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The growing scope of gamete donation and themanipulation of gametes makes it essential to developa coherent theory of the nature of gametes and theclaims which may be made in relation to them. Thenature of gametes is ambiguous, they blur thedistinctions between persons and property, but thecurrent legal framework which governs gamete donationand manipulation fails to address their status. Thisleaves unanswered
Angiosperms sexual reproduction involves interactions between the two female gametes in the embryo sac and the two male gametes released by the pollen tube. The two synergids of the embryo sac express the FERONIA\\/SIRENE receptor-like kinase, which controls the discharge of the two sperm cells from the pollen tube. FER\\/SRN may respond to a ligand from the pollen tube. Alternatively,
Nicolas Rotman; Mathieu Gourgues; Anne-Elisabeth Guitton; Jean-Emmanuel Faure; Frederic Berger
There are several important characteristic properties of reproductive fluid. Gametes are the reproductive cells consisting of sperms in males and ovum in females. These cells combine to form Zygote in the process of fertilization. The characters of Gametes have been narrated by Holy Quran in a very well-suited and selected terminology. This paper enumerates various Quranic terms related to gametes, and then discusses their scientific significance. PMID:12587566
Angiosperms sexual reproduction involves interactions between the two female gametes in the embryo sac and the two male gametes released by the pollen tube. The two synergids of the embryo sac express the FERONIA/SIRENE receptor-like kinase, which controls the discharge of the two sperm cells from the pollen tube. FER/SRN may respond to a ligand from the pollen tube. Alternatively, the interaction between FER/SRN and a ligand from the embryo sac may lead to a state of competence of the synergids allowing pollen tube discharge. Here, we report the new mutant scylla (syl) impaired in the control of pollen tube discharge. This mutant also produces autonomous endosperm development in absence of fertilization-a trait associated with the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) mutant class. This led us to identify autonomous endosperm in srn mutants and to demonstrate synergistic interactions between srn and the fis mutants. In addition, the fis mutants display defects in pollen tube discharge as in srn and syl mutants, confirming the interaction between the two pathways. Our findings suggest that pollen tube discharge is controlled by an interaction between the synergids expressing SRN/FER and the central cell expressing FIS genes. PMID:19825570
The gamete-competition model is an application of the Bradley-Terry model for ranking of sports teams. If allele i of a marker locus is assigned parameter ?i>0, then the probability that a parent with heterozygous genotype i/j transmits allele i is Pr(i/j?i)=?i/(?i+?j). Mendelian segregation corresponds to the choice ?i=1 for all i. To test whether Mendelian segregation is true, one can estimate the ?i from pedigree data and perform a likelihood-ratio test under the constraint that one ?i equals 1. Although this procedure generates an interesting method for performance of segregation analysis with a marker locus, its real promise lies in generalization of the transmission/disequilibrium test. Quantitative as well as qualitative outcomes can be considered. The gamete-competition model uses full pedigree data and gives an estimate of the strength of transmission distortion to affected children for each allele. Covariates are incorporated by rewriting of ?i=exp(?txk), where ? is a parameter vector and xk is a covariate vector for the kth transmitted gamete. Examples of covariates include disease-severity indicators for the child, sex of the child, or repeat number for tandem-repeat alleles.
Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...
This study sought to determine how power and control in intimate relationships influenced women's exposure to sexual violence.\\u000a Multilevel modeling was used to determine the risk of partner sexual violence in the past 12 months among 2240 women aged\\u000a 15–49 years who were currently married or cohabiting. The data were drawn from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey.\\u000a Strong
Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the motivator for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of 762 divorcing
Marieh Tanha; Connie J. A. Beck; Aurelio José Figueredo; Chitra Raghavan
The mammalian oviduct provides an optimal environment for the maturation of gametes, fertilization, and early em- bryonic development. Secretory cells lining the lumen of the mammalian oviduct synthesize and secrete proteins that have been shown to interact with and influence the activities of gametes and embryos. We hypothesized that the presence of gametes in the oviduct alters the oviduc- tal
A. Stephen Georgiou; Edita Sostaric; Chi H. Wong; Ambrosius P. L. Snijders; Phillip C. Wright; Harry D. Moore; Alireza Fazeli
The intertidal brown alga Silvetia compressa releases gametes from receptacles (the reproductive tissue) rapidly upon a dark transfer (following a photosynthesis-dependent period in the light, termed potentiation). In this study, the wavelength-dependence of this process was investigated. During the potentiation period in white light (WL), gametes are not released. However, gametes were released during potentiation in blue light (BL), or in low red light/blue light (RL/BL) ratios, but not in RL alone, high RL/BL ratios, or in broadband blue-green light (B-GL) (presence of BL, but absence of RL). RL was as effective as WL for potentiation, i.e., both lead to gamete release following transfer to darkness. Rates of linear photosynthetic electron transport were similar in RL and BL. Gamete release in BL was inhibited by equal amounts of additional narrow-waveband light between the green and red regions of the spectrum, with light-induced gamete release restricted between <491 nm and 509 nm. Very little light-induced gamete release occurred between 530 nm and 650 nm. It is proposed that a BL-responsive photoreceptor is responsible for light-induced gamete release. Transfer of WL-potentiated receptacles to GL near 530 nm resulted in significant de-potentiation and reduced gamete release during a subsequent dark transfer. This effect was not seen at 509 nm or 560 nm and revealed the presence of a second photoreceptor system repressing or counteracting potentiation in the light. We propose that the restriction of gamete release to periods when irradiance is blue-shifted may constitute a depth-sensing mechanism for this intertidal alga, allowing controlled release of gametes at high tide and/or less turbid periods, thus minimizing gamete dilution, and promoting fertilization success. PMID:14605987
Previous research suggests that the personality of a relationship partner predicts not only the individual's own satisfaction with the relationship but also the partner's satisfaction. Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, the present research tested whether actor and partner effects of personality are biased when the same method (e.g., self-report) is used for the assessment of personality and relationship satisfaction and, consequently, shared method variance is not controlled for. Data came from 186 couples, of whom both partners provided self- and partner reports on the Big Five personality traits. Depending on the research design, actor effects were larger than partner effects (when using only self-reports), smaller than partner effects (when using only partner reports), or of about the same size as partner effects (when using self- and partner reports). The findings attest to the importance of controlling for shared method variance in dyadic data analysis. PMID:23798373
In Angiosperms, the male gametes are delivered to the female gametes through the maternal reproductive tissue by the pollen tube. Upon arrival, the pollen tube releases the two sperm cells, permitting double fertilization to take place. Although the critical role of the female gametophyte in pollen tube reception has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we describe lorelei, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant impaired in sperm cell release, reminiscent of the feronia/sirène mutant. Pollen tubes reaching lorelei embryo sacs frequently do not rupture but continue to grow in the embryo sac. Furthermore, lorelei embryo sacs continue to attract additional pollen tubes after arrival of the initial pollen tube. The LORELEI gene is expressed in the synergid cells prior to fertilization and encodes a small plant-specific putative glucosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GAP). These results provide support for the concept of signaling mechanisms at the synergid cell membrane by which the female gametophyte recognizes the arrival of a compatible pollen tube and promotes sperm release. Although GAPs have previously been shown to play critical roles in initiation of fertilization in mammals, flowering plants appear to have independently evolved reproductive mechanisms that use the unique features of these proteins within a similar biological context. PMID:19028964
|M. P. Johnson's (1995) proposal that there are two qualitatively distinct types of intimate partner violence--intimate terrorism and situational couple violence--has been an influential explanation for disparate findings on sex symmetry in domestic violence. This study examines whether this typology increases our ability to explain variations in…
Gamete donation refers to the practice whereby either semen or eggs are donated by a third party to enable infertile individuals or couples to become parents. This paper examines the way in which gender is deployed as a resource for organizing the meanings attached to that practice. The gender aspects of gamete donation are not always immediately apparent since semen
In recent years, concerns have been raised regarding the potentially negative consequences of gamete donation for parent-child relationships. Findings are presented of a study of families with an infant conceived by gamete donation. Fifty donor insemination families and 51 egg donation families were compared with 80 natural conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of
Susan Golombok; Emma Lycett; Fiona MacCallum; Vasanti Jadva; Clare Murray; John Rust; Hossam Abdalla; Julian Jenkins; Raoul Margara
OBJECTIVE: The research tested the efficacy of partner- and planning-based interventions to reduce dietary fat intake over a 6-month period. DESIGN: Randomized controlled, blinded, parallel trial. METHODS: A computer randomization feature was used to allocate council employees (N = 427, of which 393 completed baseline measures) to one of four conditions (partner + implementation intentions, partner-only, implementation intentions, and control group) before they completed measures at baseline and follow-ups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Outcome measures were comprised of validated self-report measures of dietary fat intake (saturated fat intake, fat intake, ratio of 'good' fats to 'bad' fats); psychosocial mediators (enjoyment, intention, self-efficacy, social influence, partner support); weight and waist size (baseline and 6 months only). RESULTS: Data from 393 participants were analysed in accordance with intention-to-treat analyses. All intervention groups reported greater reductions in fat intake than the control group at 3 months. The partner-based groups increased the ratio of 'good' fats to 'bad' fats at 3 and 6 months and lost more inches on their waist, versus the non-partner groups. The impacts of the partner-based manipulations on outcomes were partially mediated by greater perceived social influences, partner support, and enjoyment of avoiding high-fat foods. The partner-based interventions also increased intention and self-efficacy. However, the effects in this study were typically small and generally marginally significant. CONCLUSIONS: Partner-based interventions had some positive benefits on dietary-related outcomes at 3 and 6 months. Support for implementation intentions was more limited. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Minimal interventions deliverable at a population level can have significant health impact. Encouraging partner support for dietary-related changes has yielded mixed findings. Implementation intentions have a small benefit on reducing the intake of unhealthy foods. What does this study add? This trial is the first test of the effect of collaborative implementation intentions on diet. Benefits of partner-based strategies on psychosocial, behavioural, and physical outcomes are found. PMID:23659492
Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark T; Lawton, Rebecca J; Ward, Jane K; Ayres, Karen; McEachan, Rosemary R C
For the first time, the Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston has tested communications with a commercial, crew-capable spacecraft, as The Boeing Company conducted an interface test between the MCC and software ...
Using data obtained from women’s shelter residents, male and female students, and male prisoners, this study investigated\\u000a the association between non-violent controlling behaviors, physical aggression, and violence towards a spouse (N?=?264). It was predicted that only men and women involved in intimate terrorism (Johnson, Violence Against Women, 11(12):1003–1018, 2006) would use controlling aggression, and that physical aggression used by those
The mammalian oviduct provides an optimal environment for the maturation of gametes, fertilization, and early embryonic development. Secretory cells lining the lumen of the mammalian oviduct synthesize and secrete proteins that have been shown to interact with and influence the activities of gametes and embryos. We hypothesized that the presence of gametes in the oviduct alters the oviductal secretory proteomic profile. We used a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify oviductal protein secretions that were altered in response to the presence of gametes in the oviduct. The oviductal response to spermatozoa was different from its response to oocytes as verified by Western blotting. The presence of spermatozoa or oocytes in the oviduct altered the secretion of specific proteins. Most of these proteins are known to have an influence on gamete maturation, viability, and function, and there is evidence to suggest these proteins may prepare the oviductal environment for arrival of the zygote. Our findings suggest the presence of a gamete recognition system within the oviduct capable of distinguishing between spermatozoa and oocytes. PMID:16105986
Georgiou, A Stephen; Sostaric, Edita; Wong, Chi H; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Wright, Phillip C; Moore, Harry D; Fazeli, Alireza
Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1) effective use of controller medications, 2) effective use of rescue medications and 3) monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1) the child's asthma control score, 2) the parent's quality of life score, and 3) the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications, having maintenance care visits at least twice a year, and an asthma action plan. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention was also measured. Discussion Twenty-two practices (66 physicians) were randomized (11 per treatment group), and 950 families with a child 3-12 years old with persistent asthma were enrolled. A description of the coaching intervention is presented. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00860834.
Objective: “Expressed emotion” (EE) refers to a set of valid and reliable measures of family emotional attitudes, which are robust predictors of illness course in several psychiatric conditions and which have recently been studied in some medical conditions. We hypothesised that high EE in partners of diabetes patients would be associated with poorer glucose control, management of and adaptation to
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a practice nurse led strategy to improve the notification and treatment of partners of people with chlamydia infection. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 27 general practices in the Bristol and Birmingham areas. Participants 140 men and women with chlamydia (index cases) diagnosed by screening of a home collected urine sample or vulval swab specimen.
Anne McCarthy; Mia Huengsberg; Emma Sanford; Jonathan A C Sterne; John Macleod; Chris Salisbury; Karl Pye; Aisha Holloway; Andrea Morcom; Rita Patel; Paddy Horner
Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a 'native' male from the female's own population and a 'foreign' male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation. PMID:16959638
The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and\\/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control.
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a practice nurse led strategy to improve the notification and treatment of partners of people with chlamydia infection. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 27 general practices in the Bristol and Birmingham areas. Participants 140 men and women with chlamydia (index cases) diagnosed by screening of a home collected urine sample or vulval swab specimen. Interventions Partner notification at the general practice immediately after diagnosis by trained practice nurses, with telephone follow up by a health adviser; or referral to a specialist health adviser at a genitourinary medicine clinic. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was the proportion of index cases with at least one treated sexual partner. Specified secondary outcomes included the number of sexual contacts elicited during a sexual history, positive test result for chlamydia six weeks after treatment, and the cost of each strategy in 2003 sterling prices. Results 65.3% (47/72) of participants receiving practice nurse led partner notification had at least one partner treated compared with 52.9% (39/68) of those referred to a genitourinary medicine clinic (risk difference 12.4%, 95% confidence interval -1.8% to 26.5%). Of 68 participants referred to the clinic, 21 (31%) did not attend. The costs per index case were £32.55 for the practice nurse led strategy and £32.62 for the specialist referral strategy. Conclusion Practice based partner notification by trained nurses with telephone follow up by health advisers is at least as effective as referral to a specialist health adviser at a genitourinary medicine clinic, and costs the same. Trial registration Clinical trials: NCT00112255.
Low, Nicola; McCarthy, Anne; Roberts, Tracy E; Huengsberg, Mia; Sanford, Emma; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Macleod, John; Salisbury, Chris; Pye, Karl; Holloway, Aisha; Morcom, Andrea; Patel, Rita; Robinson, Suzanne M; Horner, Paddy; Barton, Pelham M; Egger, Matthias
In Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdInsP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) comprised 0.4 and 0.3% of the whole-cell phospholipids. They were concentrated in the plasma membrane around the cell body and were present in low concentrations in the flagellar membrane. When gametes were fed 32PO4-, the label was rapidly incorporated into PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 and only slowly incorporated into structural
Jeanine Brederoo; Piet de Wildt; Corrie Popp-Snijders; Robin F. Irvine; Alan Musgrave; Herman van den Ende
We aimed to evaluate the total costs of sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and their treatment for patients and their partners as this is poorly described including famlies.Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry and other public databases all patients and their partners with a diagnosis of SA (n=30,278) or OHS (n=1,562) were included. They were compared to ages-, sex- and community location-matched citizens, ratio 1:4 (120,506 and 6,241 control subjects, respectively). Direct and indirect costs were evaluated for patients and their partners.SA and OHS patients and their partners had higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and unemployment and lower income level. Excess yearly direct net health and foregone earnings (indirect costs) were: €2,174 and €7,981 prior to diagnosis, and € 3.988 and €12,022 after diagnosis for SA and OHS, respectively. The comparable annual mean excess health-related costs for spouses were €1,965 and €2,862 before diagnosis, and €2,307 and €3,079 after diagnosis, for SA and OHS patients, respectively. These socioeconomic consequences were present up to twelve years before first diagnosis, and increased as the disease advanced.Consequently: SDB has major socioeconomic consequences for the patient and their spouses years before and after diagnosis. PMID:23563260
SUMMARY The paper reviews a recent research on the role of glutathione (GSH) in the male and female germ cells as well as during the early stages of embryo development in mammals. In both the male and female gametes, GSH is involved in the protection of these cells against oxidative damage. Glutathi- one has been implicated in maintaining the meiotic
Gamete production for both males and females can be energetically expensive such that selection should maximize fertilization opportunities while minimizing fertilization costs. In laboratory studies of Drosophila reproduction, however, the failure of eggs to yield adult progeny can be quite high, suggesting that female control over gamete utilization is surprisingly inefficient. We examined gamete utilization in D. pseudoobscura from nature and compared our observations to those for laboratory populations. In natural populations 100% of oviposited eggs effectively produce adult progeny, and fertilization is exclusively monospermic, indicating that in nature, D. pseudoobscura females maintain a very strict control over their reproduction such that gamete usage is extremely efficient. The potential reasons for the inefficient gamete utilization in the laboratory, as well as the potential impact on laboratory studies of sperm competition, sexual conflict, and the evolution of reproductive barriers are discussed. Furthermore, in this sperm-heteromorphic species, our observations show definitively that in nature, as well as in the laboratory, only the long sperm morph participates in fertilization. PMID:11886638
Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partnercontrolling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partnercontrolling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society.
Reinforcement, a process by which natural selection increases reproductive isolation between populations, has been suggested to be an important force in the formation of new species. However, all existing cases of reinforcement involve an increase in mate discrimination between species. Here, I report the first case of reinforcement of postmating prezygotic isolation (i.e., barriers that act after mating but before fertilization) in animals. On the slopes of the African island of São Tomé, Drosophila yakuba and its endemic sister species D. santomea hybridize within a well-demarcated hybrid zone. I find that D. yakuba females from within this zone, but not from outside it, show an increase in gametic isolation from males of D. santomea, an apparent result of natural selection acting to reduce maladaptive hybridization between species. To determine whether such a barrier could evolve under laboratory conditions, I exposed D. yakuba lines derived from allopatric populations to experimental sympatry with D. santomea, and found that both behavioral and gametic isolation become stronger after only four generations. Reinforcement thus appears to be the best explanation for the heightened gametic isolation seen in sympatry. This appears to be the first example in animals in which natural selection has promoted the evolution of stronger interspecific genetic barriers that act after mating but before fertilization. This suggests that many other genetic barriers between species have been increased by natural selection but have been overlooked because they are difficult to study.
Recent studies on cleaning behaviour suggest that there are conflicts between cleaners and their clients over what cleaners eat. The diet of cleaners usually contains ectoparasites and some client tissue. It is unclear, however, whether cleaners prefer client tissue over ectoparasites or whether they include client tissue in their diet only when searching for parasites alone is not profitable. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we trained cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus to feed from plates and offered them client mucus from the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus, parasitic monogenean flatworms, parasitic gnathiid isopods and boiled flour glue as a control. We found that cleaners ate more mucus and monogeneans than gnathiids, with gnathiids eaten slightly more often than the control substance. Because gnathiids are the most abundant ectoparasites, our results suggest a potential for conflict between cleaners and clients over what the cleaner should eat, and support studies emphasizing the importance of partnercontrol in keeping cleaning interactions mutualistic.
The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parenting behaviors fully mediate this relationship. Although higher levels of IPV were associated with both higher levels of harsh-intrusive parenting and lower levels of sensitive supportive parenting, only sensitive supportive parenting was associated with later effortful control when both parenting indices were considered in the same model. PMID:22142253
The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parenting behaviors fully mediate this relationship. Although higher levels of IPV were associated with both higher levels of harsh-intrusive parenting and lower levels of sensitive supportive parenting, only sensitive supportive parenting was associated with later effortful control when both parenting indices were considered in the same model.
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.; Blair, Clancy
The dramatic increase of gamete donations, as a result of technological advances in assisted reproduction, has raised considerable legal and halachic issues. This article raises reader awareness about problems involved in gamete donation within Jewish law (halacha), particularly in Israel. Two core problems with gamete donation are: deciding the mother of the child (donor or birthing mother) and genetic lineage. The former is important in establishing the child's religious status and the latter for matters of consanguinity and incest. Anonymous gamete donation increases the probability of incest. Persons unaware of their biological heritage could unintentionally cohabit with a close family member and progeny of this union would be considered mamzerim. These problems may be prevented by legislation, registration, and greater openness by the donor and the intended parents of the donor conceived child. This article focuses on the halachic perspective of gamete donation. Since consanguinity is prohibited by most cultures, the implications of gamete donation are universally relevant. PMID:21877469
Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) treatise on low self-control has been the subject of much debate and empirical testing. Although the theory was developed as an explanation for criminal offending, researchers have examined recently whether low self-control may increase the risk of criminal victimization. This study contributes to the literature by (1) simultaneously assessing the effects of low self-control on offending
It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts. PMID:23600194
...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93...other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) For all live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes offered for importation...
... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903... Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) Live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible...
...Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.904 Section 93...Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) General . All live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of...
Gamete Selection is a plant breeding selection methodology that has been traditionally shown to be effective in the development of a wide array of plant species. Widely utilized in corn, wheat, rye and legumes, a gamete selection approach has not been applied toward tall fescue germplasm developmen...
Tissue-specific gene expression requires modulation of nucleosomes, allowing transcription factors to occupy cis elements that are accessible only in selected tissues. Master transcription factors control cell-specific genes and define cellular identities, but it is unclear if they possess special abilities to regulate cell-specific chromatin and if such abilities might underlie lineage determination and maintenance. One prevailing view is that several transcription factors enable chromatin access in combination. The homeodomain protein CDX2 specifies the embryonic intestinal epithelium, through unknown mechanisms, and partners with transcription factors such as HNF4A in the adult intestine. We examined enhancer chromatin and gene expression following Cdx2 or Hnf4a excision in mouse intestines. HNF4A loss did not affect CDX2 binding or chromatin, whereas CDX2 depletion modified chromatin significantly at CDX2-bound enhancers, disrupted HNF4A occupancy, and abrogated expression of neighboring genes. Thus, CDX2 maintains transcription-permissive chromatin, illustrating a powerful and dominant effect on enhancer configuration in an adult tissue. Similar, hierarchical control of cell-specific chromatin states is probably a general property of master transcription factors.
Verzi, Michael P.; Shin, Hyunjin; San Roman, Adrianna K.
Tissue-specific gene expression requires modulation of nucleosomes, allowing transcription factors to occupy cis elements that are accessible only in selected tissues. Master transcription factors control cell-specific genes and define cellular identities, but it is unclear if they possess special abilities to regulate cell-specific chromatin and if such abilities might underlie lineage determination and maintenance. One prevailing view is that several transcription factors enable chromatin access in combination. The homeodomain protein CDX2 specifies the embryonic intestinal epithelium, through unknown mechanisms, and partners with transcription factors such as HNF4A in the adult intestine. We examined enhancer chromatin and gene expression following Cdx2 or Hnf4a excision in mouse intestines. HNF4A loss did not affect CDX2 binding or chromatin, whereas CDX2 depletion modified chromatin significantly at CDX2-bound enhancers, disrupted HNF4A occupancy, and abrogated expression of neighboring genes. Thus, CDX2 maintains transcription-permissive chromatin, illustrating a powerful and dominant effect on enhancer configuration in an adult tissue. Similar, hierarchical control of cell-specific chromatin states is probably a general property of master transcription factors. PMID:23129810
Verzi, Michael P; Shin, Hyunjin; San Roman, Adrianna K; Liu, X Shirley; Shivdasani, Ramesh A
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of economic resources, status compatibility, and alcohol consumption on forms of nonphysical abuse, such as controlling and emotional abuse. Specifically, we focus on the connections between women's employment, the employment of their partners, alcohol use, and women's risk of abuse in intimate relationships. We hypothesize that women in intimate relationships
The objective was to determine the efficacy of treating aggressive behavior in men, with a history of intimate partner abuse, with fluoxetine. Twenty-six men with a history of intimate-partner-abusing behavior entered a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine (20-60 mg by mouth per day). The primary outcome measure was the Aggression score from the overt aggression scale-modified (OAS-M). Fluoxetine-treated patients (n=13) did not differ from placebo-treated patients (n=13) on any key demographic or behavioral variables. Although a significant 'pre-post' reduction in OAS-M Aggression score was noted in all patients, no drug-placebo differences for OAS-M Aggression scores were seen in any analysis. Despite the small sample, these results do not support the hypothesis that treatment with an SSRI is associated with a reduction in aggressive behavior among men with a history of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18854722
Some countries and societies ban the use of donor gametes in IVF and other assisted reproductive treatments. Supporters of these bans maintain that third-party gametes damage marriage, pose dangers to children and families, put donors at risk, and endanger society at large, but these views are open to moral dispute. In particular, secular moral philosophy does not require couples to rely on their own gametes only to have children. Families can thrive even if children vary in their genetic relationships with parents and siblings. The use of donor gametes merits close attention in matters of safety and oversight, but there is no effect that is so damaging to children, donors or society that justifies closing off their use altogether. Moreover, bans on donor gametes can sometimes be evaded through reproductive tourism, which raises questions of justice for those unable to afford that option. According to one method of measuring moral progress - a method that relies on principles of humaneness and humanity - providing access to donor gametes makes important contributions to happiness and equality. These arguments suggest that the bans against donor gametes in fertility medicine should be reconsidered. PMID:19281666
Phureja-haploid Tuberosum hybrids, which produce 2n gametes in addition to n gametes, were used to obtain diploid progenies in 2x – 2x matings, and tetraploid progeny in 4x - 2x matings. Seven of these diploid clones were intermated in a modified diallel design, and also crossed to seven cultivars, to obtain 21, 16-clone diploid; and 49 (35, 2x X 4x
In vitro fertilization system of higher plants has been well established using maize gametes and central cells, which can\\u000a produce embryos and endosperms. In the present study, procedures for isolating gametes and central cells from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare), a model plant, are reported with the goal of establishing rice in vitro fertilization system. Egg cells\\u000a and central
A sample of 356 members of women’s groups, aged 18–49, in the Dominican Republic were interviewed by trained female interviewers.\\u000a Data among 273 partnered women were analyzed. The dependent variable, a measure of HIV-related negotiation, was examined for\\u000a associations with control of own money, level of women’s group participation, and ever having received a loan through a micro-credit\\u000a program. Findings
In isogamous species of Chlamydomonas, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas eugametos, the sexual process involves the use of flagella agglutinins by which the gametes of compatible strains adhere through chance encounter and ultimately pair and fuse to form zygotes. In a newly described heterogamous species, Chlamydomonas allensworthii, the sexual process is initiated by the chemoattraction of small sperm to a sexually competent female gamete, which continues to secrete the pheromone until it has fused with one of the sperm so attracted. From bacteria-free female strains of C. allensworthii, the chemoat-tractant has been isolated and identified as a pentosylated hydroquinone (Mr = 532) whose spectral, chemical, and physical properties are in accord with the structure of a 2,3-dimethyl-5-(triprenylcarboxymethyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone-1-(beta-xyloside). A rapid bioassay of the pheromone uses DEAE-Toyopearl 650M beads to which the pheromone adsorbs. When such activated beads are placed in a suspension of sperm, they act as surrogate females and attract the small motile sperm. The purified pheromone shows activity at a concentration as low as 1 pM.
