remarkable synapselike vesicular trafficking connection between the cumulus cells and the gamete. This unexpected exogenous contribution to the maternal stores offers a new perspective on the determinants of female fertility. PMID:25143353

Macaulay, Angus D; Gilbert, Isabelle; Caballero, Julieta; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fournier, Eric; Tossou, Prudencio; Sirard, Marc-André; Clarke, Hugh J; Khandjian, Édouard W; Richard, Francois J; Hyttel, Poul; Robert, Claude

2014-10-01

62

A Model for Signal Transduction during Gamete Release in the Fucoid Alga Pelvetia compressa1  

E-print Network

water motion (Pear- son and Brawley, 1996; Serra~o et al., 1996). Gamete release is photosynthesis and gamete expulsion: a photosynthetic pathway and a photosynthesis- independent pathway in which red light required for photosynthesis (Pearson et al., 1998). We dem- onstrated this with experiments in which

Teixeira, Sara

63

Globalization and gametes: reproductive ‘tourism,’ Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Reproductive tourism’ has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within ‘global reproscapes,’ which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the

Marcia C. Inhorn

2011-01-01

64

Male partner voluntary counselling and testing associated with the antenatal services in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Low male participation in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services at antenatal clinics (ANCs) represents a lost HIV-prevention opportunity. A three-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted that offered VCT at a neighbourhood health centre, bar or church to the male partners of pregnant women attending a maternity unit in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The primary outcome was the proportion of male participation at VCT; secondary outcomes were uptake of couple counselling and determinants of male and couple participation. From a total of 2706 women included in the study, 591 male partners (22%) attended one of the three venues. Male participation was significantly higher in bars (26%, P < 0.001), and higher but not statistically significant in church-based VCT (21%, P = 0.163) compared with health centre VCT (18%). Male participation in VCT associated with ANCs was higher in non-health service settings, particularly in bars. A combination of different strategies rather than single targeted interventions will be needed to increase VCT uptake in male partners of women seeking VCT at ANCs. PMID:21464455

Ditekemena, J; Matendo, R; Koole, O; Colebunders, R; Kashamuka, M; Tshefu, A; Kilese, N; Nanlele, D; Ryder, R

2011-03-01

65

Denial, minimization, partner blaming, and intimate aggression in dating partners.  

PubMed

Although countering denial, minimization, and externalization of blame is a key component of most interventions for individuals who have been abusive in their intimate relationships, these attributions have only seldom been the focus of empirical investigation. Using a sample of 139 male and female university students, this study examined the associations between self-reported minimizing and blaming attributions and the perpetration of physical, sexual, and psychological aggression against an intimate partner. For men, minimization of conflict and partner blame were associated with self-reported perpetration of intimate partner aggression, even after controlling for socially desirable responding and relationship satisfaction. In contrast, women's aggression was associated only with partner blame. Discussion focuses on overlap with similar areas of research, gender differences in minimization and blaming, and on potential directions for further empirical work on the associations of intimate aggression, relationship dissatisfaction, and attribution. PMID:17575066

Scott, Katreena; Straus, Murray

2007-07-01

66

Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions  

PubMed Central

Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

2010-01-01

67

GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT  

EPA Science Inventory

GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711...

68

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2012-01-01

69

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2013-01-01

70

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

2012-01-01

71

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

2011-01-01

72

9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.904 Health...

2013-01-01

73

9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.904 Health...

2012-01-01

74

9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.904 Health...

2011-01-01

75

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2014-01-01

76

9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.904 Health...

2010-01-01

77

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

2013-01-01

78

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2011-01-01

79

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

2014-01-01

80

Gamete Compatibility and Sperm Competition Affect Paternity and Hybridization Between Sympatric  

E-print Network

in sympatric broadcast-spawn- ing marine invertebrates. We examined the role of gamete compatibility in species- cies formation. In marine invertebrates, differences in hab- itat selection, spawning synchrony (on

81

The Effect of Filamentous Turf Algal Removal on the Development of Gametes of the Coral Orbicella annularis  

PubMed Central

Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7–10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete lack of recruitment. PMID:25658586

Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P.; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J.; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragán, Guillermina

2015-01-01

82

The Effect of Filamentous Turf Algal Removal on the Development of Gametes of the Coral Orbicella annularis.  

PubMed

Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7-10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete lack of recruitment. PMID:25658586

Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragán, Guillermina

2015-01-01

83

GAMETES: a fast, direct algorithm for generating pure, strict, epistatic models with random architectures  

PubMed Central

Background Geneticists who look beyond single locus disease associations require additional strategies for the detection of complex multi-locus effects. Epistasis, a multi-locus masking effect, presents a particular challenge, and has been the target of bioinformatic development. Thorough evaluation of new algorithms calls for simulation studies in which known disease models are sought. To date, the best methods for generating simulated multi-locus epistatic models rely on genetic algorithms. However, such methods are computationally expensive, difficult to adapt to multiple objectives, and unlikely to yield models with a precise form of epistasis which we refer to as pure and strict. Purely and strictly epistatic models constitute the worst-case in terms of detecting disease associations, since such associations may only be observed if all n-loci are included in the disease model. This makes them an attractive gold standard for simulation studies considering complex multi-locus effects. Results We introduce GAMETES, a user-friendly software package and algorithm which generates complex biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) disease models for simulation studies. GAMETES rapidly and precisely generates random, pure, strict n-locus models with specified genetic constraints. These constraints include heritability, minor allele frequencies of the SNPs, and population prevalence. GAMETES also includes a simple dataset simulation strategy which may be utilized to rapidly generate an archive of simulated datasets for given genetic models. We highlight the utility and limitations of GAMETES with an example simulation study using MDR, an algorithm designed to detect epistasis. Conclusions GAMETES is a fast, flexible, and precise tool for generating complex n-locus models with random architectures. While GAMETES has a limited ability to generate models with higher heritabilities, it is proficient at generating the lower heritability models typically used in simulation studies evaluating new algorithms. In addition, the GAMETES modeling strategy may be flexibly combined with any dataset simulation strategy. Beyond dataset simulation, GAMETES could be employed to pursue theoretical characterization of genetic models and epistasis. PMID:23025260

2012-01-01

84

A parallel-group, randomised controlled trial of a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners: design and rationale  

PubMed Central

Introduction Coping skills training interventions have been found to be efficacious in helping both patients and their partners manage the physical and emotional challenges they face following a cancer diagnosis. However, many of these interventions are costly and not sustainable. To overcome these issues, a self-directed format is increasingly used. The efficacy of self-directed interventions for patients has been supported; however, no study has reported on the outcomes for their partners. This study will test the efficacy of Coping-Together—a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners. Methods and analysis The proposed three-group, parallel, randomised controlled trial will recruit patients diagnosed in the past 4?months with breast, prostate, colorectal cancer or melanoma through their treating clinician. Patients and their partners will be randomised to (1) a minimal ethical care (MEC) condition—selected Cancer Council New South Wales booklets and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline, (2) Coping-Together generic—MEC materials, the six Coping-Together booklets and DVD, the Cancer Council Queensland relaxation audio CD and login to the Coping-Together website or (3) Coping-Together tailored—MEC materials, the Coping-Together DVD, the login to the website and only those Coping-Together booklet sections that pertain to their direct concerns. Anxiety (primary outcome), distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed before receiving the study material (ie, baseline) and again at 3, 6 and 12?months postbaseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the relevant local area health and University ethics committees. Study findings will be disseminated not only through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations but also through educational outreach visits, publication of lay research summaries in consumer newsletters and publications targeting clinicians. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000491763 (03/05/2013) PMID:23883890

Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; McElduff, Patrick; Turner, Jane; Levesque, Janelle V; Kayser, Karen; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy T F; Barker, Daniel

2013-01-01

85

Gamete fusion site on the egg cell and autonomous establishment of cell polarity in the zygote  

PubMed Central

Gamete fusion activates the egg in animals and plants, and the gamete fusion site on the zygote might provide a possible cue for zygotic development and/or embryonic patterning. In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into a two-celled proembryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell with different cell fates. This is a putative step in the formation of the apical-basal axis of the proembryo. We observed the positional relationship between the gamete fusion site and the division plane formed by zygotic cleavage using an in vitro fertilization system with rice gametes. There was no relationship between the gamete fusion site and the division plane leading to the two-celled proembryo. Thus, the gamete fusion site on the rice zygote does not appear to function as a determinant for positioning the zygote division plane, and the zygote apparently possesses autonomous potential to establish cell polarity along the apical-basal axis for its first cleavage. PMID:21051936

2010-01-01

86

Meiosis and haploid gametes in the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei.  

PubMed

In eukaryote pathogens, sex is an important driving force in spreading genes for drug resistance, pathogenicity, and virulence. For the parasitic trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness, mating occurs during transmission by the tsetse vector and involves meiosis, but haploid gametes have not yet been identified. Here, we show that meiosis is a normal part of development in the insect salivary glands for all subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, including the human pathogens. By observing insect-derived trypanosomes during the window of peak expression of meiosis-specific genes, we identified promastigote-like (PL) cells that interacted with each other via their flagella and underwent fusion, as visualized by the mixing of cytoplasmic red and green fluorescent proteins. PL cells had a short, wide body, a very long anterior flagellum, and either one or two kinetoplasts, but only the anterior kinetoplast was associated with the flagellum. Measurement of nuclear DNA contents showed that PL cells were haploid relative to diploid metacyclics. Trypanosomes are among the earliest diverging eukaryotes, and our results support the hypothesis that meiosis and sexual reproduction are ubiquitous in eukaryotes and likely to have been early innovations. PMID:24388851

Peacock, Lori; Bailey, Mick; Carrington, Mark; Gibson, Wendy

2014-01-20

87

Delayed childbearing: determining responsibilities for prime gamete quality.  

PubMed

Delayed parenting affects fertility in women and in men, and cryopreservation of oocytes and sperm is becoming the latest trend as a solution for those who want or need to postpone procreation, in an attempt to avoid the damage medical conditions or time itself produces in gametes. Although "social freezing" is considered legitimate, its ethical and social aspects are in need of an overdue medical, public and legal debate. Assisted reproduction and cryopreservation, in combination with womb outsourcing, have opened the door to biological ectogenesis and the subsequent question of whether delayed childbearing means we should formally separate procreation from sexual activity. This article briefly summarizes what cryotechniques are capable of presently and in the near future, to separate fact from fiction. It names the implications for and discusses the practically virgin subject of the underlying responsibilities of delayed parenting techniques towards the child-to-be-not only the unborn but also the not-yet-conceived child. Considering the medical, economic, legal and social consequences of these rapidly growing developments in reproduction, several reasons point at the need to formally separate procreation from sexual activity, specifying responsibilities in the first while respecting personal choice in the second. PMID:24568049

Campagne, Daniel M

2013-01-01

88

High resistance of Acropora coral gametes facing copper exposure.  

PubMed

Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4±4.8?gL(-1) and 75.4±6.4?gL(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220?gCuL(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity. PMID:25462298

Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia

2015-02-01

89

Imprinting capacity of gamete lineages in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

We have observed a gamete-of-origin imprinting effect in C. elegans using a set of GFP reporter transgenes. From a single progenitor line carrying an extrachromosomal unc-54::gfp transgene array, we generated three independent autosomal integrations of the unc-54::gfp transgene. The progenitor line, two of its three integrated derivatives, and a nonrelated unc-119:gfp transgene exhibit an imprinting effect: single-generation transmission of these transgenes through the male germline results in approximately 1.5- to 2.0-fold greater expression than transmission through the female germline. There is a detectable resetting of the imprint after passage through the opposite germline for a single generation, indicating that the imprinted status of the transgenes is reversible. In cases where the transgene is maintained in either the oocyte lineage or sperm lineage for multiple, consecutive generations, a full reset requires passage through the opposite germline for several generations. Taken together, our results indicate that C. elegans has the ability to imprint chromosomes and that differences in the cell and/or molecular biology of oogenesis and spermatogenesis are manifest in an imprint that can persist in both somatic and germline gene expression for multiple generations. PMID:15944356

Sha, Ky; Fire, Andrew

2005-08-01

90

Gamete rescue in the African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).  

PubMed

Mortality rates are high among captive African black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), due to increased susceptibility to disease. The ability to rescue genetic material from individuals that die unexpectedly represents a practical approach to assist ex situ conservation efforts. The objectives of the present study were to attempt postmortem oocyte recovery from ovaries of African black rhinoceroses (N = 6) and to test the efficacy of equine protocols for rhinoceros oocyte IVM and IVF using cryopreserved rhinoceros sperm. The interval from ovary removal to oocyte recovery was 25.3 ± 13.9 h (mean ± SD). Ovaries were transported at 4 °C or 22 °C and effects of temperature on postmortem oocyte competence was evaluated. Numbers of oocytes collected per female averaged 15.8 ± 6.9. In total, 95 oocytes were recovered. Of these, 85 were inseminated using homologous sperm and 10 were inseminated using heterologous sperm. Overall, substantial numbers of viable oocytes were retrieved from African black rhinoceros ovaries 1 to 2 days postmortem from ovaries stored at ambient temperature. A proportion of these oocytes matured and underwent penetration and fertilization by heterologous or homologous frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm. The reproductive competence of postmortem oocytes was further demonstrated by development of a single two-cell embryo. Despite the need for further refinements, gamete rescue in the rhinoceros has promise for producing rhinoceros embryos, as well as testing sperm functions in vitro. PMID:21752452

Stoops, M A; O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L

2011-10-15

91

Find a Partner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

2010-01-01

92

Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?control women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?

2013-01-01

93

Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in patients with lung cancer and their partners: the MILON study  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and characterized by a poor prognosis. It has a major impact on the psychological wellbeing of patients and their partners. Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is effective in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer patients. The generalization of these results is limited since most participants were female patients with breast cancer. Moreover, only one study examined the effectiveness of MBSR in partners of cancer patients. Therefore, in the present trial we study the effectiveness of MBSR versus treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Methods/Design A parallel group, randomized controlled trial is conducted to compare MBSR with TAU. Lung cancer patients who have received or are still under treatment, and their partners are recruited. Assessments will take place at baseline, post intervention and at three-month follow-up. The primary outcome is psychological distress (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (only for patients), caregiver appraisal (only for partners), relationship quality and spirituality. In addition, cost-effectiveness ratio (only in patients) and several process variables are assessed. Discussion This trial will provide information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBSR compared to TAU in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01494883. PMID:24386906

2014-01-01

94

[Correlation between the time of application of chorionic gonadotropins and biological variables in the gametes].  

PubMed

The scheduled administration of human chorionic gonadotropin in the ovarian stimulation schemes used in Assisted reproduction has made possible to control the ovulatory phenomenon. In order to know the biological repercussion upon the ovule as to elapsed time from HCG and the time of capture, the protocols of Gametes Laboratory, were reviewed; there were 277 cases with this factor. The capture moment was from 32.88 to 41.06 hours from HCG administration, with an average of 36.8 +/- 1.01 hours. There was no significant statistical correlation with the total amount of captured oocytes, useful oocytes, defective oocytes (atresic, broken, degenerated) segmentation rate and embryonary quality. There was a positive, lineal, statistical correlation with the amount of post-mature oocytes (r = 0.35, p = 0.019) and negative with fertilization rate (r = -0.30, p = < 0.0001), both without a correlation among themselves. It was concluded that prolonged time between HCG exposition more than difficulting oocyte capture, negatively affects oocyte quality with a diminution in its possibility of being fertilized. It must be found the optimal window that permits easily obtaining the larger amount of oocytes with the best possibilities of originating healthy pre-embryos. PMID:8005503

Di Castro Stringher, P; Hernández Vazquez, J; Kably Ambe, A

1994-05-01

95

Sperm competition and the evolution of gametic compatibility in externally fertilizing taxa.  

PubMed

Proteins expressed on the surface of sperm and egg mediate gametic compatibility and these proteins can be subject to intense positive selection. In this review, we discuss what is known about the patterns of adaptive evolution of gamete recognition proteins (GRPs). We focus on species that broadcast eggs and sperm into the environment for external fertilization, as the ease of observing and manipulating gamete interactions has allowed for greater advances in the understanding of GRP evolution, uncomplicated by confounding behavioral and physiological components that offer alternative evolutionary targets in internal fertilizers. We discuss whether interspecific mechanisms, such as selection to avoid fertilization between species (reinforcement selection), or intraspecific mechanisms, such as selection to increase (or decrease) the affinity between eggs and sperm based on the intensity of sperm competition, may be responsible for the pattern of GRP evolution observed. Variation in these proteins appears to influence gametic compatibility; GRP divergence among species is a better predictor of hybrid fertilization than neutral genetic markers and GRP variation within species predicts reproductive success among individuals within a population. Evidence suggests that sperm competition may play a large role in the evolution of gametic compatibility. PMID:25323969

Kosman, E T; Levitan, D R

2014-12-01

96

Female partner notification is a promising prevention strategy for controlling sexually transmitted infections in shanghai: demographic and behavioral data from a shanghai clinic.  

PubMed

We identified predictors of partner presentation and condom use among male gonorrhea patients in Shanghai, China. Stable relationships, intercourse in the preceding week, and longer duration of symptoms were associated with partner presentation. Men were more likely to use condoms with their spouse and if they were 35 years or younger. PMID:25581804

Trecker, Molly A; Gu, Weiming; Jolly, Ann; Waldner, Cheryl L; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

2014-12-01

97

Preferential fertilization in Plumbago: Ultrastructural evidence for gamete-level recognition in an angiosperm  

PubMed Central

Gametic fusion patterns in the angiosperm Plumbago zeylanica were determined by using cytoplasmically dimorphic sperm cells differing in mitochondrion and plastid content and then identifying paternal organelles through their ultrastructural characteristics within the maternal cytoplasm at the time of fertilization. The virtual absence of plastids within the sperm cell that is physically associated with the vegetative nucleus allows paternal plastids to be used to trace the fate of the two male gametes after fusion. Such paternal plastids were present in the egg in >94% of the observed cases, indicating the preferential fusion of the plastid-rich, mitochondrion-poor sperm cell with the egg. In only one instance did the opposite pattern occur. Since the possibility of this result occurring as the consequence of chance in random fusions is <1 in 7000, this represents strong evidence for the presence of a final putative recognition event occurring at the gametic level. Images PMID:16593605

Russell, Scott D.

1985-01-01

98

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).

Young, William; Kucera, Paul

2003-07-01

99

Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics.  

PubMed

A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry. PMID:23525373

Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W

2013-04-01

100

Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

2013-04-01

101

Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running head: INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE  

E-print Network

identified many dozens of risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, but they have been count: 148 (Max = 150) Keywords I3 Theory, Intimate Partner Violence, Domestic Violence, AggressionIntimate Partner Violence 1 Running head: INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE Intimate Partner Violence Eli J

Reber, Paul J.

102

Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

1995-01-01

103

Derivation of embryonic germ cells and male gametes from embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg and sperm cells (gametes) of the mouse are derived from a founder population of primordial germ cells that are set aside early in embryogenesis. Primordial germ cells arise from the proximal epiblast, a region of the early mouse embryo that also contributes to the first blood lineages of the embryonic yolk sac. Embryonic stem cells differentiate in vitro into

Niels Geijsen; Melissa Horoschak; Kitai Kim; Joost Gribnau; Kevin Eggan; George Q. Daley

2004-01-01

104

Toward culture of single gametes: The development of microfluidic platforms for assisted reproduction  

E-print Network

of genetically modified animals [2], cryopreservation of gametes [3,4] nuclear transfer [5­8], contributing reproduction M.B. Wheeler a,b,c,*, E.M. Walters a,1 , D.J. Beebe b a Department of Animal Sciences, University, and cloning have been used to produce and propagate genetically superior livestock. However, efficiencies

Beebe, David J.

105

The ethics of anonymous gamete donation: is there a right to know one's genetic origins?  

PubMed

A growing number of jurisdictions hold that gamete donors must be identifiable to the children born with their eggs or sperm, on grounds that being able to know about one's genetic origins is a fundamental moral right. But the argument for that belief has not yet been adequately made. PMID:24532424

De Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

2014-01-01

106

Effect of a nonsteroidal gametic factor on senile cataract in the dog.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the clarifying activity of a purified peptide fraction of gametic origin in senile cataract of the dog. The active substance, administered intramuscularly, had significant and durable clarifying effects on the cortical area of the lens. Images PMID:7437391

Lugaro, G; Casellato, M M; Manera, E; Bacigalupo, M A; Maselli, E; Fachini, G

1980-01-01

107

Linking lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) condition with male gamete quality and quantity  

E-print Network

Linking lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) condition with male gamete quality and quantity E quality (i.e., sperm swimming speed) in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were related to residual of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) growth and body condition in Lake Michigan have been associated

Suski, Cory David

108

Homologous artificial insemination (AIH) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) in Roman Catholicism and Halakhic Judaism.  

PubMed

While homologous artificial insemination (AIH) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) can be viewed as compatible with the teachings of Roman Catholicism and Halakhic Judaism, their permissibility is much more strongly rooted in the latter. Nevertheless, AIH and GIFT cannot be dismissed as unacceptable to Roman Catholics, provided the semen is licitly obtained. PMID:8097502

Grazi, R V; Wolowelsky, J B

1993-01-01

109

The potential for gamete recovery from non-domestic canids and felids.  

PubMed

Species are becoming extinct at a rate 100 times the natural background rates. Considering all mammalian orders, 24% of all Carnivora species are threatened. The goal of carnivore conservation is to reverse the decline in populations and to secure remaining populations in ways that will assure enduring public support. In this context, biotechnology is a tool with tremendous potential for assisting the conservation of endangered canid and felid species. As the first step for biotechnology development is the gamete obtainment, this review will discuss the potential of gamete recovery from non-domestic canids and felids, based on learning how to apply these procedures in the domestic carnivores. Thus, electroejaculation and obtaining both epidydimal spermatozoon and spermatogonial germ cells are indicated as techniques for male gametes recovery. In the female gametes retrieval, different methods for oocyte recovery from both antral and preantral follicles, and the possibility for ovarian tissue transplantation are discussed. Furthermore, the study discusses the responsibilities involved in the use of assisted reproduction in endangered species conservation. PMID:14749057

Silva, Alexandre R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Silva, Lúcia D M

2004-03-01

110

The Cost of Sex: Quantifying Energetic Investment in Gamete Production by Males and Females  

E-print Network

, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, birds, and mammals), we compared the cost of gamete production between to the intensity of postcopulatory sexual selection in the form of sperm competition: Males experiencing greater sperm competition are expected to invest relatively more biomass in gonads and produce sperm

Gillooly, Jamie

111

A chromosome-specific estimate of transmission of heterozygosity by 2n gametes in potato.  

PubMed

Polyploid plants are formed when numerically unreduced (2n) gametes participate in fertilization. Based on cytological and genetic analyses, modes of 2n gamete formation have been determined for a number of plant species. Gametes formed by a first-division restitution (FDR) mechanism contain nonsister chromatids near the centromere, whereas those formed by second-division restitution (SDR) contain sister chromatids. These mechanisms differ in the proportion of heterozygous loci they transmit intact to offspring. This paper estimates the transmission of heterozygosity on an individual chromosome basis through pachytene analysis of chromosomes of haploids (2n = 2x = 24) of Solanum tuberosum Andigena Group (2n = 4x = 48), a South American cultivated potato. Transmission of heterozygosity by FDR and SDR 2n gametes was calculated for 6 different cytogenetic assumptions. FDR was more than twice as effective as SDR in transmission of heterozygosity under all 6 scenarios. Rates of transmission of heterozygosity were similar in each situation. Transmission of heterozygosity by FDR was also compared with transmission of heterozygosity by tetrasomic inheritance and found to be approximately 50% more effective. PMID:18209111

Peloquin, Stanley J; Boiteux, Leonardo S; Simon, Philipp W; Jansky, Shelley H

2008-01-01

112

Improvement of gamete quality and its short-term storage: an approach for biotechnology in laboratory fish.  

PubMed

In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) - mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1±4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5±5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6±27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4±7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1±26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization. PMID:25391393

Yasui, G S; Senhorini, J A; Shimoda, E; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O; Fujimoto, T; Arias-Rodriguez, L; Silva, L A

2014-11-13

113

Cyclin partners determine Pho85 protein kinase substrate specificity in vitro and in vivo: control of glycogen biosynthesis by Pcl8 and Pcl10.  