This paper describes two related studies. Study 1 is a literature review of existing adult partner domestic violence assessment scales. Results of the review revealed that the scales varied on the available amount of empirical evidence for validity and reliability. More importantly, results showed that the content of the scales focused most heavily on the physical abuse aspects of domestic
Orin Strauchler; Kathy McCloskey; Kathleen Malloy; Marilyn Sitaker; Nancy Grigsby; Paulette Gillig
BACKGROUND: Mutualisms are inherently conflictual as one partner always benefits from reducing the costs imposed by the other. Despite the widespread recognition that mutualisms are essentially reciprocal exploitation, there are few documented examples of traits that limit the costs of mutualism. In plant\\/seed-eating pollinator interactions the only mechanisms reported so far are those specific to one particular system, such as
Sébastien Ibanez; Christiane Gallet; Fanny Dommanget; Laurence Després
There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691
Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J
Women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) are consistently found to have poor sexual and reproductive health when compared to non-abused women, but the mechanisms through which such associations occur are inadequately defined. Through face-to-face, semi-structured in-depth interviews, we gathered full reproductive histories of 71 women aged 18–49 with a history of IPV recruited from a family planning clinic,
The role of self-criticism in parenting behaviors and the impact of these behaviors on daughters’ own levels of self-criticism, depression, and perceptions of romantic partners were investigated. Parents provided information on their levels of self-criticism (DEQ; Blatt, D’Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976) and parenting styles (SASB; Benjamin, 1974). Their daughters completed questionnaires assessing their level of self-criticism, depression (BDI-II; Beck, 1996),
Many species of mammals are threatened or endangered. Methods of assisted reproduction that are being used with increasing frequency to produce offspring of domestic animals and humans are often viewed as offering innovative ways to reproduce non-domestic species as well. Uncounted millions of live young of domestic or laboratory species have been produced from gametes and embryos stored at -70 degrees C or below, sometimes for as long as 25 to 35 yrs. Such methods of cryopreservation are now being applied with increasing frequency and urgency to preserve gametes and embryos of non-domestic and threatened species to establish "genome resource banks" or "frozen zoos." But levels of success to produce live young from such cryopreserved gametes or embryos vary considerably from species to species, as well as from individual to individual. It is sometimes thought that differences among species in fundamental characteristics of their gametes may determine the efficacy of cryopreservation and the production of live young. However, it may not be that ineffective cryopreservation is responsible for low success rates. Rather, the limiting factor may be insufficient information and knowledge of the most basic reproductive biology of such non-domestic species. Even standard methods of cryopreservation may be completely adequate to act as a "temporary" expedient to preserve germplasm of non-domestic species to permit time to acquire a fuller understanding of the biology and behavior of non-domestic species. PMID:11775977
Polyploid plants are formed when numerically unreduced (2n) gametes participate in fertilization. Based on cytological and genetic analyses, modes of 2n gamete formation have been determined for a number of plant species. Gametes formed by a first division (FDR) restitution mechanism contain non-s...
The intertidal brown alga Silvetia compressa releases gametes from receptacles (the reproductive tissue) rapidly upon a dark transfer (following a photosynthesis-dependent period in the light, termed potentiation). In this study, the wavelength-dependence of this process was investigated. During the potentiation period in white light (WL), gametes are not released. However, gametes were released during potentiation in blue light (BL), or
Gareth A. Pearson; Ester A. Serrão; Matthew Dring; Rainer Schmid
Parental genomic imprinting causes preferential expression of one of the two parental alleles. In mammals, differential sex-dependent deposition of silencing DNA methylation marks during gametogenesis initiates a new cycle of imprinting. Parental genomic imprinting has been detected in plants and relies on DNA methylation by the methyltransferase MET1. However, in contrast to mammals, plant imprints are created by differential removal of silencing marks during gametogenesis. In Arabidopsis, DNA demethylation is mediated by the DNA glycosylase DEMETER (DME) causing activation of imprinted genes at the end of female gametogenesis. On the basis of genetic interactions, we show that in addition to DME, the plant homologs of the human Retinoblastoma (Rb) and its binding partner RbAp48 are required for the activation of the imprinted genes FIS2 and FWA. This Rb-dependent activation is mediated by direct transcriptional repression of MET1 during female gametogenesis. We have thus identified a new mechanism required for imprinting establishment, outlining a new role for the Retinoblastoma pathway, which may be conserved in mammals. PMID:18700816
Colorectal cancer control has long been a focus area for Comprehensive Cancer Control programs and their coalitions, given\\u000a the high burden of disease and the availability of effective screening interventions. Colorectal cancer control has been a\\u000a growing priority at the national, state, territorial, tribal, and local level. This paper summarizes several national initiatives\\u000a and features several Comprehensive Cancer Control Program
Laura C. Seeff; Anne Major; Julie S. Townsend; Ellen Provost; Diana Redwood; David Espey; Diane Dwyer; Robert Villanueva; Leslie Larsen; Kathryn Rowley; Banning Leonard
Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release. PMID:19543389
Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39±1.61 s in females and for 5.20±0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a ?-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.
Hypersomnia causes significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the time course and the effect on the partner. The aim of this study was to estimate the factual direct and productivity costs of hypersomnia in a controlled study including all national patients and their partners. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2009), we idendified all patients with a diagnosis of hypersomnia and compared these patients and their partners with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and marital status. Direct and productivity costs, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, medication, labour supply and social transfer payments were extracted from the national databases. A total of 2,855 national patients was compared to 11,382 controls. About 70 % of patients and controls were married or cohabiting. Patients with hypersomnia had significantly higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had slightly lower employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than control subjects. The annual mean excess health-related cost including social transfers was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were present in all age groups and in both genders. On the basis of this retrospective controlled study in the Danish population, symptoms and findings of hypersomnia are associated with major socioeconomic consequences for patients, their partners and society. PMID:23757094
Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Kjellberg, Jakob
The UK is facing increasing demand for sperm and eggs for use in medical treatment and research. The disparity between supply and demand has led a number of UK bodies to recommend the adoption of a national donation system, at least with regard to gamete donation for treatment. This article argues that a national gamete donation system would have benefits beyond those articulated by bodies such as the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, the British Fertility Society, and the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, because a system of this type could facilitate the legal and ethical implementation of donor incentives. Three types of incentive are explored and it is argued that a national donation system could and should be utilised to implement a mirror exchange scheme or, preferably, an indirect mirror exchange scheme. PMID:22469855
Gamete production after exposure to hypoxia or sulphide was studied in the marine macroalga Ulva sp. collected in the Sacca di Goro, Italy. Experiments were carried out on discs (12mm diameter) of thalli cultured in artificial sea water in laboratory at 20±1°C, 152?molm?2s?1, 16h photoperiod and 30‰ salinity. Dehydration of thallus was used as inducer of gametogenesis and growth and
Maria Grazia Corradi; Gessica Gorbi; Corrado Zanni
Summary Fertilization in the marine red algaAntithamnion nipponicum is a highly specific process involving non-motile male gametes, spermatia, and female receptive structures, carpogonia. FITC-lectin and Calcofluor white ST labelling show that the outer cell walls of spermatia differ from vegetative cells in carbohydrate composition. Specific binding of the lectins to spermatial walls was confirmed by lectin-gold labelling on thin sections.
Various procedures for artificial insemination in tench, Tinca tinca (L.) were re-examined with evaluation of fecundity of males and females among different tench strains. The objectives of\\u000a this study were to enhance fertilization and hatching rates through optimization of the activation solution, the insemination\\u000a process, the activation of gametes, and the elimination of eggs stickiness. Sperm for all experiments was
OTOMAR LINHART; MAREK RODINA; MARTIN KOCOUR; DAVID GELA
Objective: To report two cases of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) after artificial insemination and to discuss why genetic screening of the disease may be justified in gamete donors.Design: Case report.Setting: Academic departments of genetics and obstetrics.Patient(s): A 32-year-old woman with two successive assisted pregnancies.Intervention(s): Molecular studies of the SMN1 (survival motor neuron), the determining gene of the disease.Main Outcome Measure(s):
Eduardo F. Tizzano; Ivón Cuscó; Mar??a Jesús Barceló; Juan Parra; Montserrat Baiget
The need for Shared Situational Awareness (SSA) in accomplishing joint missions by coalition militaries, law enforcement, the intelligence community, and the private sector creates a unique challenge to providing access control. In this thesis we investig...
Controlling behaviors have been found to be a significant predictor in IPV perpetration (IPV) for both males and females.\\u000a Studies have also revealed the relationship between IPV perpetration and masculinity among males; however, the literature\\u000a has not investigated the relationship between masculinity and IPV perpetration among females. Additionally, studies have not\\u000a explored the effects of controlling behaviors and masculinity on
Background and Aims Gametophytic apomixis is regularly associated with polyploidy. It has been hypothesized that apomixis is not present in diploid plants because of a pleiotropic lethal effect associated with monoploid gametes. Rare apomictic triploid plants for Paspalum notatum and P. simplex, which usually have sexual diploid and apomictic tetraploid races, were acquired. These triploids normally produce male gametes through meiosis with a range of chromosome numbers from monoploid (n = 10) to diploid (n = 20). The patterns of apomixis transmission in Paspalum were investigated in relation to the ploidy levels of gametes. Methods Intraspecific crosses were made between sexual diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants as female parents and apomictic triploid plants as male parents. Apomictic progeny were identified by using molecular markers completely linked to apomixis and the analysis of mature embryo sacs. The chromosome number of the male gamete was inferred from chromosome counts of each progeny. Key Results The chromosome numbers of the progeny indicated that the chromosome input of male gametes depended on the chromosome number of the female gamete. The apomictic trait was not transmitted through monoploid gametes, at least when the progeny was diploid. Diploid or near-diploid gametes transmitted apomixis at very low rates. Conclusions Since male monoploid gametes usually failed to form polyploid progenies, for example triploids after 4x × 3x crosses, it was not possible to determine whether apomixis could segregate in polyploid progenies by means of monoploid gametes.
Martinez, Eric J.; Acuna, Carlos A.; Hojsgaard, Diego H.; Tcach, Mauricio A.; Quarin, Camilo L.
|This issue of "Civic Partners" is a call to action on behalf of American's cities. The issue opens with John W. Gardner's discussion of the "responsibles" whose vision and energy sustain communities. He stresses that all of us are "responsibles." Among the many tasks that face those responsible for urban improvement is the teaching of conflict…
Pew Partnership for Civic Change, Charlottesville, VA.
In this work, we provide evidence based on direct observation of behavior in encounters of opposite-sexed strangers, that women initiate and “control” the outcome. In the first minute of these videotaped 10-min interactions, neither female “solicitation” behavior nor “negative” behavior is strongly related to professed interest in the man, while female “affirmative” behavior at this stage modulates male verbal output
Karl Grammer; Kirsten Kruck; Astrid Juette; Bernhard Fink
This report details the assessment and intervention carried out with a couple, "Paula" and "Bob", who both had a moderate learning disability. Paula was referred to the Psychology Service for some work focussing on difficulties in controlling her responses to anger. This report discusses the assessment and offers a formulation from a cognitive…
The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Cancer Center (LCC) partnership establish a planning U56 funded Partnership that build upon their successes in a funded P20 Partnership. The U56 Partnership will focus exclusively on Cancer Prevention and Control.
Several recent reports have identified TET1 as the main enzyme modulating DNA methylation and gene transcription via hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine. However, little is known about the protein network that controls TET1 activity. By using a new proximity ligation in situ assay, we identified MeCP2, HDAC1/6/7, EZH2, mSin3A, PCNA, and LSD1 as TET1-interacting proteins. We also discerned that TET1/PCNA acts as a demethylator of the cyclical methylation/demethylation process, the perturbation of which promotes the aberrant methylation hallmarks frequently observed in cancer cells. PMID:24069510
Cartron, Pierre-François; Nadaradjane, Arulraj; Lepape, Fiona; Lalier, Lisenn; Gardie, Betty; Vallette, François M
Several recent reports have identified TET1 as the main enzyme modulating DNA methylation and gene transcription via hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine. However, little is known about the protein network that controls TET1 activity. By using a new proximity ligation in situ assay, we identified MeCP2, HDAC1/6/7, EZH2, mSin3A, PCNA, and LSD1 as TET1-interacting proteins. We also discerned that TET1/PCNA acts as a demethylator of the cyclical methylation/demethylation process, the perturbation of which promotes the aberrant methylation hallmarks frequently observed in cancer cells.
Plant breeding is focused on continuously increasing crop production to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population, improving food quality to ensure a long and healthy life and address the problems of global warming and environment pollution, together with the challenges of developing novel sources of biofuels. The breeders' search for novel genetic combinations, with which to select plants with improved traits to satisfy both farmers and consumers, is endless. About half of the dramatic increase in crop yield obtained in the second half of the last century has been achieved thanks to the results of genetic improvement, while the residual advance has been due to the enhanced management techniques (pest and disease control, fertilization, and irrigation). Biotechnologies provide powerful tools for plant breeding, and among these ones, tissue culture, particularly haploid and doubled haploid technology, can effectively help to select superior plants. In fact, haploids (Hs), which are plants with gametophytic chromosome number, and doubled haploids (DHs), which are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication, represent a particularly attractive biotechnological method to accelerate plant breeding. Currently, haploid technology, making possible through gametic embryogenesis the single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, has already had a huge impact on agricultural systems of many agronomically important crops, representing an integral part in their improvement programmes. The aim of this review was to provide some background, recent advances, and future prospective on the employment of haploid technology through gametic embryogenesis as a powerful tool to support plant breeding. PMID:21431908
The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level. PMID:20621751
In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid is formed during protease (PR)-directed viral maturation, and is transformed into pre-integration complexes following reverse transcription in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. Here, we report a detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis of the impact of HIV-1 PR and reverse transcriptase (RT) on nucleocapsid plasticity, using in vitro reconstitutions. After binding to nucleic acids, NCp15, a proteolytic intermediate of nucleocapsid protein (NC), was processed at its C-terminus by PR, yielding premature NC (NCp9) followed by mature NC (NCp7), through the consecutive removal of p6 and p1. This allowed NC co-aggregation with its single-stranded nucleic-acid substrate. Examination of these co-aggregates for the ability of RT to catalyse reverse transcription showed an effective synthesis of double-stranded DNA that, remarkably, escaped from the aggregates more efficiently with NCp7 than with NCp9. These data offer a compelling explanation for results from previous virological studies that focused on i) Gag processing leading to nucleocapsid condensation, and ii) the disappearance of NCp7 from the HIV-1 pre-integration complexes. We propose that HIV-1 PR and RT, by controlling the nucleocapsid architecture during the steps of condensation and dismantling, engage in a successive nucleoprotein-remodelling process that spatiotemporally coordinates the pre-integration steps of HIV-1. Finally we suggest that nucleoprotein remodelling mechanisms are common features developed by mobile genetic elements to ensure successful replication.
Coulaud, Dominique; Hameau, Laurence; Lafosse, Sophie; Jeusset, Josette; Borde, Isabelle; Reboud-Ravaux, Michele; Restle, Tobias; Gorelick, Robert J.; Le Cam, Eric
Background Studies in North America and other high-income regions support the distinction between extreme "intimate terrorism" and occasional "situational couple violence", defined conceptually in terms of the presence or absence of controlling behaviour in the violent member of the couple. Relatively little research has been conducted on the different forms intimate partner violence may take in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these expressions of intimate partner violence in one low-income country, Vietnam, adhere to patterns observed in western industrialised countries as well as to investigate the resulting health effects. Methods This cross-sectional study collected structured interview data from 883 married women aged 17–60, using the Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire developed by WHO. Intimate partner violence was assessed by past-year experience of physical or sexual violence and control tactics were assessed using six items combined into a scale. Three different health parameters constituted the dependent variables. Bi- and multivariate analyses, including effect modification analyses, were performed. Results Of the participants, 81 (9.2%) had been exposed to physical or sexual violence during the past 12 months; of these, 26 (32.1%) had been subjected to one or more controlling behaviours by their partners. The risk of ill health associated with combined exposure was elevated eight to 15 times, compared to a two-fourfold risk increase after exposure to only one of the behaviours, i.e. violent acts or control tactics. Conclusion Physical or sexual violence combined with control tactics acted synergistically to worsen health in rural Vietnamese women. The occurrence of such violence calls for altered policies, increased research and implementation of preventive and curative strategies. The unacceptability of intimate partner violence as a part of normal Vietnamese family life must be recognised in the general debate.
While cancer rates continue to increase, therapy has dramatically decreased the mortality rates. The increased efficacy of current therapies may unfortunately have profound toxic effects on gamete function in both adolescent and reproductive age groups, with infertility as an expected consequence of cancer therapy. Significant progress in the advancement of fertility preservation therapies provides realistic options for future fertility in cancer survivors. However, a number of challenging issues need to be considered when presenting fertility preservation options. This overview highlights some of these considerations including religious-cultural-ethical values, access to care and cost of services, developmental capacity and consent, and posthumous reproduction. PMID:24088162
Ayensu-Coker, Leslie; Essig, Ellen; Breech, Lesley L; Lindheim, Steven
Prostate cancer can threaten quality of life for the patient and his spouse and the quality of his marital relationship. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effects of “Exercising Together” – a partnered strength training program for married couples coping with prostate cancer – on the physical and emotional health of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) and their spouses and on marital quality. We are conducting a 6-month randomized controlled trial with two groups: 1) Exercising Together - a progressive, supervised strength training program and 2) a usual care control condition. The primary aims of this exploratory study are to: 1) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health (muscle strength, physical function, body composition and self-report physical and mental health) in PCS, 2) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health in spouses and 3) Explore the effect of partnered strength training on marital quality (incongruence, communication, relationship quality, intimacy) of the PCS and spouse. Target accrual has been met in this study with 64 couples enrolled and randomized to exercise (n=32) or usual care (n=32) groups. This study is the first to examine the feasibility of this exercise format in both the chronically ill patient and spouse and explore benefits at the individual and couple level.
Winters-Stone, Kerri M.; Lyons, Karen S.; Nail, Lillian M.; Beer, Tomasz M.
Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government. PMID:22786778
Proteins on gamete surfaces are major determinants of fertilization success, particularly in free-spawning animals. Molecular analyses of these simple genetic systems show rapid evolution, positive selection, accelerated coalescence and, sometimes, extensive polymorphism. Careful analysis of the behavior of sperm produced by males with different gamete alleles shows that these alleles can deliver significant functional differences. Three forms of allele-specific fertilization
The microtubule system associated with the Chlamydomonas reinhardi flagellar apparatus is shown to differ from previous descriptions; two of the four flagellar "roots" possess only two microtubules and are associated with a finely striated fiber. In gametic cells this fiber underlies the gametic mating structure and makes contact with it. Functional interpretations are offered.
Light microscope and fine structural studies of the gametes of Hormosira banksii show the antherozoids as typical Fucales biflagellate gametes with a posterior whiplash flagellum and an anterior flagellum with mastigonemes. The oospheres are enclosed in a plasma membrane, are highly vacuolate and contain abundant phenolic inclusions.Antherozoids attach to the surface of the oospheres by their anterior flagellum at conjugation.
During fertilization in Chlamydomonas, gametes of opposite mating types interact with each other through sex-specific adhesion molecules on their flagellar surfaces. Flagellar adhesion brings the cell bodies of the gametes into close contact and initiates a signal transduction pathway in preparation for cell-cell fusion. We have identified a cDNA, gsp1, whose transcript levels are upregulated during flagellar adhesion. The GSP1 polypeptide is a novel, gamete-specific homeodomain protein, the first to be identified in an alga. Its homeodomain shows significant identity with several higher plant homeodomain proteins. Although encoded by a single copy gene present in cells of both mating types, immunoblot analysis showed that GSP1 was expressed in mating type (mt)+ gametes, but was not detectable in mt- gametes or in vegetative cells of either mating type. Moreover, GSP1 appeared late during gametogenesis, suggesting that it may function during adhesion with mt- gametes or after zygote formation. GSP1 is expressed in imp11, mt- mutant gametes, which have a lesion in the mid gene involved in sex determination and exhibit many phenotypic characteristics of mt+ gametes. Thus, gsp1 is negatively regulated by mid and is the first molecule to be identified in Chlamydomonas that shows sex-limited expression. PMID:9864368
‘Reproductive tourism’ has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within ‘global reproscapes,’ which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the
Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid\\u000a formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads\\u000a from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from
Annaliese S Mason; Matthew N Nelson; Guijun Yan; Wallace A Cowling
Trichomonas vaginalis infection in men is an important cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Effective detection of the parasite in men using culture requires examination of multiple specimens. We compared culture and PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in urethral swabs, urine, and semen for T. vaginalis detection in male sexual partners of women with trichomoniasis identified by wet mount and culture. Trichomonads were detected
Marcia M. Hobbs; Dana M. Lapple; Lisa F. Lawing; Jane R. Schwebke; Myron S. Cohen; Heidi Swygard; Julius Atashili; Peter A. Leone; William C. Miller; Arlene C. Sena
|This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on…
...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93...the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) The following...ports of entry for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of SVC-susceptible...
\\u000a Intimate partner violence (IPV) is characterized by a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include battering and injury,\\u000a psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation. These patterns of abuse\\u000a are used to maintain power and control within the context of an adult or adolescent intimate relationship. In the literature,\\u000a IPV is often used interchangeably with the terms
Problems of gamete recognition in corals and other mass-spawning invertebrates are potentially great. In 'mass spawnings', closely-related species or genera commonly spawn at the same time, or within 1 or 2 h of each other, increasing the potential for hybridization. Among mass-spawning corals, most of the species involved are hermaphrodites that package the gametes in buoyant bundles that float to the sea surface before breaking up. Local hydrodynamic features frequently act to aggregate gametes from many different species into slicks where both eggs and sperm can be viable for extended periods. Other mass-spawning invertebrate taxa, such as molluscs, polychaetes and various echinoderms, do not have buoyant gametes but also spawn with a high level of synchrony. Gametes of organisms participating in these spawning events must be able to successfully recognize conspecifics. If they cannot do this, either through sperm chemotaxis or by mechanisms at the level of sperm binding and penetration, there may be high levels of gamete wastage through hybridization. Alternatively, viable hybrids may be formed, a factor that could have contributed to the evolutionary history of mass-spawning taxa, as well as to the taxonomic difficulties that have plagued the taxonomy of groups such as reef-building corals. Within some mass-spawning taxa, pre-zygotic barriers to fertilization suggest relatively recent molecular evolution at gamete recognition loci. PMID:8711225
Fucoid algae release gametes into seawater following an inductive light period (potentiation), and gamete expulsion from potentiated receptacles of Pelvetia compressa began about 2 min after a light-to-dark transition. Agitation of the medium reversed potentiation, with an exponential time course completed in about 3 h. Light regulated two signaling pathways during potentiation and gamete expulsion: a photosynthetic pathway and a photosynthesis-independent pathway in which red light was active but blue light was not. Uptake of K+ appears to have an important role in potentiation, because a 50% inhibition of potentiation occurred in the presence of the tetraethylammonium ion, a K+-channel blocker. A central role of anion channels in the maintenance of potentiation is suggested by the premature release of gametes in the light when receptacles were incubated with inhibitors of slow-type anion channels. An inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, tyrphostin A63, also inhibited potentiation. A model for gamete release from P. compressa is presented that proposes that illumination results in the accumulation of ions (e.g. K+) throughout the cells of the receptacle during potentiation, which then move into the extracellular matrix during gamete expulsion to generate osmomechanical force, resulting in gamete release.
A central statement of the theory of natural trading partners is that preferential trading with regional trading partners is less likely to be trade diverting and therefore geographically proximate partners are to be considered \\
Eight rhesus monkeys immunized with a partially purified preparation of Plasmodium knowlesi gametes were monitored for over 6 years to determine the extent of transmission blocking immunity. Monkeys were challenged regularly, and anti-gamete antibodies were assayed by in vivo and in vitro mosquito feedings. Transmission blocking immunity persisted at high levels in most of the monkeys. In those animals in which protection waned between challenges, a challenge infection provided a sufficient booster effect to prevent infection of mosquitoes. Immunity to other stages of malaria (i.e., sporozoites and asexual erythrocyte forms) failed to induce immunity against gametes.
The goal of this research was to investigate developmental pathways of victimization and perpetration of intimate partner and sexual violence (IPSV) by capitalizing upon the Reach for Health (RFH) longitudinal study of urban minority youth. Education Deve...
BACKGROUND: Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the
Natasha L Pavlin; Rhian M Parker; Anna K Piggin; Carol A Hopkins; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Christopher K Fairley; Jane E Tomnay; Francis J Bowden; Darren B Russell; Jane S Hocking; Marian K Pitts; Marcus Y Chen
This document discusses the ethical implications regarding informing offspring of their conception using gamete or embryo donation. It replaces the 2004 ASRM Ethics Committee document of the same name (Fertil Steril 2004;81:527-31). PMID:23477678
Background Geneticists who look beyond single locus disease associations require additional strategies for the detection of complex multi-locus effects. Epistasis, a multi-locus masking effect, presents a particular challenge, and has been the target of bioinformatic development. Thorough evaluation of new algorithms calls for simulation studies in which known disease models are sought. To date, the best methods for generating simulated multi-locus epistatic models rely on genetic algorithms. However, such methods are computationally expensive, difficult to adapt to multiple objectives, and unlikely to yield models with a precise form of epistasis which we refer to as pure and strict. Purely and strictly epistatic models constitute the worst-case in terms of detecting disease associations, since such associations may only be observed if all n-loci are included in the disease model. This makes them an attractive gold standard for simulation studies considering complex multi-locus effects. Results We introduce GAMETES, a user-friendly software package and algorithm which generates complex biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) disease models for simulation studies. GAMETES rapidly and precisely generates random, pure, strict n-locus models with specified genetic constraints. These constraints include heritability, minor allele frequencies of the SNPs, and population prevalence. GAMETES also includes a simple dataset simulation strategy which may be utilized to rapidly generate an archive of simulated datasets for given genetic models. We highlight the utility and limitations of GAMETES with an example simulation study using MDR, an algorithm designed to detect epistasis. Conclusions GAMETES is a fast, flexible, and precise tool for generating complex n-locus models with random architectures. While GAMETES has a limited ability to generate models with higher heritabilities, it is proficient at generating the lower heritability models typically used in simulation studies evaluating new algorithms. In addition, the GAMETES modeling strategy may be flexibly combined with any dataset simulation strategy. Beyond dataset simulation, GAMETES could be employed to pursue theoretical characterization of genetic models and epistasis.