PubMed

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHO85 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) with multiple roles in cell cycle and metabolic controls. In association with the cyclin Pho80, Pho85 controls acid phosphatase gene expression through phosphorylation of the transcription factor Pho4. Pho85 has also been implicated as a kinase that phosphorylates and negatively regulates glycogen synthase (Gsy2), and deletion of PHO85 causes glycogen overaccumulation. We report that the Pcl8/Pcl10 subgroup of cyclins directs Pho85 to phosphorylate glycogen synthase both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption of PCL8 and PCL10 caused hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and a reduction in glycogen synthase kinase activity in vivo. However, unlike pho85 mutants, pcl8 pcl10 cells had normal morphologies, grew on glycerol, and showed proper regulation of acid phosphatase gene expression. In vitro, Pho80-Pho85 complexes effectively phosphorylated Pho4 but had much lower activity toward Gsy2. In contrast, Pcl10-Pho85 complexes phosphorylated Gsy2 at Ser-654 and Thr-667, two physiologically relevant sites, but only poorly phosphorylated Pho4. Thus, both the in vitro and in vivo substrate specificity of Pho85 is determined by the cyclin partner. Mutation of PHO85 suppressed the glycogen storage deficiency of snf1 or glc7-1 mutants in which glycogen synthase is locked in an inactive state. Deletion of PCL8 and PCL10 corrected the deficit in glycogen synthase activity in both the snf1 and glc7-1 mutants, but glycogen synthesis was restored only in the glc7-1 mutant strain. This genetic result suggests an additional role for Pho85 in the negative regulation of glycogen accumulation that is independent of Pcl8 and Pcl10. PMID:9584169

Huang, D; Moffat, J; Wilson, W A; Moore, L; Cheng, C; Roach, P J; Andrews, B

1998-06-01

114

Cyclin Partners Determine Pho85 Protein Kinase Substrate Specificity In Vitro and In Vivo: Control of Glycogen Biosynthesis by Pcl8 and Pcl10  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHO85 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) with multiple roles in cell cycle and metabolic controls. In association with the cyclin Pho80, Pho85 controls acid phosphatase gene expression through phosphorylation of the transcription factor Pho4. Pho85 has also been implicated as a kinase that phosphorylates and negatively regulates glycogen synthase (Gsy2), and deletion of PHO85 causes glycogen overaccumulation. We report that the Pcl8/Pcl10 subgroup of cyclins directs Pho85 to phosphorylate glycogen synthase both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption of PCL8 and PCL10 caused hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and a reduction in glycogen synthase kinase activity in vivo. However, unlike pho85 mutants, pcl8 pcl10 cells had normal morphologies, grew on glycerol, and showed proper regulation of acid phosphatase gene expression. In vitro, Pho80-Pho85 complexes effectively phosphorylated Pho4 but had much lower activity toward Gsy2. In contrast, Pcl10-Pho85 complexes phosphorylated Gsy2 at Ser-654 and Thr-667, two physiologically relevant sites, but only poorly phosphorylated Pho4. Thus, both the in vitro and in vivo substrate specificity of Pho85 is determined by the cyclin partner. Mutation of PHO85 suppressed the glycogen storage deficiency of snf1 or glc7-1 mutants in which glycogen synthase is locked in an inactive state. Deletion of PCL8 and PCL10 corrected the deficit in glycogen synthase activity in both the snf1 and glc7-1 mutants, but glycogen synthesis was restored only in the glc7-1 mutant strain. This genetic result suggests an additional role for Pho85 in the negative regulation of glycogen accumulation that is independent of Pcl8 and Pcl10. PMID:9584169

Huang, Dongqing; Moffat, Jason; Wilson, Wayne A.; Moore, Lynda; Cheng, Christine; Roach, Peter J.; Andrews, Brenda

1998-01-01

115

A Surface Glycoprotein Indispensable for Gamete Fusion in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction is essential for the maintenance of species in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, and even unicellular organisms that normally proliferate asexually possess a sexual cycle because of its contribution to increased genetic diversity. Information concerning the molecules involved in fertilization is accumulating for many species of the metazoan, plant, and fungal lineages, and the evolutionary consideration of sexual reproduction systems is now an interesting issue. Macrocyst formation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a sexual process in which cells become sexually mature under dark and submerged conditions and fuse with complementary mating-type cells. In the present study, we isolated D. discoideum insertional mutants defective in sexual cell fusion and identified the relevant gene, macA, which encodes a highly glycosylated, 2,041-amino-acid membrane protein (MacA). Although its overall similarity is restricted to proteins of unknown function within dictyostelids, it contains LamGL and discoidin domains, which are implicated in cell adhesion. The growth and development of macA-null mutants were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. The overexpression of macA using the V18 promoter in a macA-null mutant completely restored its sexual defects. Although the macA gene encoded exactly the same protein in a complementary mating-type strain, it was expressed at a much lower level. These results suggest that MacA is indispensable for gamete interactions in D. discoideum, probably via cell adhesion. There is a possibility that it is controlled in a mating-type-dependent manner. PMID:22389384

Araki, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Hideki D.; Saeki, Kentaro; Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Ishida, Kentaro; Sawada, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

116

Hyposalinity stress compromises the fertilization of gametes more than the survival of coral larvae.  

PubMed

The life cycle of coral is affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations occurring in the marine environment. In the context of global changes, it is likely that rainfall events will be more intense and that coastal reefs will be exposed to sudden drops in salinity. Therefore, a better understanding of how corals-especially during the pelagic life stages-are able to deal with declines in salinity is crucial. To fill this knowledge gap, this work investigated how gametes and larva stages of two species of Acropora (Acropora cytherea and Acropora pulchra) from French Polynesia cope with drops in salinity. An analysis of collected results highlights that both Acropora coral gametes displayed the same resistance to salinity changes, with 4h30-ES50 (effective salinity that decrease by 50% the fertilization success after 4h30 exposure) of 26.6 ± 0.1 and 27.5 ± 0.3‰ for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively. This study also revealed that coral gametes were more sensitive to decreases in salinity than larvae, for which significant changes are only observed at 26‰ for A. cytherea after 14 d of exposure. Although rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are often perceived as the main threat for the survival of coral reefs, our work indicates that 70% of the gametes could be killed during a single night of spawning by a rainfall event that decreases salinity to 26‰. This suggests that changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events associated with climate changes should be taken seriously in efforts to both preserve coral gametes and ensure the persistence and renewal of coral populations. PMID:25562765

Hédouin, Laetitia; Pilon, Rosanne; Puisay, Antoine

2015-03-01

117

Working with men to prevent intimate partner violence in a conflict-affected setting: a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Côte d’Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from armed conflict settings points to high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Current knowledge on how to prevent IPV is limited—especially within war-affected settings. To inform prevention programming on gender-based violence in settings affected by conflict, we evaluated the impact of adding a targeted men’s intervention to a community-based prevention programme in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods We conducted a two-armed, non-blinded cluster randomized trial in Côte d’Ivoire among 12 pair-matched communities spanning government-controlled, UN buffer, and rebel–controlled zones. The intervention communities received a 16-week IPV prevention intervention using a men’s discussion group format. All communities received community-based prevention programmes. Baseline data were collected from couples in September 2010 (pre-intervention) and follow-up in March 2012 (one year post-intervention). The primary trial outcome was women’s reported experiences of physical and/or sexual IPV in the last 12 months. We also assessed men’s reported intention to use physical IPV, attitudes towards sexual IPV, use of hostility and conflict management skills, and participation in gendered household tasks. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis was used to compare outcomes between intervention and control communities at follow-up. Results At follow-up, reported levels of physical and/or sexual IPV in the intervention arm had decreased compared to the control arm (ARR 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-1.51, not significant). Men participating in the intervention reported decreased intentions to use physical IPV (ARR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.06) and improved attitudes toward sexual IPV (ARR 1.21, 95% CI 0.77-1.91). Significant differences were found between men in the intervention and control arms’ reported ability to control their hostility and manage conflict (ARR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.58), and participation in gendered household tasks (ARR 2.47, 95% CI 1.24-4.90). Conclusions This trial points to the value of adding interventions working with men alongside community activities to reduce levels of IPV in conflict-affected settings. The intervention significantly influenced men’s reported behaviours related to hostility and conflict management and gender equitable behaviours. The decreased mean level of IPV and the differences between intervention and control arms, while not statistically significant, suggest that IPV in conflict-affected areas can be reduced through concerted efforts to include men directly in violence prevention programming. A larger-scale trial is needed to replicate these findings and further understand the mechanisms of change. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01803932 PMID:24716478

2014-01-01

118

Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854 PMID:24205150

Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.

2013-01-01

119

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2010-01-01

120

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2011-01-01

121

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2014-01-01

122

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2013-01-01

123

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2012-01-01

124

Preserved echinoderm gametes as a useful and ready-to-use bioassay material.  

PubMed

Marine animals, and sea urchin species in particular, have several advantages for use in environmental research. However, the spawned eggs of the sea urchin quickly lose fertility, although the fertile period can be lengthened by the addition of antibiotics to the sea water (Epel et al., 2004). We evaluated five species of Japanese sea urchin and the gametes of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus could be maintained for 2 weeks or more at low temperature with the addition of antibiotics to sea water. We also demonstrated the practicality of shipping these preserved gametes as experimental material for universities and schools to use immediately for bioassays of physical and chemical impacts on the marine environment. PMID:24129269

Kiyomoto, M; Hamanaka, G; Hirose, M; Yamaguchi, M

2014-02-01

125

Dancing with Multiple Partners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transmembrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and integrins, activate intracellular signaling pathways through interactions with downstream binding partners. Woodside discusses two examples in which GPCRs and integrins interact in a noncompeting manner with more than one partner. The specific GPCR described is the thrombin receptor, in experiments where G protein peptides selectively block signaling through a particular G protein that does not appear to inhibit coupling of the receptor to other G proteins. The second system described is the ?IIb?3 integrin and its activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk. Syk appeared capable of interacting with both the integrin and intracellular domains of immune response receptors, because binding of Syk to the integrin was not inhibited by peptides based on the Syk binding site in immune response receptors. Thus, multiple, noncompeting binding partners add to the complexity of signal transduction outputs from a single receptor complex.

Darren G. Woodside (Texas Biotechnology Corporation; REV)

2002-03-19

126

A prospective study of stress among women undergoing in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate whether baseline or procedural stress during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) affects pregnancy or live birth delivery rates.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Seven clinics in Southern California between 1993 and 1998.Patient(s): One hundred and fifty-one women completed two questionnaires.Intervention(s): None.Main Outcome Measure(s): The number of oocytes aspirated and fertilized, the number of embryos transferred, the

Hillary Klonoff-Cohen; Elaine Chu; Loki Natarajan; William Sieber

2001-01-01

127

Two-generation analysis of pollen flow across a landscape. I. Male gamete heterogeneity among females.  

PubMed

Gene flow is a key factor in the spatial genetic structure in spatially distributed species. Evolutionary biologists interested in microevolutionary processess and conservation biologists interested in the impact of landscape change require a method that measures the real time process of gene movement. We present a novel two-generation (parent-offspring) approach to the study of genetic structure (TwoGener) that allows us to quantify heterogeneity among the male gamete pools sampled by maternal trees scattered across the landscape and to estimate mean pollination distance and effective neighborhood size. First, we describe the model's elements: genetic distance matrices to estimate intergametic distances, molecular analysis of variance to determine whether pollen profiles differ among mothers, and optimal sampling considerations. Second, we evaluate the model's effectiveness by simulating spatially distributed populations. Spatial heterogeneity in male gametes can be estimated by phiFT, a male gametic analogue of Wright's F(ST) and an inverse function of mean pollination distance. We illustrate TwoGener in cases where the male gamete can be categorically or ambiguously determined. This approach does not require the high level of genetic resolution needed by parentage analysis, but the ambiguous case is vulnerable to bias in the absence of adequate genetic resolution. Finally, we apply TwoGener to an empirical study of Quercus alba in Missouri Ozark forests. We find that phiFT = 0.06, translating into about eight effective pollen donors per female and an effective pollination neighborhood as a circle of radius about 17 m. Effective pollen movement in Q. alba is more restricted than previously realized, even though pollen is capable of moving large distances. This case study illustrates that, with a modest investment in field survey and laboratory analysis, the TwoGener approach permits inferences about landscape-level gene movements. PMID:11308084

Smouse, P E; Dyer, R J; Westfall, R D; Sork, V L

2001-02-01

128

Pheromonal stimulation of spawning release of gametes by gonadotropin releasing hormone in the chiton, Mopalia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0mg\\/L) but dilutions to 50?g\\/L

Aubrey Gorbman; Arthur Whiteley; Scott Kavanaugh

2003-01-01

129

Fertilization and larval development in sea urchins following exposure of gametes and embryos to cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gametes and embryos of three sea urchin species were exposed to cadmium chloride at concentrations ranging from 10-8 M to 10-3 M. When zygotes were reared in the presence of Cd2+, skeletal differentiation displayed some severe abnormalities or was suppressed, as a function of Cd2+ level. The embryotoxic action of Cd2+ was inversely related to salinity and to Ca2+

Giovanni Pagano; Agostino Esposito; Giovan Giacomo Giordano

1982-01-01

130

Gamete interaction in the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus : a morphological and physiological review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Sturgeon gametes differ from those of most fish in that the sperm possess acrosomes that undergo exocytosis and filament formation\\u000a while the eggs possess numerous micropyles. Acipenser transmontanus eggs are encased by multilayered envelopes that consist of outer adhesive jelly coats and three structured layers interior\\u000a to the jelly. The glycoprotein jelly layer only becomes adhesive upon exposure to freshwater.

Gary N. Cherr; Wallis H. Clark

1985-01-01

131

Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.  

PubMed

'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

Inhorn, Marcia C

2011-04-01

132

Pheromonal stimulation of spawning release of gametes by gonadotropin releasing hormone in the chiton, Mopalia sp.  

PubMed

The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0 mg/L) but dilutions to 50 microg/L no longer were effective. Three other GnRHs: lamprey GnRH-3, tunicate GnRH-1, and a modified chicken GnRH-2, had no such action under the same test conditions. Since the spawning response could be produced by some GnRHs and not by others, it would appear that some kind of molecular recognition is involved, possibly by specific binding to a receptor. In earlier preliminary experiments tunicate GnRH-2 rapidly stimulated gamete release in a hemichordate, Saccoglossus. Thus it is suggested that GnRHs, in at least some invertebrates, may function as pheromones, serving to stimulate simultaneous spawning of individuals in a population of animals, and in this way assure more successful fertilization in species that must release their gametes into the water in which they live. PMID:12620248

Gorbman, Aubrey; Whiteley, Arthur; Kavanaugh, Scott

2003-03-01

133

Gamete formation via meiotic nuclear restitution generates fertile amphiploid F1 (oat×maize) plants.  

PubMed

Hybrid (oat×maize) zygotes developed into euhaploid plants with complete oat chromosome complements without maize chromosomes and into aneuhaploid plants with complete oat chromosome complements and different numbers of retained individual maize chromosomes. The elimination of maize chromosomes in the hybrid embryo is caused by uniparental genome loss during early steps of embryogenesis. Some of these haploid plants set seed in up to 50% of their self-pollinated spikelets. The high fertility was found to be mainly caused by formation of numerically unreduced female and male gametes (nunreduced=3x+0…3=21…24 chromosomes). Gamete formation involves meiotic nuclear restitution. The restitution process is caused by an alternative type of meiosis. It follows the model of levigatum-type semi-heterotypic divisions, but with a formation of the nuclear membrane at the transition from telophase I to interkinesis, which resembles the model of pygaera-type pseudo-homotypic divisions. We propose the name haploid meiotic restitution for this particular process combination. We discuss the use and implications of the specific process of gamete formation in F1 (oat×maize) plants. PMID:22367231

Kynast, R G; Davis, D W; Phillips, R L; Rines, H W

2012-06-01

134

Making Muslim babies: IVF and gamete donation in Sunni versus Shi'a Islam.  

PubMed

Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the "local moral worlds" of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt's famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims, with Iran's leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi'ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

Inhorn, Marcia C

2006-12-01

135

Subtyping male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male patients (59 with a history of partner violence, 97 with a history of arrests but not partner violence, and 57 with neither partner violence nor arrests), using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II (SWAP-II), a Q-sort procedure for assessing personality pathology. Using Q-factor analysis, the authors identify three personality constellations among the partner-violent men, two of which strongly resembled subtypes identified using different methods in prior research: psychopathic, hostile/controlling, and borderline/dependent. The authors compare these subtypes with each other and with nonarrested/ nonviolent men and men with arrests but no partner violence on Axis I and II diagnoses, adaptive functioning, etiological variables, and response to treatment, providing initial validity data. PMID:20498380

Fowler, Katherine A; Westen, Drew

2011-03-01

136

Partners of the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

Reese, Susan

2002-01-01

137

The Partners Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to alarming drop-out rates among high school students and indications that the emerging workforce will be predominantly minority and disadvantaged, the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) developed the Partners program to encourage minority students from as early as seventh grade to remain and succeed…

Raughton, Jim L.

138

Characteristics of male partners of adult female incest survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpersonal style of male partners of adult female incest survivors was investigated. Two groups of men (partners of\\u000a incest survivors, n=30; and a control group, n=30) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis\\u000a of variance failed to support clinically-based hypotheses (a) that partners of incest survivors would exhibit a greater sense\\u000a of entitlement

Bonnie Lambourn-Kavcic; H. D. “Jim” Day

1995-01-01

139

Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study  

PubMed Central

The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

140

The comparative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) and substance abuse treatment alone: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Method Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N?=?52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Results Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Conclusions Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00847873 PMID:24059784

2013-01-01

141

Do Love Styles Predict Lifetime Number of Sex Partners?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between love styles and lifetime number of sexual partners was explored using survey data from 507 college students. Love styles significantly (p less than 0.001) contributed to the prediction of number of lifetime sex partners after controlling for demographic characteristics and attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections.…

Hans, Jason D.

2008-01-01

142

Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

Wortham, Thomasine T.

2014-01-01

143

Revisiting synchronous gamete release by fucoid algae in the intertidal zone: fertilization success and beyond?  

PubMed

In the marine environment, both external fertilization and settlement are critical processes linking adult and early juvenile life-history phases. The success of both processes can be tightly linked in organisms lacking a larval dispersive phase. This review focuses on synchronous gamete release (= spawning) in fucoid algae. These brown macroalgae are important components of temperate intertidal ecosystems in many parts of the world, and achieve synchronous gamete release by integrating various environmental signals. Photosynthesis-dependent sensing of boundary-layer inorganic carbon fluxes, as well as blue light and green light signals, possibly perceived via a chloroplast-located photoreceptor(s), are integrated into pathways that restrict gamete release to periods of low water motion. Avoidance of turbulent and/or high flow conditions in the intertidal zone allows high levels of fertilization success in this group. Temporal patterns and synchrony of spawning in natural populations are reviewed. Most species/populations have a more or less semilunar periodicity, although phase differences occur both between and within species at different geographical locations, raising the possibility that tidal and diurnal cues are more important than semilunar cues in entraining the response. The ecological and evolutionary role(s) of synchronous spawning in the intertidal zone are considered, particularly with regard to hybridization/reproductive isolation in species complexes, and reproductive versus recruitment assurance in the intertidal zone, where synchronous spawning during calm periods may be important for recruitment assurance in addition to fertilization success. Ways in which the roles of spawning synchrony could be tested in closely related species with contrasting mating systems (outcrossing versus selfing) are discussed. PMID:21672769

Pearson, Gareth A; Serrão, Ester A

2006-10-01

144

In Vitro Fertilization with Isolated, Single Gametes Results in Zygotic Embryogenesis and Fertile Maize Plants.  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed. PMID:12271084

Kranz, E; Lorz, H

1993-01-01

145

Diploid clone produces unreduced diploid gametes but tetraploid clone generates reduced diploid gametes in the Misgurnus loach.  

PubMed

Most individuals of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus reproduce bisexually, but cryptic clonal lineages reproduce by natural gynogenesis of unreduced diploid eggs that are genetically identical to maternal somatic cells. Triploid progeny often occur by the accidental incorporation of a sperm nucleus into diploid eggs. Sex reversal from a genetic female to a physiological male is easily induced in this species by androgen treatment and through environmental influences. Here, we produced clonal tetraploid individuals by two methods: 1) fertilization of diploid eggs from a clonal diploid female with diploid sperm of a hormonally sex-reversed clonal diploid male and 2) artificial inhibition of the release of the second polar body in eggs of clonal diploid females just after initiation of gynogenetic development. There is no genetic difference between the clonal diploid and tetraploid individuals except for the number of chromosome sets or genomes. Clonal tetraploid males never produced unreduced tetraploid sperm, only diploid sperm that were genetically identical to those of a clonal diploid. Likewise, clonal tetraploid females did not form unreduced tetraploid eggs, just diploid eggs. However, the eggs' genotypes were identical to those of the original clone, and almost all the eggs initiated natural gynogenesis. Thus, gametogenesis of the clonal tetraploid loach is controlled by the presence of two chromosome sets to pair, thereby preserving the normal meiotic process, i.e., the formation of bivalents and subsequently two successive divisions. PMID:21998169

Morishima, Kagayaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Arai, Katsutoshi

2012-02-01

146

Interaction Quality during Partner Reading  

PubMed Central

The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental support, emotional support, and conflict management) and on/off task behavior was evaluated. Children who chose their own partners showed greater social cooperation than those children whose teacher selected their partner. However, when the positive interdependence requirements of the task were not met within the pair (neither child had the skills to provide reading support or no one needed support), lower levels of on-task behavior were observed. Providing basic partner reading script instruction at the beginning of the year was associated with better social cooperation during partner reading, but providing elaborated instruction or no instruction was associated with poorer social cooperation. It is recommended that teachers provide basic script instruction and allow children to choose their own partners. Additionally, pairings of low ability children with other low ability children and high ability children with other high ability children should be avoided. Teachers may want to suggest alternate partners for children who inadvertently choose such pairings or adjust the text difficulty to the pair. Overall, partner reading seems to be an enjoyable pedagogical strategy for teaching reading fluency. PMID:19830259

Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

2009-01-01

147

26 CFR 301.6224(c)-2 - Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. ...Assessment In General § 301.6224(c)-2 Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners. (a) Pass-thru partner binds unidentified...

2010-04-01

148

Topography of cell wall lytic enzyme in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: form and location of the stored enzyme in vegetative cell and gamete  

PubMed Central

Chlamydomonas lytic enzyme of the cell wall (gamete wall-autolysin) is responsible for shedding of cell walls during mating of opposite mating- type gametes. This paper reports some topographic aspects of lytic enzyme in cells. Both vegetative and gametic cells contain the same wall lytic enzyme. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kD by gel filtration and 62 kD by SDS PAGE, and is sensitive to metal ion chelators and SH-blocking agents. These properties are the same as those of the gamete wall-autolysin released into the medium by mating gametes. However, the storage form of the enzyme proves to be quite different between the two cell types. In vegetative cells, the lytic enzyme is found in an insoluble form in cell homogenates and activity is released into the soluble fraction only by sonicating the homogenates or freeze-thawing the cells, whereas gametes always yield lytic activity in the soluble fractions of cell homogenates. When vegetative cells are starved for nitrogen, the storage form of enzyme shifts from its vegetative state to gametic state in parallel with the acquisition of mating ability. Adding nitrogen to gametes converts it to the vegetative state concurrently with the loss of mating ability. We also show that protoplasts obtained by treatment of vegetative cells or gametes with exogenously added enzyme have little activity of enzyme in the cell homogenates, suggesting that lytic enzyme is stored outside the plasmalemma. When the de-walled gametes or gametes of the wall-deficient mutant, cw-15, of opposite mating types are mixed together, they mate normally but the release of lytic enzyme into the medium is practically negligible. When the de-walled vegetative cells are incubated, the lytic enzyme is again accumulated in the cells after the wall regeneration is almost complete. PMID:2879847

1987-01-01

149

Panhandle AgriPartners  

E-print Network

and other entities. The program, with its farm demonstration assistants, provides technical support to Texas A&M researchers and Extension specialists and agents while giving Panhandle farmers up-to-date information on their crops? growth, water use...tx H2O | pg. 5 Panhandle AgriPartners Story by Kathy Wythe After 33 years in agribusiness, Dennis Beiluefound he wasn?t ready to hang up hisagricultural hat when he retired in 2000.Three years later he was back in the busi- ness as a Texas...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01

150

Intimate Partner Violence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released earlier this summer, this report on intimate partner violence from the Bureau of Justice Statistics "provides information on violence by intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends, or boyfriends) since the redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)." "The report covers trends in intimate violence, characteristics of victims (race, sex, age, income, ethnicity, and whether the victims live in urban, suburban, or rural areas), type of crime (physical assault, verbal threats), and trends for reporting to police. Intimate victimizations measured include rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. Data on murder by intimates are also given." Data for the report came from the NCVS and the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports.

Rennison, Callie M.; Welchans, Sarah.

2000-01-01

151

The use of Pacific herring gametes and embryos for assessing natural and anthropogenic stressors  

SciTech Connect

For marine and estuarine waters in Northern California through the Pacific Northwest, an ecologically important endemic teleost system has been lacking for use in toxicological studies of embryo development. Since Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) spawn in estuaries during periods of freshwater input in shallow protected waters, their gametes/embryos are potentially impacted by altered salinities and pollutants. Their results demonstrate that advantages of the Pacific herring system include: (1) gametes are easily collected from mature adults, and are viable when stored up to 1 week; (2) embryos and larvae can be cultured through hatching ({approximately}10 days) in the laboratory (static or flow-through), and when outplanted in the field; and (3), distinct endpoints can be assessed, including initiation of sperm motility, fertilization, development, hatching success, and larval morphology. The authors have investigated 3 stressors which can impact early life stages of herring: salinity, creosote, and bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME). Results demonstrate that sperm motility initiation, fertilization, and development are perturbed by altered salinities, and that effects are dose-dependent with respect to both salinity and sodium. Monitoring of natural spawns on creosote pilings indicated perturbation of development; this is similar to what was observed in laboratory exposures. Finally, a major toxic constituent of BKME specifically impacts sperm and inhibits fertilization.

Vines, C.A.; Griffin, F.J.; Hibbard-Robbins, T.; Cherr, G.N. [Univ. California Davis Bodega Marine Lab., Bodega Bay, CA (United States); Pillai, M.C. [Univ. California Davis Bodega Marine Lab., Bodega Bay, CA (United States); [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States); Yanagimachi, R. [Univ. of Hawaii Medical School, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31

152

On the bias of recombination fractions, Kosambi's and Haldane's distances based on frequencies of gametes.  

PubMed

The estimation of recombination frequencies is a crucial step in genetic mapping. For the construction of linkage maps, nonadditive recombination fractions must be transformed into additive map distances. Two of the most commonly used transformations are Kosambi's and Haldane's mapping functions. This paper reports on the calculation of the bias associated with estimation of recombination fractions, Kosambi's distances, and Haldane's distances. I calculated absolute and relative biases numerically for a wide range of recombination fractions and sample sizes. I assumed that the ratio of recombinant gametes to the total number of gametes can be adequately represented by a binomial function. I found that the bias in recombination fraction estimates is negative, i.e., the estimator is an underestimate. However, significant values were only obtained when recombination fractions were large and sample sizes were small. The relevant estimates of recombination fractions were, therefore, nearly unbiased. Haldane's and Kosambi's distances were found to be strongly biased, with positive bias for the most interesting values of recombination fractions and sample sizes. The bias of Kosambi's distance was considerably smaller than the bias of Haldane's distance. PMID:21423282

Huehn, Manfred

2011-03-01

153

Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale  

PubMed Central

Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284

Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N

2013-01-01

154

Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.  