Fertilization is the fundamental system of biological reproduction in many organisms, including animals, plants, and algae. A growing body of knowledge has emerged to explain how fertilization and activation of development are accomplished. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of fertilization are in progress for a wide variety of multicellular organisms. In this review, we summarize recent findings and debates about the long-standing questions concerning fertilization: how egg and sperm become competent for their interaction with each other, how the binding and fusion of these gamete cells are made possible, and how the fertilized eggs initiate development to a newborn. We will focus on the structure and function of the membrane microdomains (MDs) of egg and sperm that may serve as a platform or signaling center for the aforementioned cellular functions. In particular, we provide evidence that MDs of eggs from the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, play a pivotal role in receiving extracellular signals from fertilizing sperm and then transmitting them to the egg cytoplasm, where the tyrosine kinase Src is present and responsible for the subsequent signaling events collectively called egg activation. The presence of a new signaling axis involving uroplakin III, an MD-associated transmembrane protein, and Src in this system will be highlighted and discussed. PMID:21688335
Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Fukami, Yasuo; Sato, Ken-ichi
Mortality rates are high among captive African black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), due to increased susceptibility to disease. The ability to rescue genetic material from individuals that die unexpectedly represents a practical approach to assist ex situ conservation efforts. The objectives of the present study were to attempt postmortem oocyte recovery from ovaries of African black rhinoceroses (N = 6) and to test the efficacy of equine protocols for rhinoceros oocyte IVM and IVF using cryopreserved rhinoceros sperm. The interval from ovary removal to oocyte recovery was 25.3 ± 13.9 h (mean ± SD). Ovaries were transported at 4 °C or 22 °C and effects of temperature on postmortem oocyte competence was evaluated. Numbers of oocytes collected per female averaged 15.8 ± 6.9. In total, 95 oocytes were recovered. Of these, 85 were inseminated using homologous sperm and 10 were inseminated using heterologous sperm. Overall, substantial numbers of viable oocytes were retrieved from African black rhinoceros ovaries 1 to 2 days postmortem from ovaries stored at ambient temperature. A proportion of these oocytes matured and underwent penetration and fertilization by heterologous or homologous frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm. The reproductive competence of postmortem oocytes was further demonstrated by development of a single two-cell embryo. Despite the need for further refinements, gamete rescue in the rhinoceros has promise for producing rhinoceros embryos, as well as testing sperm functions in vitro. PMID:21752452
Objective The use of donor sperm or ova becomes an option for some infertile couples. We sought to determine the views towards donor sperm and eggs of both men and women. Design Prospective cohort of infertile couples Setting Eight California reproductive endocrinology practices Patients Infertile couples (n=377) were recruited after initial infertility clinic visit. Main Outcome Measures From questionnaires administered at recruitment, ratings concerning the impact of the use of donor gametes were assessed. Differences between men and women in attitudes toward donor gametes were compared with ANOVA. Linear regression was used to identify independent predictors of attitudes towards gametes. Results Female's attitudes towards donor sperm were significantly more negative than their attitudes towards donor eggs (5.1±1.4 vs 4.7±1.6*). Similarly, male donor gamete attitude scores were higher for donor sperm compared to donor eggs (4.9±1.6 vs 4.1±1.6*). Both men and women agreed that the use of donor sperm was more likely to have negative effects on their relationship and negative societal ramifications. Female donor gamete attitude scores were predicted by marital status, race, and education while men's scores were independent of all measured factors.* p<0.0001 Conclusions Both men and women view the use of donor sperm with more skepticism compared to the use of donor eggs suggesting a unique underlying perception regarding the use of male donor gametes.
Eisenberg, Michael L.; Smith, James F.; Millstein, Susan G.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Katz, Patricia P.
In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into a two-celled proembryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell that possess different cell fates. This first division of the zygote is a putative step in the formation of the apical–basal axis of the proembryo. The gamete fusion activates the egg, and the gamete fusion site on the zygote has been reported to provide a possible cue for subsequent zygotic development and/or embryonic patterning in animals and plants. In this study, the gamete fusion site on the rice zygote was labelled by in vitro fertilization of a rice egg cell with a fluorescence-stained sperm cell. The positional relationship between the gamete fusion site and the division plane formed by zygotic cleavage was monitored using a fixed culture of the fusion site-labelled zygote until the two-celled proembryo stage. The results indicate that gamete fusion sites exist on two-celled proembryos with no relation to the position of the first division plane, and that the gamete fusion site on the rice zygote does not function as a determinant for positioning the zygote division plane.
Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population.
Weir, Brian W.; O'Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.
BACKGROUND: Partner notification is accepted as a vital component in the control of chlamydia. However, in reality, many sexual partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia are never informed of their risk. The newer technologies of email and SMS have been used as a means of improving partner notification rates. This study explored the use and acceptability of different partner notification
Carol A Hopkins; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Christopher K Fairley; Natasha L Pavlin; Jane E Tomnay; Rhian M Parker; Frank J Bowden; Darren B Russell; Jane S Hocking; Marcus Y Chen
This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.
Centrosomes of human gametes need to be characterised in more detail, since it was recently shown in 1991 that the human embryo inherits the dominant paternal centrosome at fertilization. Thus there has been a resurgence of centrosomal research in the last decade. The sperm centrosome, containing a single centriole, is preserved and dominant while the egg centrosome is reduced and inactivated during oogenesis, since there should be only one functional centrosome to ensure normal development. This presentation reviews the ultrastructure of gamete centrosomes and attempts to define their respective roles in assisted fertilization. Human testicular and ovarian tissues, sperm, eggs and zygotes were examined by routine TEM. Developing sperm cells and oogonia have two functional centrioles (diplosomes) in their centrosomes, showing the typical "9+0" organisation of microtubule triplets--common to somatic cells. The diplosomes are surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM), which nucleate microtubules (MT) that organize the cytoskeleton and mitotic spindles. During spermiogenesis, when the spermatids transform into mature sperm, there is a partial reduction of the male centrosome, during which the proximal centriole (PC) is retained intact in the sperm neck, proximal to the nucleus, while the distal centriole (DC) which gave rise to the sperm flagellum, is partially reduced and merges distally with the sperm axoneme in the midpiece and tail. The proximal functional centriole is located in a "black box" in the neck, composed of the capitulum beneath the basal plate and flanked laterally by 9 segmented columns and shows the typical "9+0" organisation of triplets of MT. The PC contains dense material both within and outside the triplets, and the central doublet of axonemal MT terminates in a clump of dense material below its lower vault. The DC is disorganised proximally showing loss of triplets and cannot function as a typical centriole, since the central doublets of axonemal MT traverse through it. Oogonia present a pair of well-defined centrioles, which are involved in cell division. These are lost during oogenesis and the mature oocyte is devoid of centrioles, as in most mammals. Neither does the human oocyte have granular centrosomal material at meiotic spindle poles, in contrast to mouse oocytes which have a dominant maternal centrosome. Thus the oocyte centrosome is greatly reduced and inactivated. Functional centrosomal structure is, however, restored after fertilization in the zygote with some maternal input around the sperm centriole, which duplicates at the pronuclear stage, forms a sperm aster and proceeds to form the first mitotic spindle. This is the ancestor of centrosomes in embryonic, foetal and adult somatic cells. In 1991 (Sathananthan, 1991), we postulated that sperm centrosomal dysfunction could lead to aberrant embryonic development based on centriolar defects in sperm with impaired motility. This hypothesis has now gained acceptance and further evidence to support this theory of infertility is presented. PMID:11732597
Sathananthan, A H; Ratnasooriya, W D; de Silva, P K; Menezes, J
Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, threatens 40% of the world's population. Transmission between vertebrate and insect hosts depends on the sexual stages of the life-cycle. The male gamete of Plasmodium parasite is the only developmental stage that possesses a flagellum. Very little is known about the identity or function of proteins in the parasite's flagellar biology. Here, we characterise a Plasmodium PF16 homologue using reverse genetics in the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. PF16 is a conserved Armadillo-repeat protein that regulates flagellar structure and motility in organisms as diverse as green algae and mice. We show that P. berghei PF16 is expressed in the male gamete flagellum, where it plays a crucial role maintaining the correct microtubule structure in the central apparatus of the axoneme as studied by electron microscopy. Disruption of the PF16 gene results in abnormal flagellar movement and reduced fertility, but does not lead to complete sterility, unlike pf16 mutations in other organisms. Using homology modelling, bioinformatics analysis and complementation studies in Chlamydomonas, we show that some regions of the PF16 protein are highly conserved across all eukaryotes, whereas other regions may have species-specific functions. PF16 is the first ARM-repeat protein characterised in the malaria parasite genus Plasmodium and this study opens up a novel model for analysis of Plasmodium flagellar biology that may provide unique insights into an ancient organelle and suggest novel intervention strategies to control the malaria parasite. PMID:20886115
Straschil, Ursula; Talman, Arthur M; Ferguson, David J P; Bunting, Karen A; Xu, Zhengyao; Bailes, Elizabeth; Sinden, Robert E; Holder, Anthony A; Smith, Elizabeth F; Coates, Juliet C; Rita Tewari
Apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction through seeds in angiosperms. Apomictic plants bypass meiosis and fertilization, developing offspring that are genetically identical to their mother. In a genetic screen for maize (Zea mays) mutants mimicking aspects of apomixis, we identified a dominant mutation resulting in the formation of functional unreduced gametes. The mutant shows defects in chromatin condensation during meiosis and subsequent failure to segregate chromosomes. The mutated locus codes for AGO104, a member of the ARGONAUTE family of proteins. AGO104 accumulates specifically in somatic cells surrounding the female meiocyte, suggesting a mobile signal rather than cell-autonomous control. AGO104 is necessary for non-CG methylation of centromeric and knob-repeat DNA. Digital gene expression tag profiling experiments using high-throughput sequencing show that AGO104 influences the transcription of many targets in the ovaries, with a strong effect on centromeric repeats. AGO104 is related to Arabidopsis thaliana AGO9, but while AGO9 acts to repress germ cell fate in somatic tissues, AGO104 acts to repress somatic fate in germ cells. Our findings show that female germ cell development in maize is dependent upon conserved small RNA pathways acting non-cell-autonomously in the ovule. Interfering with this repression leads to apomixis-like phenotypes in maize.
Singh, Manjit; Goel, Shalendra; Meeley, Robert B.; Dantec, Christelle; Parrinello, Hugues; Michaud, Caroline; Leblanc, Olivier; Grimanelli, Daniel
Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.
This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 non-clinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater “anxiety over abandonment” or “discomfort with closeness” endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the “anxiety over abandonment” dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, while wives with higher scores
Peter R. Kilmann; Holmes Finch; Michele M. Parnell; Jason T. Downer
– \\u000a \\u000a • Development of both somatic and gametic embryogenesis has many applications in clonal forestry and genetic improvement,\\u000a for instance as mass-propagation of genetically improved plants and production of pure lines through doubled-haploid plant\\u000a regeneration from gametic embryos.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The goal of this work was to improve growth, maturation and plantlet regeneration of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos
Beatriz Pintos; Jose A. Manzanera; M. Angeles Bueno
An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity. PMID:23335697
Background: Young adults are generally overlooked in tobacco control initiatives, even though they are critical to sustained success. African American young adults who are not in higher education or working are particularly vulnerable to harmful tobacco use, given high smoking rates and limited access to cessation services. Objectives: Guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, we sought to identify programand
Katherine Clegg Smith; Lee Bone; Eric A. Clay; Kerry Owings; Sean Thames; Frances Stillman
Prevalence studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in primary care indicate that 5.5% of adult female patients\\u000a in an outpatient clinic setting had experienced physical abuse by an intimate partner in the year before their doctor’s visit.\\u000a If these patients are asked whether they had experienced abuse by an intimate partner at some time in their life, the number
Intimate partner homicides represent the most severe outcome of intimate partner violence, and constitute more than a quarter (26%) of all homicides in adults over 15 years of age in Southern Denmark. In our experience the victims of partner homicides are primarily women, often from socially disadvantaged families, and that these homicides usually are the result of an impulsive act, with the perpetrator often committing suicide after the act. The aim of this study was to investigate these hypotheses further, and to provide an up-to-date overview of intimate partner homicides in Southern Denmark. PMID:19598012
BACKGROUND: Findings are presented of the second phase of a longitudinal study of families created through gamete donation. METHODS: At the time of the child's second birthday, 46 donor insemination families and 48 egg donation families were compared with 68 natural conception families on standardized interview and question- naire measures of the psychological well being of the parents, parent -
S. Golombok; V. Jadva; E. Lycett; C. Murray; F. MacCallum
Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.
Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)
Gametogenesis is associated with DNA methylation and involves complicated and delicate gene regulation network in which stem cell marker genes exert their functions. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate DNA methylation profiles of those genes in mature gametes that have an effect on embryo development. However, to date, there are limited data available on these genes in mature gametes of bovine. Here we show methylation profiles in 5' terminal regions of five pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Rex1 and Fgf4) in bovine mature gametes, based on the reasoning that the five genes harbour CpG islands in their own 5' terminal regions, which are frequently the targets of DNA methylation. The results showed that Oct4 and Fgf4 exhibited significant hypermethylation in sperm compared with that in oocytes (p < 0.01), while Sox2 and Nanog displayed relatively the same methylation levels between sperm and oocytes (p > 0.05). Additionally, Rex1 showed a relatively high methylation level in sperm than in oocytes, although no significant differences were found (p > 0.05). In conclusion, bovine mature gametes exhibited two methylation profiles in terms of the five genes, one being non-sex-specific and the other being sex-specific. PMID:20604984
Objective: To confirm whether brief exposure of human oocytes to spermatozoa in vitro results in equivalent fertilization rates and possibly better quality embryos than overnight coincubation and to determine if there was a difference in outcome with regard to the type of culture medium used.Design: Prospective distribution of gametes between treatments in sequential patients.Setting: Assisted reproductive technology program in private
Patrick Quinn; Michael L Lydic; Minh Ho; Martin Bastuba; Fadi Hendee; Steven A Brody
Ecological aspects of sexual reproduction in freshwater and marine algae are reviewed in the context of reproductive seasonality, gamete release, pheromones, fertilization success, polyspermy, parthenogenesis, and the dispersal of zygotes. Fertilization success in freshwater and marine macroalgae is higher than previously assumed, and the biological and physical variables that contribute to this are reviewed and analysed. These variables include synchronous
Chlamydomonas gametes of opposite mating types interact through flagellar adhesion molecules called agglutinins leading to a signal transduction cascade that induces cell wall loss and activation of mating structures along with other cellular responses that ultimately result in zygote formation. To identify molecules involved in these complex cellular events, we have employed subtractive and differential hybridization with cDNA from mt+
Genetic transformation for egg and feather colour has been obtained in the whole animal, chicken, by the use of irradiated male gametes. In this technique recipient females are first inseminated with irradiated semen from the donor and 24h later are reinseminated with unirradiated, normal semen of the recipient strain. The transformed progeny are identical to the female strain but for
Previous research on gametic incompatibility in marine invertebrates suggests that for highly dispersive marine invertebrate species, barriers to fertilization among closely related taxa are often incomplete and sometimes asymmetric. The nature of these barriers can dramatically affect the patterns of gene flow and genetic differentiation between species, and thus speciation. Blue mussels, in the genus Mytilus, are genetically distinct in
Egg and sperm cells (gametes) of the mouse are derived from a founder population of primordial germ cells that are set aside early in embryogenesis. Primordial germ cells arise from the proximal epiblast, a region of the early mouse embryo that also contributes to the first blood lineages of the embryonic yolk sac. Embryonic stem cells differentiate in vitro into
Niels Geijsen; Melissa Horoschak; Kitai Kim; Joost Gribnau; Kevin Eggan; George Q. Daley
Ovarian tissue transplantation is an experimental procedure that can be used to treat both infertility and premature menopause. Working within the current legal framework in the USA, I examine whether ovarian tissue should be legally treated like gametes or organs in the case of ovarian tissue transplantation between two women. One option is to base classification upon its intended use:
An extract of the radial nerves of the starfish, Asterias amurensis, acts on the ovary in two ways: it induces meiosis and brings on spawning. Contraction of the gonadal wall, the driving force for spawning, does not happen until this gamete-shedding substance acts to liberate the eggs that adhere to each other or to the inner surface of the gonadal
Synopsis In the marine environment, both external fertilization and settlement are critical processes linking adult and early juvenile life-history phases. The success of both processes can be tightly linked in organisms lacking a larval dispersive phase. This review focuses on synchronous gamete release (¼ spawning) in fucoid algae. These brown macroalgae are important components of temperate intertidal ecosystems in many
Recently, several requests have emerged in which women wished to be impregnated with donor eggs fertilized with spermatozoa of their brother. An important argument advanced against such applications is that it is a kind of incest. Four definitions of incest are reviewed in this article to evaluate the acceptability of these demands. The first three (sexual intercourse, reproduction with gametes
When science made possible to overcome the biological limitation to infertility, gamete had become a "valuable good". Therefore, lawyers are asked to define their juridical status, their modality of transference, their possible uses and the legal protection reserved to them. PMID:23520916
Among flowering plants, females often have little control over the genetic relatedness of pollen deposited on stigmas. Thus, postpollination processes are of primary importance for mate discrimination. The ability to screen and select among male gametes during pollen tube growth within the female tissues of the stigma, style, and ovary is critical to the process of mate choice and reproductive isolation. However, direct evidence of the mechanistic/developmental processes associated with mate choice in flowering plants is sparse. We studied the contribution of postpollination, prefertilization processes to reproductive isolation in two wind-pollinated species of birch (Betula) that commonly hybridize in nature. We exploited the 3-fold difference in ploidy level between these two species to determine the paternity of individual pollen tubes growing within female reproductive tissues. We then tracked their developmental fate in conspecific, heterospecific, and mixed-species crosses. This design allowed a direct comparison of developmental processes responsible for reproductive isolation in both single-species and mixed-species pollinations. Our results have important implications for the population genetic outcome of hybridization dynamics in natural populations. Paternity analysis of progeny from mixed-species pollinations revealed that conspecific pollen tubes sired more than 98% of seedlings. Biased siring success was not the result of differential embryo abortion. We detected strong, early postpollination barriers such as pollen tube incompatibility, slower pollen tube growth, and delayed generative cell mitosis. Conspecific fertilization precedence was mediated by favorable or unfavorable male-female interactions, but there was no evidence for antagonistic male-male interactions.
Sexual reproduction is essential for the maintenance of species in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, and even unicellular organisms that normally proliferate asexually possess a sexual cycle because of its contribution to increased genetic diversity. Information concerning the molecules involved in fertilization is accumulating for many species of the metazoan, plant, and fungal lineages, and the evolutionary consideration of sexual reproduction systems is now an interesting issue. Macrocyst formation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a sexual process in which cells become sexually mature under dark and submerged conditions and fuse with complementary mating-type cells. In the present study, we isolated D. discoideum insertional mutants defective in sexual cell fusion and identified the relevant gene, macA, which encodes a highly glycosylated, 2,041-amino-acid membrane protein (MacA). Although its overall similarity is restricted to proteins of unknown function within dictyostelids, it contains LamGL and discoidin domains, which are implicated in cell adhesion. The growth and development of macA-null mutants were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. The overexpression of macA using the V18 promoter in a macA-null mutant completely restored its sexual defects. Although the macA gene encoded exactly the same protein in a complementary mating-type strain, it was expressed at a much lower level. These results suggest that MacA is indispensable for gamete interactions in D. discoideum, probably via cell adhesion. There is a possibility that it is controlled in a mating-type-dependent manner.
The formation of gametes is a key step in the life cycle of any sexually reproducing organism. In flowering plants, gametes develop in haploid structures termed gametophytes that comprise a few cells. The female gametophyte forms gametic cells and flanking accessory cells. During a screen for regulators of egg-cell fate, we isolated three mutants, lachesis (lis), clotho (clo) and atropos (ato), that show deregulated expression of an egg-cell marker. We have previously shown that, in lis mutants, which are defective for the splicing factor PRP4, accessory cells can differentiate gametic cell fate. Here, we show that CLOTHO/GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1 (CLO/GFA1) is necessary for the restricted expression of egg- and central-cell fate and hence reproductive success. Surprisingly, infertile gametophytes can be expelled from the maternal ovule tissue, thereby preventing the needless allocation of maternal resources to sterile tissue. CLO/GFA1 encodes the Arabidopsis homologue of Snu114, a protein that is considered to be an essential component of the spliceosome. In agreement with their proposed role in pre-mRNA splicing, CLO/GFA1 and LIS co-localize to nuclear speckles. Our data also suggest that CLO/GFA1 is necessary for the tissue-specific expression of LIS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ATO encodes the Arabidopsis homologue of SF3a60, a protein that has been implicated in pre-spliceosome formation. Our results thus establish that the restriction of gametic cell fate is specifically coupled to the function of various core spliceosomal components. PMID:18702672
Background Young children who are overweight are at increased risk of becoming obese and developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Therefore, early intervention is critical. This paper describes the rationale, design, methodology, and sample characteristics of a 5-year cluster randomized controlled trial being conducted in eight elementary schools in rural North Carolina, United States. Methods/Design The first aim of the trial is to examine the effects of a two-phased intervention on weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy in overweight or obese 2nd, 3 rd, and 4th grade children and their overweight or obese parents. The primary outcome in children is stabilization of BMI percentile trajectory from baseline to 18 months. The primary outcome in parents is a decrease in BMI from baseline to 18 months. Secondary outcomes for both children and parents include adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy from baseline to 18 months. A secondary aim of the trial is to examine in the experimental group, the relationships between parents and children's changes in weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy. An exploratory aim is to determine whether African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children and parents in the experimental group benefit differently from the intervention in weight status, adiposity, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. A total of 358 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic children with a BMI ? 85th percentile and 358 parents with a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 have been inducted over 3 1/2 years and randomized by cohort to either an experimental or a wait-listed control group. The experimental group receives a 12-week intensive intervention of nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training and exercise (Phase I), 9 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II) and then 6 months (follow-up) on their own. Safety endpoints include adverse event reporting. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied to all data. Discussion Findings from this trial may lead to an effective intervention to assist children and parents to work together to improve nutrition and exercise patterns by making small lifestyle pattern changes. Trial registration NCT01378806.
Objectives: After completing this article, readers should: Know the prevalence of intimate partner violence and childhood exposure to intimate partner violenceIdentify risk factors associated with intimate partner violence.Understand that child maltreatment is significantly more likely in the setting of intimate partner violence.Recognize the impact of intimate partner violence exposure on children's social-emotional and physical health, and on their health care use.Understand strategies for screening and responding to intimate partner violence in the pediatric setting You are seeing a healthy, previously full-term 4 month old for well child care. As a part of your routine social history, you inquire about intimate partner violence (IPV). The infant's mother discloses that her partner frequently yells at her, pushes her and makes her feel afraid. Upon further questioning, you find that she describes the infant as “fussy.” His physical exam is unremarkable, but you note that he missed his two month visit and is behind on his immunizations. How do you proceed?
Double fertilization in angiosperms involves several successive steps, including guidance and reception of the pollen tube and male-female gamete recognition. Each step entails extensive communication and interaction between two different reproductive cell or tissue types. Extensive research has focused on the pollen tube, namely, its interaction with the stigma and reception by maternal cells. Little is known, however, about the mechanism by which the gametes recognize each other and interact to form a zygote. We report that an ankyrin repeat protein (ANK6) is essential for fertilization, specifically for gamete recognition. ANK6 (At5g61230) was highly expressed in the male and female gametophytes before and during but not after fertilization. Genetic analysis of a T-DNA insertional mutant suggested that loss of function of ANK6 results in embryonic lethality. Moreover, male-female gamete recognition was found to be impaired only when an ank6 male gamete reached an ank6 female gamete, thereby preventing formation of homozygous zygotes. ANK6 was localized to the mitochondria, where it interacted with SIG5, a transcription initiation factor previously found to be essential for fertility. These results show that ANK6 plays a central role in male-female gamete recognition, possibly by regulating mitochondrial gene expression.
Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase.
Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.
|Partner-assisted emotional disclosure is a couple-based intervention designed to help patients disclose cancer-related concerns to their spouses-partners. We previously found that, compared with an education/support control condition, partner-assisted emotional disclosure led to significant improvements in relationship quality and intimacy for…
Porter, Laura S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Keefe, Francis J.; Patterson, Emily S.
Summary Background Observational studies have reported an association between male circumcision and reduced risk of HIV infection in female partners. We assessed whether circumcision in HIV-infected men would reduce transmission of the virus to female sexual partners. Methods 922 uncircumcised, HIV-infected, asymptomatic men aged 15-49 years with CD4-cell counts 350 cells per ?L or more were enrolled in this unblinded,
Maria J Wawer; Frederick Makumbi; Godfrey Kigozi; David Serwadda; Stephen Watya; Fred Nalugoda; Dennis Buwembo; Victor Ssempijja; Noah Kiwanuka; Lawrence H Moulton; Nelson K Sewankambo; Steven J Reynolds; Thomas C Quinn; Pius Opendi; Boaz Iga; Renee Ridzon; Oliver Laeyendecker; Ronald H Gray
Objectives To estimate whether home visitation beginning after child birth was associated with changes in average rates of mothers' intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration, as well as rates of specific IPV types (physical assault, verbal abuse, sexual assault, injury) during the 3-years of program implementation and during 3-years of long-term follow-up. Design Randomized controlled trial Setting Oahu, Hawaii Participants 643 families with an infant at high-risk for child maltreatment born between November 1994 and December 1995. Intervention Home visitors provided direct services and linked families to community resources. Home visits were to initially occur weekly and to continue for at least three years. Outcome Measures Women's self-reports of past year IPV victimization and perpetration using the Conflict Tactics Scale. Blinded research staff conducted maternal interviews following the child's birth, and annually when children were 1–3 years and then 7–9 years old. Results During program implementation, intervention mothers as compared to control mothers reported lower rates of IPV victimization (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73,1.01) and significantly lower rates of perpetration (IRR, 0.83; 95% CI 0.72,0.96). Considering specific IPV types, intervention women reported significantly lower rates of physical assault victimization (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI 0.71,1.00) and perpetration (IRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70,0.96). During long-term follow-up, rates of overall IPV victimization and perpetration decreased with non-significant between-group differences. Verbal abuse victimization rates (IRR, 1.14, 95% CI 0.97,1.34) may have increased among intervention mothers. Conclusions Early childhood home visitation may be a promising strategy for reducing IPV.
Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Jennings, Jacky M; Chen, Rusan; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Duggan, Anne K.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHO85 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) with multiple roles in cell cycle and metabolic controls. In association with the cyclin Pho80, Pho85 controls acid phosphatase gene expression through phosphorylation of the transcription factor Pho4. Pho85 has also been implicated as a kinase that phosphorylates and negatively regulates glycogen synthase (Gsy2), and deletion of PHO85 causes glycogen overaccumulation. We report that the Pcl8/Pcl10 subgroup of cyclins directs Pho85 to phosphorylate glycogen synthase both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption of PCL8 and PCL10 caused hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and a reduction in glycogen synthase kinase activity in vivo. However, unlike pho85 mutants, pcl8 pcl10 cells had normal morphologies, grew on glycerol, and showed proper regulation of acid phosphatase gene expression. In vitro, Pho80-Pho85 complexes effectively phosphorylated Pho4 but had much lower activity toward Gsy2. In contrast, Pcl10-Pho85 complexes phosphorylated Gsy2 at Ser-654 and Thr-667, two physiologically relevant sites, but only poorly phosphorylated Pho4. Thus, both the in vitro and in vivo substrate specificity of Pho85 is determined by the cyclin partner. Mutation of PHO85 suppressed the glycogen storage deficiency of snf1 or glc7-1 mutants in which glycogen synthase is locked in an inactive state. Deletion of PCL8 and PCL10 corrected the deficit in glycogen synthase activity in both the snf1 and glc7-1 mutants, but glycogen synthesis was restored only in the glc7-1 mutant strain. This genetic result suggests an additional role for Pho85 in the negative regulation of glycogen accumulation that is independent of Pcl8 and Pcl10.
Huang, Dongqing; Moffat, Jason; Wilson, Wayne A.; Moore, Lynda; Cheng, Christine; Roach, Peter J.; Andrews, Brenda
In vitro fertilization (IVF) systems using isolated male and female gametes have been utilized to dissect fertilization-induced events in angiosperms, such as egg activation, zygote development, and early embryogenesis, since the female gametophytes of plants are deeply embedded within ovaries. A rice IVF system was established to take advantage of the abundant resources stemming from rice research for investigations into the mechanisms of fertilization and early embryogenesis. Fusion of gametes can be performed using electrofusion and the fusion product, a zygote, forms a cell wall and an additional nucleolus. The zygote divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo and develops into an early globular embryo, as in planta. The embryo further develops into irregularly shaped cell masses and fertile plants can be regenerated from the cell masses. This rice IVF system is a powerful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the early embryogenesis of angiosperms and for making new cultivars. PMID:21207258
The following Universities and organizations partner with the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium with the ultimate goal of improving our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer. Accadia
The cell walls of Chlamydomonas gametes are multilayered structures supported on frameworks of polypeptides extending from the plasma membrane. The wall-polypeptide catalogue reported by Monk et al. (1983, Planta 158, 517–533) and extended by U.W. Goodenough et al. (1986, J. Cell Biol. 103, 405–417) was re-evaluated by comparative analysis of mechanically isolated cell walls purified from several strains. The extracellular
Nuclear DNA content of male and female gametes of tobacco was determined using 4?,6-diamindino-2-phenylindole and quantitative microfluorimetry. Pollen grains are released with generative cells containing 2C DNA. Mitotic division occurs in the pollen tube 8–12 h after germination. The resulting sperm cells have 1C DNA content during pollen tube elongation in the style. Sperm cells deposited in the degenerated synergid have
Synopsis Sturgeon gametes differ from those of most fish in that the sperm possess acrosomes that undergo exocytosis and filament formation\\u000a while the eggs possess numerous micropyles. Acipenser transmontanus eggs are encased by multilayered envelopes that consist of outer adhesive jelly coats and three structured layers interior\\u000a to the jelly. The glycoprotein jelly layer only becomes adhesive upon exposure to freshwater.
Calcium-binding proteins and calmodulin-binding proteins were identified in gametes and zygotes of the marine brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus distichus, and Pelvetia fastigiata using gel (SDS-PAGE) overlay techniques. A calcium current appears to be important during cell polarization in fucoid zygotes, but there are no biochemical data on calcium-binding proteins in these algae. By using a sensitive 45Ca2+ overlay method
The growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) have broadened the field of specialists who must be cognizant of screening for genetic disease. Our case demonstrates the need to apply the principles of genetic screening to gamete donors. A 49-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) woman and her 48-year-old AJ spouse conceived via ovum donation, and IVF
D. B. Rogers; M. Kohan; S. Bhatt; H. Danzer; L. D. Platt; Ashkenazi Jewish
The process of fertilization is critically dependent on the mutual recognition of gametes and in Plasmodium, the male gamete surface protein P48/45 is vital to this process. This protein belongs to a family of 10 structurally related proteins, the so called 6-cys family. To identify the role of additional members of this family in Plasmodium fertilisation, we performed genetic and functional analysis on the five members of the 6-cys family that are transcribed during the gametocyte stage of P. berghei. This analysis revealed that in addition to P48/45, two members (P230 and P47) also play an essential role in the process of parasite fertilization. Mating studies between parasites lacking P230, P48/45 or P47 demonstrate that P230, like P48/45, is a male fertility factor, consistent with the previous demonstration of a protein complex containing both P48/45 and P230. In contrast, disruption of P47 results in a strong reduction of female fertility, while males remain unaffected. Further analysis revealed that gametes of mutants lacking expression of p48/45 or p230 or p47 are unable to either recognise or attach to each other. Disruption of the paralog of p230, p230p, also specifically expressed in gametocytes, had no observable effect on fertilization. These results indicate that the P. berghei 6-cys family contains a number of proteins that are either male or female specific ligands that play an important role in gamete recognition and/or attachment. The implications of low levels of fertilisation that exist even in the absence of these proteins, indicating alternative pathways of fertilisation, as well as positive selection acting on these proteins, are discussed in the context of targeting these proteins as transmission blocking vaccine candidates.
Khan, Shahid M.; van Dooren, Maaike W.; Ramesar, Jai; Kaczanowski, Szymon; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Kroeze, Hans; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Eling, Wijnand M.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Waters, Andrew P.; Janse, Chris J.
Objective: To evaluate whether baseline or procedural stress during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) affects pregnancy or live birth delivery rates.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Seven clinics in Southern California between 1993 and 1998.Patient(s): One hundred and fifty-one women completed two questionnaires.Intervention(s): None.Main Outcome Measure(s): The number of oocytes aspirated and fertilized, the number of embryos transferred, the
Hillary Klonoff-Cohen; Elaine Chu; Loki Natarajan; William Sieber
We developed a numerical simulation of mating experiment to study effects of phototactic gamete behavior and density on fertilization\\u000a success, using the C++ programming language, and pseudo-parallelization methods with input parameters based on experimental\\u000a data. In our experiments, we found that gametes with positive phototaxis are favored, particularly in shallow water, because\\u000a they can search for potential mates on the
Tatsuya Togashi; Masaru Nagisa; Tatsuo Miyazaki; Jin Yoshimura; Kei-ichi Tainaka; John L. Bartelt; Paul Alan Cox
The Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population is a resource for genetics research and instruction. Prior reports are based on\\u000a a population of doubled haploid (DH) lines developed by the Hordeum bulbosum (H.b.) method, which samples female gametes. We developed new DH lines from the same cross using anther culture (A.C.), which\\u000a samples male gametes. Linkage maps were generated in each
L. Cistué; A. Cuesta-Marcos; S. Chao; B. Echávarri; Y. Chutimanitsakun; A. Corey; T. Filichkina; N. Garcia-Mariño; I. Romagosa; P. M. Hayes
'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005
Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the “local moral worlds” of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt’s famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims, with Iran’s leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi’ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages.
In double fertilization, a reproductive system unique to flowering plants, two immotile sperm are delivered to an ovule by a pollen tube. One sperm fuses with the egg to generate a zygote, the other with the central cell to produce endosperm. A mechanism preventing multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule would ensure that only two sperm are delivered to female gametes. We use live-cell imaging and a novel mixed-pollination assay that can detect multiple pollen tubes and multiple sets of sperm within a single ovule to show that Arabidopsis efficiently prevents multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule. However, when gamete-fusion defective hap2(gcs1) or duo1 sperm are delivered to ovules, as many as three additional pollen tubes are attracted. When gamete fusion fails, one of two pollen tube-attracting synergid cells persists, enabling the ovule to attract more pollen tubes for successful fertilization. This mechanism prevents the delivery of more than one pair of sperm to an ovule, provides a means of salvaging fertilization in ovules that have received defective sperm, and ensures maximum reproductive success by distributing pollen tubes to all ovules. PMID:22608506
Beale, Kristin M; Leydon, Alexander R; Johnson, Mark A
Embryo imaging has long been a critical tool for in vitro fertilization laboratories, aiding in morphological assessment of embryos, which remains the primary tool for embryo selection. With the recent emergence of clinically applicable real-time imaging systems to assess embryo morphokinetics, a renewed interest has emerged regarding noninvasive methods to assess gamete and embryo development as a means of inferring quality. Several studies exist that utilize novel imaging techniques to visualize or quantify intracellular components of gametes and embryos with the intent of correlating localization of organelles or molecular constitution with quality or outcome. However, the safety of these approaches varies due to the potential detrimental impact of light exposure or other variables. Along with complexity of equipment and cost, these drawbacks currently limit clinical application of these novel microscopes and imaging techniques. However, as evidenced by clinical incorporation of some real-time imaging devices as well as use of polarized microscopy, some of these imaging approaches may prove to be useful. This review summarizes the existing literature on novel imaging approaches utilized to examine gametes and embryos. Refinement of some of these imaging systems may permit clinical application and serve as a means to offer new, noninvasive selection tools to improve outcomes for various assisted reproductive technology procedures. PMID:24068105
HAP2(GCS1) is a deeply conserved sperm protein that is essential for gamete fusion. Here we use complementation assays to define major functional regions of the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog using HAP2(GCS1) variants with modifications to regions amino(N) and carboxy(C) to its single transmembrane domain. These quantitative in vivo complementation studies show that the N-terminal region tolerates exchange with a closely related sequence, but not with a more distantly related plant sequence. In contrast, a distantly related C-terminus is functional in Arabidopsis, indicating that the primary sequence of the C-terminus is not critical. However, mutations that neutralized the charge of the C-terminus impair HAP2(GCS1)-dependent gamete fusion. Our results provide data identifying the essential functional features of this highly conserved sperm fusion protein. They suggest that the N-terminus functions by interacting with female gamete-expressed proteins and that the positively charged C-terminus may function through electrostatic interactions with the sperm plasma membrane.
Wong, Julian L.; Leydon, Alexander R.; Johnson, Mark A.
The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0 mg/L) but dilutions to 50 microg/L no longer were effective. Three other GnRHs: lamprey GnRH-3, tunicate GnRH-1, and a modified chicken GnRH-2, had no such action under the same test conditions. Since the spawning response could be produced by some GnRHs and not by others, it would appear that some kind of molecular recognition is involved, possibly by specific binding to a receptor. In earlier preliminary experiments tunicate GnRH-2 rapidly stimulated gamete release in a hemichordate, Saccoglossus. Thus it is suggested that GnRHs, in at least some invertebrates, may function as pheromones, serving to stimulate simultaneous spawning of individuals in a population of animals, and in this way assure more successful fertilization in species that must release their gametes into the water in which they live. PMID:12620248
Gorbman, Aubrey; Whiteley, Arthur; Kavanaugh, Scott
Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals. Mitochondrial DNA mutation then accumulates with age, and may set a limit to the lifespan of individual, multicellular organisms. Why is this mutation not inherited? Here we demonstrate that female gametes—oocytes—have unusually small and simple mitochondria that are suppressed for DNA transcription, electron transport, and free radical production. By contrast, male gametes—sperm—and somatic cells of both sexes transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory electron carriers and produce oxygen free radicals. This germ-line division between mitochondria of sperm and egg is observed in both the vinegar fruitfly and the zebrafish—species spanning a major evolutionary divide within the animal kingdom. We interpret these findings as an evidence that oocyte mitochondria serve primarily as genetic templates, giving rise, irreversibly and in each new generation, to the familiar energy-transducing mitochondria of somatic cells and male gametes. Suppressed mitochondrial metabolism in the female germ line may therefore constitute a mechanism for increasing the fidelity of mitochondrial DNA inheritance.
de Paula, Wilson B.M.; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A.; Missirlis, Fanis; Ashworth, Rachel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lucas, Cathy H.; Allen, John F.
Luc Bovens, in his 2006 article, argues that it can be shown that the 'rhythm' method of birth control results in a larger number of embryonic deaths than the IUD, the morning after pill or the combination oral contraceptive pill, just so long as one accepts his three 'plausible' assumptions. In this brief response I will argue that Boven's third assumption is not plausible when one takes into account a basic knowledge of human reproductive biology. Thus, his argument, in both of its possible reconstructions, fails. PMID:21478416
BACKGROUND: There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim
Torbjørn Øien; Ola Storrø; Jon A Jenssen; Roar Johnsen
Objective: The objectives of this article are to determine factors associated with refusal and agreement to provide partner information, and evaluate the effectiveness of referral approaches in offering PCRS. Methods: Index clients from 5 sites that used 3 different PCRS approaches were interviewed to obtain demographic and risk characteristics and choice of partner referral method for PCRS. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with providing partner information. Results: The percentage of index clients who refused to provide partner information varied by site (7% to 88%). Controlling for PCRS approach, index clients who were older than 25 years, male, or reported having male-male sex in the past 12 months were more likely (p <0.01) to refuse to provide partner information. Overall, 72% of named partners referred by index clients were located and offered PCRS. The proportion of partners who were located and offered PCRS differed by referral approach used, ranging from 38% using contract referral (index clients agree to notify their partners within a certain timeframe, else a disease intervention specialist or health care provider will notify them) to 98% using dual referral (index clients notify their partners with a disease intervention specialist or provider present). Conclusion: Success in obtaining partner information varied by the PCRS approach used and effectiveness in locating and notifying partners varied by the referral approach selected. These results provide valuable insights for enhancing partner services.
Song, Binwei; Begley, Elin B; Lesondak, Linda; Voorhees, Kelly; Esquivel, Magdalena; Merrick, Ronald L; Carrel, Jack; Sebesta, Douglas; Vergeront, James; Shrestha, Dhana; Oraka, Emeka; Walker, Annisa; Heffelfinger, James D
Transmembrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and integrins, activate intracellular signaling pathways through interactions with downstream binding partners. Woodside discusses two examples in which GPCRs and integrins interact in a noncompeting manner with more than one partner. The specific GPCR described is the thrombin receptor, in experiments where G protein peptides selectively block signaling through a particular G protein that does not appear to inhibit coupling of the receptor to other G proteins. The second system described is the αIIbβ3 integrin and its activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk. Syk appeared capable of interacting with both the integrin and intracellular domains of immune response receptors, because binding of Syk to the integrin was not inhibited by peptides based on the Syk binding site in immune response receptors. Thus, multiple, noncompeting binding partners add to the complexity of signal transduction outputs from a single receptor complex.
Darren G. Woodside (Texas Biotechnology Corporation; REV)
The genetic cost of sexual reproduction has been attributed to two causes in mathematical formulations: male function or genome dilution. We develop and analyse a genetic model that shows that both costs occur, depending upon the conditions. The model differs from previous formulations in that the level of output and fertilization success of male gametes produced by hermaphrodites that are asexual in their female function (henceforth "parthenogenetic hermaphrodites") are treated as variables, rather than constants fixed at 0 or 1, as has previously been the case. By expressing the cost of sex in terms of per capita egg loss of sexual individuals and parthenogenetic hermaphrodites, we partition the cost into components due to male function and genome dilution. Which component dominates the cost of sex depends upon the relative male gamete output of the parthenogenetic hermaphrodites. The cost of sex is observed to increase, or remain unchanged in some marginal cases, with increases in (i) frequency of parthenogenetic hermaphrodites, (ii) fertilization success of male gametes produced by parthenogenetic hermaphrodites and (iii) potential eggs lost by diverting resources to male gamete production. In certain situations, parthenogenetic hermaphrodites with an intermediate level of male gamete output have the greatest fitness advantage over sexual individuals. If heritable variation for levels of male gamete output exists among parthenogenetic hermaphrodites, this raises the possibility of the evolution of optimal levels of male gamete production by parthenogenetic hermaphrodites through natural selection, in situations of recurring invasion of asexual populations by propagules from sexual populations, a scenario that is increasingly being appreciated as potentially fairly likely to occur in nature. PMID:9837707
Cell fusion between mating type plus (mt+) and minus (mt-) gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is analyzed structurally and subjected to experimental manipulation. Cell wall lysis, a necessary prelude to fusion, is shown to require flagellar agglutination between competent gametes; glutaraldehyde-fixed gametes ("corpses") of one mating type will elicit both agglutination and cell wall lysis in the opposite mating type, whereas nonagglutinating impotent (imp) mutant strains are without effect. The fusion process is mediated by a narrow fertilization tubule which extends from the mt+ gamete and establishes contact with the mt- gamete. Formation of the tubule requires the "activation" of a specialized mating structure associated with the ml+ cell membrane; activation causes microfilaments to polymerize from the mating structure into the growing fertilization tubule. Mating structure activation is shown to depend on gametic flagellar agglutination; isoagglutination mediated by the lectin concanavalin A has no effect. Gametes carrying the imp-l mt+ mutation are able to agglutinate but not fuse with mt- cells; the imp-l gametes are shown to have structurally defective mating structures that do not generate microfilaments in response to gametic agglutination.
The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart
Louise Dixon; Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis; Kevin Browne
In this paper, based on the bionic study on dolphin, a philosophy of dolphin Partner Optimization (DPO) was formulated and a so-called ldquoNucleusrdquo was introduced to predict the best position according to the positions and fitness of the team members. After that, we test the DPO algorithm on several benchmark functions and the experiment result show it has rapid and
|The Partners in Learning Take Home Computer Program, which began in New Mexico in 1989 to extend the learning environment into the home, distributes 200 computers to families. Results of the program include a 90% rise in parent to school contact; parental involvement in schoolwork; and increases in reading and math scores. (JMV)|
In this activity, learners identify the reproductive parts of plants and the animal (bee) structures involved in pollination. Learners then use this information to role play or act out the process of pollination. Use this activity to introduce learners to the importance of pollination partners and how plant and animals interact to accomplish pollination.
In response to alarming drop-out rates among high school students and indications that the emerging workforce will be predominantly minority and disadvantaged, the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) developed the Partners program to encourage minority students from as early as seventh grade to remain and succeed…
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue in Japan. In order to start effective interventions for abused women, the appropriate method of screening for IPV in healthcare settings needs clarifying. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a face-to-face interview with a self-administered questionnaire. We used the Violence Against Women Screen (VAWS), a
Most individuals of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus reproduce bisexually, but cryptic clonal lineages reproduce by natural gynogenesis of unreduced diploid eggs that are genetically identical to maternal somatic cells. Triploid progeny often occur by the accidental incorporation of a sperm nucleus into diploid eggs. Sex reversal from a genetic female to a physiological male is easily induced in this species by androgen treatment and through environmental influences. Here, we produced clonal tetraploid individuals by two methods: 1) fertilization of diploid eggs from a clonal diploid female with diploid sperm of a hormonally sex-reversed clonal diploid male and 2) artificial inhibition of the release of the second polar body in eggs of clonal diploid females just after initiation of gynogenetic development. There is no genetic difference between the clonal diploid and tetraploid individuals except for the number of chromosome sets or genomes. Clonal tetraploid males never produced unreduced tetraploid sperm, only diploid sperm that were genetically identical to those of a clonal diploid. Likewise, clonal tetraploid females did not form unreduced tetraploid eggs, just diploid eggs. However, the eggs' genotypes were identical to those of the original clone, and almost all the eggs initiated natural gynogenesis. Thus, gametogenesis of the clonal tetraploid loach is controlled by the presence of two chromosome sets to pair, thereby preserving the normal meiotic process, i.e., the formation of bivalents and subsequently two successive divisions. PMID:21998169
Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C), warm (25°C/15°C), cool (18°C/13°C) and cold (10°C/5°C) treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29%) at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%). In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5%) was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%). Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid bridge hypothesis of allopolyploid evolution, are readily available in some Brassica interspecific hybrid genotypes, especially at cold temperatures.
Background Triploid individuals often play a key role in speciation by hybridization. An understanding of the gamete types (ploidy and genomic content) and stability of hybrid populations with triploid individuals is therefore of importance for exploring the role of hybridization in evolution. The all-hybrid populations of the edible frog, Pelophylax esculentus, are unique in their composition and genetic dynamics: Diploid (genotype LR) and triploid (LLR and LRR) hybrids depend on each other's different gamete contributions for successful reproduction and maintenance of the populations, as the parental genotypes P. lessonae (LL) and P. ridibundus (RR) are absent among adults. This study provides data and interpretations on gamete types and sex determination that are essential for understanding the function, evolutionary potential and threats of this intriguing system. Results Dissection of metamorphs from a crossing experiment confirmed that sex determination is an XX-XY system with the Y confined to the L genome. From microsatellite analysis of parents and offspring from the crossings, gamete frequencies could be deduced: Triploids of both sexes mostly made haploid gametes with the genome they had in double dose, however LLR females also made approximately 10% LL gametes by automixis. LR frogs showed much variation in their gamete production. In LRR-rich populations, their LR sperm production was sufficiently high (22%) to explain the observed proportion of LRR males, the formation of which has not previously been understood. A model was constructed to calculate equilibrium genotype proportions for different population types on the basis of the gamete proportions found. These equilibria agreed well with empirical literature data. Conclusion If population differentiation with respect to genotype proportions is really driven by gamete patterns, as strongly suggested by the present study, all-hybrid populations constitute not one, but several intrinsically different breeding systems. Tetraploidization could occur if the survival or fertility of both males and females increased. Whether introduction of hybrid or parental species individuals would threaten the all-hybrid populations cannot be predicted without further knowledge on the mechanisms behind non-hybrid inviability, but at least R genomes with Y factor are predicted to be invasive, if introduced, and could bring the populations to collapse.
We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed.
Purpose Implantation failure is known to be associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy in embryos, a situation leading to a pre-implantation\\u000a genetic screening, not allowed in different countries like France. Our aim was to evaluate the gamete aneuploidy incidence\\u000a in this context, using first polar body and spermatozoa aneuploidy screening.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Three groups were considered: 11 couples with pregnancy obtained after
F. Vialard; I. Hammoud; D. Molina-Gomes; R. Wainer; M. Bergere; M. Albert; M. Bailly; P. de Mazancourt; J. Selva
Background Reproductive control including pregnancy coercion (coercion by male partners to become pregnant) and birth control sabotage (partner interference with contraception) may be associated with partner violence and risk for unintended pregnancy among young adult females utilizing family planning clinic services. Study Design A cross-sectional survey was administered to females ages 16–29 years seeking care in five family planning clinics in Northern California (N=1278). Results Fifty-three percent of respondents reported physical or sexual partner violence, 19% reported experiencing pregnancy coercion, and 15% reported birth control sabotage. One third of respondents reporting partner violence (35%) also reported reproductive control. Both pregnancy coercion and birth control sabotage were associated with unintended pregnancy (AOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.36, 2.46, and AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.14, 2.20, respectively). In analyses stratified by partner violence exposure, associations of reproductive control with unintended pregnancy persisted only among women with a history of partner violence. Conclusions Pregnancy coercion and birth control sabotage are common among young women utilizing family planning clinics, and in the context of partner violence, are associated with increased risk for unintended pregnancy.
Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwal, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.
\\u000a With the increase in survivorship following cancer for women in their reproductive years, as well as an increase in survivorship\\u000a with childhood cancers, there is a demand for perfecting current fertility preservation methods and generating new options\\u000a for patients who are unable to pursue the conventional course of fertility treatments. Cryopreservation using a slow-cooling\\u000a method for embryos is currently the
T-cell responses (proliferation, intracellular cytokine synthesis and IFN? ELISPOT) against human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E2 peptides were tested during 18 months in a longitudinal study in eight women presenting with HPV16-related usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and their healthy male partners. In six women, anti-E2 proliferative responses and cytokine production (single IFN? and/or dual IFN?/IL2 and/or single IL2) by CD4+ T lymphocytes became detectable after treating and healing of the usual VIN. In the women presenting with persistent lesions despite therapy, no proliferation was observed. Anti-E2 proliferative responses were also observed with dual IFN?/IL2 production by CD4+ T-cells in six male partners who did not exhibit any genital HPV-related diseases. Ex vivo IFN? ELISPOT showed numerous effector T-cells producing IFN? after stimulation by a dominant E2 peptide in all men and women. Since the E2 protein is absent from the viral particles but is required for viral DNA replication, these results suggest a recent infection with replicative HPV16 in male partners. The presence of polyfunctional anti-E2 T-cell responses in the blood of asymptomatic men unambiguously establishes HPV infection even without detectable lesions. These results, despite the small size of the studied group, provide an argument in favor of prophylactic HPV vaccination of young men in order to prevent HPV16 infection and viral transmission from men to women. PMID:22590583
Background Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Method Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N?=?52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Results Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Conclusions Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00847873
Objective To describe how parents envision, plan, and enact disclosing to their children that they were conceived with donor gametes. Design In depth ethnographic interviews. Setting Participants were recruited from 11 medical infertility practices and 1 sperm bank in Northern California. Patients 141 married couples who had conceived a child using donor gametes (62 with donor sperm and 79 with donor oocytes). Interventions Husbands and wives were interviewed together and separately. Main outcome measures Thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Results Disclosing parents predominantly subscribed to one of two disclosure strategies: the conviction that early disclosure is of paramount importance so that the child “always knows,” or the belief that later disclosure is preferable after family routines have been established and the child has the maturity to understand biologic concepts and has developed a sense of discretion. No parent regretted disclosing and many expressed relief. Conclusions Parents choosing early disclosure were more at ease with the disclosure process while parents choosing later disclosure reported greater uncertainty about how and when to disclose. Parents wished for more peer and/or professional support and guidance to assist them in with disclosure, not only initially, but continuing long after their children are born.
Mac Dougall, Kirstin; Becker, Gay; Scheib, Joanna E.; Nachtigall, Robert D.