PubMed

Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417

Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

2014-06-01

155

SI – SRH Sexual-risk factors of partner age-discordance in adolescent girls and their male partners  

PubMed Central

Aim and objectives To investigate differences in sexual-risk factors between adolescent girls reporting similar-aged or older sex partners. Background Adolescent girls are at significant risk for heterosexual-acquired HIV infection and other long term reproductive health issues. Sexual partner age-discordance in teen girls has been correlated with STIs, lack of protection, multiple partners, and earlier age of sexual transition. Design A descriptive study comparing girls currently involved with age-discordant partners to those with similar-aged partners. Two-sample t-test for continuous variables and for categorical variables, Chi-square or Fisher exact test were used to compare groups. Methods Baseline data from 738 sexually-active, urban, adolescent girls ages 15 to 19, were analyzed to determine which behaviors were more likely to occur in girls with older partners. Data were collected as part of a gender specific HIV-prevention intervention in a randomized controlled trial tailored to adolescent girls. Results Multiple reported sexual risk behaviors were found to significantly differ between the two groups at baseline. Overall, girls with older partners had more episodes of sexual instances (vaginal, anal, and oral). Specific sexual risk behaviors were found to be statistically significant between the two groups. Girls with older partners started having sex at earlier ages, had more lifetime sexual partners, higher incidents of STIs and were reluctant to discuss using condoms with their partners. Girls with similar-aged partners were less willing to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Conclusions Findings from this investigation support data from other studies. Relationships with older male partners place adolescent girls at increased risk for HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy. Relevance to clinical practice Adolescent girls in age-discordant relationships are at risk for immediate and long term sexual health morbidities. Identifying girls who are at increased risk by asking tailored questions will enable nurses to recommend appropriate diagnostics for this population and provide age specific counseling. PMID:24580784

Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Xia, Yinglin; Passmore, Denise

2013-01-01

156

Violence involving intimate partners  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence of violence involving intimate partners among women visiting Canadian family practices and to assess participants’ attitudes toward future use of computer-assisted screening for violence and other health risks. DESIGN Self-report via written survey. SETTING Group family practice clinic in inner-city Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women patients at least 18 years old who were fluent in English. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Responses to questions about violence selected from the Abuse Assessment Screen and the Partner Violence Screen. Participants’ attitudes toward computer-assisted screening as measured by the Computerized Lifestyle Assessment Scale (1 to 5) in the domains of benefits, privacy—barriers, interaction—barriers, and interest. RESULTS Responses were received from 202 patients, 144 of whom were in current or recent relationships and completed the section on intimate-partner violence (IPV). The overall prevalence of IPV in current or recent relationships was 14.6%. Emotional abuse was reported by 10.4%, threat of violence by 8.3%, and physical or sexual violence by 7.6% of respondents. Emotional abuse was significantly associated with threat of violence and physical or sexual violence (P?.001). Analysis of responses to questions on computerized screening revealed that participants generally perceived it would have benefits (mean score 3.6) and were very interested in it (mean score 4.3). Those who reported experiencing IPV rated the benefits of computerized screening significantly higher than respondents without IPV experiences did (t2.3, df142, P < .05). Participants were “not sure” about barriers (mean score 3.0). Responses were similar in the 2 groups for the domains of interest, privacy—barriers, and interaction—barriers. CONCLUSION The high rate of IPV reported by women attending family practices calls for physicians to be vigilant. Future research should examine ways to facilitate physicians’ inquiry into IPV. The positive attitudes of our participants toward interactive computer-assisted screening indicates a need for more research in this area. PMID:17872682

Ahmad, Farah; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Stewart, Donna E.; Levinson, Wendy

2007-01-01

157

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2001, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU). Two large freezer tanks are located at each university. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, an emphasis on cryopreserving wild unmarked fish, continued fertility trials, and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

2002-06-01

158

Sex-Specific Posttranslational Regulation of the Gamete Fusogen GCS1 in the Isogamous Volvocine Alga Gonium pectorale  

PubMed Central

Male and female, generally defined based on differences in gamete size and motility, likely have multiple independent origins, appearing to have evolved from isogamous organisms in various eukaryotic lineages. Recent studies of the gamete fusogen GCS1/HAP2 indicate that this protein is deeply conserved across eukaryotes, and its exclusive and/or functional expression generally resides in males or in male homologues. However, little is known regarding the conserved or primitive molecular traits of males and females within eukaryotes. Here, using morphologically indistinguishable isogametes of the colonial volvocine Gonium pectorale, we demonstrated that GCS1 is differently regulated between the sexes. G. pectorale GCS1 molecules in one sex (homologous to male) are transported from the gamete cytoplasm to the protruded fusion site, whereas those of the other sex (females) are quickly degraded within the cytoplasm upon gamete activation. This molecular trait difference might be conserved across various eukaryotic lineages and may represent male and female prototypes originating from a common eukaryotic ancestor. PMID:24632243

Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Hamaji, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao

2014-01-01

159

Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1998-06-01

160

Altered Sexual Maturation and Gamete Production in Wild Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Living in Rivers That Receive Treated Sewage Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes of treated sewage effluent is manifest in a variety of ways, ranging from malformation of the germ cells and\\/or reproductive ducts to altered gamete produc- tion. Intersex fish were also found to have an altered endocrine status and an elevated concentration of plasma vitellogenin. Go- nadal

S. Jobling; N. Beresford; M. Nolan; T. Rodgers-Gray; G. C. Brighty; J. P. Sumpter; C. R. Tyler

2002-01-01

161

Function of the Male Gamete-Specific Fusion Protein, HAP2, in a Seven-Sexed Ciliate  

PubMed Central

Summary HAP2, a male gamete-specific protein conserved across vast evolutionary distances has garnered considerable attention as a potential membrane fusogen required for fertilization in taxa ranging from protozoa and green algae to flowering plants and invertebrate animals [1–6]. However, its presence in Tetrahymena thermophilaa ciliated protozoan with seven sexes or mating types that bypasses the production of male gametes raises interesting questions regarding the evolutionary origins of gamete-specific functions in sexually dimorphic species. Here we show that HAP2 is expressed in all seven mating types of T. thermophila and that fertility is only blocked when the gene is deleted from both cells of a mating pair. HAP2 deletion strains of complementary mating types can recognize one another and form pairs, however pair stability is compromised and membrane pore formation at the nuclear exchange junction is blocked. The absence of pore formation is consistent with previous studies suggesting a role for HAP2 in gamete fusion in other systems. We propose a model in which each of the several hundred membrane pores established at the conjugation junction of mating Tetrahymena represents the equivalent of a male/female interface, and that pore formation is driven on both sides of the junction by the presence of HAP2. Such a model supports the idea that many of the disparate functions of sperm and egg were shared by the “isogametes” of early eukaryotes, and became partitioned to either male or female sex cells later in evolution. PMID:25155508

Cole, Eric S.; Cassidy-Hanley, Donna; Pinello, Jennifer Fricke; Zeng, Hong; Hsueh, Marion; Kolbin, Daniel; Ozzello, Courtney; Giddings, Thomas; Winey, Mark; Clark, Theodore G.

2015-01-01

162

New pH-buffering system for media utilized during gamete and embryo manipulations for assisted reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of stable pH is important for optimizing gamete and embryo culture. One method to stabilize pH entails using zwitterionic buffers in IVF handling media used outside the laboratory incubator. Current handling media utilize single buffers, such as MOPS or HEPES. However, the use of a single buffer limits the ability to adjust the range of buffering capacity. Furthermore, changes

Jason E Swain; Thomas B Pool

2009-01-01

163

Managing partners of people diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis: a comparison of two partner testing methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of “home sampling” with that of “office sampling” for testing partners to men and women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.Method: A randomised controlled effectiveness trial took place in the general community in Denmark. 1300 index women and 526 index men (?18 years) with a positive test result for C trachomatis were identified. Of these, 414 index

L Østergaard; B Andersen; J K Møller; F Olesen; A-M Worm

2003-01-01

164

Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)  

PubMed Central

The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984

Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

2013-01-01

165

Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs. PMID:12576613

Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J

2003-01-01

166

Superfetation occurring in connection with gamete intrafallopian transfer: a case report.  

PubMed

This observation reports a case of susperfetation which occurred in connection with gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). The macroscopic and histological examination of a spontaneous abortion from a 33-year-old woman (15th week of pregnancy) revealed the existence of two embryos with a monochorionic diamniotic placenta (developmental age approximately 41 days) and two fetuses and a fetal remnant with a trichorionic and triamniotic placenta (developmental age approximately 98 days). The large developmental age difference of embryos and fetuses cannot be explained by retardation, because the embryos showed adequate development with the development of their placenta. Moreover, the usual causes of intrauterine growth retardation could be excluded as could retention of the embryos since the tissues showed no autolytic changes. Consequently the large developmental age difference is explained by assuming that the embryos developed from successive ovulations. A second nidation of blastocysts had occurred after the GIFT concurrently with the clinically reported hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:7655748

Krenn, V; Marx, A; Wiedemann, R; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Kranzfelder, D

1995-01-01

167

Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)  

SciTech Connect

Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance.

Krause, P.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

1994-07-01

168

Comparative cryobiological traits and requirements for gametes and gonadal tissues collected from wildlife species.  

PubMed

A major challenge to retaining viability of frozen gametes and reproductive tissues is to understand and overcome species-specificities, especially because there is substantial diversity in cryobiological properties and requirements among cell types and tissues. Systematic studies can lead to successful post-thaw recovery, especially after determining: 1) membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant, 2) cryoprotectant toxicity, 3) tolerance to osmotic changes, and 4) resistance to cooling and freezing temperatures. Although species-dependency ultimately dictates the ability of specific cells and tissues to survive freeze-thawing, there are commonalities between taxa that allow a protocol developed for one species to be useful information for another. This is the reason for performing comparative cryopreservation studies among diverse species. Our laboratory has compared cellular cryotolerance, especially in spermatozoa, in a diverse group of animals-from corals to elephants-for more than 30 yrs. Characterizing the biophysical traits of gametes and tissues is the most efficient way to develop successful storage and recovery protocols, but, such data are only available for a few laboratory, livestock, and fish species, with virtually all others (wild mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) having gone unstudied. Nonetheless, when a rare animal unexpectedly dies, there is no time to understand the fundamentals of biophysics. In these emergencies, it is necessary to rely on experience and the best data from taxonomically-related species. Fortunately, there are some general similarities among most species, which, for example, allow adequate post-thaw viability. Regardless, there is a priority for more information on biophysical traits and freezing tolerance of distinctive biomaterials, especially for oocytes and gonadal tissues, and even for common, domesticated animals. Our colleague, Dr John Critser was a pioneer in cryobiology, earning that moniker because of his advocacy and devotion to understanding the differences (and similarities) among species to better store living genetic material. PMID:22704386

Comizzoli, P; Songsasen, N; Hagedorn, M; Wildt, D E

2012-11-01

169

The association between partner and non-partner aggression and suicidal ideation in patients seeking substance use disorder treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study was designed to examine the relationship between prior partner and non-partner aggression and suicidal ideation in patients seeking drug and alcohol treatment. Method Patients entering drug and alcohol treatment (n = 488) were screened for prior partner and non-partner aggression as well as recent suicidal thoughts. We examined the association between aggression and suicidal ideation in bivariate and multivariate models. Results Within the past two weeks, 33% (159/488) of the sample reported suicidal ideation. In bivariate analyses, neither psychological nor physical aggression towards a non-partner was related to suicidal ideation. Partner psychological aggression was related to suicidal ideation in bivariate but not multivariate analyses. Physical aggression towards a partner was consistently related to higher rates of suicidal ideation even after controlling for other known risk factors (OR = 1.8; CI = 1.1 - 2.7). Mediational analyses indicate that this relationship was no longer significant after accounting for current negative affect. Conclusion Suicidal ideation is common in patients seeking drug and alcohol treatment and particularly likely in those who report prior aggression towards a partner. PMID:18977093

Ilgen, Mark A.; Chermack, Steve T.; Murray, Regan; Walton, Maureen A.; Barry, Kristen L.; Wojnar, Marcin; Blow, Frederic C.

2008-01-01

170

Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs) are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs) from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral) included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral) included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs. PMID:20849663

2010-01-01

171

Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running Head: Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence  

E-print Network

Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running Head: Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence Christopher T. Allen University of New York #12;Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 2 Abstract The current study

Almor, Amit

172

Telling partners about chlamydia: how acceptable are the new technologies?  

PubMed Central

Background Partner notification is accepted as a vital component in the control of chlamydia. However, in reality, many sexual partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia are never informed of their risk. The newer technologies of email and SMS have been used as a means of improving partner notification rates. This study explored the use and acceptability of different partner notification methods to help inform the development of strategies and resources to increase the number of partners notified. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people who were recently diagnosed with chlamydia from three sexual health centres and two general practices across three Australian jurisdictions. Results Most participants chose to contact their partners either in person (56%) or by phone (44%). Only 17% chose email or SMS. Participants viewed face-to-face as the "gold standard" in partner notification because it demonstrated caring, respect and courage. Telephone contact, while considered insensitive by some, was often valued because it was quick, convenient and less confronting. Email was often seen as less personal while SMS was generally considered the least acceptable method for telling partners. There was also concern that emails and SMS could be misunderstood, not taken seriously or shown to others. Despite these, email and SMS were seen to be appropriate and useful in some circumstances. Letters, both from the patients or from their doctor, were viewed more favourably but were seldom used. Conclusion These findings suggest that many people diagnosed with chlamydia are reluctant to use the new technologies for partner notification, except in specific circumstances, and our efforts in developing partner notification resources may best be focused on giving patients the skills and confidence for personal interaction. PMID:20211029

2010-01-01

173

A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

2012-01-01

174

Women at Risk of HIV\\/STD: The Importance of Male Partners as Barriers to Condom Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's perceptions of power in their relationship with their main partner, control over condom use, concerns about potential partner retribution, condom requests, and condom use were assessed by interviewing a group of women attending two urban public clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Alabama. Only 5% reported that they had no control over condom use by their partner. Fears of

Rebecca J. Cabral; LeaVonne Pulley; Lynn M. Artz; Ilene Brill; Maurizio Macaluso

1998-01-01

175

Partnering to improve the supply chain.  

PubMed

Successful materials management extends far beyond the hospital walls. More than ever, effective materials managers are partnering with suppliers, distributors, manufacturers and group purchasing organizations to reduce costs, improve inventory control and increase operational efficiency. This requires partners who are intimately familiar with both the unique requirements of individual health care settings and best practices throughout the industry. Beyond achieving better balance-sheet results, this consultative approach ultimately leads to standardized, proven processes that help ensure quality care is delivered safely. Health Forum convened a group of health care executives and industry vendors Nov. 4, 2005, in Chicago to discuss hospital-vendor partnerships. The closed-door dialogue focused on how hospitals can work with vendors to improve operations. Health Forum would like to thank all of the participants for their open and candid discussion, as well as the sponsors for supporting this event. PMID:16583613

Anderson, Alan; Baker, Gary; Carmody, Martin; Demien, Kent; DeRoo, Todd; Inacker, Stephen; Jacobson, Tim; Markoski, David; Solovy, Alden

2006-02-01

176

Partner discrepancies in distressed marriages.  

PubMed

Spousal discrepancy theory posits that partners with wide personality differences are at risk for marital distress. In this study, we assessed links between partner personality and interpersonal characteristics and marital distress in 244 couples who sought marital therapy. The sample was divided into three subgroups according to marital duration. Longer-married couples reflected significantly less impulsive, exploitive, and insensitive characteristics than couples in either shorter or intermediate marriages. Couples' marital distress was linked to larger discrepancies in personal distress, impulsivity, interpersonal insensitivity, and self-centered characteristics. While husbands' marital distress was linked to partner differences in personal distress and to impulsive, narcissistic, and competitive characteristics, wives' marital distress was primarily linked to partner discrepancies in self-centeredness. PMID:23484347

Kilmann, Peter Richard; Vendemia, Jennifer M C

2013-01-01

177

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

2001-06-01

178

Gamete ripening and hormonal correlates in three strains of lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17beta (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17alpha-hydroxy-20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. Strain had no effect on any hormones in females and only on T and F in males. The lack of pronounced interstrain differences in gamete ripening dates and reproductive endocrinology and the similarity of the temporal patterns and relative concentrations of hormones to those reported for other salmonids suggest nothing unusual or dysfunctional about these reproductive traits that would impede lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes.

Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.

1993-01-01

179

Localized bleaching in Hawaii causes tissue loss and a reduction in the number of gametes in Porites compressa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localized bleaching (a discrete white area on the coral) was observed in one of the main framework-building corals in Hawaii, Porites compressa. This study aimed to determine the degree of virulence of the lesion. We investigated the whole-colony effects by following disease progression through time and examining the effect of localized bleaching on coral fecundity. After two months, 35 of 42 (83.3%) individually tagged colonies affected by localized bleaching showed tissue loss and partial colony mortality. Histological slides of healthy P. compressa and samples from colonies showing signs of localized bleaching were compared showing that affected colonies had a significant reduction (almost 50%) in gamete development, egg numbers, and egg size in the affected tissue. The observed localized bleaching results in both partial colony mortality and a reduced number of gametes and was termed Porites Bleaching with Tissue Loss (PBTL).

Sudek, M.; Aeby, G. S.; Davy, S. K.

2012-06-01

180

Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure  

PubMed Central

Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17?-HSD-11 and 17?-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

Cai, Zhong-Hua

2011-01-01

181

An essential role of the basal body protein SAS-6 in Plasmodium male gamete development and malaria transmission.  

PubMed

Gametocytes are the sole Plasmodium parasite stages that infect mosquitoes; therefore development of functional gametes is required for malaria transmission. Flagellum assembly of the Plasmodium male gamete differs from that of most other eukaryotes in that it is intracytoplasmic but retains a key conserved feature: axonemes assemble from basal bodies. The centriole/basal body protein SAS-6 normally regulates assembly and duplication of these organelles and its depletion causes severe flagellar/ciliary abnormalities in a diverse array of eukaryotes. Since basal body and flagellum assembly are intimately coupled to male gamete development in Plasmodium, we hypothesized that SAS-6 disruption may cause gametogenesis defects and perturb transmission. We show that Plasmodium berghei?sas6 knockouts display severely abnormal male gametogenesis presenting reduced basal body numbers, axonemal assembly defects and abnormal nuclear allocation. The defects in gametogenesis reduce fertilization and render Pbsas6 knockouts less infectious to mosquitoes. Additionally, we show that lack of Pbsas6 blocks transmission from mosquito to vertebrate host, revealing an additional yet undefined role in ookinete to sporulating oocysts transition. These findings underscore the vulnerability of the basal body/SAS-6 to malaria transmission blocking interventions. PMID:25154861

Marques, Sara R; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Blagborough, Andrew M; Delves, Michael J; Talman, Arthur M; Sinden, Robert E

2015-02-01

182

A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans  

PubMed Central

The extracellular zona pellucida surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates gamete recognition that is essential for mammalian fertilization. Zonae matrices contain three (mouse) or four (human) glycoproteins (ZP1–4), but which protein binds sperm remains controversial. A defining characteristic of an essential zona ligand is sterility after genetic ablation. We have established transgenic mice expressing human ZP4 that form zonae pellucidae in the absence of mouse or human ZP2. Neither mouse nor human sperm bound to these ovulated eggs, and these female mice were sterile after in vivo insemination or natural mating. The same phenotype was observed with truncated ZP2 that lacks a restricted domain within ZP251–149. Chimeric human/mouse ZP2 isoforms expressed in transgenic mice and recombinant peptide bead assays confirmed that this region accounts for the taxon specificity observed in human–mouse gamete recognition. These observations in transgenic mice document that the ZP251–149 sperm-binding domain is necessary for human and mouse gamete recognition and penetration through the zona pellucida. PMID:24934154

Avella, Matteo A.; Baibakov, Boris

2014-01-01

183

A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans.  

PubMed

The extracellular zona pellucida surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates gamete recognition that is essential for mammalian fertilization. Zonae matrices contain three (mouse) or four (human) glycoproteins (ZP1-4), but which protein binds sperm remains controversial. A defining characteristic of an essential zona ligand is sterility after genetic ablation. We have established transgenic mice expressing human ZP4 that form zonae pellucidae in the absence of mouse or human ZP2. Neither mouse nor human sperm bound to these ovulated eggs, and these female mice were sterile after in vivo insemination or natural mating. The same phenotype was observed with truncated ZP2 that lacks a restricted domain within ZP2(51-149). Chimeric human/mouse ZP2 isoforms expressed in transgenic mice and recombinant peptide bead assays confirmed that this region accounts for the taxon specificity observed in human-mouse gamete recognition. These observations in transgenic mice document that the ZP2(51-149) sperm-binding domain is necessary for human and mouse gamete recognition and penetration through the zona pellucida. PMID:24934154

Avella, Matteo A; Baibakov, Boris; Dean, Jurrien

2014-06-23

184

Evolution of gamete attraction molecules: evidence for purifying selection in speract and its receptor, in the pantropical sea urchin Diadema.  

PubMed

Many free-spawning marine invertebrates, such as sea urchins, lack any courtship or assortative mating behavior. Mate recognition in such cases occur at the gametic level, and molecules present on the sperm and egg are major determinants of species-specific fertilization. These molecules must also coevolve in relation to each other in order to preserve functional integrity. When sea urchins release their gametes in seawater, diffusible molecules from the egg, termed sperm-activating peptides, activate and attract the sperm to swim toward the egg, initiating a series of interactions between the gametes. Although the compositions and diversity of such sperm-activating peptides have been characterized in a variety of sea urchins, little is known about the evolution of their genes. Here we characterize the genes encoding the sperm-activating peptide of the egg (speract) and its receptor on the sperm, and examine their evolutionary dynamics in the sea urchin genus Diadema, in the interest of determining whether they are involved in reproductive isolation between the species. We found evidence of purifying selection on several codon sites in both molecules and of selectively neutral evolution in others. The diffusible speract peptide that activates sperm is invariant across species, indicating that Diadema egg peptides do not discriminate between con- and hetero-specific sperm at this stage of the process. Speract and its receptor do not contribute to reproductive isolation in Diadema. PMID:25627716

Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Coppard, Simon E; Lessios, Harilaos A

2015-01-01

185

Role of odour compounds in the attraction of gamete vectors in endophytic Epichloë fungi.  

PubMed

Grass-infecting Epichloë endophytes (Ascomycota, Calvicipitaceae) depend on Botanophila flies for gamete transfer, while fly larvae feed and develop on the fertilized fungal fruiting structures. Flies are known to be attracted by volatile signals, but the exact mechanisms of chemical communication and the degree of specialization are unknown. Headspace samples collected from five different Epichloë species were analysed with respect to physiologically active substances using Botanophila flies. In field bioassays using synthetic compounds, their attractiveness and the specificity of the Epichloë-Botanophila attraction were investigated. The identification of a new natural product, methyl (Z)-3-methyldodec-2-enoate, attracting Botanophila flies is reported here, and chokol K is confirmed as an attractive compound. Different blends of the two compounds attracted Botanophila flies under field conditions, but the three fly taxa present at the study site showed no preference for specific blends of volatiles. Chemical communication in the Epichloë-Botanophila system relies on a few specific compounds, known as a communication system with 'private channels'. Although ratios of emitted compounds vary in different Epichloë species, this seems not to lead to specialized attraction of Botanophila flies. Low selective pressure for specialization may have maintained a more generalist interaction between fungi and flies. PMID:18194147

Steinebrunner, Fabrizio; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Schiestl, Florian P

2008-01-01

186

Incipient speciation of sea star populations by adaptive gamete recognition coevolution.  

PubMed

Reproductive isolation--the key event in speciation--can evolve when sexual conflict causes selection favoring different combinations of male and female adaptations in different populations. Likely targets of such selection include genes that encode proteins on the surfaces of sperm and eggs, but no previous study has demonstrated intraspecific coevolution of interacting gamete recognition genes under selection. Here, we show that selection drives coevolution between an egg receptor for sperm (OBi1) and a sperm acrosomal protein (bindin) in diverging populations of a sea star (Patiria miniata). We found positive selection on OBi1 in an exon encoding part of its predicted substrate-binding protein domain, the ligand for which is found in bindin. Gene flow was zero for the parts of bindin and OBi1 in which selection for high rates of amino acid substitution was detected; higher gene flow for other parts of the genome indicated selection against immigrant alleles at bindin and OBi1. Populations differed in allele frequencies at two key positively selected sites (one in each gene), and differences at those sites predicted fertilization rate variation among male-female pairs. These patterns suggest adaptively evolving loci that influence reproductive isolation between populations. PMID:24410379

Hart, Michael W; Sunday, Jennifer M; Popovic, Iva; Learning, Kevin J; Konrad, Christine M

2014-05-01

187

Effects of protracted cadmium exposure on gametes of the purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata  

SciTech Connect

Gametes and larvae of sea urchins and more specifically Arbacia punctulata have been used extensively in embryological studies and toxicity bioassay testing. Most of the experiments and bioassays have used the fertilized eggs of different sea urchin species and measured abnormal growth, malformations, or changes in the rates of growth as a function of contaminant exposure. Guida demonstrated that cupric ion activities of <10{sup -10.5} M caused reductions in the rates of growth of Arbacia Punctulata larvae and caused incomplete or malformed pluteal skeletons. These effects occurred at cupric ion concentrations that were in the same ranges as some measured in the more contaminated estuaries in the northeastern U.S. Sunda and coworkers also used sea urchin embryonic development to test potential trace metal toxicity in water samples collected from those same estuaries, and demonstrated toxicity potentially attributable to dissolved trace metals in the water column. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if protracted sublethal exposure of sexually mature sea urchins to dissolved cadmium in sea water would affect the viability of eggs and sperm, and whether it would affect fertilization and embryonic development and ultimately the larvae. The results of the experiments support the hypothesis that spermatogenesis and oogenesis were affected by cadmium exposure.

Bowen, W.J. III; Engel, D.W. [National Marine Fisheries Services, Beaufort, NC (United States)

1996-03-01

188

26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...

2011-04-01

189

26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...

2010-04-01

190

26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...

2013-04-01

191

26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...

2012-04-01

192

26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General § 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...