Gamete recognition proteins commonly experience positive Darwinian selection and evolve more rapidly than nonreproductive proteins, but the selective forces responsible for their adaptive diversification remain unclear. We examined the patterns of positive selection in the cognate interacting pair of proteins formed by sperm bindin and its egg receptor (EBR1) and in two regions of the sea urchin sperm receptor for egg jelly suREJ3 gene (exons 22 and 26) among four species of Strongylocentrotus sea urchins (S. purpuratus, S. droebachiensis, S. pallidus and S. franciscanus). The signatures of selection differed at each reproductive protein. A strong signal of positive selection was detected at bindin in all lineages even though the species compared had highly variable gamete traits and experience different intensities and forms of sexual selection and sexual conflict in nature. Weaker selection was observed at EBR1 but the small region studied precluded a clear understanding of the extent of sexual conflict between bindin and the EBR1 protein. At the suREJ3 locus, diversifying selection was observed in exon 22 but not exon 26, suggesting that these regions experience different selective pressures and evolutionary constraints. Positive selection was also detected within S. pallidus at suREJ-22 because of the presence of 12 amino acid replacement mutations segregating at frequencies >0.10. Our results suggest that sexual conflict may be the predominant evolutionary mechanism driving the rapid diversification of reproductive proteins between, and polymorphism within, strongylocentrotid sea urchins. PMID:22060977
Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24°C and an irradiance of 60-100 ?mol photons/(m2·s). Under ambient conditions (12-25°C and 60-125 ?mol photons/(m2·s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.
Calcium-binding proteins and calmodulin-binding proteins were identified in gametes and zygotes of the marine brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus distichus, and Pelvetia fastigiata using gel (SDS-PAGE) overlay techniques. A calcium current appears to be important during cell polarization in fucoid zygotes, but there are no biochemical data on calcium-binding proteins in these algae. By using a sensitive 45Ca2+ overlay method designed to detect high-affinity calcium-binding proteins, at least 9-11 polypeptides were detected in extracts of fucoid gametes and zygotes. All samples had calcium-binding proteins with apparent molecular weights of about 17 and 30 kDa. A 17-kDa calcium-binding protein was purified by calcium-dependent hydrophobic chromatography and was identified as calmodulin by immunological and enzyme activator criteria. A 125I-calmodulin overlay assay was used to identify potential targets of calmodulin action. Sperm contained one major calmodulin-binding protein of about 45 kDa. Eggs lacked major calmodulin-binding activity. A 72-kDa calmodulin-binding protein was prominent in zygotes from 1-65 hr postfertilization. Both calmodulin-binding proteins showed calcium-dependent binding activity. Overall, the data suggest that the appearance and distribution of certain calcium-binding and calmodulin-binding proteins are under developmental regulation, and may reflect the different roles of calcium during fertilization and early embryogenesis.
This study established the first protocol for collection of gametes from live axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, by gentle abdominal massage and in vitro fertilization. To stimulate spermiation and ovulation, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and Ovopel pellets, which are commercially used to stimulate spawning in fish, were tested. The hCG was more effective than Ovopel pellets and yielded a higher semen volume in the injected males and a shorter response time in the females. Collected semen by this method was already motile and fertile. Fertile eggs could be collected in 3-4 successive collection times after the female has started the typical spawning behaviour. The fertilization condition that yielded the highest hatching rate was mixing semen with eggs before the addition of a fertilization saline solution (20 mmol/l NaCl, 1 mmol/l KCl, 1 mmol/l Mg(2)SO(4), 1 mmol Ca(2)Cl, 3 mmol NaHCO(3), 10 mmol/l Tris, pH 8.5 - Osmolality = 65 mosmol/kg). When the pH of the fertilization solution was increased to ? 10, the hatching rate was significantly increased. The use of fertilization solutions with osmolalities of ? 150 and ? 182 were accompanied with a significant decrease in hatching rates and the appearance of deformed larvae, respectively. In conclusion, a reliable protocol for gamete collection from live axolotl is established as a laboratory model of in vitro fertilization for urodele amphibians. This protocol may be transferable to endangered urodeles. PMID:20965554
Chloroplast DNA of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is maternally inherited. Methylation mapping directly revealed that, before mating, chloroplast DNA of maternal (mating type plus; mt+) gametes is heavily methylated whereas that of paternal (mating type minus; mt?) gametes is not. Indirect immunofluorescence analyses with anti-5-methylcytosine mAbs visually showed methylation to occur exclusively in chloroplast DNA of mt+ gametes, and not in mt? gametes or nuclear DNA of either mt. To clarify the relationship between methylation and maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA, we have isolated and characterized a cDNA encoding a DNA methyltransferase. The deduced protein, CrMET1, consists of 1,344 aa and contains a conserved catalytic domain at the C terminal and a nonconserved N-terminal region. The predicted N-terminal region has an arginine-rich domain, suggesting CrMET1 is transferred to chloroplasts. This finding could be directly shown by green fluorescent protein epifluorescence microscopy analyses. CrMET1 transcripts were found to be absent in both mt+ and mt? vegetative cells. Upon gametogenesis, however, transcript levels clearly increased in mt+ but not mt? cells. These experiments suggest that the CrMET1 protein is located in chloroplasts and that it specifically methylates cytosine residues of chloroplast DNA in mt+ gametes. This conclusion was further strengthened by the observation that, during gametogenesis, CrMET1 is expressed in a mt? mutant, mat-1, whose chloroplast DNA is heavily methylated in gametes and paternally inherited. The results provide evidence that cytosine methylation plays a critical role in maternal inheritance of chloroplast genes in C. reinhardtii.
Unintended pregnancy is common, disproportionately affects younger women and is associated with intimate partner violence. Forced sex, fear of negotiating condom and contraceptive use, inconsistent condom use and partner interference with access to healthcare all contribute to this association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence. A growing body of literature on male partner influences on contraception and pregnancy decision-making has identified a range of male partner pregnancy-controlling behaviors which we have termed reproductive coercion, defined as male partners’ attempts to promote pregnancy in their female partners through verbal pressure and threats to become pregnant (pregnancy coercion), direct interference with contraception (birth-control sabotage), and threats and coercion related to pregnancy continuation or termination (control of pregnancy outcomes). This article examines recent studies on male partner reproductive coercion, underscores the link between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence and highlights future directions for research as well as implications for clinical practice.
Blastomere transplantation into fish blastula embryos results in somatic chimeras, which generally provide null or a small proportion of gametes derived from the donor. This may partly explain why none of the ES-like cell lines established from fish embryos has contributed to the germline of chimeras when transplanted at the blastula stage. Here, we report that a moderate gamma-irradiation of recipient embryos, followed by transplantation of dispersed blastomeres, considerably enhances the proportion of donor-derived gametes (53% versus 5% in average). In fish, the resulting protocol should maximise the pluripotency level measured in vivo for embryonic cell lines and for cultured germ cells. PMID:10398414
Joly, J S; Kress, C; Vandeputte, M; Bourrat, F; Chourrout, D
There has been a troublesome anomaly in the UK between cash payment to men for sperm donation and the effective assumption that women will pay to donate eggs. Some commentators, including Donald Evans in this journal, have argued that the anomaly should be resolved by treating women on the same terms as men. But this argument ignores important difficulties about property in the body, particularly in relation to gametes. There are good reasons for thinking that the contract model and payment for gametes are both inappropriate, and that a model based on altruism should be applied to both sexes.
Laboratory experiments varying gamete con- centrations and gamete age demonstrated significant re- ductions in fertilization success of the starfish Acanthaster planci (L.) with decreasing sperm concentration and in- creasing age of both eggs and sperm. The effect of aging in sperm was faster than that of eggs, and the speed of sperm aging increased with increasing dilution of sperm. Fertilization
Species whose reproductive strategies evolved at one density regime might be poorly adapted to other regimes. Field and laboratory experiments on the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus examined the influences of the two most common sperm-bindin alleles, which differ at two amino acid sites, on fertilization success. In the field experiment, the arginine/glycine (RG) genotype performed best at low densities and the glycine/arginine (GR) genotype at high densities. In the laboratory experiment, the RG genotype had a higher affinity with available eggs, whereas the GR genotype was less likely to induce polyspermy. These sea urchins can reach 200 years of age. The RG allele dominates in larger/old sea urchins, whereas smaller/younger sea urchins have near-equal RG and GR allele frequencies. A latitudinal cline in RG and GR genotypes is consistent with longer survival of sea urchins in the north and with predominance of RG genotypes in older individuals. The largest/oldest sea urchins were likely conceived at low densities, before sea-urchin predators, such as sea otters, were overharvested and sea-urchin densities exploded off the west coast of North America. Contemporary evolution of gamete-recognition proteins might allow species to adapt to shifts in abundances and reduces the risk of reproductive failure in altered populations. PMID:22671542
The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental support, emotional support, and conflict management) and on/off task behavior was evaluated. Children who chose their own partners showed greater social cooperation than those children whose teacher selected their partner. However, when the positive interdependence requirements of the task were not met within the pair (neither child had the skills to provide reading support or no one needed support), lower levels of on-task behavior were observed. Providing basic partner reading script instruction at the beginning of the year was associated with better social cooperation during partner reading, but providing elaborated instruction or no instruction was associated with poorer social cooperation. It is recommended that teachers provide basic script instruction and allow children to choose their own partners. Additionally, pairings of low ability children with other low ability children and high ability children with other high ability children should be avoided. Teachers may want to suggest alternate partners for children who inadvertently choose such pairings or adjust the text difficulty to the pair. Overall, partner reading seems to be an enjoyable pedagogical strategy for teaching reading fluency. PMID:19830259
Meisinger, Elizabeth B; Schwanenflugel, Paula J; Bradley, Barbara A; Stahl, Steven A
The relationship between love styles and lifetime number of sexual partners was explored using survey data from 507 college students. Love styles significantly (p less than 0.001) contributed to the prediction of number of lifetime sex partners after controlling for demographic characteristics and attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections.…
|The relationship between love styles and lifetime number of sexual partners was explored using survey data from 507 college students. Love styles significantly (p less than 0.001) contributed to the prediction of number of lifetime sex partners after controlling for demographic characteristics and attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections.…
Differential use of cellular and molecular components shapes immune responses, but understanding of how these are regulated to promote defense and health during infections is still incomplete. Examples include signaling from members of the Janus activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) cytokine family. Following receptor stimulation, individual JAK-STAT cytokines have preferences for particular key STAT molecules to lead to specific cellular responses. Certain of these cytokines, however, can conditionally activate alternative STATs as well as elicit pleiotropic and paradoxical effects. Studies examining basal and infection conditions are revealing intrinsic and induced cellular differences in various intracellular STAT concentrations to control the biological consequences of cytokine exposure. The system can be likened to changing partners at a dance based on competition and relative availability, and sets a framework for understanding the particular conditions promoting subset biological functions of cytokines as needed during evolving immune responses to infections.
The Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population is a resource for genetics research and instruction. Prior reports are based on a population of doubled haploid (DH) lines developed by the Hordeum bulbosum (H.b.) method, which samples female gametes. We developed new DH lines from the same cross using ant...
Evidence is presented which supports the concept of a functional membrane barrier in the transition zone at the base of each flagellum of Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. This makes it unlikely that agglutination factors present on the surface of the cell body can diffuse or be transported to the flagellar membrane. The evidence is as follows: 1) The glycoprotein composition of
A. Musgrave; P. de Wildt; I. Etten; H. Pijst; C. Scholma; R. Kooyman; W. Homan; H. Ende
The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance.
Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.
Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)
In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed.
We analysed the products of male meiosis in microspore-derived progeny from a Brassica napus (AAC(n)C(n)) x Brassica carinata (BBC(c)C(c)) interspecific hybrid (ABC(n)C(c)). Genotyping at 102 microsatellite marker loci and nuclear DNA contents provided strong evidence that 26 of the 28 progeny (93%) were derived from unreduced (2n) gametes. The high level of C(n)C(c) marker heterozygosity, and parallel spindles at Anaphase II in the ABC(n)C(c) hybrid, indicated that unreduced gametes were formed by first division restitution. The frequency of dyads at the tetrad stage of pollen development (2.6%) suggested that unreduced gametes were preferentially selected in microspore culture. Segregation of marker alleles in the microspore-derived progeny was consistent with homologous recombination between C(n) and C(c) chromosomes and homoeologous recombination involving A-, B- and C-genome chromosomes during meiosis in the ABC(n)C(c) hybrid. We discuss the potential for using microspore culture of unreduced gametes in interspecific hybrids to map Brassica centromeres through half-tetrad analysis. PMID:19436985
Nelson, Matthew N; Mason, Annaliese S; Castello, Marie-Claire; Thomson, Linda; Yan, Guijun; Cowling, Wallace A
Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes of treated sewage effluent is manifest in a variety of ways, ranging from malformation of the germ cells and\\/or reproductive ducts to altered gamete produc- tion. Intersex fish were also found to have an altered endocrine status and an elevated concentration of plasma vitellogenin. Go- nadal
S. Jobling; N. Beresford; M. Nolan; T. Rodgers-Gray; G. C. Brighty; J. P. Sumpter; C. R. Tyler
The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisoned for the murder of their female partner or spouse in England were identified from two prison samples. A content dictionary defining offense and offender characteristics associated with two dimensions of psychopathology and criminality was developed. These variables were extracted from institutional records via content analysis and analyzed for thematic structure using multidimensional scaling procedures. The resultant framework classified 80% (n = 72) of the sample into three subgroups of men characterized by (a) low criminality/low psychopathology (15%), (b) moderate-high criminality/ high psychopathology (36%), and (c) high criminality/low-moderate psychopathology (49%). The latter two groups are akin to Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) generally violent/antisocial and dysphoric/borderline offender, respectively. The implications for intervention, developing consensus in research methodology across the field, and examining typologies of domestic violent men prospectively are discussed. PMID:18087033
Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin
The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures.
Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich
The Arabidopsis thaliana central cell, the companion cell of the egg, undergoes DNA demethylation before fertilization, but the targeting preferences, mechanism, and biological significance of this process remain unclear. Here, we show that active DNA demethylation mediated by the DEMETER DNA glycosylase accounts for all of the demethylation in the central cell and preferentially targets small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements. The vegetative cell, the companion cell of sperm, also undergoes DEMETER-dependent demethylation of similar sequences, and lack of DEMETER in vegetative cells causes reduced small RNA-directed DNA methylation of transposons in sperm. Our results demonstrate that demethylation in companion cells reinforces transposon methylation in plant gametes and likely contributes to stable silencing of transposable elements across generations. PMID:22984074
Ibarra, Christian A; Feng, Xiaoqi; Schoft, Vera K; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Uzawa, Rie; Rodrigues, Jessica A; Zemach, Assaf; Chumak, Nina; Machlicova, Adriana; Nishimura, Toshiro; Rojas, Denisse; Fischer, Robert L; Tamaru, Hisashi; Zilberman, Daniel
The ever-growing acceptance and use of assisted human reproduction techniques has caused demand for "donated" sperm and eggs to outstrip supply. Medical professionals and others argue that monetary reward is the only way to recruit sufficient numbers of "donors". Is this a clash between pragmatics and policy/ethics? Where monetary payments are the norm, alternative recruitment strategies used successfully elsewhere may not have been considered, nor the negative consequences of commercialism on all participants thought through. Considerations leading some countries to ban the buying and selling of sperm, eggs and embryos are outlined and a case made that the collective welfare of all involved parties be the primary consideration in this, at times heated, debate. Key Words: Gametes • gifting • selling • ethics • policy
An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins.
The objective was to evaluate the gamete laboratory parameters that can to determine the possibility of achieving pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF). A prospective study was carried in 196 patients undergone to conventional and oocyte donation IVF. After the evaluation of oocytes, embryos and the pregnancies was established that postmature oocytes were more frequently retrieved from patients that did not get pregnant. A good embryo morphology and principally the transfer of 4-cell embryos are common events in IVF. However, there were not significant difference in embryo parameters, number of blastomeres and embryo quality, between pregnant and not pregnant patients. In conclusion, it appear that bad oocyte quality has a negative effect over the possibility of achieving pregnancy. The number of blastomeres and embryo quality were not predictive of the possibility to get pregnant. PMID:11452417
Kably Ambe, A; Carballo Mondragon, E; Karchmer Krivitsky, S
Calcium-binding proteins and calmodulin-binding proteins were identified in gametes and zygotes of the marine brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus distichus, and Pelvetia fastigiata using gel (SDS-PAGE) overlay techniques. A calcium current appears to be important during cell polarization in fucoid zygotes (K.R. Robinson and L.F. Jaffe, 1975, Science 187, 70-72; K.R. Robinson and R. Cone, 1980, Science 207, 77-78), but there are no biochemical data on calcium-binding proteins in these algae. By using a sensitive 45Ca2+ overlay method designed to detect high-affinity calcium-binding proteins, at least 9-11 polypeptides were detected in extracts of fucoid gametes and zygotes. All samples had calcium-binding proteins with apparent molecular weights of about 17 and 30 kDa. A 17-kDa calcium-binding protein was purified by calcium-dependent hydrophobic chromatography and was identified as calmodulin by immunological and enzyme activator criteria. A 125I-calmodulin overlay assay was used to identify potential targets of calmodulin action. Sperm contained one major calmodulin-binding protein of about 45 kDa. Eggs lacked major calmodulin-binding activity. A 72-kDa calmodulin-binding protein was prominent in zygotes from 1-65 hr postfertilization. Both calmodulin-binding proteins showed calcium-dependent binding activity. Overall, the data suggest that the appearance and distribution of certain calcium-binding and calmodulin-binding proteins are under developmental regulation, and may reflect the different roles of calcium during fertilization and early embryogenesis. PMID:2912798
A major challenge to retaining viability of frozen gametes and reproductive tissues is to understand and overcome species-specificities, especially because there is substantial diversity in cryobiological properties and requirements among cell types and tissues. Systematic studies can lead to successful post-thaw recovery, especially after determining: 1) membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant, 2) cryoprotectant toxicity, 3) tolerance to osmotic changes, and 4) resistance to cooling and freezing temperatures. Although species-dependency ultimately dictates the ability of specific cells and tissues to survive freeze-thawing, there are commonalities between taxa that allow a protocol developed for one species to be useful information for another. This is the reason for performing comparative cryopreservation studies among diverse species. Our laboratory has compared cellular cryotolerance, especially in spermatozoa, in a diverse group of animals-from corals to elephants-for more than 30 yrs. Characterizing the biophysical traits of gametes and tissues is the most efficient way to develop successful storage and recovery protocols, but, such data are only available for a few laboratory, livestock, and fish species, with virtually all others (wild mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) having gone unstudied. Nonetheless, when a rare animal unexpectedly dies, there is no time to understand the fundamentals of biophysics. In these emergencies, it is necessary to rely on experience and the best data from taxonomically-related species. Fortunately, there are some general similarities among most species, which, for example, allow adequate post-thaw viability. Regardless, there is a priority for more information on biophysical traits and freezing tolerance of distinctive biomaterials, especially for oocytes and gonadal tissues, and even for common, domesticated animals. Our colleague, Dr John Critser was a pioneer in cryobiology, earning that moniker because of his advocacy and devotion to understanding the differences (and similarities) among species to better store living genetic material. PMID:22704386
Comizzoli, P; Songsasen, N; Hagedorn, M; Wildt, D E
Polyploidization has played a major role in the origin and evolution of polyploid species. In this article we outline the unique characteristics of 2n gametes and implications of their participation in the evolution of polyploid Solanum species. The genetic consequences of 2n gametes indicate that sexual polyploidization results in greater variability, fitness, and heterozygosity than does somatic doubling. Further, the mechanisms of 2n gamete formation and the frequency of 2n gamete-forming genes in present polyploids and their ancestral species provide additional evidence of their involvement. Equally important is the endosperm, via the endosperm balance number (EBN) incompatibility system, in complementing the role of 2n gametes. In fact, the EBN system acts as a screen for either 1n or 2n gametes, depending on the EBN and chromosome numbers of parental species. EBN in combination with 2n gametes maintains the ploidy integrity of diploid ancestral species, while providing the flexibility for either unilateral or bilateral sexual polyploidization.
Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Peloquin, Stanley J
Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse.
Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.
This study examined reports of expressed partner and non-partner violence among men (n=126) and women (n=126) in the 12 months prior to substance abuse treatment. Rates of violence were 57% for partner, 53% for non-partner, and 75% collapsing across partner and non-partner relationships. Factors associated with partner and non-partner violence severity differed substantially. Partner violence was predicted by age, marital
Stephen T. Chermack; Bret E. Fuller; Frederic C. Blow
Some indirect relationships between contraception failures and offspring with a pathological condition are reviewed, and a causal connection between them is suggested. This hypothesis is supported by the decreasing incidence of Down syndrome (DS) in general in recent years, and the increase among the younger maternal age categories as well as the effect of birth order. A more than doubled
An 18-item stalking inventory and personal interviews with knowledgeable proxy informants and victims of attempted femicide were used to describe the frequency and type of intimate partner stalking that occurred within 12 months of attempted and actual partner femicide. One hundred forty-one femicide and 65 attempted femicide incidents were evaluated. The prevalence of stalking was 76% for femicide victims and
JUDITH M. McFARLANE; JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL; SUSAN WILT; CAROLYN J. SACHS; YVONNE ULRICH; XIAO XU
Spousal discrepancy theory posits that partners with wide personality differences are at risk for marital distress. In this study, we assessed links between partner personality and interpersonal characteristics and marital distress in 244 couples who sought marital therapy. The sample was divided into three subgroups according to marital duration. Longer married couples reflected significantly less impulsive, exploitive, and insensitive characteristics
Background: The United States has relied upon partner notification strategies to help break the chain of infection and re-infection for sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Physicians are a vital link in the system of STD control, but little is known of physician opinions about partner notification strategies.Methods: We collected opinions about partner notification from a national probability sample of physicians in
M Hogben; J S St Lawrence; D E Montan?o; D Kasprzyk; J S Leichliter; W R Phillips
Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) suffer from distressing and disabling symptoms. Many studies have shown that PTSD symptoms can negatively influence quality of life of their partners. This study was designed to assess general health, marital satisfaction and self-esteem levels of partners of Iranian veterans with PTSD. We performed a case-control study. Cases were comprised of 40 partners
H. Zarrabi; K. Najafi; M. Shirazi; H. Farahi; F. Nazifi; M. Tadrisi
Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.
Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)
In a cooperative exchange, the size of a partner's contribution is likely to depend both on the partner's ability to supply help and on the partner's need for help in return. Referring to such needs and abilities as aspects of partner quality, it follows that variation in the amount of help offered in a relationship could transmit information about partner
This preliminary study tested the efficacy of a partner-guided cancer pain management protocol for patients who are at the end of life. Seventy-eight advanced cancer patients meeting criteria for hospice eligibility and their partners were randomly assigned to a partner-guided pain management training intervention, or usual care control condition. The partner-guided pain management training protocol was a three-session intervention conducted
Francis J. Keefe; Tim A. Ahles; Linda Sutton; JoAnn Dalton; Don Baucom; Mary Susan Pope; Verena Knowles; Elizabeth McKinstry; Charlotte Furstenberg; Karen Syrjala; Sandra J. Waters; Daphne McKee; Colleen McBride; Meredith Rumble; Cindy Scipio
In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17beta (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17alpha-hydroxy-20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. Strain had no effect on any hormones in females and only on T and F in males. The lack of pronounced interstrain differences in gamete ripening dates and reproductive endocrinology and the similarity of the temporal patterns and relative concentrations of hormones to those reported for other salmonids suggest nothing unusual or dysfunctional about these reproductive traits that would impede lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes.
Objective: This paper proposes a conceptual model for gender differences in outcomes of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, broadly conceived as including physical, sexual, emotional, and coercive control forms of abuse, as well as stalking. Method: Literature review of PsycInfo and PubMed databases. Results: The literature reviewed suggests these negative effects are not equally distributed by gender—studies indicate that women
Jennifer E. Caldwell; Suzanne C. Swan; V. Diane Woodbrown
Localized bleaching (a discrete white area on the coral) was observed in one of the main framework-building corals in Hawaii, Porites compressa. This study aimed to determine the degree of virulence of the lesion. We investigated the whole-colony effects by following disease progression through time and examining the effect of localized bleaching on coral fecundity. After two months, 35 of 42 (83.3%) individually tagged colonies affected by localized bleaching showed tissue loss and partial colony mortality. Histological slides of healthy P. compressa and samples from colonies showing signs of localized bleaching were compared showing that affected colonies had a significant reduction (almost 50%) in gamete development, egg numbers, and egg size in the affected tissue. The observed localized bleaching results in both partial colony mortality and a reduced number of gametes and was termed Porites Bleaching with Tissue Loss (PBTL).
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard generates photoreceptor currents (PCs) upon light excitation. These currents play a key role in the signal transduction\\u000a chain for photomotility responses. We have previously found that inhibition of PCs by tryptone occurs only in gametes that\\u000a display chemotaxis toward this agent, and is not observed in chemotactically insensitive vegetative cells. Here we show that\\u000a the sensitivity to
Elena G. Govorunova; Olga O. Voytsekh; Oleg A. Sineshchekov
Since Chaet and his co-workers (Chaet and McConnaughy, 1959 ; Chaet and Musick, 1960 ; Chaet, l964a) discovered that starfish (Asterias forbesi) can be induced to spawn by injecting a water extract of radial nerves into the coelomic cavity, some clue to the elucidation of the mechanism of starfish spawning has been afforded. The active substance responsible for gamete-shedding, contained
We analysed the products of male meiosis in microspore-derived progeny from a Brassica napus (AACnCn) × Brassica carinata (BBCcCc) interspecific hybrid (ABCnCc). Genotyping at 102 microsatellite marker loci and nuclear DNA contents provided strong evidence that 26 of the 28 progeny\\u000a (93%) were derived from unreduced (2n) gametes. The high level of CnCc marker heterozygosity, and parallel spindles at Anaphase II in
Matthew N. Nelson; Annaliese S. Mason; Marie-Claire Castello; Linda Thomson; Guijun Yan; Wallace A. Cowling
Prothymosin ? (PTMA) is a highly acidic intrinsically unstructured protein. Its expression in male gonads is evolutionary conserved; in rat testis it is specifically localized in the cytoplasm of post-meiotic germ cells, in association with the developing acrosome system. In the present paper we investigated on PTMA localization inside the head of mammalian spermatozoa (SPZ). We chose a confocal approach to ascertain whether PTMA is expressed in the acrosome or in the perinuclear theca, two regions that are tightly linked and partially overlapped in the mature haploid cells. The obtained results showed that PTMA is specifically localized in the acrosome of rat epididymal SPZ; the same experimental approach evidenced, for the first time, PTMA presence in human ejaculated SPZ. A Western blot analysis on protein extracts from human sperm head fractions confirmed the confocal data and demonstrated that the peptide is specifically associated with the inner acrosomal membrane fraction. Finally, when the acrosome reaction was induced in vitro by progesterone treatment on both rat and human sperm, PTMA signal was retained in the apical region of reacted SPZ. In conclusion, this study confirms the conservation of PTMA distribution in vertebrate male gametes and strongly supports a role for this polypeptide in their physiology. PMID:23359453
The UK Government has determined that children born from egg donation have the same right to know their biological parent as adopted children on reaching the age of 18. There is concern as to the effect of loss of anonymity on egg donor recruitment, since a wait of 1 or 2 years is not unusual even under present circumstances. Some fertility programmes have introduced egg-sharing (involving 'subfertile donors') to circumvent the delays. However, with this method both the donor and the recipient may have reduced overall success. The shortage of sperm donors has led the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to consider increasing the allowable expenses payment and a consultation exercise is underway to review payments and other issues for sperm, egg and embryo donors. Fundamental new initiatives regarding gamete donation need to be implemented to avoid further restrictions on an already unsatisfactory service. An 'all-inclusive' financial allowance is proposed for donors to promote donor recruitment and shorten the waiting time to treatment predicted to increase with the loss of anonymity. PMID:15820032
The remarkable complexity of the molecular events governing adhesion and fusion of the male and female gametes is becoming apparent. Novel research suggests that these highly specific cellular interactions are facilitated by multiprotein complexes that are delivered to and/or assembled on the surface of the gametes by molecular chaperones in preparation for sperm-egg interaction. While the activation of these molecular chaperones and the mechanisms by which they shuttle proteins to the surface of the cell remain the subject of ongoing investigation, a compelling suggestion is that these processes are augmented by dynamic membrane microdomains or lipid rafts that migrate to the apical region of the sperm head after capacitation. Preliminary studies of the oocyte plasma membrane have also revealed the presence of lipid rafts comprising several molecular chaperones, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms may be involved in the activation of maternal fusion machinery and the regulation of oocyte plasma membrane integrity. Despite these findings, the analysis of oocyte surface multiprotein complexes is currently lacking. Further analyses of the intermediary proteins that facilitate the expression of key players in sperm-egg fusion are likely to deliver important insights into this unique event, which culminates in the cytoplasmic continuity of the male and female gametes. PMID:23166368
In order to produce triploid plants, 2n female gametes were induced by treating female buds and developing embryo sacs of Populus adenopoda Maxim with high temperature exposure. During megasporogenesis, tests were conducted on the relationship between female gametophyte development and morphological changes of female catkins. In the resulting progeny, 12 triploids were produced, and the highest rate of triploid production was 40%. Cytological observation revealed that the pachytene to diakinesis phase of meiotic stages may be a suitable period for inducing megaspore chromosome doubling through high temperature exposure. On the other hand, catkins of 6–72 h after pollination were treated for inducing embryo sac chromosome doubling. In the offspring seedlings, 51 triploids were detected and the highest efficiency of triploid production was 83.33%. Correlation analysis between the proportion of each embryo sac’s developmental stage and the percentage of triploid production indicated that the second mitotic division may be the most effective stage for 2n female gamete induction. Our findings showed that high temperature exposure is an ideal method for 2n female gamete induction. Heterozygous offspring are valuable for breeding programs of P. adenopoda.
Background Sexual reproduction relies on two key events: formation of cells with a haploid genome (the gametes) and restoration of diploidy after fertilization. Therefore the underlying mechanisms must have been evolutionary linked and there is a need for evidence that could support such a model. Results We describe the identification and the characterization of yem1, the first yem-alpha mutant allele (V478E), which to some extent affects diploidy reduction and its restoration. Yem-alpha is a member of the Ubinuclein/HPC2 family of proteins that have recently been implicated in playing roles in chromatin remodeling in concert with HIRA histone chaperone. The yem1 mutant females exhibited disrupted chromosome behavior in the first meiotic division and produced very low numbers of viable progeny. Unexpectedly these progeny did not display paternal chromosome markers, suggesting that they developed from diploid gametes that underwent gynogenesis, a form of parthenogenesis that requires fertilization. Conclusions We focus here on the analysis of the meiotic defects exhibited by yem1 oocytes that could account for the formation of diploid gametes. Our results suggest that yem1 affects chromosome segregation presumably by affecting kinetochores function in the first meiotic division. This work paves the way to further investigations on the evolution of the mechanisms that support sexual reproduction.
Sexual polyploidization through the formation and functioning of 2n gametes is considered a major route for plant speciation and diversification. The cellular mechanism underlying 2n gamete formation mostly involves a restitution of the meiotic cell cycle, generating dyads and triads instead of tetrad meiotic end-products. As an alternative mechanism, the tomato mutant pmcd1 (for pre-meiotic cytokinesis defect 1), which generates diploid gametes through the ectopic induction of pre-meiotic endomitosis, is presented here. Using cytological approaches, it is demonstrated that male pmcd1 meiocyte initials exhibit clear alterations in cell cycle progression and cell plate formation, and consequently form syncytial cells that display different grades of cellular and/or nuclear fusion. In addition, it was found that other somatic tissue types (e.g. cotyledons and petals) also display occasional defects in cell wall formation and exhibit alterations in callose deposition, indicating that pmcd1 has a general defect in cell plate formation, most probably caused by alterations in callose biosynthesis. In a broader perspective, these findings demonstrate that defects in cytokinesis and cell plate formation may constitute a putative route for diplogamete formation and sexual polyploidization in plants. PMID:23580753
Colchicine treatment of G. biloba microsporocytes results in a low mutation rate in the diploid (2n) male gamete. The mutation rate is significantly lower as compared to other tree species and impedes the breeding of new economic varieties. Proteomic analysis was done to identify the proteins that influence the process of 2n gamete formation in G. biloba. The microsporangia of G. biloba were treated with colchicine solution for 48 h and the proteins were analyzed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and compared to protein profiles of untreated microsporangia. A total of 66 proteins showed difference in expression levels. Twenty-seven of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the 27 proteins, 14 were found to be up-regulated and the rest 13 were down-regulated. The identified proteins belonged to five different functional classes: ATP generation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism; protein metabolism; ROS scavenging and detoxifying enzymes; cell wall remodeling and metabolism; transcription, cell cycle and signal transduction. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins and their function could help in analysing the mechanism of lower mutation rate of diploid male gamete when the microsporangium of G. biloba was induced by colchicine. PMID:24167543
Hybridizing populations of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus, in Cobscook Bay (eastern Maine) have been used by our laboratory to study the evolution of gamete incompatibility and molecular evolution of the vitelline coat lysin proteins expressed in sperm. The M7 lysin locus has been the most studied of the three lysins, but evidence for positive selection necessary to help confirm its role in gamete recognition in western Atlantic hybrid zones is contradictory. We developed an alternative test, based on rates of introgression at M7 lysin. Contrary to expectations, introgression at this locus is much higher (instead of much lower) than is introgression at neutral markers. In this article, we present simulations, constructed using synthetic populations of combinations of admixed genotypes, representing various hybrid offspring categories. Simulations produced variation in introgression across loci, but did not generate the massive introgression at M7 lysin observed in natural populations in Cobscook Bay. We consider these results in the context of selection operating on gamete recognition loci, both within and between species, during the third stage of allopatric speciation in Mytilus. PMID:21742775
Colchicine treatment of G. biloba microsporocytes results in a low mutation rate in the diploid (2n) male gamete. The mutation rate is significantly lower as compared to other tree species and impedes the breeding of new economic varieties. Proteomic analysis was done to identify the proteins that influence the process of 2n gamete formation in G. biloba. The microsporangia of G. biloba were treated with colchicine solution for 48 h and the proteins were analyzed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and compared to protein profiles of untreated microsporangia. A total of 66 proteins showed difference in expression levels. Twenty-seven of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the 27 proteins, 14 were found to be up-regulated and the rest 13 were down-regulated. The identified proteins belonged to five different functional classes: ATP generation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism; protein metabolism; ROS scavenging and detoxifying enzymes; cell wall remodeling and metabolism; transcription, cell cycle and signal transduction. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins and their function could help in analysing the mechanism of lower mutation rate of diploid male gamete when the microsporangium of G. biloba was induced by colchicine.
U. S. DOE Clean Cities Program has awarded its National Partner awards for 2002, and the awards will be presented at the Clean Cities Conference in May 2002. This fact sheets describe the winners and their contributions.
A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented.
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.
In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.
Successful materials management extends far beyond the hospital walls. More than ever, effective materials managers are partnering with suppliers, distributors, manufacturers and group purchasing organizations to reduce costs, improve inventory control and increase operational efficiency. This requires partners who are intimately familiar with both the unique requirements of individual health care settings and best practices throughout the industry. Beyond achieving better balance-sheet results, this consultative approach ultimately leads to standardized, proven processes that help ensure quality care is delivered safely. Health Forum convened a group of health care executives and industry vendors Nov. 4, 2005, in Chicago to discuss hospital-vendor partnerships. The closed-door dialogue focused on how hospitals can work with vendors to improve operations. Health Forum would like to thank all of the participants for their open and candid discussion, as well as the sponsors for supporting this event. PMID:16583613
Women's perceptions of power in their relationship with their main partner, control over condom use, concerns about potential partner retribution, condom requests, and condom use were assessed by interviewing a group of women attending two urban public clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Alabama. Only 5% reported that they had no control over condom use by their partner. Fears of
Rebecca J. Cabral; LeaVonne Pulley; Lynn M. Artz; Ilene Brill; Maurizio Macaluso
The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p < .0001) and a two fold increased risk of femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences. PMID:11444155
Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D
The fine structure of the gametes in six sea urchin species of the Sea of Japan was studied. The spermatozoons in Strongylocentrotus nudus, S. intermedius, Echinocardium cordatum, Scaphechinus mirabilis, Sc. grizeus and Echinarachnius parma are species-specific. The conical head and symmetrically disposed ring-shape mitochondrion are common to regular sea urchin sperm cells. S. nudus is characterized by the bulb-shaped head of the zoosperm; S. intermedius, by a bullet-shaped one. The zoosperm spearhead and small amount of postacrosome material are common to irregular sea urchins; the sperm width: length ratio varies for different species, with the highest for Sc. mirabilis. The zoosperm of Sc. griseus is characterized by two lipid drops in the cell center. Asymmetrical mitochondrion disposal is usual for E. parma. Actin filaments are found in the postacrosome material in the zoosperm of cordiform sea urchins. The differences in the fine structure of zoosperm in eurybiont species Ech. cordatum inhabiting the Sea of Japan and coastal areas of the Northeast Atlantic may bear record to the complex existence of species Ech. cordatum. The fine structure of zoosperm is unique for each of the studied families, Strongylocentrotidae, Scutellidae, and Loveniidae. The eggs of all the species are characterized by vitelline and tremelloid membranes. The vitelline membrane is formed by cytoplasm protrusions; the area between them is filled with fubrillary material. The tremelloid membrane is formed by fubrillary material associated with apical parts of microvilli of the vitelline membrane. The irregular sea urchins Sc. griseus, Sc. mirabilis and E. parma are characterized by chromatophores situated in the tremelloid membrane, with the highest abundance in Sc. mirabilis. PMID:20184121
During the prespawning and spawning season experimental groups of +2 year male and female brown trout, Salmo trutta, were kept under natural photoperiod and at three temperature regimes, a naturally fluctuating one with an average temperature of 7.4 ± 4.6°C as typical for alpine and prealpine river systems (T1), a naturally fluctuating one elevated for circa 5°C to 12.4 ± 5.3°C (T2), and a constant one of 9.6 ± 0.8°C (T3). The effect of the three temperature regimes on the timing of spermiation and ovulation, on the maturation rate of males and females and on physiological and biochemical parameters of spermatozoa and oocytes were investigated. T1 was the optimal one for maturation of males and females. Under these conditions >70% of males produced semen of high quality (defined by a volume >3.5 mL, a motility rate >65%, a swimming velocity >135 µm/sec, and a fertility >65%) for a period of 4 weeks. Females ovulated synchronously and the oocytes were of high quality, too (fertility >80%). In T2 the peak in the percentage of mature males was delayed and shortened, the percentage of spermatozoa with DNA damages increased, and peroxidase and lysozyme activity decreased which are indicative for a decrease in semen quality. In females the time point of ovulation was delayed, the fertility of oocytes was reduced, and their phospholipid and free fatty acids levels were decreased. In T3 maturation of fish was not synchronized. However, no negative effect on gamete quality was observed. PMID:23315835
Attitudes toward premarital sexual behavior, lifetime prevalence of sexual activity, and the variation in exposure to sexual intercourse is described. The main focus is on the number of sex partners and the social context of partner change. The variation by social and demographic characteristics in the number of sex partners is analyzed. Despite considerable variation in partner change behavior among
When Chlamydomonas gametes of opposite mating type are mixed together, flagellar adhesion through sex-specific adhesion molecules triggers a transient elevation of intracellular cAMP, leading to gamete activation in preparation for cell-cell fusion and zygote formation. Here, we have identified a protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity that is stimulated by flagellar adhesion. We determined that the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibited fertilization, and that fertilization was rescued by dibutyryl cAMP, indicating that the genistein-sensitive step was upstream of the increase in cAMP. Incubation with ATP of flagella isolated from non-adhering and adhering gametes followed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies showed that adhesion activated a flagellar PTK that phosphorylated a 105-kDa flagellar protein. Assays using an exogenous protein-tyrosine kinase substrate confirmed that the activated PTK could be detected only in flagella isolated from adhering gametes. Our results indicate that stimulation of the PTK is a very early event during fertilization. Activation of the PTK was blocked when gametes underwent flagellar adhesion in the presence of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, but not in the presence of the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H8, which (unlike staurosporine) does not block the increases in cAMP. In addition, incubation of gametes of a single mating type in dibutyryl cAMP failed to activate the PTK. Finally, flagella adhesion between plus and minus fla10-1 gametes, which have a temperature-sensitive lesion in the microtubule motor protein kinesin-II, failed to activate the PTK at elevated temperatures. Our results show that kinesin-II is essential for coupling flagellar adhesion to activation of a flagellar PTK and cAMP generation during fertilization in Chlamydomonas. PMID:12821679
The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the MEN1 gene encoding menin, with tissue-specific tumors of the parathyroids, anterior pituitary, and enteropancreatic endocrine tissues. Also, 30-40% of sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors show somatic MEN1 gene inactivation. Although menin is expressed in all cell types of the pancreas, mouse models with loss of menin in either pancreatic ?-cells, or ?-cells, or total pancreas develop ?-cell-specific endocrine tumors (insulinomas). Loss of widely expressed tumor suppressor genes may produce tissue-specific tumors by reactivating one or more embryonic-specific differentiation factors. Therefore, we determined the effect of menin overexpression or knockdown on the expression of ?-cell differentiation factors in a mouse ?-cell line (MIN6). We show that the ?-cell differentiation factor Hlxb9 is posttranscriptionally upregulated upon menin knockdown, and it interacts with menin. Hlxb9 reduces cell proliferation and causes apoptosis in the presence of menin, and it regulates genes that modulate insulin level. Thus, upon menin loss or from other causes, dysregulation of Hlxb9 predicts a possible combined mechanism for ?-cell proliferation and insulin production in insulinomas. These observations help to understand how a ubiquitously expressed protein such as menin might control tissue-specific tumorigenesis. Also, our findings identify Hlxb9 as an important factor for ?-cell proliferation and insulin regulation. PMID:23419452
This article makes four major points in response to Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rolling’s (2010) review of the intimate partner\\u000a violence literature. First, the evidence is clear that there is more than one type of intimate partner violence. Second, the\\u000a feminists are right. Gender is central to the analysis of intimate partner violence, and the coercive controlling violence\\u000a that most people associate with
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...General Â§ 301.6224(c)-1 Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners...misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a...
As customer satisfaction continues to drive businesses, telecommunications companies are forging partnerships that are aimed at the common goals of improved quality, reduced costs, and business success. The evolved customer\\/supplier partnering model that is being applied in the telecommunications and other industries is illustrated. This model promotes an “us” relationship focused on mutual success, contrasted to the “we\\/they” relationship supported
K. Connolly; B. E. Hess; W. A. Hoberg; T. C. Pingel
|Seven papers are presented from the 1994 CAUSE conference track on partnering within and among higher education institutions in regard to information resources and technology. The papers include: (1) "Having Your Cake and Eating It Too: A Recipe for a Collaborative CWIS in a Decentralized Environment," which discusses the development of Johns…
When mating type plus and minus gametes of Chlamydomonas are mixed, they agglutinate with each other via their flagella, fuse, then initiate the zygote formation program which includes synthesis of the zygote cell wall, fusion of nuclei and chloroplasts, and the digestion of chloroplast DNA from the minus parent. The mRNAs from gamete and zygote cells was isolated and hybridized to cDNA-macroarray filters both to identify new genes expressed during the mating reaction and the early zygote formation process and to analyze the gene expression programs that underlie these sexual processes. Twenty-one novel genes were identified in this screen, designated as EZY (early zygote expressed) genes. The EZY genes included genes encoding proteins whose function is unknown, and genes encoding proteins that appear to be involved in processes such as cell wall synthesis, gene expression, intracellular trafficking or secretion, and vesicular transport in zygotic cells. All of the EZY genes were strongly induced within 1 h during the mating process, including early zygote formation. The transcriptional characteristics of EZY genes were analyzed by using the fusion-defective mutant fus mt(+). Among the EZY genes, 12 genes were not activated in fusion-defective conditions, suggesting that cell fusion is required for their expression. The remaining nine that were transcribed in fusion-defective fus matings were also inducible by cell wall removal in either vegetative or gametic cells, indicating that these genes were induced only indirectly by the cAMP signaling pathway initiated by flagellar agglutination as a result of mating-induced cell wall loss. PMID:18487630
Background Conservation Breeding Programs (CBP's) are playing an important role in the protection of critically endangered anuran amphibians, but for many species recruitment is not successful enough to maintain captive populations, or provide individuals for release. In response, there has been an increasing focus on the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), including the administration of reproductive hormones to induce gamete release followed by in vitro fertilisation. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of two exogenous hormones to induce gamete release, for the purpose of conducting in vitro fertilisation (IVF), in one of Australia's most critically endangered frog species, Pseudophryne corroboree. Methods Male frogs were administered a single dose of either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa), while female frogs received both a priming and ovulatory dose of LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h post hormone administration (PA), and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Ovulation responses were evaluated by stripping females every 12 h PA for 5 days. Once gametes were obtained, IVF was attempted by combining spermic urine with oocytes in a dilute solution of simplified amphibian ringer (SAR). Results Administration of both hCG and LHRHa induced approximately 80% of males to release sperm over 72 h. Peak sperm release occurred at 12 h PA for hCG treated males and 36 h PA for LHRHa treated males. On average, LHRHa treated males released a significantly higher total number of live sperm, and a higher concentration of sperm, over a longer period. In female frogs, administration of LHRHa induced approximately 30% of individuals to release eggs. On average, eggs were released between 24 and 48 h PA, with a peak in egg release at 36 h PA. IVF resulted in a moderate percentage (54.72%) of eggs being fertilised, however all resultant embryos failed prior to gastrulation. Conclusions Hormone treatment successfully induced spermiation and ovulation in P. corroboree, but refinement of gamete induction and IVF techniques will be required before ART protocols can be used to routinely propagate this species.
We present gene prioritization system (GPSy), a cross-species gene prioritization system that facilitates the arduous but critical task of prioritizing genes for follow-up functional analyses. GPSy’s modular design with regard to species, data sets and scoring strategies enables users to formulate queries in a highly flexible manner. Currently, the system encompasses 20 topics related to conserved biological processes including male gamete development discussed in this article. The web server-based tool is freely available at http://gpsy.genouest.org.
Purpose To compare attitudes towards gamete donation between IVF doctors in the Nordic countries, and to determine whether attitudes\\u000a are in correspondence with national legislation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods A study-specific questionnaire was used to study attitudes of 108 IVF doctors (92% response). Participants constituted 78%\\u000a of all IVF doctors in Sweden, Denmark and Norway and 15% of IVF doctors in Finland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Despite
A simple model is used to analyze the performance of a system for verifying compliance with an arms control treaty. Blue and Red are partners in to a treaty. Blue prefers to comply, but is uncertain whether Red similarly prefers compliance (in the absence of threatened violation detection). Blue's uncertainty is modeled as a probability distribution over three different Red types: Violators, Compilers, and Deterrables. Criteria are derived to determine the level at which Blue should set his detection threshold, and when it is best for Blue not to verify at all. The results involve both game-theoretic and Bayes solutions. 9 refs., 14 figs.
Context: Intimate partner violence (IPV) screening remains controversial. Major medical organiza- tions mandate screening, whereas the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cautions that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening. An effective IPV screening program must include a screening tool with sound psychometric properties. A systematic review was conducted to summarize IPV screening tools tested in
Rebecca F. Rabin; Jacky M. Jennings; Jacquelyn C. Campbell; Megan H. Bair-Merritt
This paper aims to investigate international franchise partner selection from the perspective of different decision making models and analyse the influence of organisational factors on the franchise selection decision making. Empirical data were collected from a leading international hotel group through multiple data collection methods. The research findings indicate that the participant organisation mainly exploits a processual approach to decision
|A study evaluated Macomb Reading Partners (MRP), the tutoring program of the Macomb Literacy Project. It researched the effectiveness of literacy training and its impact on the lives of a target group of 30 automotive workers. Data sources were a structured interview, the Word Opposites Test of the Botel Reading Inventory (1962), and participant…
The M.J. Murdock Trust offers a 15,000 Research Grant for High School Science Teachers to partner with a Researcher for two summers of research. Over 400 of these grants have been awarded in the 5 Northwest States since 1990. A supplemental grant to the high school may follow upon accepted application. The purpose of these grants is to promote scientific
|To integrate support staff into the camp community and encourage them to work effectively with the program: give support groups positive names; make service staff partners in camp; develop effective operating practices; maintain open communication; free staff from roles and labels; recognize support staff's contributions; and build team spirit.…
Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A
The design of better adapted intelligent systems can benefit from a better knowledge of the natural cooperative behavior between humans. Two studies of natural situations of cooperation are presented, focusing on the type of intervention of each partner in the dialogue. Specific attention is paid to the methodology of analysis. Implications for system design are stressed.
|Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also…
Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.
THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.
Although developmental theory predicts that adolescent romantic relationships have important benefits, empirical evidence suggests that they may also carry substantial psychosocial risk. This study uses data from 4,948 respondents (50% female) in Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the association between involvement with an older romantic partner and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Ordinary least squares regression models compared Wave II depressive symptoms among respondents with older partners (defined as an age difference of 2 or more years) to respondents with same-age or younger partners, controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. Ten percent of females and two percent of males reported having an older romantic partner at Wave II. Among females only, involvement with an older romantic partner was associated with a modest but significant increase in depressive symptoms between waves. This association was largely mediated by increases in substance use. Findings suggest that involvement with an older male partner during adolescence may increase the risk of poor emotional outcomes among females.
Summary Identifying loci with parental differences in DNA methylation is key to unraveling parent-of-origin phenotypes. By conducting a MeDIP-Seq screen in maternal-methylation free postimplantation mouse embryos (Dnmt3L-/+), we demonstrate that maternal-specific methylation exists very scarcely at midgestation. We reveal two forms of oocyte-specific methylation inheritance: limited to preimplantation, or with longer duration, i.e. maternally imprinted loci. Transient and imprinted maternal germline DMRs (gDMRs) are indistinguishable in gametes and preimplantation embryos, however, de novo methylation of paternal alleles at implantation delineates their fates and acts as a major leveling factor of parent-inherited differences. We characterize two new imprinted gDMRs, at the Cdh15 and AK008011 loci, with tissue-specific imprinting loss, again by paternal methylation gain. Protection against demethylation after fertilization has been emphasized as instrumental in maintaining parent-of-origin methylation inherited from the gametes. Here we provide evidence that protection against de novo methylation acts as an equal major pivot, at implantation and throughout life.
STUDY QUESTION Can amino acid profiling differentiate between human oocytes with differing competence to mature to metaphase II (MII) in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocytes which remained arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM) displayed differences in the depletion/appearance of amino acids compared with oocytes which progressed to MII and patient age, infertile diagnosis and ovarian stimulation regime significantly affected oocyte amino acid turnover during IVM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Amino acid profiling has been proposed as a technique which can distinguish between human pronucleate zygotes and cleavage stage embryos with the potential to develop to the blastocyst stage and implant to produce a pregnancy and those that arrest. Most recently, the amino acid turnover by individual bovine oocytes has been shown to be predictive of oocyte developmental competence as indicated by the gamete's capacity to undergo fertilization and early cleavage divisions in vitro. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was conducted between March 2005 and March 2010. A total of 216 oocytes which were at the GV or metaphase I (MI) stages at the time of ICSI were donated by 67 patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS The research was conducted in university research laboratories affiliated to a hospital-based infertility clinic. Oocytes were cultured for 24 h and the depletion/appearance of amino acids was measured during the final 6 h of IVM. Amino acid turnover was analysed in relation to oocyte meiotic progression, patient age, disease aetiology and controlled ovarian stimulation regime. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The depletion/appearance of key amino acids was linked to the maturation potential of human oocytes in vitro. Oocytes which arrested at the GV stage (n = 9) depleted significantly more valine and isoleucine than those which progressed to MI (n = 32) or MII (n = 107) (P < 0.05). Glutamate, glutamine, arginine and valine depletion or appearance differed in MII versus degenerating oocytes (n = 20) (P < 0.05). Glutamine, arginine, methionine, phenylalanine, total depletion and total turnover all differed in oocytes from patients aged < 35 years versus patients ?35 years (P < 0.05). MII oocytes obtained following ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH depleted more isoleucine (P < 0.05) and more alanine and lysine (P < 0.05) appeared than oocytes from hMG-stimulated cycles. MII oocytes from patients with a polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology (n = 33) depleted more serine (P < 0.05) than oocytes from women with normal ovaries (n = 61). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Immature oocytes collected at the time of ICSI were used as the model for human oocyte maturation. These oocytes have therefore failed to respond to the ovulatory hCG trigger in vivo (they are meiotically incompetent), and have limited capacity to support embryo development in vitro. The lack of cumulus cells and stress of the conditions in vitro may have influenced turnover of amino acids, and owing to the small sample sizes further studies are required to confirm these findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The findings provide support for the hypothesis that oocyte metabolism reflects oocyte quality. Longitudinal studies are required to link these functional metabolic indices of human oocyte quality with embryo developmental competence. Oocyte amino acid profiling may be a useful tool to quantify the impact of new assisted reproduction technologies (ART) on oocyte quality. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This project was funded by the UK Biology and Biotechnology Research Council (BB/C007395/1) and the Medical Research Council (G 0800250). K.E.H was in receipt of a British Fertility Society/Merck Serono studentship. H.J.L. is a shareholder in Novocellus Ltd, a company which seeks to devise a non-invasive biochemical test of embryo health.