2014-04-01

193

Automated monitoring to detect H1N1 symptoms among urban, Medicaid-eligible, pregnant women: a community-partnered randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

In response to the H1N1 epidemic, we used community health workers to design and implement a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a new automated call-monitoring system for second and third trimester predominantly Medicaid-eligible pregnant women in an urban free standing birth center to promptly detect symptoms of influenza and assure rapid treatment to prevent adverse outcomes from influenza. Daily automated telephone call to second and third trimester pregnant women asking if the woman experienced flu-like symptoms. Calls continued daily until 38 weeks gestation. A community health worker's voice was used for the automated call recording. Positive responses triggered an immediate referral to a nurse-midwife for prompt treatment with anti-viral medication. Fifty pregnant participants were randomized into daily-automated call group (n = 26) or health information group (n = 24). The automated call group participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 (mean = 23.5, SD = 6.3), 84.7 % identified their race/ethnicity as African-American Non-Hispanic, and 80.7 % were Medicaid-Eligible. In the automated call group, 11.5 % chose to be immunized against H1N1. The mean percent of patients reached daily was 45.1 % (SD = 3.2 %) and at least once every 3 days was 65.1 % (SD = 3.1 %). One pregnant woman in the automated call group contracted H1N1 influenza and received prompt anti-viral treatment without any serious outcomes. Participation in daily-automated telephone calls did not differ significantly between patients younger than 18 years old versus patients 18 years or older. There was also no difference in participation between patients with parity of 0 versus patients with parity ?1. Participation in daily telephone calls significantly (alpha ?0.05) increased when a community health worker provided personal follow-up of non-responsive participants. 93.3 % of surveyed pregnant women, who received automated daily calls, recommended to use a similar daily call system in response to a future health crisis. Automated daily phone calls, designed and produced by community health workers, is a feasible, well received strategy to provide urgent health information to an urban, Medicaid-eligible group of pregnant women, regardless of age or parity. PMID:23990336

Nassar, Amy Filmore; Alemi, Farrokh; Hetmyer, Alisha; Alemi, Yara; Randolph, Linda A; Ramey, Sharon Landesman

2014-02-01

194

Older Romantic Partners and Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Although developmental theory predicts that adolescent romantic relationships have important benefits, empirical evidence suggests that they may also carry substantial psychosocial risk. This study uses data from 4,948 respondents (50% female) in Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the association between involvement with an older romantic partner and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Ordinary least squares regression models compared Wave II depressive symptoms among respondents with older partners (defined as an age difference of 2 or more years) to respondents with same-age or younger partners, controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. Ten percent of females and two percent of males reported having an older romantic partner at Wave II. Among females only, involvement with an older romantic partner was associated with a modest but significant increase in depressive symptoms between waves. This association was largely mediated by increases in substance use. Findings suggest that involvement with an older male partner during adolescence may increase the risk of poor emotional outcomes among females. PMID:20424899

Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

2010-01-01

195

Production of Polyploids and Unreduced Gametes in Lilium auratum × L. henryi Hybrid  

PubMed Central

Intergenomic F1 hybrids between L. auratum x L. henryi and their BC1 progeny were investigated through genomic in situ hybridization technique (GISH) to determine their potential value in lily breeding. We confirmed that F1 intergenomic hybrids possessed a set of chromosomes (x=12) from both parents and that flowers of the F1 auratum × henryi hybrid showed an intermediate morphological phenotype. Pollen size, viability and germination ability were measured through microscopic observations. F1 intergenomic hybrids produced a relevant frequency of 2n-gametes, which were successfully used to perform crosses with Oriental hybrids, resulting in the triploid Oriental Auratum Henryi (OAuH) hybrid. Twenty BC1 plants were generated by crossing between four different Oriental hybrid cultivars and F1 AuH hybrids using an in vitro embryo rescue technique, after which the genome constitution and chromosome composition were analyzed by GISH. All plants were triploid, showing 12 from female parents (diploid Oriental hybrid) and 24 from male parents (diploid F1 AuH hybrid). Overall, 16 out of 20 BC1 progeny possessed recombinant chromosomes with 1-5 crossover sites per plant. Cytological analysis of 20 BC1 plants by GISH verified that the occurrence of 2n pollen formation in all F1 AuH hybrids was derived from the FDR (first division restitution) mechanism, in which the genome composition of all BC1 plants possess 12 Oriental + 12 L. auratum + 12 L. henryi chromosomes. Allotriploids derived from the AuH hybrid were used as female for crossing with the diploid Oriental hybrid cultivar 'Sorbonne' and considerable numbers of plants (0-6.5 plants per ovary) were only obtained when female OAuH (BC1) triploids were used. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that production and analysis of F1 AuH hybrids and their progeny through sexual polyploidization can be useful for efficient creation of important horticultural traits. PMID:23904793

Chung, Mi-Young; Chung, Jae-Dong; Ramanna, Munikote; van Tuyl, Jaap M.; Lim, Ki-Byung

2013-01-01

196

The Computer as Lab Partner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also…

Nicklin, R. C.

1985-01-01

197

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

198

Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Business Partnering  

E-print Network

Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Business Partnering Steven Chiang, Director Agribusiness Incubator a productive bioenergy industry, successful partnering amongst industry "players" is essential. This section of the Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan specifically evaluates facilitating the bioenergy industry through

199

Making gametes from pluripotent stem cells--a promising role for very small embryonic-like stem cells.  

PubMed

The urge to have one's own biological child supersedes any desire in life. Several options have been used to obtain gametes including pluripotent stem cells (embryonic ES and induced pluripotent iPS stem cells); gonadal stem cells (spermatogonial SSCs, ovarian OSCs stem cells), bone marrow, mesenchymal cells and fetal skin. However, the field poses a huge challenge including inefficient existing protocols for differentiation, epigenetic and genetic changes associated with extensive in vitro manipulation and also ethical/regulatory constraints. A tremendous leap in the field occurred using mouse ES and iPS cells wherein they were first differentiated into epiblast-like cells and then primordial germ cell-like cells. These on further development produced sperm, oocytes and live offspring (had associated genetic problems). Evidently differentiating pluripotent stem cells into primordial germ cells (PGCs) remains a major bottleneck. Against this backdrop, we propose that a novel population of pluripotent stem cells termed very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may serve as an alternative, potential source of autologus gametes, keeping in mind that they are indeed PGCs surviving in adult mammalian ovaries and testes. Both VSELs and PGCs are pluripotent, relatively quiescent because of epigenetic modifications of parentally imprinted genes loci like Igf2-H19 and KCNQ1p57, share several markers like Stella, Fragilis, Mvh, Dppa2, Dppa4, Sall4, Blimp1 and functional receptors. VSELs are localized in the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules in testis and in the ovary surface epithelium. Ovarian stem cells from mouse, rabbit, sheep, marmoset and humans (menopausal women and those with premature ovarian failure) spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro with no additional requirement of growth factors. Thus a more pragmatic option to obtain autologus gametes may be the pluripotent VSELs and if we could manipulate them in vivo - existing ethical and epigenetic/genetic concerns associated with in vitro culture may also be minimized. The field of oncofertility may undergo a sea-change and existing strategies of cryopreservation of gametes and gonadal tissue for fertility preservation in cancer patients will necessitate a revision. However, first the scientific community needs to arrive at a consensus about VSELs in the gonads and then work towards exploiting their potential. PMID:25421462

Bhartiya, Deepa; Hinduja, Indira; Patel, Hiren; Bhilawadikar, Rashmi

2014-01-01

200

Hormonal induction of gamete release, and in-vitro fertilisation, in the critically endangered Southern Corroboree Frog, Pseudophryne corroboree  

PubMed Central

Background Conservation Breeding Programs (CBP's) are playing an important role in the protection of critically endangered anuran amphibians, but for many species recruitment is not successful enough to maintain captive populations, or provide individuals for release. In response, there has been an increasing focus on the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), including the administration of reproductive hormones to induce gamete release followed by in vitro fertilisation. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of two exogenous hormones to induce gamete release, for the purpose of conducting in vitro fertilisation (IVF), in one of Australia's most critically endangered frog species, Pseudophryne corroboree. Methods Male frogs were administered a single dose of either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa), while female frogs received both a priming and ovulatory dose of LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h post hormone administration (PA), and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Ovulation responses were evaluated by stripping females every 12 h PA for 5 days. Once gametes were obtained, IVF was attempted by combining spermic urine with oocytes in a dilute solution of simplified amphibian ringer (SAR). Results Administration of both hCG and LHRHa induced approximately 80% of males to release sperm over 72 h. Peak sperm release occurred at 12 h PA for hCG treated males and 36 h PA for LHRHa treated males. On average, LHRHa treated males released a significantly higher total number of live sperm, and a higher concentration of sperm, over a longer period. In female frogs, administration of LHRHa induced approximately 30% of individuals to release eggs. On average, eggs were released between 24 and 48 h PA, with a peak in egg release at 36 h PA. IVF resulted in a moderate percentage (54.72%) of eggs being fertilised, however all resultant embryos failed prior to gastrulation. Conclusions Hormone treatment successfully induced spermiation and ovulation in P. corroboree, but refinement of gamete induction and IVF techniques will be required before ART protocols can be used to routinely propagate this species. PMID:21114857

2010-01-01

201

Dilemmas in intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921

Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

2009-07-01

202

Childhood Bullying Involvement and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13 years of age reported a substantial amount of bullying and victimization; a large majority were bully-victims and female. Regression analyses did not show that children who were exposed to intimate partner violence were more likely to engage in relational bullying. However, children who are exposed to intimate partner violence have a higher likelihood of internalizing behaviors and physical aggression. PMID:16882768

Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

2008-01-01

203

Women's Reasons for Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running head: WOMEN'S REASONS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE  

E-print Network

and proactive motives. Key words: Intimate partner violence, motives, female perpetrators, Motives and Reasons's Reasons for Intimate Partner Violence Increased rates of arrests of women for domestic violence offensesWomen's Reasons for Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running head: WOMEN'S REASONS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER

Almor, Amit

204

Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

2008-01-01

205

National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation  

MedlinePLUS

... devices (e.g., cameras and or global positioning system devices), by perpetrators known and unknown to the victim • Physical violence by an intimate partner • Psychological aggression by an intimate partner including information on expressive forms of aggression and coercive control • ...

206

Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

207

In-vitro fertilization, gamete donation and surrogacy: perceptions of women attending an infertility clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149

Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo

2014-06-01

208

Virtual Conversation Partner for Adults with Autism  

PubMed Central

Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD. PMID:21329439

Trepagnier, Cheryl Y.; Olsen, Dale E.; Bell, Corinne A.

2011-01-01

209

Gamete cryobanks for laboratory research: developing a rapid and easy-to-perform protocol for the cryopreservation of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lmk, 1816) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Gamete cryopreservation is a biotechnology that can guarantee a continuous supply of gametes, regardless of the seasonal reproductive cycle. In this study we developed a protocol for the cryopreservation of the sea urchin Paracentrotuslividus spermatozoa, with a view to the creation of cryobanks of semen to be used as a model system in laboratory research and ecotoxicological tests. All the key phases of the procedure were separately considered and the effect on sperm motility was evaluated by means of computer assisted analysis. The best results were obtained using 7% dimethylsulfoxide in 1% NaCl plus 0.04 M trehalose as the extender, at a freezing rate of -20 °C/min. On thawing, in semen samples cryopreserved in accordance with this protocol the velocity parameters of the sub-population of rapid sperm (best performing spermatozoa) did not significantly differ from semen on collection; in addition also the fertilization ability was restored, and about 50% of normal developed plutei larvae were obtained by thawed semen. The developed protocol is rapid and easy-to-perform; moreover, the use of gametes from reared urchins makes it unnecessary to continuously collect specimens from natural populations, making this procedure a promising starting point for the creation of alternative and more sustainable methodologies in laboratory research on sea urchin gametes and embryos. PMID:24997279

Fabbrocini, Adele; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Pelosi, Sergio; Oliveira, Luis F J; Silvestri, Fausto; Sansone, Giovanni

2014-08-01

210

Performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea: analysis of paternity and fertilization success in a natural population of a red seaweed, Gracilaria gracilis  

PubMed Central

In haploid–diploid red seaweeds, the dispersal of male gametes is presumed limited due to their lack of flagella. It has been suggested that this group suffers from sperm limitation and, consequently, that fertilization is relatively inefficient. Fertilization in most floridean rhodophytes results in the formation a cystocarp, a swelling on the haploid female thallus housing the diploid zygote and its thousands of diploid daughter spores. To study the performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea, we evaluated both female and male fertilization success in a natural population of the red marine alga Gracilaria gracilis. Female fertilization success, estimated by cystocarp yield per unit female thallus, was evaluated with respect to the availability of male gametes. Male fertilization success, estimated by the individual contribution of different males to zygotes, was assessed by paternity analyses on 350 cystocarps produced in one reproductive season using two microsatellite loci. The results show that cystocarp yield is not sperm limited and that the large variation in male fertilization success cannot be solely explained by the distance travelled by the male gamete to find a mate. Taken together, the results suggest that, not only is fertilization efficient, but that male–male competition and/or female choice may play a role in shaping population mating patterns.

Engel, C. R.; Wattier, R.; Destombe, C.; Valero, M.

1999-01-01

211

Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

2014-01-01

212

Life History of eNOS: Partners and Pathways  

PubMed Central

The complex regulation of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) in cardiovascular physiology occurs at multiple stages. eNOS mRNA levels are controlled both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional phases [1], and epigenetic mechanisms appear to modulate tissue-specific eNOS expression. The eNOS enzyme reversibly associates with a diverse family of protein partners that regulate eNOS subcellular localization, catalytic function, and biological activity. eNOS enzyme activity and subcellular localization are intimately controlled by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, nitrosylation, and acylation. The multiple extracellular stimuli affecting eNOS function coordinate their efforts through these key modifications to dynamically control eNOS and NO bioactivity in the vessel wall. This review will focus on the biochemical partners and perturbations of the eNOS protein as this vital enzyme undergoes modulation by diverse signal transduction pathways in the vascular endothelium. PMID:17466957

Dudzinski, David; Michel, Thomas

2009-01-01

213

Actor-partner effects associated with experiencing intimate partner violence or coercion among male couples enrolled in an HIV prevention trial  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and coercion have been associated with negative health outcomes, including increased HIV risk behaviors, among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is the first study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with experiencing IPV or coercion among US MSM dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), an analytic framework to describe interdependent outcomes within dyads. Methods Among MSM couples enrolled as dyads in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial (RCT), two outcomes are examined in this cross-sectional analysis: 1) the actor experiencing physical or sexual IPV from the study partner in the past 3-months and 2) the actor feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by the study partner. Two multilevel APIM logistic regression models evaluated the association between each outcome and actor, partner, and dyad-level factors. Results Of 190 individuals (95 MSM couples), 14 reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV from their study partner in the past 3 months (7.3%) and 12 reported feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by their study partner (6.3%). Results of multivariate APIM analyses indicated that reporting experienced IPV was associated (p?partner education. Reporting experienced coercion was associated (p?partner education. Conclusions These findings from an HIV prevention RCT for MSM show considerable levels of IPV experienced in the past 3-months and coercion to participate in the research study, indicating the need for screening tools and support services for these behaviors. The identification of factors associated with IPV and coercion demonstrate the importance of considering actor and partner effects, as well as dyadic-level effects, to improve development of screening tools and support services for these outcomes. PMID:24580732

2014-01-01

214

The spermatozoa caught in the net: the biological networks to study the male gametes post-ejaculatory life  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian spermatozoa, immediately after the ejaculation are unable to fertilize the oocyte. To reach their fertilizing ability the male gametes must complete a process of functional maturation, the capacitation, within the female genital tract. Only once the capacitation is completed the spermatozoa can respond to the oocyte interaction with the exocytosis of acrosome content, acrosome reaction (AR). These post-ejaculatory events are under the attention of Researchers from more than fifty years but their basic knowledge is still unsatisfactory. This failure could be due not to the insufficiency of available data, but to the inability to manage them in a descriptive model. Thus, to overlap this problem, the capacitation and the AR were represented using the biological networks formalism. In addition the effect of elimination from both the networks of the most linked (the hubs) or of random selected nodes was verified and the network representing the common element of capacitation and AR (C?A) was realized. Results The statistical analysis of resulting graphs showed that capacitation, AR and C?A networks follow the scale free topology and are characterized by low clustering. In all cases it was possible to identify the key molecules (Ca2+, ATP, P-Tyr, PKA, PLD1 in capacitation, Ca2+, ATP in AR and C?A) and to describe their role in signalling transduction. The effect of hubs elimination caused the collapse of networks structure, while the elimination of random selected nodes did not affected it. Conclusions It was demonstrated that the post-ejaculatory life of male gametes is a series of events characterised by a high signalling efficiency and robustness against random failure. This strengthens the evidence that the adoption of biological networks modellization of capacitation and AR could increase the understanding of spermatozoa physiology, potentially opening new perspective in drug discovery, diagnosis and therapy of male infertility. PMID:20565893

2010-01-01

215

Exposure of Paracentrotus lividus male gametes to engineered nanoparticles affects skeletal bio-mineralization processes and larval plasticity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle (NP)-induced embryotoxicity in aquatic organisms. We previously demonstrated that exposure of male gametes to NPs causes non-dose-dependent skeletal damage in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these anomalies in sea urchin development from male gametes exposed to cobalt (Co), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) NPs were investigated by histochemical, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. P. lividus sperm were exposed to different NP concentrations (from 0.0001 to 1mg/L). The distribution of molecules related to skeletogenic cell identification, including ID5 immunoreactivity (IR), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity and fibronectin (FN) IR, were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy at the gastrula (24h) and pluteus (72h) stages. Our results identified a spatial correspondence among PMCs, ID5 IR and WGA affinity sites. The altered FN pattern suggests that it is responsible for the altered skeletogenic cell migration, while the Golgi apparatus of the skeletogenic cells, denoted by their WGA affinity, shows different aspects according to the degree of anomalies caused by NP concentrations. The ID5 IR, a specific marker of skeletogenic cells in sea urchin embryos (in particular of the msp130 protein responsible for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) mineralization), localized in the cellular strands prefiguring the skeletal rods in the gastrula stage and, in the pluteus stage, was visible according to the degree of mineralization of the skeleton. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the investigated NPs suspended in seawater interfere with the bio-mineralization processes in marine organisms, and the results of this study offer a new series of specific endpoints for the mechanistic understanding of NP toxicity. PMID:25481784

Gambardella, Chiara; Ferrando, Sara; Morgana, Silvia; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ramoino, Paola; Ravera, Silvia; Bramini, Mattia; Diaspro, Alberto; Faimali, Marco; Falugi, Carla

2015-01-01

216

ECHO Status for International Partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO) is a clearinghouse of spatial and temporal metadata, inclusive of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data holdings, that enables the science community to more easily exchange NASA data and information. Currently, ECHO has metadata descriptors for over 55 million individual data granules and 13 million browse images. The majority of ECHO's holdings come directly from data held in the NASA DAACs. The science disciplines and domains represented in ECHO are diverse and include metadata for all of NASA's Science Focus Area data. As middleware for a service-oriented enterprise, ECHO offers access to its capabilities through a set of publicly available Application Program Interfaces (APIs). More information about ECHO is available at http://eos.nasa.gov.echo. The presentation will discuss the status of the ECHO Partners, holdings, and activities, including the transition from the EOS Data Gateway to the Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST)

Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff

2006-01-01

217

Predicting Partner HIV Testing and Counseling following a Partner Notification Intervention  

PubMed Central

Provider-assisted methods of partner notification increase testing and counseling among sexual partners of patients diagnosed with HIV, however they are resource-intensive. The sexual partners of individuals enrolled in a clinical trial comparing different methods of HIV partner notification were analyzed to identify who was unlikely to seek testing on their own. Unconditional logistic regression was used to identify partnership characteristics, which were assigned a score based on their coefficient in the final model, and a risk score was calculated for each participant. The risk score included male partner sex, relationship duration 6–24 months, and index education > primary. A risk score of ? 2 had a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 78% in identifying partners unlikely to seek testing on their own. A risk score to target partner notification can reduce the resources required to locate all partners in the community while increasing the testing yield compared to patient-referral. PMID:22120879

Brown, Lillian B; Miller, William C; Kamanga, Gift; Kaufman, Jay S; Pettifor, Audrey; Dominik, Rosalie C; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mmodzi, Pearson; Mapanje, Clement; Martinson, Francis; Cohen, Myron S; Hoffman, Irving F

2012-01-01

218

Partner Choice, Relationship Satisfaction, and Oral Contraception: The Congruency Hypothesis.  

PubMed

Hormonal fluctuation across the menstrual cycle explains temporal variation in women's judgment of the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Use of hormonal contraceptives could therefore influence both initial partner choice and, if contraceptive use subsequently changes, intrapair dynamics. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and relationship satisfaction may thus be best understood by considering whether current use is congruent with use when relationships formed, rather than by considering current use alone. In the study reported here, we tested this congruency hypothesis in a survey of 365 couples. Controlling for potential confounds (including relationship duration, age, parenthood, and income), we found that congruency in current and previous hormonal contraceptive use, but not current use alone, predicted women's sexual satisfaction with their partners. Congruency was not associated with women's nonsexual satisfaction or with the satisfaction of their male partners. Our results provide empirical support for the congruency hypothesis and suggest that women's sexual satisfaction is influenced by changes in partner preference associated with change in hormonal contraceptive use. PMID:24818612

Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Cobey, Kelly D; Klapilová, Kate?ina; Havlí?ek, Jan; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa; Petrie, Marion

2014-05-12

219

Partner notification uptake for sexually transmitted infections in China: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Objective China’s sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic requires comprehensive control programmes. Partner services are traditional pillars of STI control but have not been widely implemented in China. This study was a systematic literature review to examine STI partner notification (PN) uptake in China. Methods Four English and four Chinese language databases were searched up to March 2011 to identify articles on PN of STIs including HIV in China. PN uptake was defined as the number of partners named, notified, evaluated or diagnosed per index patient. Results A total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria. For STI (excluding HIV) PN, a median 31.6% (IQR 27.4%–65.8%) of named partners were notified, 88.8% (IQR 88.4%–90.8%) of notified partners were evaluated and 37.9% (IQR 33.1%–43.6%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. For HIV PN, a median 15.7% (IQR 13.2%–36.5%) of named partners were notified, 86.7% (IQR 72.9%–90.4%) of notified partners were evaluated and 27.6% (IQR 24.1%–27.7%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. A mean of 80.6% (SD=12.6%) of patients attempted PN, and 72.4% (IQR 63.8%–81.1%) chose self-referral when offered more than one method of PN. Perceived patient barriers included social stigma, fear of relationship breakdown, uncertainty of how to notify and lack of partner contact information. Perceived infrastructure barriers included limited time and trained staff, mistrust of health workers and lack of PN guidelines. Conclusion PN programmes are feasible in China. Further research on STI PN, particularly among men who have sex with men and other high-risk groups, is an important public health priority. PN policies and guidelines are urgently needed in China. PMID:22427489

Wang, Alberta L; Peng, Rui-Rui; Tucker, Joseph D; Cohen, Myron S; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

2013-01-01

220

Bioenergy Business Partner Information Gathering Form  

E-print Network

Bioenergy Business Partner Information Gathering Form Fax completed form to the Agribusiness.hnei.hawaii.edu/bmpp/stakeholders.asp Partners are organizations that perform, intend to perform, or should perform bioenergy processes and/or requirements. Please tell us about your organization and the role it plays in bioenergy production in Hawaii

221

Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

2007-01-01

222

Partners in Science. [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Partners in Science students, aided by community professionals, learn science by designing and conducting their own research. Partners in Science brings the community and schools closer together through a mentorship program. Scientists, in fields ranging from wildlife biology to space physics, are in frequent contact with classes and home-schooled…

2000

223

Mid-Term Report on Partners Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Partners Program operates through a partnership of the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System, the Denver Public Schools, and the Colorado Minority Engineering Association to guide minority high school students into career tracks that include a college option. Denver is a particularly suitable location for the Partners

Raughton, Jim L.; And Others

224

Telling Your Partner You Have an STD  

MedlinePLUS

... you and your partner decide not to have sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, or oral sex), there are other ways you can be intimate or express your feelings for one another. If you do decide to have intercourse, use condoms and practice safe sex techniques. Back Continue Telling a Current Partner ...

225

Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner  

PubMed Central

The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women. PMID:24277856

Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M.; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

2013-01-01

226

Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism.  

PubMed

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that different plant species vary in the spatial precision with which they can select partners. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is presumably context-dependent and can be mediated by factors like (relative) resource abundance and resource fluctuations, competition among mycorrhizas, arrival order and cultivation history. Such factors complicate our current understanding of the importance of partner selection and its effectiveness in stimulating mutualistic cooperation. PMID:25421912

Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

2014-11-24

227

Intimate Partner Violence and Partner STI Notification Among Adolescent and Young Adult Family Planning Clinic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patient-initiated partner STI notification, i.e., patients informing their sexual partners of diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner STI notification, and experiences of partner STI notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Methods Females patients ages 16–29 years in five family planning clinics in Northern California (n=1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results History of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner STI notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to STI notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Conclusions Current findings suggest that STI partner notification may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner STI notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification. PMID:21680673

Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

2013-01-01

228

Family Functioning in Suicidal Inpatients With Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly bidirectional with both partners perpetrating and being victims of aggressive behaviors. In these couples, family dysfunction is reported across a broad range of family functions: communication, intimacy, problem solving, expression or control of anger, and designation of relationship roles. This study reports on the perceived family functioning of suicidal inpatients. Method: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study of adult suicidal inpatients, participants completed assessments of recent IPV and family functioning. Recruited patients were between 18 and 65 years of age and English fluent, had suicidal ideation, and were living with an intimate partner for at least the past 6 months. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised, and family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. The study was conducted from August 2004 through February 2005. Results: In 110 inpatients with suicidal ideation and IPV, family functioning was perceived as poor across many domains, although patients did report family strengths. Gender differences were not found in the overall prevalence of IPV, but when the sample was divided into good and poor family functioning, women with poorer family functioning reported more psychological abuse by a partner. For both genders, physical and psychological victimization was associated with poorer family functioning. Conclusion: Among psychiatric inpatients with suicidal ideation, IPV occurred in relationships characterized by general dysfunction. Poorer general family functioning was associated with the perception of victimization for both genders. The high prevalence of bidirectional IPV highlights the need for the development of couples treatment for this population of suicidal psychiatric inpatients. PMID:18185819

Heru, Alison M.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Recupero, Patricia Ryan

2007-01-01

229

Men's beliefs and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of men toward intimate partner violence in Pakistan. Men's beliefs and attitudes toward partner violence are shaped by the life-long process of gender socialization, where the role of wife is projected as submissive and docile. Drawing on eight in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in Lahore and Sialkot, this article presents how men perceive and justify partner violence within the context of Pakistani society. The data show that the construct of "ideal wife" inculcated among men fits into Foucault's notion of "docile bodies," which are subjected to control, discipline, and violent punishment. PMID:23448911

Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kraemer, Alexander

2013-02-01

230

Cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV partner notification in urban Malawi  

PubMed Central

Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes’ locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider-based notification strategies are potentially cost-effective for identifying new cases of HIV. These strategies offer a simple, effective and easily implementable opportunity to control HIV transmission. PMID:23325584

Rutstein, Sarah E; Brown, Lillian B; Biddle, Andrea K; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kamanga, Gift; Mmodzi, Pearson; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mofolo, Innocent; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C

2014-01-01

231

76 FR 58849 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 29789; File No. 812-13892] Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice...financial instruments. Applicants: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust...

2011-09-22

232

Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use Among Minority Urban Girls  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse. PMID:18349344

Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

2011-01-01

233

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the person to whom the fish will be delivered, and the location of the place to which such delivery will be made. (b) [Reserved] (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

2010-01-01

234

Intimate partner violence in rural environments.  

PubMed

The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments. PMID:18709747

Annan, Sandra L

2008-01-01

235

Partners in Leadership for Pearl River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

2007-01-01

236

Contraceptive use patterns across teens’ sexual relationships: The role of relationships, partners, and sexual histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine how adolescent relationship characteristics,\\u000a partner attributes, and sexual relationship histories are associated with contraceptive use and consistency, incorporating\\u000a random effects to control for respondent-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses show that teens’ contraceptive use patterns\\u000a vary across relationships. Teens with more-homogamous partners, with more-intimate relationships, and who communicate about

Jennifer. Manlove; Kerry. Franzetta

2007-01-01

237

Preliminary Evaluation of a Coping Skills Training Program for Those with a Pathological-Gambling Partner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals living with a pathological-gambling partner can experience significant psychological distress. In this report, we conduct a preliminary evaluation of a coping skills training program (CST) for this population. Twenty-three individuals experiencing stress from living with a pathological-gambling partner who was not in treatment were randomly assigned to either CST or a delayed treatment control (DTC) condition. CST consisted of

Robert G. Rychtarik; Neil B. McGillicuddy

2006-01-01

238

Effects of a Randomized Couple-Based Intervention on Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…

Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.

2010-01-01

239

Gamete derivation from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells: state of the art.  

PubMed

Generating gametes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has many scientific justifications and several biomedical rationales. Here, we consider several strategies for deriving gametes from PSCs from mice and primates (human and non-human) and their anticipated strengths, challenges and limitations. Although the 'Weismann barrier', which separates the mortal somatic cell lineages from the potentially immortal germline, has long existed, breakthroughs first in mice and now in humans are artificially creating germ cells from somatic cells. Spermatozoa with full reproductive viability establishing multiple generations of seemingly normal offspring have been reported in mice and, in humans, haploid spermatids with correct parent-of-origin imprints have been obtained. Similar progress with making oocytes has been published using mouse PSCs differentiated in vitro into primordial germ cells, which are then cultured after xenografting reconstructed artificial ovaries. Progress in making human oocytes artificially is proving challenging. The usefulness of these artificial gametes, from assessing environmental exposure toxicity to optimising medical treatments to prevent negative off-target effects on fertility, may prove invaluable, as may basic discoveries on the fundamental mechanisms of gametogenesis. PMID:25472048

Easley, Charles A; Simerly, Calvin R; Schatten, Gerald

2014-12-01

240

76 FR 66012 - Partner's Distributive Share  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...proposed regulations affect partnerships and their partners...5203, Internal Revenue Service, P.O. Box 7604...Desk, Internal Revenue Service, 1111 Constitution...among themselves how a partnership's items will be allocated...if, throughout the full term of the...

2011-10-25

241

Partnering with Families through Institutional Advancement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of limited resources and rising populations, more intentional relationships among university departments are needed to achieve common goals, especially in parent programming. Article focuses on novel partnering opportunities for student affairs and institutional advancement departments. (GCP)

McInnis, Dion

2001-01-01

242

Robot Partners: Collaborative Perceptual Robotic Systems  

E-print Network

Robot Partners: Collaborative Perceptual Robotic Systems Working paper Cooperative Distributed robotic systems, including remote-brained soccer players, visually guided mobile robots, and visual been supported by the the Networks of Centres of Excellence Institute for Robotics and Intelligent

Little, Jim

243

Mombasa hosts workshop on men as partners.  

PubMed

More than 140 participants from 16 countries met in May to develop practical ways to provide reproductive health services to men and to support their constructive involvement in the health of their female partners at the AVSC-sponsored Men As Partners workshop in Mombasa, Kenya. By the end of the 5-day workshop, country teams from Egypt, Eritrea, Ghana, India, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda left Mombasa with detailed action plans to implement in their home countries. The participants, including policymakers, program managers, health care providers, researchers, donor organizations, and technical agencies, believe that developing reproductive health programs for both partners is the key to providing high quality care. The need to involve both partners and welcome men who attend family planning clinics, the importance of reaching out to potential clients, the country action plans developed, and strategy implementation are discussed. PMID:12349013

Leonhardt, L; Landry, E

1997-01-01

244

Cheating Partners, Conditional Probability and Contingency Tables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing statistical literacy for older school students includes recognizing and interpreting conditional statements in the media. Data on couples' success in predicting whether their partners have cheated provides a motivating context for teachers to lead their students through this process.

Watson, Jane M.

2011-01-01

245

Exotic top partners and Little Higgs  

E-print Network

Little Higgs models often give rise to top partners beyond the minimal ones necessary for the cancellation of quadratic divergences. We review how this occurs and discuss the phenomenology of these exotic states. We emphasize ...

Kearney, John

246

Season-dependent effects of elevated temperature on stress biomarkers, energy metabolism and gamete development in mussels.  

PubMed

In coastal areas, sessile species can be severely affected by thermal stress associated to climate change. Presently, the effect of elevated temperature on metabolic, cellular and tissue-level responses of mussels was determined to assess whether the responses vary seasonally with seawater temperature and reproductive stage. Mussels were collected in fall, winter and summer, and (a) maintained at 16, 12, and 20 °C respectively or (b) subject to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (+1 °C per day; from 16 to 24 °C in fall, from 12 to 20 °C in winter and from 20 to 28 °C in summer) and further maintained at 24 °C (fall), 20 °C (winter) and 28 °C (summer) for the following 6 days. Temperature elevation induced membrane destabilization, lysosomal enlargement, and reduced the aerobic scope in fall and summer whereas in winter no significant changes were found. Changes at tissue-level were only evident at 28 °C. Gamete development was impaired irrespective of season. Since the threshold of negative effects of warming was close to ambient temperatures in summer (24 °C or above) studied mussel populations would be vulnerable to the global climate change. PMID:25460056

Múgica, M; Sokolova, I M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

2015-02-01

247

Partner Support and Maternal Depression in the Context of the Iowa Floods  

PubMed Central

A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from N=145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576

Brock, Rebecca L.; O’Hara, Michael W.; Hart, Kimberly J.; McCabe, Jennifer E.; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P.; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

2014-01-01

248

Facebook surveillance of former romantic partners: associations with postbreakup recovery and personal growth.  

PubMed

Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

Marshall, Tara C

2012-10-01

249

Partner support and maternal depression in the context of the Iowa floods.  

PubMed

A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243576

Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

2014-12-01

250

My partner is also on my mind: social context modulates the N1 response.  

PubMed

When individuals share a task with a partner, one's own actions and one's partner's actions have to be precisely tuned to one another. With behavioral means, it has been numerously shown that splitting a simple reaction time task between two participants produces similar interference patterns to those occurring when controlling the whole task on one's own. Less is known about the neuronal correlates when sharing a task with a partner. The processes of agent identification ("my turn" vs. "my partner's turn") were the focus of this study. In an EEG study, pairs of participants responded to different action-associated stimuli in a Go/NoGo paradigm. The same task was performed together with a partner (joint Go/NoGo condition) and when a partner was not present (single Go/NoGo condition). This study showed a top-down influence of social setting on early visual processing as indexed by the Go-N1 and NoGo-N1 response. This effect was only present in the joint Go/NoGo condition. It was particularly present in those trials where the partner did not have to act. Taken together, these results yield evidence for an early top-down influence of social setting on early processes of stimulus identification and differentiation. PMID:25224703

Baess, Pamela; Prinz, Wolfgang

2015-01-01

251

Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

2012-01-01

252

Mate value of romantic partners predicts men’s partner-directed verbal insults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prevent a partner’s infidelity and defection from the relationship, men perform mate retention behaviors, sometimes inflicting costs on their partners. These cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors are considered high-risk because in addition to decreasing the likelihood of future infidelity, they also may increase the likelihood of future relationship defection. Although previous research has indicated that mate value (expected future reproduction;

Emily J. Miner; Todd K. Shackelford; Valerie G. Starratt

2009-01-01

253

Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control  

PubMed Central

The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function) seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent. PMID:25110702

Kaur, Kiranjeet; Prabha, Vijay

2014-01-01

254

Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386

Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

2014-11-11

255

Production of Functional Gametes from Cryopreserved Primordial Germ Cells of the Japanese Quail  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a valuable bird as both an experimental animal, for a wide range of scientific disciplines, and an agricultural animal, for the production of eggs and meat. Cryopreservation of PGCs would be a feasible strategy for the conservation of both male and female fertility cells in Japanese quail. However, the effects of freeze-thaw treatment on viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of quail PGCs still remain unclear. In the present study, male and female PGCs were isolated from the blood of 2-day-old embryos, which were cooled by slow freezing and then cryopreserved at –196 C for 77–185 days, respectively. The average recovery rate of PGCs after freeze-thawing was 47.0%. The viability of PGCs in the frozen group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) (85.5% vs. 95.1%). Both fresh and Frozen-thawed PGCs that were intravascularly transplanted into recipient embryos migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, although the number of PGCs settled in the gonads was 48.5% lower in the frozen group than in the unfrozen control group (P<0.05). Genetic cross analysis revealed that one female and two male recipients produced live progeny derived from the frozen-thawed PGCs. The frequency of donor-derived offspring was slightly lower than that of unfrozen controls, but the difference was not significant (4.0 vs. 14.0%). These results revealed that freeze-thaw treatment causes a decrease in viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of PGCs in quail. PMID:24077020

NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki; TASAI, Mariko; TAKEDA, Kumiko; NIRASAWA, Keijiro; TAGAMI, Takahiro

2013-01-01

256

Gamete Therapeutics: Recombinant Protein Adsorption by Sperm for Increasing Fertility via Artificial Insemination  

PubMed Central

A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system’s response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2?) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P?=?0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288

Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E.; Moreno, Juan F.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Randel, Ronald D.; Lammoglia, Miguel A.; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V.; Esperón-Sumano, A. Enrique; Romo, Salvador

2013-01-01

257

The nature of interfirm partnering in supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper conceptually integrates the antecedents and consequences of strategic and operational partnering. We suggest a continuum exists from strategic to operational partnering depending on the level of antecedents, orientation, and implementation. This paper, thus, expands the theory of partnering by providing an inclusive picture of the “partnering” phenomenon with the environmental pressures, antecedents, orientation, implementation, and consequences of strategic

John T Mentzer; Soonhong Min; Zach G Zacharia

2000-01-01

258

Jealousy and partner preference among butch and femme lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the differences in partner preference and jealousy among lesbians who identified themselves as butch or femme. We hypothesized that butch and femme lesbians would behave analogously to male and female heterosexual persons, with butches more attracted to a partner's physical appearance and more jealous of a partner's sexual behaviour and femmes more attracted to a partner's

Jonathan Bassett; Sharon Pearcey; James M. Dabbs Jr

2001-01-01

259

Interaction between Polo and BicD proteins links oocyte determination and meiosis control in Drosophila  

E-print Network

1 Interaction between Polo and BicD proteins links oocyte determination and meiosis control and meiosis control Key words : Polo, BicD, oocyte, meiosis, polarized transport 6999 words 1 INSERM U384 Univ/2006; 133(20): 4005-13 #12;2 SUMMARY Meiosis is a specialized cell cycle limited to the gametes in Metazoa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners  

PubMed Central

Introduction We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol use within 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-American and Latino emergency department (ED) patients. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all ED patients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcohol use and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variable negative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion of interaction terms. Results The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error = 0.11) sexual partners in the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol before sex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number of sexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners in the past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol before sex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio = 3.2; confidence interval [CI] =1.9–5.6). The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partners is dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months. Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of this effect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers. Conclusion Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were more likely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences of risky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and risky sexual behaviors. EDs should strive to institute a system for regular screening, brief intervention, and referral of at-risk patients to reduce negative consequences of alcohol misuse, including those of risky sexual behaviors. PMID:22900104

Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Gaines, Tommi; Bazargan, Mohsen; Seddighzadeh, Bobak; Ahmadi, Alireza

2012-01-01

261

Adult violence with the mother and sibling as predictors of partner violence.  

PubMed

The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and their mothers and for adults and their siblings. The authors also hypothesized that reciprocal violence with the mother and sisters would explain variance in partner violence even when controlling for other known predictors (poverty, poor family support, stress, anger, low self-esteem). Study participants included 377 college adults (114 men, 263 women; mean age = 24.4 years) who completed questionnaires to report their present violence to and from their mothers, sisters, brothers, and romantic partners. Violence is measured with a modified Conflict Tactics Scale. No sibling gender differences are found in violence reported as adults. Factor analysis confirms good fit for three clusters of reciprocal violence for adults: violence with the mother, violence with siblings, violence with the romantic partner. Violence with the mother and siblings significantly explains variance in partner violence even after controlling for other contextual variables, but only for women. One interpretation of present results is that because women receive less socialization than men to use violence, these two within-family models of violence have more significance for increasing their risk of partner violence. Partner violence prevention programs could include participation of mothers and siblings to enhance development of more peaceful conflict resolution patterns within and outside the family. PMID:22203632

Hendy, Helen M; Burns, Mary K; Can, S Hakan; Scherer, Cory R

2012-07-01

262

Partners in Transition: The Transition Experience of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Queer Identified Partners of Transgender Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

While transgender individuals receive increasing attention in both academia and the social services, their partners remain a hidden population. This study was undertaken to examine the experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and queer identified partners of transgender men through the transition process. Nine subjects were interviewed. Major themes included the impact of transition on identity, community, caretaking, peer support, the relationship

Emily Joslin-Roher; Darrell P. Wheeler

2009-01-01

263

Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

2014-09-01

264

The Specification and Global Reprogramming of Histone Epigenetic Marks during Gamete Formation and Early Embryo Development in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

In addition to the DNA contributed by sperm and oocytes, embryos receive parent-specific epigenetic information that can include histone variants, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), and DNA methylation. However, a global view of how such marks are erased or retained during gamete formation and reprogrammed after fertilization is lacking. To focus on features conveyed by histones, we conducted a large-scale proteomic identification of histone variants and PTMs in sperm and mixed-stage embryo chromatin from C. elegans, a species that lacks conserved DNA methylation pathways. The fate of these histone marks was then tracked using immunostaining. Proteomic analysis found that sperm harbor ?2.4 fold lower levels of histone PTMs than embryos and revealed differences in classes of PTMs between sperm and embryos. Sperm chromatin repackaging involves the incorporation of the sperm-specific histone H2A variant HTAS-1, a widespread erasure of histone acetylation, and the retention of histone methylation at sites that mark the transcriptional history of chromatin domains during spermatogenesis. After fertilization, we show HTAS-1 and 6 histone PTM marks distinguish sperm and oocyte chromatin in the new embryo and characterize distinct paternal and maternal histone remodeling events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. These include the exchange of histone H2A that is marked by ubiquitination, retention of HTAS-1, removal of the H2A variant HTZ-1, and differential reprogramming of histone PTMs. This work identifies novel and conserved features of paternal chromatin that are specified during spermatogenesis and processed in the embryo. Furthermore, our results show that different species, even those with diverged DNA packaging and imprinting strategies, use conserved histone modification and removal mechanisms to reprogram epigenetic information. PMID:25299455

Samson, Mark; Jow, Margaret M.; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Aslanian, Aaron; Saucedo, Israel; Estrada, Rodrigo; Ito, Takashi; Park, Sung-kyu Robin; Yates, John R.; Chu, Diana S.

2014-01-01

265

Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars  

PubMed Central

Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

2014-01-01

266

Efficacy of partner notification for HIV infection.  

PubMed

Since 1985, partner notification has been part of Swedish policy to prevent the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Potentially infected partners of a newly diagnosed seropositive patient are notified either by the index patient or by the physician and referred for counselling. The efficacy of this strategy was assessed over 18 months in 1989-90. 365 HIV-seropositive index patients (91% of the 403 patients diagnosed in Sweden during the study period) reported 564 sexual or needle-sharing contacts. 390 contacts were located and counselled and HIV test results are known for 350 of them. In 53 of the 350 cases, previously unknown seropositivity was diagnosed. Partner notification for HIV should be viewed as a strategy to offer counselling and testing to a high-prevalence group of people. In a country where general HIV prevalence is low, the strategy is cost-effective for location and counselling of unknowingly seropositive individuals. PMID:1682542

Giesecke, J; Ramstedt, K; Granath, F; Ripa, T; Rådö, G; Westrell, M

1991-11-01

267

Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.  

PubMed

Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research. PMID:25540257

Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

2015-02-01

268

Life history of eNOS: partners and pathways.  

PubMed

The complex regulation of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) in cardiovascular physiology occurs at multiple stages. eNOS mRNA levels are controlled both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional phases, and epigenetic mechanisms appear to modulate tissue-specific eNOS expression. The eNOS enzyme reversibly associates with a diverse family of protein partners that regulate eNOS sub-cellular localization, catalytic function, and biological activity. eNOS enzyme activity and sub-cellular localization are intimately controlled by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, nitrosylation, and acylation. The multiple extra-cellular stimuli affecting eNOS function coordinate their efforts through these key modifications to dynamically control eNOS and NO bioactivity in the vessel wall. This review will focus on the biochemical partners and perturbations of the eNOS protein as this vital enzyme undergoes modulation by diverse signal transduction pathways in the vascular endothelium. PMID:17466957

Dudzinski, David M; Michel, Thomas

2007-07-15

269

Post-traumatic disorder symptoms and blunted diurnal cortisol production in partners of prostate cancer patients.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F(1,444.08) = 20.72, p<.001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (?(2) = 11.30, p = .01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F(1,419.64) = 5.10, p<.01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC. PMID:22222119

Thomas, Kamala S; Bower, Julienne E; Williamson, Timothy J; Hoyt, Michael A; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L; Irwin, Michael

2012-08-01

270

Post-traumatic Disorder Symptoms and Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Production in Partners of Prostate Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F (1, 444.08) = 20.72, p < .001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (?2= 11.30, p=.01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F (1, 419.64) = 5.10, p < .01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC. PMID:22222119

Thomas, KaMala S.; Bower, Julienne E.; Williamson, Timothy J.; Hoyt, Michael A.; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L.; Irwin, Michael

2012-01-01

271

Improvements in Partner Support Predict Sexual Satisfaction among Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sexual dysfunction and low sexual satisfaction are common among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), however, little is known about factors which influence sexual satisfaction within this population. As such, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which changes in negative and positive partner support predict sexual satisfaction levels over time in individuals with MS. Design Eighty-one individuals with MS completed measures of sexual dysfunction, sexual satisfaction, partner social support, and depression. Data from baseline and post-treatment follow-up were obtained from a larger randomized clinical trial of telephone-administered psychotherapy for depression in a population with MS. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with change in overall sexual satisfaction from baseline to post-treatment as the outcome variable. Results After controlling for age, gender, sexual dysfunction, years diagnosed with MS, and depression severity, those with increased positive partner support reported significant improvement in sexual satisfaction over time (? = 0.50, p < .001), as did individuals with decreased negative partner support (? = 0.36, p < .01). Conclusions Results provide evidence that both positive and negative partner support have a distinctive role in the outcome of sexual satisfaction for individuals with MS. Understanding the unique role of positive and negative forms of partner support on sexual satisfaction will help lead to future interventions to improve sexual satisfaction among couples. PMID:21574730

Blackmore, Danielle E.; Hart, Stacey L.; Albiani, Jenna J.; Mohr, David C.

2011-01-01

272

Disclosure of microbicide gel use to sexual partners: influence on adherence in the CAPRISA 004 trial.  

PubMed

Young women in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV, making the development of women initiated and controlled methods of prevention, including microbicides, a priority. Adherence is pivotal to microbicide efficacy and partner related factors are known to impact adherence. An analysis of disclosure of gel use to sexual partners and adherence in CAPRISA 004 women was conducted to better understand this relationship. Partner disclosure was significantly associated with a modest 4.2 % increased adherence (71.0 vs. 66.8 %, p = 0.03). Most women rated the experience of disclosure as positive, despite 6.7 % of partners expressing a negative reaction.Participants who disclosed were more likely to reside with their regular partner (14.4 vs. 8.4 %; p = 0.01) and reported consistent condom use at baseline (32.9 vs. 20.9 %; p < 0.01). Partner disclosure needs to be better understood as a potential facilitator or barrier to microbicide adherence. PMID:24633715

Mngadi, Kathryn Therese; Maarschalk, Silvia; Grobler, Anneke C; Mansoor, Leila E; Frohlich, Janet A; Madlala, Bernadette; Ngcobo, Nelisiwe; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

2014-05-01

273

Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood  

PubMed Central

The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

274

Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.  

PubMed

The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

2013-04-01

275

Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

2011-01-01

276

Librarians as Community Partners: An Outreach Handbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Including 66 focused snapshots of outreach in action, this resource reflects the creative solutions of librarians searching for new and innovative ways to build programs that meet customer needs while expanding the library's scope into the community. This contributed volume includes: (1) A huge array of program options for partnering with other…

Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

2010-01-01

277

The USGS Partners with Professional Beekeepers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Clint Otto, a research ecologist at the USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, partners with professional beekeepers in North Dakota to evaluate what plant species honey bees forage on and when.  Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use change...

278

Cohabiting Partners' Economic Circumstances and Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies of the transition to marriage generally have relied on information about only one individual or have attempted to measure characteristics of potential spouses indirectly. Drawing on data from the two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), we examine the effects of economic circumstances of both partners in cohabiting unions on the transition to marriage.

Pamela Smock; Wendy Manning

1997-01-01

279

Women's Response to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The responses of women to a situation of abuse by their partner has hardly been addressed in the literature. Using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, 400 women attending three practices in a primary health care center in Granada (Spain) were studied. The women's response to abuse was used as a dependent variable. Sociodemographics,…

Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Mata-Pariente, Nelva; Plazaola-Castano, Juncal

2006-01-01

280

The Forgotten Partner: The Superintendent's Husband.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female superintendents prize spouses who are emotionally secure and supportive and assist with household chores. Partners should communicate priorities, vacation together periodically, keep healthy, stay flexible, avoid guilt, establish family rituals, stay in frequent contact, respect each others' roles, and not strive for perfect balance. (MLH)

Staples, Judith; Neal, Christine

2000-01-01

281

Librarians work with other campus partners  

E-print Network

into teaching and research. Faculty & Instructors Guide to Information Literacy Services & Resources Your Partners in Information Literacy www.library.umass.edu/information-literacy FIND OUT MORE Find your subject literacy at UMass Amherst: www.library.umass.edu/information-literacy/ CONTACT US Isabel Espinal

Schweik, Charles M.

282

Sound Partners. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Sound Partners" (Vadasy et al., 2004) is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides supplemental reading instruction to elementary school students grades K-3 with below average reading skills. The program is designed specifically for use by tutors with minimal training and experience. Instruction emphasizes letter-sound correspondences,…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

283

Project Partners in Education: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report describes "Project Partners in Education", a Montgomery County (Pennsylvania) project, designed to create a corps of resource persons composed of parents and teachers who would be knowledgeable about the entire IEP (individualized educational plan) process; and to obtain data on the extent of actual IEP implementation on the…

Price, Marianne; And Others

284

Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…

1993

285

Infectiousness of HIV between male homosexual partners.  

PubMed

To estimate the risk of transmission of HIV per receptive anal sexual contact, 329 homosexually-active men, representing 155 sexual partnerships, were enrolled into a study. Information on HIV infection status and sexual behavior within and outside the primary relationship was collected. Of these 329 men, 24 had AIDS and 31 had ARC. Of the 155 couples, 35 consisted of partners that were both HIV +; 62 of partners that were both HIV-; and 58 were discordant. A binomial model was fit to data obtained in the first visit to estimate per contact risk of HIV transmission. Assuming a constant risk of transmission per sexual contact between infected and uninfected partners, the estimated risk is about 5 to 30 per 1000 receptive anal exposures to ejaculate. Although the average risk of HIV transmission per sexual contact appears to be low, there appears to be great variability in infectivity. To model this variability over time and across individuals, more complex models must be fit to longitudinal studies of sexual partners. PMID:2789269

DeGruttola, V; Seage, G R; Mayer, K H; Horsburgh, C R

1989-01-01

286

Partners in the Wildland-Urban Interface  

E-print Network

Partners in the Wildland-Urban Interface #12;Partnerships in Sustainable Tourism Development-interests and collective- interests in tourism development projects could help ensure that sustainable tourism occurs Resorts Inc. project, a four season resort complex with hotels, multifamily residential, 1 Presented

Standiford, Richard B.

287

Citizens and the Schools: Partners in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because most decisions that affect quality of schools are made in the community, citizens should become school partners in education. This booklet offers the following suggestions for citizen actions: (1) Get informed. As "owners" of the local school board, citizens have a right to know what students are expected to learn. Individuals should…

American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

288

PARTNER Project 8: Sonic boom mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current U.S. and international laws prohibit commercial supersonic flight over land due to the impact of conventional sonic boom noise. Aircraft manufacturers, however, now have modern computational fluid dynamics and optimization tools, unavailable when those laws were enacted, that will allow them to design and build aircraft with boom signatures that are substantially smoothed compared with traditional N-waves. One purpose of the FAA/NASA/Transport Canada PARTNER Center of Excellence Project 8 is to determine exactly which waveforms would be heard by the public if low-boom supersonic aircraft are put into service. Another purpose is to ascertain the acceptability of those waveforms. The project involves the following universities, government, and industry partners: Penn State, Purdue, Stanford, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, Boeing, Cessna, Gulfstream, Lockheed-Martin, and Wyle Laboratories. Some of the initial project work includes studies on the propagation of sonic booms through atmospheric turbulence, on the mutual reproducibility of three sonic boom simulators, and on the realism of those simulators as determined by expert listeners. The results of all the studies are intended to provide the FAA with new data to reassess current regulations. [Work supported by NASA, the FAA, and the PARTNER industrial partners.

Sparrow, Victor W.

2005-09-01

289

Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

2011-01-01

290

Risk Recognition and Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…

Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel

2010-01-01

291

Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

2009-01-01

292

Your partners in business education Entrepreneurship  

E-print Network

Your partners in business education Master in Entrepreneurship and Innovation ­ Master society, our flexible and curious minds, the Master in Entrepreneurship and Innovation helps mould the leaders of Luxembourg's future economy and beyond; a daunting yet necessary challenge. Two priorities

van der Torre, Leon

293

Intimate partner sexual aggression against Chinese women: a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. Methods The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Results Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had significantly more depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships has specific mental health consequences over and above those associated with physical violence. Assessment of partner violence in Chinese relationships should include screening for sexual aggression in order to provide appropriate interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials gov NCT01206192 PMID:24886374

2014-01-01

294

Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.  