This study examines motives for intimate partner violence (IPV) among a community sample of 412 women who used IPV against male partners. A "Motives and Reasons for IPV scale" is proposed, and exploratory factor analyses identified five factors: expression of negative emotions, self-defense, control, jealousy, and tough guise. To our knowledge, the study is the first to investigate the relationship between women's motives for IPV and their perpetration of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression, as well as coercive control, toward partners. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed participants' aggression was driven by complex, multiple motives. All five motives were related to a greater frequency of perpetrating IPV. Treatment programs focusing on women's IPV perpetration should address both defensive and proactive motives. PMID:21072136
Caldwell, Jennifer E; Swan, Suzanne C; Allen, Christopher T; Sullivan, Tami P; Snow, David L
Building links with foreign partners offers major potential for the development of economies in transition. However, in transition economies, old institutions still exert a strong influence on business decisions, posing problems for the development of these links. This paper analyzes the presence of foreign partners in the firms of transition economies, and focuses on the influences on foreign partner presence.
Mike Wright; Igor Filatotchev; Trevor Buck; Kate Bishop
Partner violence is a serious public health issue. For couples who enter treatment for drug and alcohol abuse, rates of partner aggression are alarmingly high, with 53% to 63% of couples reporting one or more episodes of partner violence in the year prior to program entry (Murphy & O'Farrell, 1994; Murphy, O'Farrell, Fals-Stewart, & Feeham, 2001; Stuart et al., 2003).
Keith Klostermann; Michelle L. Kelley; Theresa Mignone; Lori Pusateri; William Fals-Stewart
Intimate partner violence poses a major public health and social problem with serious criminal justice, health and social-related consequences. However, little is known about the etiology of intimate partner violence among young people, especially minority youth. Using the Hispanic Stress Inventory, we examine intimate partner violence among Hispanics, particularly Mexican American adolescent females. Understanding and identifying issues related to intimate
|This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…
Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.
Objectives Despite evidence that patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and their partners report significant psychological distress, and suggestions that involving partners in interventions alleviates such distress, no systematic reviews have examined this. The objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners. Methods CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched through October 2012. Randomized controlled trials evaluating psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners were included. Selection of studies, study appraisal, data extraction and analysis were undertaken using standard methods. Results Seven studies comprising 673 dyads (patient and partner) were included. Psychological interventions result in modest improvements in patients' health-related quality of life, blood pressure, knowledge of disease and treatment, and satisfaction with care, and in partners' anxiety, knowledge and satisfaction. There was a non-significant trend for improvements in anxiety for patients, and depressive symptoms for both patients and partners. There was no evidence of a significant effect on mortality, morbidity or other cardiovascular risk factors for patients, or social support for patients and partners. Conclusions Psychological interventions for patients with CHD and their partners were found to improve health-related quality of life, blood pressure, knowledge, and satisfaction with care for patients, and anxiety, knowledge, and satisfaction with care for partners. However, as the overall quality of the evidence was low, these results should be interpreted with caution.
The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence of men's violence against their female partners was computed and compared in terms of demographic, behavioral, and relationship characteristics. The preceding-year prevalence of physical assault, sexual violence, and "any violence or injury" among the group whose partners were pregnant was 11.9%, 9.1%, and 18.8%, respectively. This is significantly higher than the nonpregnant group. Pregnancy was significantly associated with increased odds of violence, including physical assault, sexual violence, and "any violence or injury" (ORs = 2.42, 2.42, and 2.60, respectively). Having controlled for relationship characteristics including social desirability, social support, in-law conflict, dominance, and jealousy of male perpetrators, pregnancy was significantly associated with "any violence or injury." Demographic and behavioral variables accounted for pregnant women's significantly higher odds of having been abused in the year preceding the data collection. This study provides preliminary findings on the association between pregnancy and partner violence. Our findings underscore the need to screen for violence among pregnant women in clinical health care settings as well as in communities. Perpetrator-related risk factors should be included in the assessment of risk for partner violence against pregnant women. For the prevention of intimate partner violence, family-based intervention is needed to work with victims as well as perpetrators. PMID:20495098
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
Comparing patterns of genetic variation at multiple loci in the genome of a species can potentially identify loci which are under selection. The large number of polymorphic microsatellites in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are available markers to screen for selectively important loci. The Pfs48\\/45 gene on Chromosome 13 encodes an antigenic protein located on the surface of parasite gametes,
David J. Conway; Ricardo L. D. Machado; Balbir Singh; Patricia Dessert; Zsuzsanna S. Mikes; Marinete M. Povoa; Ayoade M. J. Oduola; Cally Roper
In haploid-diploid red seaweeds, the dispersal of male gametes is presumed limited due to their lack of flagella. It has been suggested that this group suffers from sperm limitation and, consequently, that fertilization is relatively inefficient. Fertilization in most floridean rhodophytes results in the formation a cystocarp, a swelling on the haploid female thallus housing the diploid zygote and its
In the biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas , adhesion and fusion of the plasma membranes of ga- metes during fertilization occurs via an actin-filled, mi- crovillus-like cell protrusion. Formation of this z 3- m m- long fusion organelle, the Chlamydomonas fertilization tubule, is induced in mating type plus (mt 1 ) gametes during flagellar adhesion with mating type minus (mt 2 )
Nedra F. Wilson; Mary J. Foglesong; William J. Snell
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the timing and amount of caffeine intake by women and men undergoing IVF and gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) on oocyte retrieval, sperm parameters, fertilization, multiple gestations, miscarriage, and live births. METHODS: A prospective study of 221 couples was conducted in Southern California between 1993 and 1998. 'Usual' caffeine intake during lifetime and 1 year prior to
Valuable information on the cytogenetic constitution of female gametes has been deduced from the direct, so-called conventional analysis of oocytes remaining unfertilized in programmes of assisted reproduction. Additional, indirect conclusions have become possible by PGD of the polar bodies. Both techniques provided evidence for the co-existence of two aneuploidy-causing mechanisms during first maternal meiosis; non-disjunction (ND) of bivalents results in the loss or gain of whole chromosomes in metaphase II complements, whereas a precocious division (pre-division, PD) of univalents leads to the loss or gain of single chromatids. As to the distribution of ND and PD, however, direct oocyte chromosome studies and PGD tell surprisingly different stories. Moreover, first and second polar body analyses contradict the data derived from DNA polymorphism studies concerning the distribution of first and second meiotic division errors. An increased awareness of these problems appears necessary because important decisions are made on the basis of PGD results. PMID:16982661
Cluster analysis of 139 partner violent men's self-reports on the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory identified profiles reflecting pathological anger (PA), low anger control (LAC), and normal anger (NA). The PA group self-reported higher pretreatment partner abuse, interpersonal dysfunction, distress, and substance abuse and had lower…
Murphy, Christopher M.; Taft, Casey T.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.
Anecdotal reports of cruelty to pet animals in families where partner battering occurs are common but there exist few empirical data on this issue. Determining the forms and prevalence of such cruelty is important since abuse of pets may be a method batterers use to control their partners, may be related to batterers' lethality, and may result in children in
Growth curves for relationship quality over the first 10 years of cohabitation, controlling for separation, were estimated on the basis of survey data obtained over part or all of this time interval. Participants were both partners from 95 lesbian, 92 gay male, and 226 heterosexual couples living without children, and both partners from 312 heterosexual couples living with children. Relative
This pilot study tested the Young Parenthood Program (YPP), which is a new coparenting counseling program designed to support positive communications and prevent the occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescents and their biological partners. One hundred five coparenting couples were recruited, assessed, and randomized into a treatment or a control group and then reassessed at 3 and
Paul Florsheim; Laura McArthur; Cristina Hudak; Sarah Heavin; Jason Burrow-Sanchez
Two mechanisms for chloroplast DNA replication have been revealed through the study of an unusual heteroplasmic strain of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Heteroplasmy is a state in which more than one genome type occurs in a mitochondrion or chloroplast. The Chlamydomonas strain spa19 bears two distinct chloroplast genomes, termed PS+ and PS?. PS+ genomes predominate and are stably maintained in vegetative cells, despite their lack of known replication origins. In sexual crosses with spa19 as the mating type plus parent, however, PS+ genomes are transmitted in only ?25% of tetrads, whereas the PS? genomes are faithfully inherited in all progeny. In this research, we have explored the mechanism underlying this biased uniparental inheritance. We show that the relative reduction and dilution of PS+ vs. PS? genomes takes place during gametogenesis. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling, followed by immunoprecipitation and PCR, was used to compare replication activities of PS+ and PS? genomes. We found that the replication of PS+ genomes is specifically suppressed during gametogenesis and germination of zygospores, a phenomenon that also was observed when spa19 cells were treated with rifampicin, an inhibitor of the chloroplast RNA polymerase. Furthermore, when bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was compared at 11 sites within the chloroplast genome between vegetative cells, gametes, and rifampicin-treated cells by quantitative PCR, we found that incorporation was often reduced at the same sites in gametes that were also sensitive to rifampicin treatment. We conclude that a transcription-mediated form of DNA replication priming, which may be downregulated during gametogenesis, is indispensable for robust maintenance of PS+ genomes. These results highlight the potential for chloroplast genome copy number regulation through alternative replication strategies.
The ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus in the biflagellate female gametes of the green alga Bryopsis lyngbyei has been studied in detail. In the flagellum and basal body, microtubule septations occur in some of the B-tubules. The transition region of the flagellum is extremely long (260 290 nm), exhibits a stellate pattern in cross section but lacks the transverse diaphragm. The two basal bodies form an angle of 180° and overlap at their proximal ends. They are connected by a compound non-striated capping plate. Terminal caps associated with the capping plate partially close the proximal end of each basal body. A cruciate flagellar root system with three different types of microtubular roots is present, i. e. the flagellar apparatus does not show 180° rotational symmetry. One root type contains 2 microtubules which are connected to an elaborate cylindrical structure, presumably a mating structure. The opposite root exhibits 3 microtubules over its entire length and is not associated with a cylindrical structure. In their proximal parts both roots are linked to an underlying crescent body. The other two microtubular roots are probably identical and consist of 4 (or 5) microtubules which show configurational changes. These two identical roots insert into the capping plate and link to the inner side (i. e. the side adjacent to the other basal body) of each basal body, whereas the other two roots attach to the outer sides of each basal body. System I striated fibres are probably associated with each of the four roots, while system II fibres have not been observed. The flagellar apparatus of female gametes of B. lyngbyei shows many unique features but in some aspects resembles that of ulvalean algae. Functional and phylogenetic aspects of cruciate flagellar root systems in green algae are discussed.
Data for nationally representative samples of cohabiting couples in six developing countries show that intimate partner violence (IPV) increases the risk of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for currently married women (ORs = 1.4-2.2) in all six countries, and that the strength of this relationship is not diminished by controls for proximate determinants such as husband's self-reported STI status and men's and women's higher-risk behaviors. The robustness of the IPV-STI relationship suggests the need to acknowledge IPV as an STI risk factor for women on par with other recognized risk factors such as multiple sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:22946108
The current study explored whether men’s avoidance coping in response to the drinking behavior of their female partner with\\u000a an alcohol use disorder (AUD) would be associated with higher levels of men’s perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV).\\u000a Women with an AUD (n?=?109) and their male partners in a U.S. urban area were assessed on men’s perpetration of minor and
Amy M. Cohn; Barbara S. McCrady; Elizabeth E. Epstein; Sharon M. Cook
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD. PMID:21329439
Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD. PMID:20545476
With the advent of accountable care organizations, bundled payments, value-based purchasing, and penalties for preventable hospital readmission, tight connections and collaboration across the care continuum will become critical to achieve successful patient outcomes and to reduce the cost of care delivery. Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN), the largest provider of health services in eastern Pennsylvania, set out on a journey to build collaborative relationships with skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in their eastern Pennsylvania community. LVHN desired SNF partners with mutual interests in improving quality of care and lowering costs of delivery where possible. Recognizing that not all SNFs are alike, LVHN developed a Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool to assess and prioritize skilled nursing facilities in an effort to determine those that would make the best collaborators. SNFs were reviewed based on their volume of mutual patients, quality of care delivery, and their perceived willingness to align with LVHN. Six variables were used to assess these facilities, including (1) patient discharge destination volume by SNF; (2) 30-day all-cause readmission rate to an LVHN hospital; (3) Medicare's Nursing Home Compare 5-Star Overall Rating; (4) the health network affiliation of the SNF's medical director; (5) the level of LVHN-employed or -affiliated physician presence at the SNF; and (6) the SNF's current participation in LVHN-sponsored programs and meetings. Through use of the Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool, it was discovered that roughly 70% of LVHN patients who required skilled nursing care following their inpatient stay received care at 1 of 20 SNFs. Of these, 5 facilities performed well on the 6-variable assessment, deeming them the "Tier 1 Facilities" to initially focus collaborative efforts. LVHN has strategically deployed physician resources and has increased physician presence at these "Tier 1 SNFs." These facilities have also gained remote read-only access to LVHN's inpatient electronic medical record and have had opportunity to participate in LVHN-sponsored programs. Special projects have been co-developed with several SNFs, including a telemedicine-based Parkinson's disease program to increase patient access to a neurologist specially trained in movement disorders. The Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool has become a powerful tool when used for prioritization of relationships and allocation of LVHN physicians and resources. Collaboration with strong SNF partners has offered a shared opportunity to improve quality of care, reduce costs, and prepare for the many policies affecting the health care industry. Future outcomes of this work will include quality metrics, such as readmissions, patient satisfaction with care, time for decision to admit, and overall costs of care. The data and metrics used to define the prioritization tool will continue to be adapted as the post-acute market and hospital-SNF relationships continue to evolve. PMID:23018039
Maly, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Susan; Jordan, M Kim; Davies, William J; Weiss, Michael J; Deitrick, Lynn; Salas-Lopez, Debbie
A telephone survey was conducted to identify predictors of treatment engagement in 83 cohabitating female partners of 83 Vietnam\\u000a theater veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The survey assessed veterans for their trauma\\u000a history and PTSD symptoms. Partners were assessed for caregiver burden, patient–partner involvement, PTSD treatment engagement,\\u000a self-efficacy relating to PTSD, beliefs about benefits of PTSD treatment, and
Frederic Sautter; Judith A. Lyons; Gina Manguno-Mire; Dana Perry; Xiaotong Han; Michelle Sherman; Leann Myers; Ronald Landis; Greer Sullivan
Reluctant Partners examines how the federal government can secure the cooperation it needs to effect national policy goals whtn the implementation process itself empowers potential adversaries. The current battle over how and where to permanently store the nation's high-level nuclear waste poses one of the greatest challenges to federalism since the Civil War. Authority has been legislatively diffused among the federal government, the states, the counties, and certain affected Indian tribes. The situation also epitomizes the conflict that arises when Congress delegates final decisionmaking authority to the bureaucracy. The book contributes to the body of implementation literature by moving past organizational theory to consider issues of governance and leadership. However, it will disappoint the empiricist who sees an opportunity for the application of a theory go by the boards.
Aims To describe the levels and identify independent predictors of caregiver burden in partners of patients with heart failure. Background Care and support from a partner are important for the well-being of patients with heart failure and may potentially delay disease progression. However, caregiving may be associated with burden and stress and it is therefore important to understand which factors that influence caregiver burden. Theoretical models of caregiving describe the concept of burden as an outcome variable, including decreased well-being and health. Methods Data for this descriptive cross-sectional study were collected between January 2005 and September 2008. The dependent variable consisted of the Caregiver Burden Scale total score index. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life, symptoms of depression, perceived control, and knowledge on heart failure were included in a regression analysis to determine independent predictors of caregiver burden. Results The 135 partners had a mean-age of 69 years and 75% were females. Caregiver burden was perceived as medium in 30% of the partners. The patients’ Physical Component Score of SF-36 (p<0.001), partners’ Mental Component Score of SF-36 (p<0.001) and perceived control (p<0.01) accounted for 39% of the variance in caregiver burden. Conclusion Caregiver burden was lower when the mental health of the partner and the physical health of the patient were better and the partner experienced higher control over the heart disease. A partner-centered approach to educate and support partners of patients with heart failure is essential to improve the life situation for patient–partner dyads.
Agren, Susanna; Evangelista, Lorraine; Stromberg, Anna
Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes of treated sewage effluent is manifest in a variety of ways, ranging from malformation of the germ cells and/or reproductive ducts to altered gamete production. Intersex fish were also found to have an altered endocrine status and an elevated concentration of plasma vitellogenin. Gonadal growth was inhibited only in severely intersex fish, whereas progression of spermatogenesis was delayed in a large proportion of all intersex and exposed male fish. In contrast to the effects observed in the intersex and exposed male fish, the maturation of ovaries in female fish inhabiting effluent-contaminated rivers appeared to be less obviously affected, although a higher incidence of oocyte atresia was found in the effluent-exposed fish compared with the reference fish. A positive correlation was found between the proportion of female tissue in the gonads of intersex fish and their plasma vitellogenin concentration, suggesting that vitellogenin can be an indicator for the level of gonadal disruption in intersex roach. The estradiol-17beta concentration in intersex fish was intermediate between the concentration found in males and females, and the plasma testosterone was between 2- and 3-fold higher in intersex fish compared with male fish. These data suggest a link between altered endocrine status in intersex and female fish and gonadal disruption. Spermiation was also affected in roach living in effluent-impacted rivers: a lower proportion of fish were found releasing sperm, and in those intersex fish that were spermiating, a reduced milt volume and a reduced sperm density were found. All intersex fish had malformations of the reproductive duct(s), and in severely affected fish, the ducts were occluded, thus preventing release of gametes. In view of the widespread occurrence of intersexuality in wild fish populations in rivers throughout the United Kingdom, assessment of the reproductive capabilities of these intersex roach is clearly needed to understand the impact of this phenomenon on roach fertility. PMID:11804939
Jobling, S; Beresford, N; Nolan, M; Rodgers-Gray, T; Brighty, G C; Sumpter, J P; Tyler, C R
The present study examined how two commonly identified ideal sexual partner themes, having social status and being a nice guy, were related to multiple sex partners, sexual frequency, condom use and STDs among adolescent girls. The current study also explored how lower rates of potential partners influenced these relationships. The sample included 270 African American young women (aged 13-17 at
To improve understanding of the complex dynamics in intimate partner violence (IPV) in heterosexual relation- ships, we explored violence and substance use among the female partners of men entering treatment for both IPV and substance-related problems. All male participants (n 75) were alcohol dependent and had at least one domestic-violence arrest. Results showed that female partners were as likely as
Peggilee Wupperman; Paul Amble; Susan Devine; Howard Zonana; William Fals-Stewart; Caroline Easton
Description: Within the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, lands owned or controlled by ... agencies and organizations within the Partners in Flight (PIF) program are ... to bridge the disconnect between regional plans and local land management.
The objective of this study was to further develop the Ida Institute model on communication partners' (CPs) journey through experiences of person with hearing impairment (PHI), based on the perspectives of CPs. Nine CPs of hearing aid users participated in this study, recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, the data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and presented with the use of process mapping approach. Seven main phases were identified in the CP journey which includes: (1) contemplation, (2) awareness, (3) persuasion, (4) validation, (5) rehabilitation, (6) adaptation, and (7) resolution. The Ida Institute model (based on professionals' perspective) was compared with the new template developed (based on CPs' perspectives). The results suggest some commonalities and differences between the views of professionals and CPs. A new phase, adaptation, was identified from CPs reported experiences, which was not identified by professionals in the Ida Institute model. The CP's journey model could be a useful tool during audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions to promote discussion between the PHI and the CP. In addition, it can be used in the training of hearing healthcare professionals. PMID:23533422
Manchaiah, Vinaya K C; Stephens, Dafydd; Lunner, Thomas
Introduction: To conduct an evidence-based review of the literature on the effectiveness of partner notification strategies for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States.Methods: Systematic literature searches of available databases yielded 212 English language articles on partner notification, 13 of which met the inclusion criteria. These 13 articles were systematically reviewed, abstracted, and rated for
Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…
Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.
|In this study, the authors examined whether the number or success of weight loss partners influences participants' outcomes in behavioral weight loss treatment. Overweight participants (n=109) assigned to an exercise intensive group in a larger trial were encouraged to invite up to 3 partners to attend treatment. Weight losses at 6, 12, and 18…
The creation of haploid gametes in yeast, termed spores, requires the de novo formation of membranes within the cytoplasm. These membranes, called prospore membranes, enclose the daughter nuclei generated by meiosis. Proper growth and closure of prospore membranes require the highly conserved Vps13 protein. Mutation of SPO71, a meiosis-specific gene first identified as defective in spore formation, was found to display defects in membrane morphogenesis very similar to those seen in vps13? cells. Specifically, prospore membranes are smaller than in the wild type, they fail to close, and membrane vesicles are present within the prospore membrane lumen. As in vps13? cells, the levels of phophatidylinositol-4-phosphate are reduced in the prospore membranes of spo71? cells. SPO71 is required for the translocation of Vps13 from the endosome to the prospore membrane, and ectopic expression of SPO71 in vegetative cells results in mislocalization of Vps13. Finally, the two proteins can be coprecipitated from sporulating cells. We propose that Spo71 is a sporulation-specific partner for Vps13 and that they act in concert to regulate prospore membrane morphogenesis. PMID:24036347
Park, Jae-Sook; Okumura, Yuuya; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Neiman, Aaron M
An emerging alternative to traditional partner management for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is expedited partner therapy (EPT), which involves the delivery of medications or prescriptions to STD patients for their partners without the clinical assessment of the partners. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently recommended EPT nationally in limited circumstances; however, its implementation may raise legal concerns. We analyzed laws relevant to the distribution of medications to persons with whom clinicians have not personally treated or established a relationship. We determined that three fourths of states or territories either expressly permit EPT or do not expressly prohibit the practice. We recommend (1) expressly endorsing EPT through laws, (2) creating exceptions to existing prescription requirements, (3) increasing professional board or association support for EPT, and (4) supporting third-party payments for partners' medications. PMID:18172137
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and low emotional intelligence (EI). Relationships among adverse childhood experiences (ACE), PTSD symptoms, and partner aggression (i.e., generalized tendency to aggress toward one's partner) were assessed in 108 male IPV offenders. It was hypothesized that ACE is positively correlated with partner aggression, PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression relationship, and the ACE-PTSD-aggression mediation varies by selected EI facets. Results indicate that ACE has an indirect effect on partner aggression via PTSD and PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression link when emotional self-regulation is low and when intuition (vs. reason) is high. Trauma-exposed IPV offenders may benefit from comprehensive treatments focusing on PTSD symptoms, emotional control, and reasoning skills to reduce aggression. PMID:23862313
Swopes, Rachael M; Simonet, Daniel V; Jaffe, Anna E; Tett, Robert P; Davis, Joanne L
Spouse reports may serve as an important source of collateral information in the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated behavioral problems. This study examined the concordance of anger reports among 94 combat veterans and their partners. Veterans' scores on subscales of the Multidimensional Anger Inventory were compared with scores on a parallel version completed by partners to assess veterans' anger symptomatology. The study examined whether the concordance between veteran and partner-reported anger is moderated by whether the veteran suffers from PTSD. There was moderate agreement between veterans and their partners on reports of anger and little evidence to suggest that PTSD diagnosis affected the convergence between partner and veteran scores. PMID:12013064
Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C; Feldman, Michelle E; Barefoot, John C; Haney, Thom; Boswort, Hayden B
Latinas recently immigrated to the United States who work in bars or cantinas are at risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) due to the heavy drinking and sex-related expectations associated with their work and the stigmatized nature of their occupation. We explored the influence of demographic characteristics, substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors on IPV reported by cantineras for primary and nonprimary sexual partners. Results based on interviews conducted with 669 cantineras indicate that length of residency in the United States and current sexual practices predict IPV perpetrated by both their primary and nonprimary sexual partners. There were also partner-specific predictors of violence related to the substance use and working practices of cantineras. Our findings have implications for understanding the partner violence experienced by this subgroup of stigmatized Latina immigrants and for the ability of current IPV research to capture their experience. PMID:23686624
Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Diamond, Pamela M
Objective China’s sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic requires comprehensive control programmes. Partner services are traditional pillars of STI control but have not been widely implemented in China. This study was a systematic literature review to examine STI partner notification (PN) uptake in China. Methods Four English and four Chinese language databases were searched up to March 2011 to identify articles on PN of STIs including HIV in China. PN uptake was defined as the number of partners named, notified, evaluated or diagnosed per index patient. Results A total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria. For STI (excluding HIV) PN, a median 31.6% (IQR 27.4%–65.8%) of named partners were notified, 88.8% (IQR 88.4%–90.8%) of notified partners were evaluated and 37.9% (IQR 33.1%–43.6%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. For HIV PN, a median 15.7% (IQR 13.2%–36.5%) of named partners were notified, 86.7% (IQR 72.9%–90.4%) of notified partners were evaluated and 27.6% (IQR 24.1%–27.7%) of evaluated partners were diagnosed. A mean of 80.6% (SD=12.6%) of patients attempted PN, and 72.4% (IQR 63.8%–81.1%) chose self-referral when offered more than one method of PN. Perceived patient barriers included social stigma, fear of relationship breakdown, uncertainty of how to notify and lack of partner contact information. Perceived infrastructure barriers included limited time and trained staff, mistrust of health workers and lack of PN guidelines. Conclusion PN programmes are feasible in China. Further research on STI PN, particularly among men who have sex with men and other high-risk groups, is an important public health priority. PN policies and guidelines are urgently needed in China.
Wang, Alberta L; Peng, Rui-Rui; Tucker, Joseph D; Cohen, Myron S; Chen, Xiang-Sheng
This paper deals with human interface for iPod touch used for the tele-operation of robot partners. We develop a tele-operation system based on touch interface of iPod touch. The environmental information is measured through the sensor network, and is stored in the remote host computer. The iPod touch accesses the environment information through wireless LAN, and sends the control outputs
Objectives. Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of cohabitation among older adults, the caregiving literature has exclusively focused on formally married individuals. Extending prior work on intra-couple care, this study contrasts frail cohabitors’ patterns of care receipt from a partner to that of frail spouses. Methods. Using nationally representative panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006), we estimate random effects cross-sectional times series models predicting frail cohabitors’ likelihood of receiving partner care compared with their married counterparts’. Conditional on the receipt of intra-couple care, we also examine differences in marital and nonmarital partners’ caregiving hours and caregiving involvement relative to other helpers. Results. Net of sociodemographic, disability, and comorbidity factors, we find that cohabitors are less likely to receive partner care than married individuals. However, caregiving nonmarital partners provide as many hours of care as spouses while providing a substantially larger share of disabled respondents’ care than marital partners. Discussion. Cohabitation and marriage have distinct implications for older adults’ patterns of partner care receipt. This study adds weight to a growing body of research emphasizing the importance of accounting for older adults’ nontraditional union forms and of examining the ramifications of cohabitation for older adults’ well-being.