PubMed

There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships. PMID:25402720

Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

2015-04-01

295

Cripto, a Multifunctional Partner in Signaling: Molecular Forms and Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Within a multicellular organism, communication between cells is essential during development to ensure proper execution of cell migration, cell fate decisions, and differentiation events. It is also essential in the adult for the coordination of many physiological functions. Cell-to-cell communications often rely on the interaction of cell surface receptors with soluble or membrane-bound ligands. Receptors or ligands may interact with additional partners to trigger specific signaling cascades inside the cell. In most cases, partners act in a specific configuration, either as a diffusible "co-ligand" or a membrane-bound co-receptor. Here, we examine the case of Cripto, a signaling molecule that has prominent functions during vertebrate development. Conflicting results have suggested that Cripto has the unusual capacity to act both as a secreted ligand and as a cell surface component to control a single signaling pathway. Here, we review the recent experiments that attempt to reconcile those results. Furthermore, three reports have described the fact that Cripto is modified by the addition of sugar residues, including a rare case of fucosylation. These modifications are essential for Cripto function, suggesting that, as is the case for other key developmental or physiological regulators such as Notch or selectins, the activity of Cripto may be controlled by the extent of its glycosylation or fucosylation (or both).

Frederic M. Rosa (Ecole Normale Superieure; Groupe Danio REV)

2002-11-12

296

Ants Use Partner Specific Odors to Learn to Recognize a Mutualistic Partner  

PubMed Central

Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants. PMID:24489690

Hojo, Masaru K.; Yamamoto, Ari; Akino, Toshiharu; Tsuji, Kazuki; Yamaoka, Ryohei

2014-01-01

297

Perceptions of Partner Drinking Problems, Regulation Strategies and Relationship Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The current research evaluates how perceptions of one’s partner’s drinking problem relate to attempts to regulate partner behavior and relationship functioning, and whether this varies by perceptions of one’s own drinking. New measures are offered for Thinking about your Partner’s Drinking (TPD) and Partner Management Strategies (PMS). Participants included 702 undergraduates who had been in a romantic relationship for at least three months. Participants completed an online survey assessing perceptions of problematic drinking for one’s self and partner, ways in which attempts were made to regulate or restrain their partner’s drinking, relationship outcomes (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, trust, and need fulfillment), and alcohol use and consequences for self and partner. Factor analyses supported a single factor for Thinking about your Partner’s Drinking (TPD) and two factors for the Partner Management Strategies (PMS) scale (i.e., punishment and reward). Results using structural equation modeling indicated that perceiving one’s partner to have a drinking problem was associated with lower relationship functioning. Further, this association was mediated by strategies using punishment aimed at changing one’s partner’s drinking, but was not mediated by strategies using rewards. Finally, moderation results suggested that this relationship was not as detrimental for participants who perceived they also had an alcohol problem. In sum, perceiving one’s partner to have a drinking problem was associated with relationship problems through punishing regulation strategies, and was weaker among individuals who also perceived themselves to have a drinking problem. PMID:24070719

Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-01-01

298

Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216

Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M

2013-02-01

299

Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women’s psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women’s severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women’s IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216

Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.

2012-01-01

300

Sea Urchin Embryology: Gametes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lab directions for part of one 50 min period (part of the core lab, can be done with fertilization in 50 minutes). Includes set up information, materials, procedure, things to observe, math possibilities, experiments to mimic environmental problems, thought-provoking questions and an assessment.

PhD David Epel (Stanford U. Hopkins Marine Station)

2006-12-19

301

Partner Violence and Psychosocial Distress among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. Findings: About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China. PMID:23626798

Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

2013-01-01

302

Efficiency of partner choice and sanctions in Lotus is not altered by nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic hosts must exhibit control mechanisms to select against ineffective bacterial symbionts. Hosts can minimize infection by less-effective symbionts (partner choice) and can divest of uncooperative bacteria after infection (sanctions). Yet, such host-control traits are predicted to be context dependent, especially if they are costly for hosts to express or maintain. Legumes form symbiosis with rhizobia that vary in symbiotic effectiveness (nitrogen fixation) and can enforce partner choice as well as sanctions. In nature, legumes acquire fixed nitrogen from both rhizobia and soils, and nitrogen deposition is rapidly enriching soils globally. If soil nitrogen is abundant, we predict host control to be downregulated, potentially allowing invasion of ineffective symbionts. We experimentally manipulated soil nitrogen to examine context dependence in host control. We co-inoculated Lotus strigosus from nitrogen depauperate soils with pairs of Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness and fertilized plants with either zero nitrogen or growth maximizing nitrogen. We found efficient partner choice and sanctions regardless of nitrogen fertilization, symbiotic partner combination or growth season. Strikingly, host control was efficient even when L. strigosus gained no significant benefit from rhizobial infection, suggesting that these traits are resilient to short-term changes in extrinsic nitrogen, whether natural or anthropogenic. PMID:24573843

Regus, John U; Gano, Kelsey A; Hollowell, Amanda C; Sachs, Joel L

2014-04-22

303

Microtus oeconomus (Rodentia), a useful mammal for studying the induction of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid gametes in male germ cells.  

PubMed Central

Preliminary data indicate that chemicals can also increase the frequency of sex-chromosome nondisjunction. Positive results--which certainly need further confirmation--have been obtained for MMS, p-fluorophenylalanine, vincristine, procarbazine, carbendazim, and bleomycin. Nocodazole, benomyl, colcemic, 6-mercaptopurine, and halothane were all negative at the concentrations tested. For the induction of diploid spermatids positive results were only obtained for MMS and parafluorophenylalanine. In view of the results obtained, the Microtus system is considered a very useful tool for analyzing factors contributing to the high frequency of aneuploidy and triploidy among abortuses and of aneuploidy in liveborn infants of men. A method is described for the detection of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid spermatids in male germ cells of the field vole Microtus oeconomus. The method is based on the unique distribution pattern of heterochromatin in Microtus cells, which makes it possible to identify X and Y chromosomes in early spermatids with a simple C-banding procedure. Slide preparation is easy. Scoring of early spermatids for extra sex-chromosomes is simple and 2000-4000 cells per hour can be examined. With the Microtus system it has now been demonstrated that radiation of spermatocyte stages with doses of 50, 100 and 200 R results in a higher frequency of sex chromosome nondisjunction and of diploid gametes. Both types of aberrant gametes can be produced during the first and second meiotic division. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:387396

Tates, A D

1979-01-01

304

77 FR 100 - Caledonia Energy Partners, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-33-000] Caledonia Energy Partners, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 16, 2011, Caledonia Energy Partners, LLC (Caledonia), 20329 Highway 249, Suite 400,...

2012-01-03

305

77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth...

2012-12-31

306

Genetic Control of Hotspots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the exception of identical twins, individuals have different genetic makeup, which results from two key processes. During meiosis, maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes assort randomly to form daughter cells (gametes), thus generating different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Additional variation is generated by recombinations or crossovers, in which parts of homologous chromosomes are exchanged, resulting in a new combination of parental alleles. Parvanov et al., Baudat et al., and Myers et al. report the identification of a mammalian geneâÂÂPR domain containing 9 (PRDM9)âÂÂthat controls the extent to which crossovers occur in preferred chromosomal locations, known as "hotspots."

Vivian Cheung (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics); Stephanie Sherman (Emory University;Department of Human Genetics); Eleanor Feingold (University of Pittsburgh;)

2010-02-12

307

Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

2010-07-01

308

Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

2010-05-01

309

Geographic concentration of violence between intimate partners.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To explore geographic patterns of violence between intimate partners in a metropolitan area with one of the highest injury mortality rates in the nation-Duval County, Florida, which includes the city of Jacksonville. METHODS: Using police reports of all serious violent incidents in Duval County in 1992 excluding robberies, the authors analyzed patterns in the location of the incidents. Only cases for which the relationship between the offender and victim was recorded were used. RESULTS: Thematic maps reveal that census tracts with rates above the 75th percentile of assaultive violence between intimates are clustered in certain parts of the city. Concentrated poverty tracts had median rates of violence between intimate nine times higher than other tracts. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that violence between intimate partners is concentrated in central city poverty neighborhoods opens up avenues for prevention. PMID:9071275

Miles-Doan, R; Kelly, S

1997-01-01

310

The evolution of intimate partner violence David M. Buss a,  

E-print Network

The evolution of intimate partner violence David M. Buss a, , Joshua D. Duntley b a University April 2011 Available online 21 April 2011 Keywords: Evolution Intimate partner violence Infidelity Mate reacquisition. Discussion focuses on the context-dependence of intimate partner violence, the costs

Pillow, Jonathan

311

16Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Insights from the Science of  

E-print Network

271 16Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Insights from the Science of Self-Regulation ElI J. FInkEl Contents Introduction 272 Incidence Rates, Gender, and Two Forms of Intimate Partner Violence 273 Prominent Theoretical Perspectives on Intimate Partner Violence 274 The I3 Model of Intimate

Reber, Paul J.

312

Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility among Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…

Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

2008-01-01

313

Women's experience of intimate partner violence in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined individual, partner, and community characteristics associated with the occurrence of intimate partner violence among ever-married women of reproductive age, using data from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Separate logistic regressions were analyzed to assess women's risks of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual violence and multiple forms of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months.

Anastasia J. Gage

2005-01-01

314

The Psychology of Women's Partner Violence: Characteristics and Cautions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of research on women's partner violence as well as the literature that investigates the developmental pathway to women's aggressive behavior. While women are known to commit partner violence toward their male partners, the prevalence and motivations for such behavior is still debated. Evidence that finds gender symmetry is reviewed and alternative literature discussed. Research challenging

Nicola Graham-Kevan

2009-01-01

315

Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

2012-01-01

316

Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner

Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

2012-01-01

317

Supersymmetric partners of the truncated harmonic oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First and second order supersymmetric transformations are applied to the truncated harmonic oscillator to generate new Hamiltonians with known spectra. We also study the effect of these transformations on the eigenfunctions of the initial Hamiltonian. Finally the link between first and the second order supersymmetric partners of the truncated harmonic oscillator which possess third-order differential ladder operators with the Painlevé IV equation is used to obtain several solutions of this non-linear second-order differential equation.

Fernández C, David J.; Morales-Salgado, V. S.

2014-05-01

318

A watershed blueprint: Partners work together  

E-print Network

txH2O | pg. 18 A watershed blueprint Partners work together to restore Arroyo Colorado?s health In 2002 the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) set a target of 90 percent reduction of nutrients and biochemical oxygen demand...; and collaborations between local, state, and federal governmental agencies to help restore the watershed. To guide these efforts, the Arroyo Colorado Watershed Partnership (ACWP) was established in 2003. The partnership is made up of more than 700 people...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

319

Editor's Note: Plants and Their Partners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants are a ubiquitous piece of the elementary science curriculum. By the time they reach middle school, students have often grown enough bean seeds to feed a small city. Often these lessons don't "grow" deeper ideas from the basic observations of plant germination. To cultivate your students' understanding of plants, this month's column sheds light on a selection of engaging activities in this issue, which is devoted to the theme, "Plants and their Partners."

Ohana, Chris

2009-02-01

320

African American Men and Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on interviews with African American males in violent intimate relationships, this paper focuses on individual causes\\u000a (exposure to violence), cultural causes (constructions of masculinity) and structural causes (unemployment and incarceration)\\u000a of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American men. IPV is “triggered” by two threats to masculinity, though I\\u000a focus exclusively on the first trigger (breadwinning). The analyses are

Earl Smith

2008-01-01

321

Problem Gambling and Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) among 248 problem gamblers (43 women, 205\\u000a men) recruited from newspaper advertisements. The main outcome measures used were the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, the\\u000a Conflicts Tactics Scale-2, the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the drug and alcohol section of the Addiction Severity\\u000a Index and the substance use section

Lorne M. Korman; Jane Collins; Don Dutton; Bramilee Dhayananthan; Nina Littman-Sharp; Wayne Skinner

2008-01-01

322

Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

2007-01-01

323

The Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence And Unintended Pregnancy: Analysis of a National Sample From Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Data from the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey for Colombia were used in multivariate logistic re- gressions to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy, which was in- cluded as a measure of fertility control. Regional differences in the relationship were also explored, and population- attributable risk estimates were calculated. The sample consisted of 3,431 ever-married

2004-01-01

324

Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control

Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

2010-01-01

325

Partner time sharing at the Submillimeter Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Submillimeter Array (SMA) is an 8-element interferometer which operates in the 180-700 GHz range located atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. It is a collaborative project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA) and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The University of Hawaii (UH) receives a fixed percentage of all time on the telescopes of Mauna Kea. As such, the observing time at the SMA is shared among these partners at the SAO:ASIAA:UH levels of 72:15:13. The nature of interferometric observing makes keeping track of these partner shares challenging. Since a typical successful interferometric observation could last anywhere from 3-10 hours for it to have sufficient uv-coverage, it does not necessarily make sense to divide the observing time up simply by counting hours. In this talk I will summarize the strategy devised at the SMA for keeping track of partner time shares as well as the tools used to make these numbers transparent to all affiliations.

Petitpas, Glen; Zhang, Qizhou; Katz, Charles; Patel, Nimesh; Blundell, Raymond

2010-07-01

326

Do aphids actively search for ant partners?  

PubMed

The aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbor ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants' services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially toward ant-frequented plants. However, our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies. PMID:24659520

Fischer, Christophe Y; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges C; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, François J

2014-03-21

327

Intimate partner violence against female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.  

PubMed

Female sex workers are known to be at risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) from numerous sources including clients, pimps, boyfriends and husbands. Better understanding the factors associated with IPV in this population will enhance prevention efforts. This work examines baseline survey data collected as part of a randomised controlled trial for an alcohol-harm reduction intervention. The study sample included 619 sex workers. IPV was common in this sample, with 78.7% of women reporting any IPV in the last 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that supporting one to two other people, experiencing child abuse, witnessing mother abuse, and greater alcohol consumption were risk factors for IPV in our sample. Women who frequented Population, Health and Integrated Assistance (APHIA) II drop-in centres located along transport corridors were also at greater risk of recent IPV, as compared with those who frequented other drop-in centres. Only one protective effect was identified in this study: condom use at last sex with a non-paying partner was associated with less recent IPV. Health programmes for women sex workers in Mombasa and elsewhere need to expand beyond HIV prevention - they need to incorporate information on violence prevention and treatment referrals, as well as information on alcohol harm reduction. PMID:24329103

Pack, Allison P; L'engle, Kelly; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki

2013-12-11

328

Intimate partner violence: IPV in the LGBT community.  

PubMed

Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263

Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

2013-09-01

329

HIV prevention and the two faces of partner notification.  

PubMed Central

In the cases of medical patients with sexually transmitted diseases (particularly those with the human immunodeficiency virus), two distinct approaches exist to notifying sexual and/or needle-sharing partners of possible risk. Each approach has its own history (including unique practical problems of implementation) and provokes its own ethical dilemmas. The first approach--the moral "duty to warn"--arose out of clinical situations in which a physician knew the identity of a person deemed to be at risk. The second approach--that of contact tracing--emerged from sexually transmitted disease control programs in which the clinician typically did not know the identity of those who might have been exposed. Confusion between the two approaches has led many to mistake processes that are fundamentally voluntary as mandatory and those that respect confidentiality as invasive of privacy. In the context of the AIDS epidemic and the vicissitudes of the two approaches, we describe the complex problems of partner notification and underscore the ethical and political contexts within which policy decisions have been made. PMID:1304728

Bayer, R; Toomey, K E

1992-01-01

330

ECHO Data Partners Join Forces to Federate Access to Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past year the NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project has been collaborating with various Earth science data and client providers to design and implement the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). ECHO is an open, interoperable metadata clearinghouse and order broker system. ECHO functions as a repository of information intended to streamline access to digital data and services provided by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the extended Earth science community. In a unique partnership, ECHO data providers are working to extend their services in the digital era, to reflect current trends in scientific and educational communications. The multi-organization, inter-disciplinary content of ECHO provides a valuable new service to a growing number of Earth science applications and interdisciplinary research efforts. As such, ECHO is expected to attract a wide audience. In this poster, we highlight the contributions of current ECHO data partners and provide information for prospective data partners on how the project supports the incorporation of new collections and effective long-term asset management that is directly under the control of the organizations who contribute resources to ECHO.

Kendall, J.; Macie, M.

2003-12-01

331

Intimate partner violence and partner notification of sexually transmitted infections among adolescent and young adult family planning clinic patients.  

PubMed

Patient-initiated partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI), i.e. patients informing their sexual partners of a diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner notification, and experiences of partner notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Women aged 16-29 years attending five family planning clinics in Northern California, USA (n = 1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. A history of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say that it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to partner notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Current findings suggest that partner notification for STI may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification. PMID:21680673

Decker, M R; Miller, E; McCauley, H L; Tancredi, D J; Levenson, R R; Waldman, J; Schoenwald, P; Silverman, J G

2011-06-01

332

The influences of partner accuracy and partner memory ability on social false memories.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined whether increasing the proportion of false information suggested by a confederate would influence the magnitude of socially introduced false memories in the social contagion paradigm Roediger, Meade, & Bergman (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8:365-371, 2001). One participant and one confederate collaboratively recalled items from previously studied household scenes. During collaboration, the confederate interjected 0 %, 33 %, 66 %, or 100 % false items. On subsequent individual-recall tests across three experiments, participants were just as likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from a partner who was mostly accurate (33 % incorrect) as they were from a partner who was not at all accurate (100 % incorrect). Even when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a related memory task, they were still as likely to incorporate the confederate's entirely misleading suggestions on subsequent recall and recognition tests (Exp. 2). Only when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a practice test of the experimental task itself were they able to reduce false memory, and this reduction occurred selectively on a subsequent individual recognition test (Exp. 3). These data demonstrate that participants do not always consider their partners' memory ability when working on collaborative memory tasks. PMID:25035186

Numbers, Katya T; Meade, Michelle L; Perga, Vladimir A

2014-11-01

333

Partner switching can favour cooperation in a biological market.  

PubMed

Intraspecific cooperation and interspecific mutualisms can be promoted by mechanisms that reduce the frequency with which cooperative organisms are exploited by unhelpful partners. One such mechanism consists of changing partners after interacting with an uncooperative individual. I used McNamara et al.'s (Nature, 451, 2008, 189) partner switching model as a framework to examine whether this mechanism can select for increased cooperative investment by house sparrows (Passer domesticus) collaborating to rear offspring; previous research on this species has shown that substantial cooperative investments by both pair members are required to achieve high pay-offs from collaborating. I found that the poorer the outcome of a breeding attempt relative to the number of eggs the female invested, the greater the likelihood of partner switching. The incidence of partner switching changed seasonally, with peak switching coinciding with an increase in the number of alternative partners available to females. After females switched partners, their breeding outcomes rose to match those of females that remained with the same partner; this was not the case for males that switched partners. Consistent with the model's prediction, males in stable partnerships achieved over 25% higher than average reproductive success, which was attributable to both persistently good breeding outcomes and their older partners' high fecundity. These results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that partner switching favours increased cooperative investment levels, and they demonstrate that variation in the relative value of by-product benefits can enhance that process. PMID:25056721

Schwagmeyer, P L

2014-09-01

334

Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Using Men: Associations by Partner Type and Partner Serostatus  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners. PMID:16736116

Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.

2006-01-01

335

Predictors of male partner treatment for sexually transmitted infection  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-initiated notification is a commonly used practice for notifying sex partners of possible exposure to a sexually transmitted infection (STI), yet 46% to 75% of partners are never treated. The Contraceptive CHOICE Project (CHOICE) is a longitudinal cohort study of women that provides no-cost contraception, STI testing, treatment to participants, and free partner treatment. Our objective was to evaluate characteristics of women who tested positive for chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis, and their association with successful partner treatment. Methods We analyzed baseline survey and STI testing, notification, and treatment data from the first 5,087 participants enrolled in CHOICE. We considered “treated partners” to be men who received antibiotic treatment at the study clinic or by a prescription through the study. Independent predictors of successful partner treatment were identified using univariate analysis and multivariable analysis using Poisson regression with robust error variance. Results Forty-four percent of male partners were successfully treated. Women whose partners were less likely to obtain treatment were black (RRadj=0.6; 95% CI: 0.5–0.8) or reported some concern about future STI with the partner (RRadj=0.6; 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8). Women whose partners were more likely to receive treatment were living with their partner (RRadj=1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.8) or reported recent inconsistent condom use (RRadj=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1–2.1). Conclusions The male partner treatment rate resulting from female patient-initiated partner notification in our study was low. Our findings highlight the need to develop novel notification interventions that yield higher partner treatment rates and consider patient-specific factors, such as race and relationship status. PMID:23001263

Secura, Gina M.; Desir, Fidel A.; Mullersman, Jennifer L.; Madden, Tessa; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

2012-01-01

336

Chiral Partners in a Chirally Broken World  

E-print Network

The isovector--vector and the isovector--axial-vector current are related by a chiral transformation. These currents can be called chiral partners at the fundamental level. In a world where chiral symmetry was not broken, the corresponding current-current correlators would show the same spectral information. In the real world chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. A prominent peak -- the rho-meson -- shows up in the vector spectrum (measured in (e^+ e^-)-collisions and tau-decays). On the other hand, in the axial-vector spectrum a broad bump appears -- the a_1-meson (also accessible in tau-decays). It is tempting to call rho and a_1 chiral partners at the hadronic level. Strong indications are brought forward that these ``chiral partners'' do not only differ in mass but even in their nature: The rho-meson appears dominantly as a quark-antiquark state with small modifications from an attractive pion-pion interaction. The a_1-meson, on the other hand, can be understood as a meson-molecule state mainly formed by the attractive interaction between pion and rho-meson. A key issue here is that the meson-meson interactions are fixed by chiral symmetry breaking. It is demonstrated that one can understand the vector and the axial-vector spectrum very well within this interpretation. It is also shown that the opposite cases, namely rho as a pion-pion molecule or a_1 as a quark-antiquark state lead to less satisfying results. Finally speculations on possible in-medium changes of hadron properties are presented.

Stefan Leupold; Markus Wagner

2008-07-15

337

Lesbian mothering in the context of intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Twenty-four lesbian mothers (12 African American, 9 White, and 3 Latina) who had experienced physical abuse by a same-sex partner were interviewed. Three types of IPV were found: intimate terrorism, situational violence, and mutual violent control. Further, relationships between mothers/abusers, mothers/children, and abusers/children were examined. Regarding relationships with abusers, 71% of mothers reported lengthy sagas, 17% had worked it out, and 13% made a clean break from the abuser. Regarding relationships with their children, 48% of mothers hid the violence, 26% minimized it, and 26% openly communicated about the situation. Relationships between abusers and the mothers' children were found to be either co-parental (29%), playmate (21%), abusive (21%), or non-parental (21%). Correlations among relational and demographic variables were also examined. PMID:19042732

Hardesty, Jennifer L; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Khaw, Lyndal; Fonseca, Carol; Chung, Grace H

2008-01-01

338

Partners in Science Education: SOFIA EPO Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a unique opportunity for education and public outreach (EPO) as the first research observatory designed to include by educators, journalists and others in research missions. The EPO program will include formal K-12 and undergraduate educational activities, informal education, public outreach, and media relations. SOFIA will carry educators on science flights, enabling them to partner with scientists and see science in action. Up to 200 formal and informal educators will participate in the SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program each year. The AAAs will be sustained as a national network via continued communications and material support from the observatory's EPO program office, and will constitute a wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. Scientists, engineers, and other members of the SOFIA team will partner with local teachers and visit their classrooms as a part of the SOFIA Education Partners Program. Trained via the Project ASTRO network of astronomy education sites, SOFIA team members will work with teachrs and students to forge long-lasting science education partnerships. Participating educators may fly onboard SOFIA with their scientist partners. The professors and instructors at community colleges, small colleges, and minority serving institutions teach astronomy in general education courses that include the majority of future K-12 teachers. SOFIA EPO will provide an opportunity for this important segment of the college/university faculty plus staff of science and technology centers and planetaria to learn about research astronomy through summer workshops at the observatory. Participants will be encouraged to develop partnerships with SOFIA-affiliated scientists and participate in research flights. SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by USRA. The EPO program is being developed and will be operated jointly by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and SETI Institute. For more information please contact the SOFIA EPO program director, Dr. Dana Backman: dbackman@mail.arc.nasa.gov

Backman, D.; DeVore, E.; Bennett, M.

2003-05-01

339

AMIA 2006 Partners in Innovation - Submission  

PubMed Central

The Health Solutions Life Sciences division within Northrop Grumman Information Technology is partnering with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and their Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT) to develop a bioinformatics resource to promote collaborative research activities among DAIT-funded basic and clinical research scientists. Titled the Bioinformatics Integration Support Contract (BISC) project, this joint venture is delivering an Internet (Web-based) solution, known as the Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort), http://www.immport.org.

2006-01-01

340

Intimate Partner Violence and Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Interventions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. Objective The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Methods Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. Results We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92). Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. Conclusions and implications Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect of certain interventions and clarify which interventions should be adopted in the perinatal care context. PMID:24482679

Van Parys, An-Sofie; Verhamme, Annelien; Temmerman, Marleen; Verstraelen, Hans

2014-01-01

341

Environmental concentrations of irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor induce deleterious effects on gametes and embryos of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

Irgarol and diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replace organotin compounds in antifouling paints, and metolachlor is one of the most extensively used chloroacetamide herbicides in agriculture. The toxicity of S-metolachlor, irgarol and diuron was evaluated in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes or embryos exposed to concentrations of pesticides ranging from 0.1× to 1000×, with 1× corresponding to environmental concentrations of the three studied pesticides in Arcachon Bay (France). Exposures were performed on (1) spermatozoa alone (2) oocytes alone and (3) both spermatozoa and oocytes, and adverse effects on fertilization success and offspring development were recorded. The results showed that the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was significantly affected after gamete exposure to pesticide concentrations as low as 1× of irgarol and diuron and 10× of metolachlor. The offspring obtained from pesticide-exposed spermatozoa displayed a dose-dependent increase in developmental abnormalities. In contrast, treating oocytes with pesticide concentrations up to 10× did not alter fertilization rate and offspring quality. However, a significant decline in fertilization success and increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence were observed at higher concentrations 10× (0.1 ?g L(-1)) for S-metolachlor and 100× for irgarol (1.0 ?g L(-1)) and diuron (4.0 ?g L(-1)). Irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor also induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence when freshly fertilized embryos were treated with pesticide concentrations as low as concentration of 1× (0.01 ?g L(-1) for irgarol or S-metolachlor, and 0.04 ?g L(-1) for diuron). The two bioassays on C. gigas spermatozoa and embryos displayed similar sensitivities to the studied pesticides while oocytes were less sensitive. Diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor induced spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations and therefore might be a threat to oyster recruitment in coastal areas facing chronic inputs of pesticides. PMID:23727205

Mai, Huong; Morin, Bénédicte; Pardon, Patrick; Gonzalez, Patrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme

2013-08-01

342

Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

2011-11-01

343

For better or worse: reduced adult lifespan following early-life stress is transmitted to breeding partners  

PubMed Central

Stressful conditions early in life can give rise to exaggerated stress responses, which, while beneficial in the short term, chronically increase lifetime exposure to stress hormones and elevate disease risk later in life. Using zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we show here that individuals whose glucocorticoid stress hormones were experimentally increased for only a brief period in early post-natal life, inducing increased stress sensitivity, had reduced adult lifespans. Remarkably, the breeding partners of such exposed individuals also died at a younger age. This negative effect on partner longevity was the same for both sexes; it occurred irrespective of the partner's own early stress exposure and was in addition to any longevity reduction arising from this. Furthermore, this partner effect continued even after the breeding partnership was terminated. Only 5 per cent of control birds with control partners had died after 3 years, compared with over 40 per cent in early stress–early stress pairs. In contrast, reproductive capability appeared unaffected by the early stress treatment, even when breeding in stressful environmental circumstances. Our results clearly show that increased exposure to glucocorticoids early in life can markedly reduce adult life expectancy, and that pairing with such exposed partners carries an additional and substantial lifespan penalty. PMID:21849320

Monaghan, Pat; Heidinger, Britt J.; D'Alba, Liliana; Evans, Neil P.; Spencer, Karen A.

2012-01-01

344

King's Health Partners Clinical Trials Office Supporting Clinical Research in King's Health Partners  

E-print Network

King's Health Partners Clinical Trials Office Supporting Clinical Research in King's Health are we? Used to be called Joint Clinical Trials Office (JCTO) A department of King's College London · JDP to KHP-CTO Board CTIMP Clinical Trial of an Investigational Medicinal Product Regulated: · EU Directives

Applebaum, David

345

Partners in adversity. IV. Coping and mood.  

PubMed

This paper presents details of an interviewer-based measure of coping, completed in the context of a study examining the mental health of three groups of married women following their exposure to recent severe adversity. For one group a marital partner had recently died and for another group a marital partner had recently experienced a myocardial infarction. The third group consisted of those women recently entering a Women's Aid refuge. Initial interviews were completed about 6 weeks following event experience. Coping and mood state were re-assessed about 4 months after the events that had recruited the samples to the study. The measures of coping response were adapted from the coping domains of 'fighting spirit', 'helplessness', 'fatalism', 'avoidance' and 'anger/frustration' assessed in the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. Details are provided of the construction of a summary measure of coping response based upon the above domains and of its relationship with follow-up mood state after allowance for mood levels at initial interview. PMID:8043617

Surtees, P G; Miller, P M

1994-01-01

346

Polycystins and partners: proposed role in mechanosensitivity.  

PubMed

Mutations of the two polycystins, PC1 and PC2, lead to polycystic kidney disease. Polycystins are able to form complexes with numerous families of proteins that have been suggested to participate in mechanical sensing. The proposed role of polycystins and their partners in the kidney primary cilium is to sense urine flow. A role for polycystins in mechanosensing has also been shown in other cell types such as vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes. At the plasma membrane, polycystins interact with diverse ion channels of the TRP family and with stretch-activated channels (Piezos, TREKs). The actin cytoskeleton and its interacting proteins, such as filamin A, have been shown to be essential for these interactions. Numerous proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix junctions interact with PC1 and/or PC2. These multimeric protein complexes are important for cell structure integrity, the transmission of force, as well as for mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. A group of polycystin partners are also involved in subcellular trafficking mechanisms. Finally, PC1 and especially PC2 interact with elements of the endoplasmic reticulum and are essential components of calcium homeostasis. In conclusion, we propose that both PC1 and PC2 act as conductors to tune the overall cellular mechanosensitivity. PMID:24687583

Retailleau, Kevin; Duprat, Fabrice

2014-06-15

347

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

348

Evolution of equal division among unequal partners.  

PubMed

One of the hallmarks of human fairness is its insensitivity to power: although strong individuals are often in a position to coerce weak individuals, fairness requires them to share the benefits of cooperation equally. The existence of such egalitarianism is poorly explained by current evolutionary models. We present a model based on cooperation and partner choice that can account for the emergence of a psychological disposition toward fairness, whatever the balance of power between the cooperative partners. We model the evolution of the division of a benefit in an interaction similar to an ultimatum game, in a population made up of individuals of variable strength. The model shows that strong individuals will not receive any advantage from their strength, instead having to share the benefits of cooperation equally with weak individuals at the evolutionary equilibrium, a result that is robust to variations in population size and the proportion of weak individuals. We discuss how this model suggests an explanation for why egalitarian behaviors toward everyone, including the weak, should be more likely to evolve in humans than in any other species. PMID:25522195

Debove, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas; André, Jean-Baptiste

2015-02-01

349

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

PubMed Central

Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442

McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli

2009-01-01

350

Viral Linkage in HIV-1 Seroconverters and Their Partners in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ?50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%). Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters. Conclusions/Significance In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage determination process. PMID:21399681

Campbell, Mary S.; Mullins, James I.; Hughes, James P.; Celum, Connie; Wong, Kim G.; Raugi, Dana N.; Sorensen, Stefanie; Stoddard, Julia N.; Zhao, Hong; Deng, Wenjie; Kahle, Erin; Panteleeff, Dana; Baeten, Jared M.; McCutchan, Francine E.; Albert, Jan; Leitner, Thomas; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Lingappa, Jairam R.

2011-01-01

351

Daily reports of intimate partner verbal aggression by self and partner: Short-term consequences and implications for measurement  

PubMed Central

Objective Agreement within couples regarding the occurrence of aggression is surprisingly low. Survey research often collapses across partners’ reports to create a pooled estimate of aggression in the relationship. This method ignores possible differences in partners’ perceptions of the event, potentially weakening researchers’ ability to detect consequences of aggression. The current study examines both partners’ reports of verbal aggression to determine whether aggression reported by only one partner influences both partners’ short-term outcomes. Methods We used a 56-day daily diary to examine the effect of verbal aggression on short-term negative outcomes. We examined whether aggression reported by either partner is sufficient to predict consequences for both partners, or if an individual must report aggression to experience consequences. Results Victims’ reports of receiving verbal aggression were a better predictor of next day victim consequences than perpetrators’ reports. Perpetrators’ reports of perpetrating verbal aggression were a better predictor of next day perpetrator consequences than victims’ reports. Days when partners agreed that aggression had occurred generally predicted the worst outcomes. Conclusions People’s own reports of verbal aggression are the best predictor of short-term consequences. Pooling partner reports of aggression may make it more difficult to understand the consequences of intimate partner aggression. PMID:25346861

Derrick, Jaye L.; Testa, Maria; Leonard, Kenneth E.

2014-01-01

352

Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract–level, couples’ perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of couples 18 years of age and older who were first interviewed in 1995. The path analysis shows that poverty is associated with perceived social cohesion and perceived social control as hypothesized. However, there is no significant mediation effect for social control or social cohesion on any type of violence. In the path analysis, Black ethnicity is associated with social cohesion, which is associated with MFPV. Intimate partner violence (IPV), as a form of domestic violence, may not be as concentrated in high-poverty neighborhoods as criminal violence. IPV may be more determined by personal and dyadic characteristics than criminal violence. PMID:20040713

Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

2010-01-01

353

Mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse: a multidimensional assessment of four different forms of abuse.  

PubMed

Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

Mechanic, Mindy B; Weaver, Terri L; Resick, Patricia A

2008-06-01

354

Partner switching stabilizes cooperation in coevolutionary prisoner's dilemma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies suggest that cooperation prevails when individuals can switch their interaction partners quickly. However, it is still unclear how quickly individuals should switch adverse partners to maximize cooperation. To address this issue, we propose a simple model of coevolutionary prisoner’s dilemma in which individuals are allowed to either adjust their strategies or switch their defective partners. Interestingly, we find that, depending on the game parameter, there is an optimal tendency of switching adverse partnerships that maximizes the fraction of cooperators in the population. We confirm that the stabilization of cooperation by partner switching remains effective under some situations, where either normalized or accumulated payoff is used in strategy updating, and where either only cooperators or all individuals are privileged to sever disadvantageous partners. We also provide an extended pair approximation to study the coevolutionary dynamics. Our results may be helpful in understanding the role of partner switching in the stabilization of cooperation in the real world.

Fu, Feng; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

2009-03-01

355

Experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons  

PubMed Central

This study explores the intimate relationship experiences of cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners’ self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified. PMID:23668602

Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L.

2013-01-01

356

Michigan Tech Career Services Partners If you see any of our Career Services Partners at this year's fair, stop by and say "Thanks!"  

E-print Network

Michigan Tech Career Services Partners If you see any of our Career Services Partners at this year's fair, stop by and say "Thanks!" For more information about the Career Services Partners Program contact

357

Addressing intimate partner violence in substance-abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of partner-involved therapies for alcoholism and drug abuse become more common in substance-abuse treatment programs, providers are more frequently encountering one of the most challenging and politically charged public health issues of our time: intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent investigations reveal 40–60% of married or cohabiting substance-abusing patients report episodes of partner aggression in the year preceding

William Fals-Stewart; Cheryl Kennedy

2005-01-01

358

Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program"  

E-print Network

Tele- communications with the installation and maintenance of transmitter sites. Public Affairs. Provide media and creative advertising revisions, and serve as liaison with the advertising agency and area printers and promotional materials...

Cook, J. D.

1994-01-01

359

Employment status and intimate partner violence among mexican women.  

PubMed

Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide. PMID:25031103

Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

2015-04-01

360

Individual and Partner Correlates of Sexual Satisfaction and Relationship Happiness in Midlife Couples: Dyadic Analysis of the International Survey of Relationships.  

PubMed

The current research reports a dyadic analysis of sexual satisfaction, relationship happiness, and correlates of these couple outcomes in a large multinational dataset consisting of 1,009 midlife heterosexual couples (2,018 individuals) recruited in Japan, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the United States (Heiman et al., 2011). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) identified correlates of sexual satisfaction that included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness. Even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' sexual satisfaction. Correlates of relationship happiness included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater sexual satisfaction, and once again, even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of each of these correlates contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' relationship happiness. Interactions of individual and partner effects with participant gender are also reported. Current results demonstrate empirically that the partner "matters" to an individual's sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness and indicate that a comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to these couple outcomes requires a couple-level research strategy. Partner effects, even when controlling for individual effects, were consistently observed, and explanation of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness always depended on identifying and understanding mutual and concurrent individual and partner influences. PMID:25370356

Fisher, William A; Donahue, Kelly L; Long, J Scott; Heiman, Julia R; Rosen, Raymond C; Sand, Michael S

2014-11-01

361

Campaigns targeting perpetrators of intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence. PMID:21908438

Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M

2011-10-01

362

Qualitative exploration of cognition in intimate partner violence offenders and intimate partner violence sex offenders research portfolio   

E-print Network

Aims: Recently, empirical literature exploring cognitive characteristics of intimate partner violence offenders has received considerable attention with both theory and practice historically focusing on victims of the ...

Weldon, Sarah Elizabeth

2013-11-29

363

Partner choice and fidelity stabilize coevolution in a Cretaceous-age defensive symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Many insects rely on symbiotic microbes for survival, growth, or reproduction. Over evolutionary timescales, the association with intracellular symbionts is stabilized by partner fidelity through strictly vertical symbiont transmission, resulting in congruent host and symbiont phylogenies. However, little is known about how symbioses with extracellular symbionts, representing the majority of insect-associated microorganisms, evolve and remain stable despite opportunities for horizontal exchange and de novo acquisition of symbionts from the environment. Here we demonstrate that host control over symbiont transmission (partner choice) reinforces partner fidelity between solitary wasps and antibiotic-producing bacteria and thereby stabilizes this Cretaceous-age defensive mutualism. Phylogenetic analyses show that three genera of beewolf wasps (Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus) cultivate a distinct clade of Streptomyces bacteria for protection against pathogenic fungi. The symbionts were acquired from a soil-dwelling ancestor at least 68 million years ago, and vertical transmission via the brood cell and the cocoon surface resulted in host–symbiont codiversification. However, the external mode of transmission also provides opportunities for horizontal transfer, and beewolf species have indeed exchanged symbiont strains, possibly through predation or nest reuse. Experimental infection with nonnative bacteria reveals that—despite successful colonization of the antennal gland reservoirs—transmission to the cocoon is selectively blocked. Thus, partner choice can play an important role even in predominantly vertically transmitted symbioses by stabilizing the cooperative association over evolutionary timescales. PMID:24733936

Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Koehler, Sabrina; Peterson, Ashley; Nechitaylo, Taras Y.; Stubblefield, J. William; Herzner, Gudrun; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard

2014-01-01

364

The Role of Partners for Employees' Recovery during the Weekend  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of positive and negative experiences with the partner (absorption in joint activities and conflict with the partner) during the weekend on affective states at the beginning of the following work week and tested whether recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences) mediated these…

Hahn, Verena C.; Binnewies, Carmen; Haun, Sascha

2012-01-01

365

Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

2006-01-01

366

76 FR 68745 - Seneca Power Partners, L.P.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-6-000] Seneca Power Partners, L.P. v. New York Independent System Operator...Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Seneca Power Partners, L.P. (Complainant) filed a complaint...

2011-11-07

367

'Forest Watch' A Partners and Community Crime Prevention  

E-print Network

01/06/07 'Forest Watch' A Partners and Community Crime Prevention Initiative What is 'Forest Watch'? · 'Forest Watch' is a Partners and Community Crime Prevention Initiative to reduce the amount of crime and anti-social behaviour in the forests of South Wales and to increase the amount of information regarding

368

Canada: Alcohol and Partner Physical Aggression in the 10 Provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada was the 1993 Violence against Women (VAW) Survey. This study found that 3% of those who had ever been married or were living in a common-law relationship reported violence by a male partner or ex-partner in the year before the survey (Johnson and Sacco, 1995) and that an additional 2% of Canadian women aged 18 and older reported having

Kathryn Graham; Sharon Bernards

369

Partner's Stake in Conformity and Abused Wives' Psychological Trauma  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn from the larger survey Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States, 1994-1996. Help-seeking did not appear to buffer the impact of assault severity, contrary to expectation. However, the partner's stake in conformity did condition the effect of his or her having been arrested. Victims had higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when police arrested partners of average or below-average stake in conformity. But victims of partners characterized by higher than average stake in conformity did not show elevated PTSD due to their partners having been arrested. On the other hand, PTSD was higher among women experiencing more emotional abuse from the partner. PMID:18292403

DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine

2013-01-01

370

Religious Leaders' Perspectives on Marriage, Divorce, and Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious leaders from Jewish, Christian, and Islamic faiths were interviewed about their understanding of the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and religion, and a grounded-theory analysis was conducted. The present manuscript explored the leaders' beliefs about the partners' responsibility for IPV and the role of divorce. Although…

Levitt, Heidi M.; Ware, Kimberly N.

2006-01-01

371

Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

2010-01-01

372

The Language Partner Program The University of Winnipeg  

E-print Network

as an Additional Language) students an opportunity to practice English outside of the classroom and to learn more to be language partners for a second term. If your student leaves Winnipeg and you are still interested in being to December. In many cases, students and Language Partners will develop a friendship and continue

Martin, Jeff

373

Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

2010-01-01

374

IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners  

E-print Network

IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners Cloud computing is a key part of driving greater alignment between business and IT. IBM Service Management and Cloud Computing to the IBM technical community. IBM Cloud Computing Business Partner Technical Enablement Offering

375

Writing Partners: Expanding the Audiences for Student Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how one English teacher developed an approach to teaching writing that pairs student writers with writers in the community outside the school. Outlines the features of this writing partners project, including the responsibilities of each partner. Argues that such programs foster writer skill and self-esteem. (HB)

Gillis, Candida

1994-01-01

376

Demographic and Social Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia  

E-print Network

it at the hands of her intimate partner (Watts and Zimmerman 2002). Research into the causes and correlates of such intimate partner violence (IPV) suggests that with the exception of poverty, the social and demographic, the paradox of contradictory causes may be resolved. In this paper, we suggest a straightforward structural

Jones, James Holland

377

Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

2010-01-01

378

Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence in Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…

Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay

2008-01-01

379

What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572

Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

2013-07-01

380

The Role of Intimate Partner Violence, Race, and Ethnicity in Help-Seeking Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) have multiple health and social service needs but many, especially Hispanic, women may not access these resources. This research sought to examine the relationship between IPV and health and social services utilization (help-seeking behaviors), with a focus on racial and ethnic disparities.Design. Case-control study from an urban US emergency department population in which

Sherry Lipsky; Raul Caetano; Craig A. Field; Gregory L. Larkin

2006-01-01

381

How to choose a new partner in general practice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To provide a guide to choosing a new partner in general practice by using psychometric assessments. DESIGN--A descriptive account of the experience of one practice. SETTING--A general practice in Bristol. RESULTS--The partners found that using a psychologist to assess both themselves and the candidates facilitated the selection process. During the pre-interview stage the partners learnt about the dynamics of the practice and their own personalities. The examination of the candidates by an outside assessor as well as the partners gave a sense of security and a certainty that mistakes were unlikely to be made. CONCLUSION--More practices should consider adopting a selection process using psychometric assessments when appointing a new partner. PMID:2271828

King, J; Whitfield, M

1990-01-01

382

Food transfers in capuchin monkeys: an experiment on partner choice  

PubMed Central

Although most primates live in groups, experiments on reciprocity usually test individuals in dyads. This could hide the processes emerging in richer social settings, reducing the ecological validity of the results. We run an experiment on reciprocal food transfers testing capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in triads, so that subjects could choose to allow access to their food to either of their two partners. We tested the hypothesis that partner choice was related to a comparison of long-term social bonds with the two partners, more than to a comparison of recent food transfer events from the two partners. The results confirmed this hypothesis, thus supporting the notion that reciprocal partner preferences are based on long-term accounts of benefits that have been exchanged. PMID:22832127

Sabbatini, Gloria; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Schino, Gabriele

2012-01-01

383

Role of Partner Novelty in Sexual Functioning: A Review.  

PubMed

This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men. PMID:25222339

Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

2014-09-15

384

Body ideals for heterosexual romantic partners: Gender and sociocultural influences.  

PubMed

In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. PMID:25462878

Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel

2014-10-17

385

Constraining top partner and naturalness at the LHC and TLEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate indirect constraints on the top partner within the minimal fermionic top partner model. By performing a global fit of the latest Higgs data, Bs ??+?- measurements and the electroweak precision observables we find that the top partner with the mass up to 830 GeV is excluded at 2? level. Our bound on the top partner mass is much stronger than the bounds obtained from the direct searches at the LHC. Under the current constraints the fine-tuning measure is less than 9% and the branching ratio of T ? tZ is bounded between 14% and 25%. We also find that precise measurements of Higgs couplings at 240 GeV TLEP will constrain the top partner mass in multi-TeV region.

Han, Chengcheng; Kobakhidze, Archil; Liu, Ning; Wu, Lei; Yang, Bingfang

2015-01-01

386

REAL ESTATE FOUNDATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PARTNERING FUND The intent of the Real Estate Foundation of British Columbia Partnering Fund,  

E-print Network

REAL ESTATE FOUNDATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PARTNERING FUND GUIDELINES The intent of the Real Estate Foundation of British Columbia Partnering Fund, generated by an endowment to UNBC by the Real Estate: UNBC and the Real Estate Foundation of British Columbia share a mutual interest in advancing practices

Northern British Columbia, University of

387

Intimate partner sexual violence: a comparison of foreign- versus US-born physically abused Latinas.  

PubMed

Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed. PMID:23959640

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Messing, Jill T; Amanor-Boadu, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Chris O; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn

2014-02-01

388

Two and a half-year-old children are prosocial even when their partners are not.  

PubMed

A total of 33 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested for proactive and selective prosocial responding in an iterated Prosocial Game with unfamiliar adult partners who were communicatively neutral and alternated their roles as actors and recipients every other trial. When children were actors, they were required to choose, at no cost to themselves, between a selfish option that delivered a reward to them only (1/0) and a prosocial option that delivered identical rewards to both themselves and their partners (1/1). When adult partners were actors, they consistently behaved prosocially (1/1) or selfishly (1/0) over 10 alternating trials, depending on test condition. An additional 17 children were used as a recipient-absent control group to test for self-oriented versus other-oriented prosocial preferences. This study shows that by 2.5 years of age, and in the particular context of the task administered, toddlers can display proactive, other-oriented prosocial behavior, but their prosocial responding is indiscriminate in that they fail to respond contingently to their partners' prosocial or selfish behavior in the previous trials. These findings lend further support to the view that human prosociality is in place early in development as a basic tendency to be nice to others. This inclination may be so strong that not even partners who are communicatively neutral or repeatedly selfish toward children can erode it. They also suggest that this precocious proactive prosociality may be independent of reciprocity in terms of both its developmental schedule and psychological scaffolding. PMID:23800679

Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

2013-10-01

389

Birth Control  

MedlinePLUS

... your health, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners and desire to have children in the future. Your health care provider can help you select the best form of birth control for you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

390

Ultrastructural study of the male gamete of Glossobothrium sp. (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) a parasite of Schedophilus velaini (Perciformes: Centrolophidae) in Senegal.  

PubMed

This paper describes the ultrastructure of the male gamete of Glossobothrium sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae). The mature spermatozoon of Glossobothrium sp. is filiform and possesses two axonemes, a single helicoidal crested body, a parallel nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. In Glossobothrium sp. we describe for first time a 200-250 nm thick crest-like body in the Bothriocephalidean. The anterior part of the spermatozoon exhibits a ring of 27 electron-dense cortical microtubules encircling the first axoneme. This structure persists until the appearance of the second axoneme. When the ring of electron-dense cortical microtubules disappears, the spermatozoon exhibits two bundles of thin cortical microtubules. The posterior part of the spermatozoon contains the posterior extremity of the second axoneme, the posterior extremity of the nucleus and few cortical microtubules. Soon nucleus disappears and the axoneme is disorganized. Thus the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon of Glossobothrium sp. exhibits only singlets produced by the disorganization of the doublets of the second axoneme and few cortical microtubules. This type of posterior extremity of the mature spermatozoon has never been described previously in the Triaenophoridae. PMID:22633207

Ndiaye, P I; Quilichini, Y; Bâ, A; Bâ, C T; Marchand, B

2012-10-01

391

75 FR 45178 - Escalate Capital Partners SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Escalate Capital Partners SBIC...Small Business Administration (``SBA...Escalate Capital Partners SBIC...of Escalate Capital Partners SBIC...Small Business Administration, 409...

2010-08-02

392

3 CFR - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...where applicable, to the children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal...i) clarify that the children of employees' same-sex domestic partners fall within...employees and those same-sex domestic partners' children. This section...

2011-01-01

393

75 FR 16529 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 29192; File No. 812-13681] Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice...investment companies. APPLICANTS: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust...

2010-04-01

394

Male Partner Influence on Women's HIV Prevention Trial Participation and Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: the Importance of "Understanding"  

PubMed

There is widespread evidence that male partners influence women's ability and willingness to join HIV prevention trials and to use female-controlled prevention strategies such as microbicide gels. VOICE-C was an ancillary study to the Microbicide Trials Network's VOICE trial at the Johannesburg site that explored social and structural factors influencing women's use of study tablets and vaginal gel. Qualitative data were analyzed from 102 randomly-selected VOICE participants interviewed through in-depth interviews (IDI, n = 41); ethnographic interviews (n = 21) or focus group discussions (FGD, n = 40) and 22 male partners interviewed in 14 IDI and 2 FGD. Male partners' "understanding" pervaded as a central explanation for how male partners directly and indirectly influenced their female partners' trial participation and product use, irrespective of assignment to the gel or tablet study groups. The meaning behind "understanding" in this context was described by both men and women in two important and complementary ways: (1) "comprehension" of the study purpose including biological properties or effects of the products, and (2) "support/agreeability" for female partners being study participants or using products. During analysis a third dimension of "understanding" emerged as men's acceptance of larger shifts in gender roles and relationship power, and the potential implications of women's increased access to biomedical knowledge, services and prevention methods. Despite displays of some female agency to negotiate and use HIV prevention methods, male partners still have a critical influence on women's ability and willingness to do so. Efforts to increase their understanding of research goals, study design and products' mechanisms of action could ameliorate distrust, empower men to serve as product advocates, adherence buddies, and foster greater adherence support for women in situations where it is needed. Strategies to address gender norms and the broader implications these have for female-initiated HIV prevention should likewise be integrated into future research and program activities. PMID:25416076

Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Stadler, Jonathan; Hartmann, Miriam; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; Laborde, Nicole; Soto-Torres, Lydia

2014-11-22

395

The effect of partner-directed emotion in social exchange decision-making  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of studies examining economic decision-making as a purely rational phenomenon, common sense suggests that emotions affect our decision-making particularly in a social context. To explore the influence of emotions on economic decision-making, we manipulated opponent-directed emotions prior to engaging participants in two social exchange decision-making games (the Trust Game and the Prisoner's Dilemma). Participants played both games with three different (fictional) partners and their tendency to defect was measured. Prior to playing each game, participants exchanged handwritten “essays” with their partners, and subsequently exchanged evaluations of each essay. The essays and evaluations, read by the participant, were designed to induce either anger, sympathy, or a neutral emotional response toward the confederate with whom they would then play the social exchange games. Galvanic skin conductance level (SCL) showed enhanced physiological arousal during anger induction compared to both the neutral and sympathy conditions. In both social exchange games, participants were most likely to defect against their partner after anger induction and least likely to defect after sympathy induction, with the neutral condition eliciting intermediate defection rates. This pattern was found to be strongest in participants exhibiting low cognitive control (as measured by a Go/no-Go task). The findings indicate that emotions felt toward another individual alter how one chooses to interact with them, and that this influence depends both on the specific emotion induced and the cognitive control of the individual. PMID:23898313

Eimontaite, Iveta; Nicolle, Antoinette; Schindler, Igor; Goel, Vinod

2013-01-01

396

NETWORK POSITION AND SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: IMPLICATIONS OF PARTNER BETWEENNESS FOR MEN*  

PubMed Central

This paper combines relational perspectives on gender identity with social network structural perspectives on health to understand men’s sexual functioning. We argue that network positions that afford independence and control over social resources are consistent with traditional masculine roles and may therefore affect men’s sexual performance. For example, when a heterosexual man’s female partner has more frequent contact with his confidants than he does–a situation that we refer to as partner betweenness – his relational autonomy, privacy, and control are constrained. Analyses of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) show that about a quarter of men experience partner betweenness, and that these men are 92 percent more likely to report problems getting and/or maintaining an erection (95% CI: 1.274, 2.881). This association is strongest among the youngest men in the sample, which may reflect changing conceptions of masculinity in later life. We close by considering several explanations for these findings, and urge additional research on the linkages between health, gender, and network structure. PMID:22003520

Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.

2013-01-01

397

Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274

Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.

2013-01-01

398

Gender and intimate partner violence: does dual arrest reveal gender symmetry or asymmetry?  

PubMed

Research on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has ignited considerable controversy about gender and IPV. Feminist scholars have viewed IPV as a manifestation of male dominance and control, with women primarily the victims and men primarily the perpetrators of this behavior (gender asymmetry). Conversely, family violence researchers have viewed IPV as emerging from conflicts in relationships, with both men and women being involved (gender symmetry). The present study was framed within the context of this controversy using new empirical evidence on one person arrested (single arrest) or both persons arrested (dual arrest) in IPV incidents. Data were acquired on the assessed risk of IPV recidivism immediately after arrest and actual IPV recidivism over an 18-month period postassessment across the state of Connecticut involving heterosexual partners (N = 2,155). Though not definitive, the findings showed persistent gender asymmetry on these behavioral characteristics across arrest categories. PMID:23266992

Gerstenberger, Caryn Bell; Williams, Kirk R

2013-05-01

399

Fully hadronic decays of a singly produced vectorlike top partner at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single production of vectorlike top partners is becoming a major focus of new searches, as the increasing mass limits on vectorlike quarks obtained by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations are such that single production is becoming competitive with respect to pair production. Typically searches focus on decays containing leptons in the final state in order to have less background from the Standard Model processes. However the current centre of mass energies available in the latest LHC runs limit the searches to low masses. Fully hadronic final states may be an alternative option for discovery, as they allow a larger number of signal events if backgrounds can be kept under control. We study the fully hadronic decay of a singly produced vectorlike top partner and we show a strategy to extract the signal over the background, considering as a benchmark the 20 fb-1 of data collected at 8 TeV with the run I of the LHC.

Beauceron, Stéphanie; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Ruiz-Álvarez, José D.

2014-12-01

400

The Moderating Effect of Women’s Alcohol Misuse on the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives We examined the moderating effect of women’s alcohol misuse on the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and postpartum depression. Methods Self-report data were collected from 122 women. Analyses controlled for women’s baseline depression severity and partner alcohol misuse. Results Women’s alcohol misuse moderated the relationship between psychological IPV victimization and postpartum depression only at high levels of the moderator. Discussion and Conclusions Findings highlight the mental health risk posed by the combination of psychological IPV and alcohol misuse postpartum. Scientific Significance Findings emphasize the need to investigate the understudied topic of women’s postpartum alcohol misuse. PMID:25079047

Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Moore, Todd M.; Stuart, Gregory L.

2014-01-01

401

Self-control and Sacrifice 1 Running Head: SELF-CONTROL AND SACRIFICE  

E-print Network

Self-control and Sacrifice 1 Running Head: SELF-CONTROL AND SACRIFICE Low Self-control Promotes, Amsterdam Eli J. Finkel Northwestern University In Press, Psychological Science #12;Self for their partner--to pursue the partner's or the relationship's interest at some costs for the self. Four studies

Reber, Paul J.

402

Isovector and hidden-beauty partners of the X(3872)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isovector partners of the X(3872), recently found at BES III, Belle and CLEO-c were predicted in a simple model based on the chromomagnetic interaction among quarks. The extension to the hidden-beauty sector is discussed.

Høgaasen, Hallstein; Kou, Emi; Richard, Jean-Marc; Sorba, Paul

2014-05-01

403

National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights  

MedlinePLUS

... live life to their fullest potential. Overlap of Lifetime Intimate Partner Rape, Stalking, and Physical Victimization Female ... at Time of First Completed Rape Victimization in Lifetime Among Female Victims 11-17 years 30% 10 ...

404

Partnering for the Future - Duration: 3:54.  

NASA Video Gallery

With an ambitious new direction and a new way of doing business, NASA's Kennedy Space Center is embracing a new relationship with the commercial space industry and other partners to build a multi-u...

405

Global Energy Partners, LLC 500 Ygnacio Valley Road, Suite 450  

E-print Network

Global Energy Partners, LLC 500 Ygnacio Valley Road, Suite 450 Walnut Creek, CA 94596 P: 925 Construction Model Calculation Methodology......................... 2-6 2.5 New Construction Model Calculation

406

12 CFR 1710.18 - Change of audit partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not...

2010-01-01

407

PARTNERING TO COLLECT IMPROVED HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Partnering allows complex environmental challenges to be efficiently addressed by leveraging resources and scientific expertise. The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) routinely collaborates with other federal, state, and local governme...

408

Data compression, storage, and viewing in classroom learning partner  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we present the design and implementation of a data storage and viewing system for students' classroom work. Our system, which extends the classroom interaction system called Classroom Learning Partner, ...

Mueller, Jessie L

2012-01-01

409

The risk of domestic violence and women with HIV infection: implications for partner notification, public policy, and the law.  

PubMed Central

Partner notification has emerged as an important strategy in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and states have now adopted a plethora of laws that encourage or mandate notification, often without the patient's consent. As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to spread among women, the future development of AIDS control strategies and public health laws must be shaped by concern for the safety and autonomy of patients who face a risk of domestic violence. Three distinct recommendations flow from this premise. First, all HIV-infected women should be assessed for the risk of domestic violence and offered appropriate interventions. Second, where a risk of abuse is indicated, partners should never be notified without the patient's consent. State laws that presently permit involuntary notification should be repealed or amended. Third, laws that punish a patient's refusal to notify partners should also be modified or repealed. PMID:7485675

Rothenberg, K H; Paskey, S J

1995-01-01

410

Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display  

PubMed Central

Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886

Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

2014-01-01

411

Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression among Canadian women in the Maternity Experience Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health concern predominantly affecting women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to intimate partner violence before, during or after pregnancy on postpartum depression in a nationally representative sample of Canadian women. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Maternity Experience Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006. A population-based sample of 8,542 women 15 years and older who delivered singleton live births was selected from all Canadian provinces and territories; of those, 6,421 completed a computer-assisted telephone interview. Recent experiences with and threats of physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner were examined in relation to postpartum depression assessed through the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. Results The prevalence of postpartum depression was 7.5% (95% CI: 6.8, 8.2). Controlling for confounders, odds of postpartum depression were significantly higher among women who reported partner violence in the past two years as opposed to those who did not (adjusted OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.45). Conclusions Intimate partner violence is positively associated with postpartum depression among Canadian women. Implications for healthcare practice are discussed. PMID:20609336

Beydoun, Hind A.; Al-Sahab, Ban; Beydoun, May A.; Tamim, Hala

2014-01-01

412

Factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex in a sample of women experiencing police-involved intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant social problem, particularly among women who are concurrently experiencing physical violence in their intimate relationships. This research examined the prevalence and factors associated with IPSV among a sample of women recruited at the scene of police-involved intimate partner violence incidents (N = 432). Within this sample, 43.98 percent of participants reported experiencing IPSV; this includes 17.36 percent who reported sexual abuse and 26.62 percent who reported forced sex. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex, controlling for victim and relationship characteristics. Compared with women not reporting IPSV, women who were sexually abused or forced into sexual intercourse were significantly more likely to experience strangulation, feelings of shame, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Women whose partners had forced sex were more likely to report that they had a child in common with their abusive partner; and that their partner was sexually jealous, had threatened to kill them, had stalked or harassed them, or caused them to have a miscarriage due to abuse. These findings can be used to better inform social work practitioners about the prevalence and nature of IPSV and the associated risk factors, and can assist in routine screening and intervention. PMID:25095631

Messing, Jill Theresa; Thaller, Jonel; Bagwell, Meredith

2014-08-01

413

Xenobiotics in gametes of Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) induce hepatic monooxygenase activity in their offspring  

SciTech Connect

Eggs spawned from Lake Michigan lake trout contain a number of xenobiotic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To assess whether this contamination is sufficient to induce hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activity during early development, the hepatic MO systems of laboratory-cultured offspring of Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and Marquette Hatchery lake trout were compared. Additionally, the induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 systems in developing lake trout by the commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), was characterized. During late embryonic development and at the swim-up stage, the hepatic MO systems of the feral lake trout offspring appeared induced, based on levels of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity that were 3.5- to 8.6-fold higher than the hatchery control levels. Furthermore, at the swim-up stage the feral trout offspring resembled A1254-treated hatchery fry with regard to the degree of inhibition of hepatic AHH activity by alpha-naphthoflavone, and the presence of an inducible Mr . 58,000 polypeptide in hepatic microsomes. The levels of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, which was relatively unresponsive to inducers, were moderately lower in the Lake Michigan and Green Bay swim-up fry compared to the hatchery control levels. After 7 months of posthatching laboratory culture, when residues of xenobiotics present at fertilization were greatly diluted by growth, the hepatic MO systems of the Lake Michigan and hatchery trout offspring appeared essentially indistinguishable with regard to a number of parameters.

Binder, R.L.; Lech, J.J.

1984-12-01

414

Couple Age Discrepancy and Risk of Intimate Partner Homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although national level studies in the United States and Canada find that extreme partner age discrepancy is a risk factor for intimate partner homicide in opposite-sex couples, these studies carry two caveats: They are limited to cohabiting marital or common-law couples and they are not detailed enough to explore alternative explanations for the age discrepancy-homicide risk association. Using the Chicago

Noelia Breitman; Todd K. Shackelford; Carolyn Rebecca Block

2004-01-01

415

Intimate Partner Homicide: Risk Assessment and Prospects for Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about assessing the risk of intimate partner homicide (IPH). Research has shown that women killed by an intimate\\u000a partner scored higher than abuse survivors in retrospectively measured risk for IPH. In this study, we examined the characteristics\\u000a of 146 men who committed an actual or attempted act of IPH. Of these, 42% had prior criminal charges, 15%

Angela W. Eke; N. Zoe Hilton; Grant T. Harris; Marnie E. Rice; Ruth E. Houghton

2011-01-01

416

Partnering with the Media to Present Climate Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing the media and other non-technical customers with an understanding of climate change and variability requires a presentation of local climate data in formats that are readily accessible and understandable. The National Weather Service Forecast Office in Hanford, California, has worked with its media partners to develop a format to summarize monthly, and annual, climatological data for Bakersfield and Fresno. This format builds on decades of partnership between the predecessor Weather Service Offices and their local media partners.

Sanger, G. E.

2011-12-01

417

Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential. There is much more to learn about preparing students for these collaborative approaches, and the principal goal of sharing these strategies is to spark a conversation about the ways we prepare scientists and the public to work together in an increasingly collaborative scientific enterprise.

Pandya, R. E.

2012-12-01

418

Intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636) women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (OR adj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11), even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services. PMID:24356686

Azevêdo, Ana Carolina da C; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

2013-12-01

419

Distal and proximal factors associated with aggression towards partners and non-partners among patients in substance abuse treatment.  

PubMed

Studies of violence in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings typically focus on partner aggression (PA) although non-partner aggression (NPA) is also a common problem. This study examines potentially distinct paths of distal and proximal risk factors related to aggression towards non-partners (NPA) and partners (PA) among a SUD treatment sample. The sample included 176 adults reporting past-year violence. Bivariate analyses indicated several distal and proximal factors were associated with NPA and PA. According to multivariate, multiple mediation analyses youth aggression history was a factor for both NPA and PA. Alcohol and cocaine use and psychological distress were associated with NPA; marijuana use was associated with PA. There also was evidence of indirect effects of distal factors on NPA and PA. The results suggest that there may be substantially different dynamics associated with NPA and PA, and have implications for developing screening, assessment and treatment protocols targeting violence among individuals in SUD treatment. PMID:25012548

Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Walton, Maureen A; Sanborn, Michelle; Kraus, Shane; Blow, Fred; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T

2014-10-01

420

Social Desirability and Partner Agreement of Men's Reporting of Intimate Partner Violence in Substance Abuse Treatment Settings.  

PubMed

Estimates indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs in approximately 30% of relationships and up to 85% of the relationships of men in substance abuse treatment. However, partners consistently display poor agreement in reporting the presence of IPV. Social desirability is frequently offered as the primary reason for under-reporting of IPV by perpetrators. The goal of the current study was to explicitly test the social desirability hypothesis using both partners' reports of negotiation, psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and injuries in a substance abuse treatment sample. A total of 54 males and their female partners were recruited from a residential adult substance use treatment facility. Consistent with prior literature, partners displayed poor agreement about the presence of different types of IPV. The male partner's social desirability was not associated with his reporting of male-to-female physical aggression, psychological aggression, or injuries. Men who engaged in higher levels of self-deceptive enhancement and lower levels of impression management were more likely to under-report male-to-female sexual coercion. Overall, the findings question the generalized importance of social desirability in IPV reporting in substance abuse treatment populations. PMID:24923888

Freeman, Andrew J; Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F

2015-02-01

421

Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

2005-01-01

422

Brainless but not clueless: earthworms boost their ejaculates when they detect fecund non-virgin partners  

PubMed Central

In many animals in which females store sperm, males may detect female mating status and, in order to outcompete rival sperm, increase ejaculate size when copulating with non-virgin females. Although most studies have been restricted to organisms with separate sexes, theoretical models suggest that sperm competition should also be an important selective agent shaping life-history traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Nevertheless, the empirical support for ejaculate adjustment in a mating opportunity is scarce in hermaphrodites. In the present study, we performed a double-mating experiment to determine whether earthworms (Eisenia andrei) detect the mating status of their partners and whether they respond by adjusting their ejaculate. We found that earthworms triplicated the donated sperm when mating with a non-virgin mate. Moreover, such increases were greater when the worms were mated with larger (more fecund) partners, indicating that earthworms perform a fine-tune control of ejaculate volume. The results of the present study suggest that, under high intensity of sperm competition, partner evaluation is subject to intense selection in hermaphrodite animals, and donors are selective about to whom they donate how much sperm. PMID:18252668

Velando, Alberto; Eiroa, Julio; Domínguez, Jorge

2008-01-01

423

A Proximal Change Experiment Testing Two Communication Exercises With Intimate Partner Violent Men  

PubMed Central

This study tests the immediate impact of two interventions for intimate partner violent (IPV) men in affecting behavioral and emotional change during arguments with their partners. Couples with an abusive male partner (N=100) discussed an area of conflict twice, interrupted by a brief intervention. Men were randomly assigned to receive (a) an editing-out-the-negative skills training, (b) an accepting influence skills training, or (c) a time-out. IPV men in both skills-training conditions showed greater decreases in aggressive feelings than IPV men in the time-out condition based on their self-report and observed affective behavior. Women also reported feeling less aggressive when their husbands were assigned to one of the skills-training conditions as compared to the control (time-out) condition. Results suggest that IPV men can learn to adopt new communication skills and that they do appear to have a positive impact on the emotional tone of their arguments. Clinically, communication skills training may be a useful addition to battering intervention programs, although these skills may need to be taught to both men and women involved in violent relationships. PMID:21496517

Babcock, Julia C.; Graham, Katherine; Canady, Brittany; Ross, Jody M.

2013-01-01

424

The Adaptive Significance of Provisioning and Foraging Coordination between Breeding Partners.  

PubMed

Abstract Sexual conflict over parental care relies on the fundamental assumption that parents do not share the cost of their partner's effort on future reproduction. However, this is unlikely to be true whenever partners breed together more than once. In that case, individuals should try to optimize the cost and benefits for the pair, rather than only for themselves. Here we seek to establish whether the synchronization of parents' provisioning visits to the nest could fulfill this function. We conducted a brood-size manipulation experiment on wild zebra finches to test whether nest visit synchrony was flexible and beneficial for nestlings' growth, while controlling for the confounding effects of pair "quality" and synchrony away from the nest during foraging. Using a network of readers to track parents at nests and feeding stations, we found that nest visit synchrony responded directly to the brood manipulation and increased with brood size. Synchrony at the nest and while foraging were correlated, but the latter better predicted nestling mass, possibly because it was associated with more regular provisioning patterns. Our findings suggest that parental coordination could indeed play an important role in partners' investment decisions, underpinning the evolution of the most prominent mating system in birds. PMID:25616144

Mariette, Mylene M; Griffith, Simon C

2015-02-01

425

Asymmetric interaction and indeterminate fitness correlation between cooperative partners in the fig–fig wasp mutualism  

PubMed Central

Empirical observations have shown that cooperative partners can compete for common resources, but what factors determine whether partners cooperate or compete remain unclear. Using the reciprocal fig–fig wasp mutualism, we show that nonlinear amplification of interference competition between fig wasps—which limits the fig wasps' ability to use a common resource (i.e. female flowers)—keeps the common resource unsaturated, making cooperation locally stable. When interference competition was manually prevented, the fitness correlation between figs and fig wasps went from positive to negative. This indicates that genetic relatedness or reciprocal exchange between cooperative players, which could create spatial heterogeneity or self-restraint, was not sufficient to maintain stable cooperation. Moreover, our analysis of field-collected data shows that the fitness correlation between cooperative partners varies stochastically, and that the mainly positive fitness correlation observed during the warm season shifts to a negative correlation during the cold season owing to an increase in the initial oviposition efficiency of each fig wasp. This implies that the discriminative sanction of less-cooperative wasps (i.e. by decreasing the egg deposition efficiency per fig wasp) but reward to cooperative wasps by fig, a control of the initial value, will facilitate a stable mutualism. Our finding that asymmetric interaction leading to an indeterminate fitness interaction between symbiont (i.e. cooperative actors) and host (i.e. recipient) has the potential to explain why conflict has been empirically observed in both well-documented intraspecific and interspecific cooperation systems. PMID:21490005

Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Lixing

2011-01-01

426

Functional and psychological characteristics of belgian men with premature ejaculation and their partners.  

PubMed

Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional factors are generally acknowledged to play a role in premature ejaculation (PE). However, the nature and the extent of their etiological impact remain largely imprecise. The present study examined functional and psychometric dynamics at work in a PE population. A total of 461 men with PE and 80 partners completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self-reported ejaculatory latency time, the feeling of control upon ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, distress related to PE, trait anxiety (STAI-B), sexual cognitions (Sexual Irrationality Questionnaire [SIQ]), social anxiety (Liebowitz's Social Anxiety Scale [LSAS] and Social Interaction Self-Statement Test [SISST]), and personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised [TCI-R]). In our sample, the median latency time to ejaculation was between 1 and 2 min. Sexual satisfaction and distress correlated more strongly with the feeling of control than with the self-reported latency time. Men experienced more distress and dissatisfaction related to PE than did their partners, while overestimating their partners' distress and dissatisfaction. PE participants' scores differed significantly, albeit slightly, from STAI-B, SIQ, LSAS, and SISST norms. The differences were negligible on TCI-R. Some differences became stronger when subtypes were considered. Participants combining generalized and lifelong PE with self-reported latency times of <30 s reported lower sexual satisfaction and control, higher distress, higher social anxiety, and harm avoidance (TCI-R/HA) scores. By contrast, the situational subtype of PE was found to be characterized by a higher level of satisfaction, a greater feeling of control, less distress, and higher trait anxiety scores. However, the trends remained statistically discrete. PMID:22695640

Kempeneers, Philippe; Andrianne, Robert; Bauwens, Sabrina; Georis, Isabelle; Pairoux, Jean-François; Blairy, Sylvie

2013-01-01

427

Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Between HIV Infected Subjects and Their Main Heterosexual Partners  

PubMed Central

Background Overall, 60-70% of the hepatitis c virus (HCV) transmission routes is parenteral, and in 30-40% of the cases is unknown (e.g. sexual route). Knowing these routes in HIV infected dyads is very important due to clinical and methodological reasons. Objectives The present study aimed to identify and quantitatively investigate HIV-infected individuals and their main heterosexual partners regarding the risk factors of HCV transmission. Patients and Methods One hundred sixty eight of 984 couples were chosen through random generated numbers using a computer program from behavioral consultation center in Shiraz, Iran. We used actor partner independent model (APIM) and multilevel analysis to assess multiple risk factors for HCV, while partitioning the source of risk at the individual and couple levels. Results Age of the index samples was 38.71 ± 7 years, and 33.2 ± 6.3 for their main heterosexual partners; the mean duration of sexual relationship for couples was 11.9 (median = 8.5) years. Multivariate analysis showed that actor risk factor of intravenous drug using (IDU) (AOR= 13.03; 95% CI: 3.9- 43.82) and actor cofactors of HIV positivity (AOR = 7.1; 95% CI: 1.37- 36.97), razor sharing (AOR = 4.81; 95% CI: 1.84- 12.55), sex (AOR = 8.83; 95% CI: 3.16- 24.87), and condom use in sexual activity with main partner (AOR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02- 0.44) were associated with actor HCV positivity. Conclusions Health care providers need to pay special attention to sexual transmission of HCV among HIV-infected individuals, and should recommend control/preventive measures for HCV sexual transmission. PMID:24348647

Alipour, Abbas; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Rajaeefard, Abdorreza; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali

2013-01-01

428

A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Negative health outcomes caused by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been recognized as a public health problem with extensive effects on the society. Cultural and traditional beliefs that reinforce IPV in Nigeria need to be understood to guide public health approaches aimed at preventing IPV. The purpose of this study was to determine women's attitudes and societal norms that support IPV, causes and consequences of IPV, and coping strategies, and to document suggested measures to prevent it. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among 56 women aged 15 to 49 years purposively selected from rural and urban communities in Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The FGDs were conducted in Yoruba language, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic approach. Findings were grouped into six major themes: triggers, societal norms, attitude, consequences, coping strategies, and preventive measures. Women reported experience of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and controlling behavior. Major causes of IPV reported by the women were having more money than partner, and building a house or having a business without partner's knowledge. Most participants reported that social norms dictate that a woman should have full regard for in-laws, and submit to and agree with all that the partner says and does. Most of the discussants in both the urban and rural areas reported that violence in any form is not justifiable or acceptable. Participants mentioned various ways through which IPV negatively impacted on women's health such as depression, hypertension, and damage to the reproductive system. They were however willing to endure suffering because of their children. Women who experienced IPV reported to close relatives but did not seek legal redress because these were unavailable. Ending IPV requires long-term commitment and strategies involving contributions from the government, community, and the family. PMID:25392394

Balogun, Mary O; John-Akinola, Yetunde O

2014-11-11

429

26 CFR 301.6231(a)(7)-1 - Designation or selection of tax matters partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Designation or selection of tax matters partner. 301.6231(a)(7)-1...1 Designation or selection of tax matters partner. (a) In general. A partnership may designate a partner as its tax matters partner for a specific taxable...

2013-04-01

430

26 CFR 301.6231(a)(7)-1 - Designation or selection of tax matters partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Designation or selection of tax matters partner. 301.6231(a)(7)-1...1 Designation or selection of tax matters partner. (a) In general. A partnership may designate a partner as its tax matters partner for a specific taxable...

2011-04-01

431

26 CFR 301.6231(a)(7)-1 - Designation or selection of tax matters partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Designation or selection of tax matters partner. 301.6231(a)(7)-1...1 Designation or selection of tax matters partner. (a) In general. A partnership may designate a partner as its tax matters partner for a specific taxable...

2012-04-01

432

26 CFR 301.6231(a)(7)-1 - Designation or selection of tax matters partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Designation or selection of tax matters partner. 301.6231(a)(7)-1...1 Designation or selection of tax matters partner. (a) In general. A partnership may designate a partner as its tax matters partner for a specific taxable...

2010-04-01

433

26 CFR 301.6231(a)(7)-1 - Designation or selection of tax matters partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Designation or selection of tax matters partner. 301.6231(a)(7)-1...1 Designation or selection of tax matters partner. (a) In general. A partnership may designate a partner as its tax matters partner for a specific taxable...

2014-04-01

434

Evaluation of Interviewing Techniques to Enhance Recall of Sexual and Drug Injection Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: People with multiple sex partners forget a sig- nificant proportion of their partners, and drug injectors forget a large proportion of the persons with whom they inject drugs. This incomplete reporting poses a problem for partner notifi- cation and social network research on infectious disease. Goal: To evaluate supplementary interviewing techniques to enhance recall of sex and injection partners.

DEVON D. BREWER; SHARON B. GARRETT

2001-01-01

435

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women Visiting Health Care Centers in Palestine Refugee Camps in Jordan.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Cooccurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts. PMID:25255940

Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun

2014-09-25

436

The other partner: the young man's role in adolescent pregnancy.  

PubMed

The US is the only developed country in which pregnancy among 15-19 year olds has increased in recent years. This study examines the relationship of contraceptive behavior, male gender-role conflict, and future-time perspective among black, white, and Hispanic unmarried adolescent fathers and non-fathers. 86 fathers and 92 non-fathers aged 14-21 years, mostly from New York City and surroundings communities, were sampled in questionnaires. Only six were aged 15 or younger. All participants used contraceptives inconsistently, with most sexually active males either using no contraception, using contraception inconsistently, or using methods known to be ineffective. Fathers did, however, report less consistent use of contraception than non-fathers. Fathers were fathers-by-accident, while non-fathers avoided becoming fathers by chance. Available data on contraception use within this population suggests that teenage males most often rely upon their partners to use a method such as the birth control pill. Further, adolescent fathers did not exhibit gender-role conflicts, suggesting that traditional male gender-role socialization may be more pervasive in our society than has been thought and may transcend differences in fatherhood status. Most adolescents in the present investigation scored on the high end of the scale on gender-role conflict in comparison to O'Neill's 1986 college student sample. Future-time perspective was the same for fathers and non-fathers, indicating that all adolescents may have similar abilities to perceive and plan for the future. The authors stress the need to encourage fathers to use contraception consistently to avoid additional unwanted, repeat pregnancies. Young men need to be encouraged to use contraception before they become sexually active and settle into patterns of high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:12345686

Berlin, C; Berman, L

1994-01-01

437

Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence  

PubMed Central

We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

2009-01-01

438

Partners In Health and Brigham & Women's Hospitalist Program Background: Partners In Health (PIH) is a health and social justice organization with a  

E-print Network

Partners In Health and Brigham & Women's Hospitalist Program Background: Partners In Health (PIH) is a health and social justice organization with a mission to build high quality, comprehensive public health systems

Derisi, Joseph

439

Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634

Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

2014-01-01