... Bookmarks The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey Intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking are ... partner in the United States, based on a survey conducted in 2010. Over the course of a ...
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A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2?) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P?=?0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288
Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E; Moreno, Juan F; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Lammoglia, Miguel A; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V; Esperón-Sumano, A Enrique; Romo, Salvador
|Suggests that control be seen as a compensatory process where people are most likely to control their partners when control over the environment is challenged, as it is when relationships exhibit low mastery, low trust, or high conflict. Controlling one's partner serves to compensate for a perceived lack of control. (RJM)|
Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes' locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider-based notification strategies are potentially cost-effective for identifying new cases of HIV. These strategies offer a simple, effective and easily implementable opportunity to control HIV transmission. PMID:23325584
Rutstein, Sarah E; Brown, Lillian B; Biddle, Andrea K; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kamanga, Gift; Mmodzi, Pearson; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mofolo, Innocent; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C
BACKGROUND Some providers observe that partners interfere with health care visits or treatment. There are no systematic investigations of the prevalence of or circumstances surrounding partner interference with health care and intimate partner violence (IPV). OBJECTIVE To determine whether abused women report partner interference with their health care and to describe the co-occurring risk factors and health impact of such interference. DESIGN A written survey of women attending health care clinics across 5 different medical departments (e.g., emergency, primary care, obstetrics–gynecology, pediatrics, addiction recovery) housed in 8 hospital and clinic sites in Metropolitan Boston. PARTICIPANTS Women outpatients (N?=?2,027) ranging in age, 59% White, 38% married, 22.6% born outside the U.S. MEASUREMENT Questions from the Severity of Violence and Abuse Assessment Scale, the SF-36, and questions about demographics. RESULTS One in 20 women outpatients (4.6%) reported that their partners prevented them from seeking or interfered with health care. Among women with past-year physical abuse (n?=?276), 17% reported that a partner interfered with their health care in contrast to 2% of women without abuse (adjusted odds ratios [OR]?=?7.5). Further adjusted risk markers for partner interference included having less than a high school education (OR?=?3.2), being born outside the U.S. (OR?=?2.0), and visiting the clinic with a man attending (OR?=?1.9). Partner interference raised the odds of women having poor health (OR?=?1.8). CONCLUSIONS Partner interference with health care is a significant problem for women who are in abusive relationships and poses an obstacle to health care. Health care providers should be alert to signs of patient noncompliance or missed appointments as stemming from abusive partnercontrol tactics.
Williams, Corrine M.; Lichter, Erika; Gerber, Megan; Ganz, Michael L.; Sege, Robert
Because religion and/or spirituality is integral to the lives of a majority of the world population, we conducted 3 studies on the role of prayer in romantic relationships. Study 1 (N = 375) showed that prayer for the partner predicted lower levels of extradyadic romantic behavior over a 6-week period, over and beyond relationship satisfaction, and initial levels of extradyadic romantic behavior. In Study 2 (N = 83), we used an experimental design to show that participants assigned to pray for each day for 4 weeks engaged in lower levels of extradyadic romantic behavior during that time, compared with those who engaged in daily positive thoughts about the partner or a neutral activity. Perception of the relationship as sacred mediated the relation between experimentally manipulated prayer and later infidelity. Study 3 (N = 23) showed that objective observers rated participants who had been praying for their partner for 4 weeks as more committed to their romantic relationship than control participants. The implications of these results are then discussed. Because religion and/or spirituality is integral to the lives of a majority of the world population, we conducted 3 studies on the role of prayer in romantic relationships. Study 1 (N = 375) showed that prayer for the partner predicted lower levels of extradyadic romantic behavior over a 6-week period, over and beyond relationship satisfaction, and initial levels of extradyadic romantic behavior. In Study 2 (N = 83), we used an experimental design to show that participants assigned to pray for each day for 4 weeks engaged in lower levels of extradyadic romantic behavior during that time, compared with those who engaged in daily positive thoughts about the partner or a neutral activity. Perception of the relationship as sacred mediated the relation between experimentally manipulated prayer and later infidelity. Study 3 (N = 23) showed that objective observers rated participants who had been praying for their partner for 4 weeks as more committed to their romantic relationship than control participants. The implications of these results are then discussed. PMID:20718545
Fincham, Frank D; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Beach, Steven R H
There is increasing concern that paternal exposure to toxic chemicals impacts negatively on progeny outcome. Exposure of male rats to a model male-mediated developmental toxicant and anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss, as well as in malformations. We hypothesize that the stage specificity of the effects of paternal cyclophosphamide exposure on progeny depends on the ability of germ cells to respond to stress, repair DNA or undergo apoptosis. Acute high dose exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide increased the expression of heat shock proteins and DNA repair genes, predominantly in round spermatids. In contrast, chronic low dose treatment dramatically decreased the expression of stress response genes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in elongated spermatids; this reduced ability to respond to stress may allow damage to accumulate, resulting in altered sperm function. Increased DNA damage was maximal 3 weeks after drug exposure, during spermiogenesis, a key point in sperm chromatin remodelling. Drug exposure for 9 weeks increased the frequency of spermatozoa with chromosome 4 disomy and nullisomy. DNA damage found in cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa was imparted to the newly fertilized zygote. Drug-exposed spermatozoa decondensed more rapidly than control spermatozoa and male pronuclear formation was earlier. RNA synthesis was higher in 1-cell embryos sired by drug-treated fathers than in controls. Significantly, the profile of gene expression was altered in embryos sired by drug-treated males as early as the 1-cell stage. Thus, exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide altered male germ cell quality with a consequent temporal and spatial disruption of the zygotic genome activation.
Hales, Barbara F. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Robaire, Bernard [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)
The general solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for the associated Lamé potentials with an arbitrary real energy is found. The supersymmetric partners are generated by employing seed solutions for factorization energies inside the gaps.
Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted.
AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW
The general solution of the stationary Schroedinger equation for the associated Lame potentials with an arbitrary real energy is found. The supersymmetric partners are generated by employing seed solutions for factorization energies inside the gaps.
Fernandez, D. J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Cinvestav, Departamento de Fisica (Mexico); Ganguly, A. [University of Calcutta, City College (India)
The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) undertook this project to develop a methodology for systematically matching research interests of private sector organizations with its own in order to identify potential research partners. The method...
Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ratios to these extended Higgs sector states. In fact, top partner decays may provide the most promising discovery mode for such scalars, especially given the large backgrounds to direct and associated production. In this paper, we present a search strategy for top partner decays to a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark, focusing on the case where the charged Higgs dominantly decays to third-generation quarks to yield a multi- b final state. We also discuss ways to extend this search to exotic neutral scalars decaying to bottom quark pairs.
The U.S. Air Force faces a challenging environment as it devises an approach to managing security cooperation with partner countries. The important mission of countering terrorist and insurgent groups abroad requires working closely with allies and partne...
B. Grill E. Gons J. D. Moroney J. E. Peters K. Cragin
While funders increasingly support research that partners with communities, community partners still must submit to a regulatory oversight structure that does not reflect their unique research ethics challenges and needs. In recognition of the importance of collaborative research endeavors, the authors engaged in a process of reconnaissance and negotiations with local community partners and research ethics boards (REBs) at the University of Michigan to begin to address the mismatch between regulatory demands and community-based research realities. This preliminary process yielded both changes in the REB oversight structure and training required of community partnered research. While the ultimate impact of these changes remains to be seen, the process itself yielded insights and materials of use to both our local REBs, and hopefully those at other institutions as well. This article will present those insights and provide links to those materials.
For nearly fifty years the US held a dominant position in research and development in the free world. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade. Countries around the world realize that to foster sustainable economic growth, they must build and maintain a foundation in science and technology. The time in which a country could base its gross national product solely on extraction of raw materials or on people-intensive manufacturing is drawing to a close. The funding for research and development has been growing in the rest of the world, while US expenditures have not kept pace. In 1961, the United States funded 71 `?40 of the world's R&D. It is estimated that the US contribution to research and development fimding today has reached the 3 3o/0 level, and will drop to 26o/0 of the world's total by 2003.1 In 1981 US government spending per capita on non-defense research and development was nearly fifty percent above our major competitors; by 2002 it is projected to be f@ percent below them.2 This trend has a profound impact on how research and development institutions in the United States plan for their future technical growth. Sandia National Laboratories, as one of the largest US-government tided research establishments, has been watching this trend for some time. %ndi~ focusing on the Laboratories' missions in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, environmental integrity, and emerging national challenges, is committed to bringing the best in world-class technology to bear on the nation's problems. We realize maintaining our state-of-the-art technolo=~ base requires we look not only to domestic sources in universities, industries and other laboratories, but also to sources overseas. The realization that we must be "worldwide gatherers of technology" has led Sandia National Laboratories to consider the question of international partnering in some detaiI. As a national laboratory with a national security mission we are well aware of the issues that we face in pursuing international collaborations. In order to make the proper decisions, we are interested in understanding the history of such partnerships, when they are appropriate, why we expect them to be important, the risks they present and what we can do to mitigate those risks.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) became widely recognized as a health and social problem in the 1970s. The accumulated body\\u000a of research indicates that IPV is very common. The lifetime prevalence among women for experiencing partner violence has been\\u000a estimated between 22% and 28% (Straus, Gelles, & Steinmetz, 1980; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). IPV can result in fatal and nonfatal\\u000a injuries
Daniel J. Whitaker; Charlene K. Baker; Ileana Arias
This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. PMID:21995611
Men who spend a greater proportion of time apart from their female partner since the couple's last copulation are at greater "objective" sperm competition risk. We propose a novel cue to sperm competition risk: the time she spends with her male friends. Four hundred and twenty men in a committed, heterosexual, sexual relationship completed a questionnaire. The results indicate that men at greater objective sperm competition risk report less time desired until the couple's next copulation, greater interest in copulating with their partner, and greater anger, frustration, and upset in response to their partner's sexual rejection, but only among men whose partner spends more time with her male friends. These results remain after controlling statistically for the participant's age and their partner's age. We discuss limitations of the current research, and discuss how research in human sperm competition can inform social issues, including men's partner-directed sexual coercion. PMID:24005961
By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine how adolescent relationship characteristics,\\u000a partner attributes, and sexual relationship histories are associated with contraceptive use and consistency, incorporating\\u000a random effects to control for respondent-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses show that teens’ contraceptive use patterns\\u000a vary across relationships. Teens with more-homogamous partners, with more-intimate relationships, and who communicate about
Substance-using intimate partners negatively influence individuals’ substance abuse treatment engagement and drug use, but little else is known about effects of intimate relationships on treatment. We examine how relationship dynamics (power, control, dependence, insecurity and decision-making power) influence treatment engagement, and whether this differs by gender and partner drug use. Sixty-four heroin users (42 men, 22 women) receiving methadone detoxification
Kara S Riehman; Martin Y Iguchi; Michelle Zeller; Andrew R Morral
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is a major health problem for young adults. Rates of HED have remained consistently high among young adults for the past two decades. Though research has identified various intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental contributors to HED, the majority of research focuses on intrapersonal factors. As such, more research is needed to test the role that specific interpersonal relationships play in perpetuating HED. This study tests the partner influence hypothesis that suggests partners in romantic relationships influence one another's HED over time. A sample of 208 young, nonmarried, heterosexual dating couples completed HED measures at baseline and again 28 days later. Actor-partner interdependence modeling revealed significant actor effects, demonstrating stability in HED within each partner over time. Results also showed significant partner effects where HED in both young men and women in dating relationships positively influenced their partners' future HED over a relatively short time frame. Patterns in the results suggest both women and men are more affected by their own than by their partner's prior level of HED. Nonetheless, small partner effects were present for both women and men. Results support the partner influence hypothesis and suggest HED is a self-propagating behavior sustained, in part, by a pattern of interpersonal influence. These results highlight the importance of considering both intrapersonal and interpersonal factors when implementing prevention and intervention programs for young adults' HED. PMID:22149955
Mushquash, Aislin R; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Simon B; Mackinnon, Sean P; Antony, Martin M; Sherry, Dayna L
Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive, and mental health consequences. The effect of intimate partner violence on women's ability to control their fertility and the mechanisms through which these phenomena are related merit further investigation. Building on findings from a previous analysis in which a statistically significant
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…
Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.
|The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…
Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.
BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with
Dennis Revicki; Kellee Howard; Jennifer Hanlon; Sally Mannix; Alison Greene; Margaret Rothman
The process of partner notification (or contact tracing) is regarded as the cornerstone in the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections, yet almost nothing is known of the lay experience of partner notification. This article draws on a mixed methods study designed to explore lay perspectives among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Greater Dublin Area
Asthma can be controlled when managed properly. This guide will help nurses on physician's offices, clinics, hospitals, schools, and worksites to establish and maintain a partnership with patients to help them manage their asthma. Moreover, the guide will...
Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958
ABSTRACT Glucose-specific enzyme IIA (EIIAGlc) is a central regulator of bacterial metabolism and an intermediate in the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS), a conserved phosphotransfer cascade that controls carbohydrate transport. We previously reported that EIIAGlc activates transcription of the genes required for Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. While EIIAGlc modulates the function of many proteins through a direct interaction, none of the known regulatory binding partners of EIIAGlc activates biofilm formation. Therefore, we used tandem affinity purification (TAP) to compare binding partners of EIIAGlc in both planktonic and biofilm cells. A surprising number of novel EIIAGlc binding partners were identified predominantly under one condition or the other. Studies of planktonic cells revealed established partners of EIIAGlc, such as adenylate cyclase and glycerol kinase. In biofilms, MshH, a homolog of Escherichia coli CsrD, was found to be a dominant binding partner of EIIAGlc. Further studies revealed that MshH inhibits biofilm formation. This function was independent of the Carbon storage regulator (Csr) pathway and dependent on EIIAGlc. To explore the existence of multiprotein complexes centered on EIIAGlc, we also affinity purified the binding partners of adenylate cyclase from biofilm cells. In addition to EIIAGlc, this analysis yielded many of the same proteins that copurified with EIIAGlc. We hypothesize that EIIAGlc serves as a hub for multiprotein complexes and furthermore that these complexes may provide a mechanism for competitive and cooperative interactions between binding partners.
Pickering, Bradley S.; Smith, Daniel R.; Watnick, Paula I.
This study compared the empathic accuracy of men and women who had perpetrated physical intimate partner vio- lence with that of partners in nonviolent but distressed and nonviolent and nondistressed relationships. Examined was the empathic accuracy (a) of partners for one another's thoughts and feelings during a relationship problem dis- cussion in the laboratory, (b) of partners' empathic accuracy for
KAHNI CLEMENTS; AMY HOLTZWORTH-MUNROE; WILLIAM SCHWEINLE; WILLIAM ICKES
Although orgasm can be experienced in many ways with or without a partner, partner involvement continues to be a noted preference for many women. In order to examine the timing of partner orgasm in relationship to female sexual response, women who usually experience orgasm before, simultaneously, or after their male partner's first orgasm were examined in the context of their
Carol Anderson Darling; J. Kenneth Davidson; Ruth P. Cox
Little is known about neural responses in the early automatic-stage processing of rejection cues from a partner. Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a window to study processes that may be difficult to detect via behavioral methods. We focused on the N400 ERP component, which reflects the amount of semantic processing prompted by a target. When participants were primed by attachment-related contexts (“If I need help from my partner, my partner will be …”), rejection-related words (e.g., dismissing) elicited greater N400 amplitudes than acceptance-related words (e.g., supporting). Analyses of results for nonattachment primes suggest that these findings were not simply caused by target valence; the brain responds differentially to cues of partner rejection versus acceptance in under 300 ms. Moreover, these early-stage neurophysiological responses were heightened or dampened as a function of individuals’ adult attachment; women characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance showed the greatest N400 responses to cues of partner rejection (vs. acceptance).
In this analysis the ramifications of parents' multiple partner fertility for the trajectories of both married and unmarried stepfamilies are examined. Using a nationally representative sample of births to parents living in large cities, it was found that mother's children by prior partners are unrelated to subsequent relationship transitions within 5 years of a shared birth. However, men's other children
A sample of 671 predominantly single, young black women living in 10 low-income housing developments in five cities completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing factors related to their risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus, including their sexual behavior and condom use, and their partners' risk-related behaviors. In the two months before the 1994 survey, 17% of the women had sex with multiple partners and 22% had an exclusive partner who either had had other sexual partners in the past year or had a history of injection drug use; 40% had an exclusive partner who they believed had not engaged in these risky behaviors. During the same interval, 26% of women who had multiple partners received treatment for a sexually transmitted disease, compared with 9-11% of those who had an exclusive relationship. Condom use at last intercourse and communications about condom use were less frequent among women with an exclusive, risky partner than among those with multiple partners; attitudinal barriers to condom use did not vary, however, by the characteristics of women's relationships. PMID:8666088
Wagstaff, D A; Kelly, J A; Perry, M J; Sikkema, K J; Solomon, L J; Heckman, T G; Anderson, E S
The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed examination of sexual behavior with different types of partners. A sample of 163 young adults reported on their light nongenital, heavy nongenital, and genital sexual activity with romantic partners, friends, and casual acquaintances. They described their sexual activity with “friends with benefits,” as well as with friends in general. Young
The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed examination of sexual behavior with different types of partners. A sample of 163 young adults reported on their light nongenital, heavy nongenital, and genital sexual activity with romantic partners, friends, and casual acquaintances. They described their sexual activity with “friends with benefits,” as well as with friends in general. Young
This study uses data from the 2002 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with intimate partner violence perpetration by husbands and wives in Cebu, Philippines. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with wife-only, husband-only, and reciprocal perpetration. About 26% of women reported that either they or their partner perpetrated at least one physically aggressive act during the past year, whereas 22% reported sexual coercion by their husband during their relationship. The most common reason cited for hurting the partner was his or her alcohol use, partner nagging, the wife fighting back, and jealousy. In the regression analysis, the wife's alcohol use and violence between the wife's parents were predictors of all three perpetrator groups. The importance of regular church attendance and husband control and dominance varied for the groups. Research and prevention implications are discussed. PMID:18768743
The current study explored whether men's avoidance coping in response to the drinking behavior of their female partner with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) would be associated with higher levels of men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Women with an AUD (n = 109) and their male partners in a U.S. urban area were assessed on men's perpetration of minor and severe violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale, men's avoidance coping using the Spouse Behavior Questionnaire, and men's and women's drinking behavior using the Time Line Follow Back Interview. Using multiple regression analysis, results showed that men's use of avoidance coping significantly predicted male IPV perpetration over and above the women's perpetration of violence toward him, while women's alcohol use did not significantly predict male-to-female IPV perpetration. Implications for teaching emotion-regulation strategies to male partners of women with an AUD to cope with partner drinking are discussed.
Cohn, Amy M.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon M.
Cooperation is intrinsic to the human ability to work together toward common goals, and depends on sensing and reacting to dynamically changing relationships between coacting partners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a paradigm in which an adaptive pacing signal simulates a virtual partner, we examined the neural substrates underlying dynamic joint action. A single parameter controlled the degree to which the virtual partner adapted its behavior in relation to participant taps, thus simulating varying degrees of cooperativity. Analyses of fMRI data using objective and subjective measures of synchronization quality found the relative balance of activity in two distinct neural networks to depend on the degree of the virtual partner's adaptivity. At lower degrees of adaptivity, when the virtual partner was easier to synchronize with, cortical midline structures were activated in conjunction with premotor areas, suggesting a link between the action and socio-affective components of cooperation. By contrast, right lateral prefrontal areas associated with central executive control processes were recruited during more cognitively challenging interactions while synchronizing with an overly adaptive virtual partner. Together, the reduced adaptive sensorimotor synchronization paradigm and pattern of results illuminate neural mechanisms that may underlie the socio-emotional consequences of different degrees of entrainment success. PMID:22892422
Background At least half a million women are victims of intimate partner violence in the United States annually, resulting in substantial harm. However, the etiology of violence to intimate partners is not well understood. Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal. Method We conducted a propensity-score analysis of intimate partner violence perpetration to determine whether childhood witnessing is associated with perpetration in adulthood, independent of a wide range of potential confounding variables, and therefore might be a causal factor. We used data from 14,564 U.S. men ages 20 and older from the 2004–2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Nearly 4% of men reported violent behavior toward an intimate partner in the past year. In unadjusted models, we found a strong association between childhood witnessing of intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, risk ratio [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 2.1–3.2]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 3.0 [2.3–3.9]). In propensity-score models, the association was substantially attenuated (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, adjusted RR = 1.6 [1.2–2.0]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 1.6 [1.2–2.3]). Conclusions Men who witness intimate partner violence in childhood are more likely to commit such acts in adulthood, compared with men who are otherwise similar with respect to a large range of potential confounders. Etiological models of intimate partner violence perpetration should consider a constellation of childhood factors.
Roberts, Andrea L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Decker, Michele R.; Koenen, Karestan C.
We provide a systematic effective lagrangian description of the phenomenology of the lightest top-partners in composite Higgs models. Our construction is based on symmetry, on selection rules and on plausible dynamical assumptions. The structure of the resulting simplified models depends on the quantum numbers of the lightest top partner and of the operators involved in the generation of the top Yukawa. In all cases the phenomenology is conveniently described by a small number of parameters, and the results of experimental searches are readily interpreted as a test of naturalness. We recast presently available experimental bounds on heavy fermions into bounds on top partners: LHC has already stepped well inside the natural region of parameter space.
De Simone, Andrea; Matsedonskyi, Oleksii; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Wulzer, Andrea
This study used a novel questionnaire to examine ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. Seventy-two men and 83 women estimated their own and their opposite-sex partner's overall physical attractiveness and the attractiveness of various body parts and measures. They also answered six simple questions concerning physical attractiveness. Results showed significant gender differences in self-estimates of overall facial attractiveness and upper body features. In general, and regardless of gender, participants rated their opposite-sex partners as being significantly more attractive than themselves. In addition, the results showed that body weight and facial attractiveness were the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of social biases are considered. PMID:18089256
The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of male unemployment and each partner’s problem drinking to risk\\u000a for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of construction industry\\u000a workers and their spouses\\/partners. Participants in the sample (n = 848 couples) completed cross-sectional health behavior surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models of MFPV and
Carol B. Cunradi; Michael Todd; Michael Duke; Genevieve Ames
Gamete-recognition proteins often, but not always, evolve rapidly. We explored how variation in sperm bindin influences reproductive success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus during group spawning in the sea. Despite large variation in male and female abundance and neighbor distances, males with common genotypes had higher reproductive success than males with rare genotypes. However, males with a relatively uncommon proline-for-serine substitution were the most successful. Females also showed a fitness consequence of sperm-bindin genotype, suggesting linkage disequilibrium between the sperm-bindin locus and the egg receptor locus. Females with common genotypes had higher reproductive success than rare genotypes, but females with relatively uncommon insertions were most successful. Overall, these results suggest that rare male proteins are selected against, as supported by molecular evidence of purifying selection and probably caused by poor matches to the female receptor protein. Within the pool of moderately common to common alleles, however, individuals with less-common functional variants were favored and probably maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. These results support the hypothesis that sperm availability and sexual conflict influence the evolution of gamete recognition systems in broadcast spawners and highlight the benefits of combining fitness measures with molecular signatures for estimation of patterns of selection. PMID:19796148
Preliminary data indicate that chemicals can also increase the frequency of sex-chromosome nondisjunction. Positive results--which certainly need further confirmation--have been obtained for MMS, p-fluorophenylalanine, vincristine, procarbazine, carbendazim, and bleomycin. Nocodazole, benomyl, colcemic, 6-mercaptopurine, and halothane were all negative at the concentrations tested. For the induction of diploid spermatids positive results were only obtained for MMS and parafluorophenylalanine. In view of the results obtained, the Microtus system is considered a very useful tool for analyzing factors contributing to the high frequency of aneuploidy and triploidy among abortuses and of aneuploidy in liveborn infants of men. A method is described for the detection of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid spermatids in male germ cells of the field vole Microtus oeconomus. The method is based on the unique distribution pattern of heterochromatin in Microtus cells, which makes it possible to identify X and Y chromosomes in early spermatids with a simple C-banding procedure. Slide preparation is easy. Scoring of early spermatids for extra sex-chromosomes is simple and 2000-4000 cells per hour can be examined. With the Microtus system it has now been demonstrated that radiation of spermatocyte stages with doses of 50, 100 and 200 R results in a higher frequency of sex chromosome nondisjunction and of diploid gametes. Both types of aberrant gametes can be produced during the first and second meiotic division. PMID:387396
Preliminary data indicate that chemicals can also increase the frequency of sex-chromosome nondisjunction. Positive results--which certainly need further confirmation--have been obtained for MMS, p-fluorophenylalanine, vincristine, procarbazine, carbendazim, and bleomycin. Nocodazole, benomyl, colcemic, 6-mercaptopurine, and halothane were all negative at the concentrations tested. For the induction of diploid spermatids positive results were only obtained for MMS and parafluorophenylalanine. In view of the results obtained, the Microtus system is considered a very useful tool for analyzing factors contributing to the high frequency of aneuploidy and triploidy among abortuses and of aneuploidy in liveborn infants of men. A method is described for the detection of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid spermatids in male germ cells of the field vole Microtus oeconomus. The method is based on the unique distribution pattern of heterochromatin in Microtus cells, which makes it possible to identify X and Y chromosomes in early spermatids with a simple C-banding procedure. Slide preparation is easy. Scoring of early spermatids for extra sex-chromosomes is simple and 2000-4000 cells per hour can be examined. With the Microtus system it has now been demonstrated that radiation of spermatocyte stages with doses of 50, 100 and 200 R results in a higher frequency of sex chromosome nondisjunction and of diploid gametes. Both types of aberrant gametes can be produced during the first and second meiotic division. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4.
Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring and transmitting a number of venereal infections. However, little is known about the association between male circumcision and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the female partner. The authors pooled data on 305 adult couples enrolled as controls in one of five case-control studies of invasive cervical cancer
Xavier Castellsague; Rosanna W. Peeling; Silvia Franceschi; Silvia de Sanjose; Jennifer S. Smith; Ginesa Albero; Mireia Diaz; Rolando Herrero; Nubia Munoz
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual. PMID:11910792
Based on the premise that by engaging parents as effective partners, teachers and students win at the reading game, this book aims to help teachers tap into all the resources of school and home to maximize children's learning potential. The book provides teachers with a concrete framework for training parents to learn strategic techniques in…
"That's silly!" "I'm bored!" "I like that!" "Why do I have todo this?" "What is this for?" These are all importantresponses and questions that come from children. As ourdesign partners in developing new technologies, childrencan offer bluntly honest views of their world. They havetheir own likes, dislikes, and needs that are not the same asadults\\
Allison Druin; Ben Bederson; Angela Boltman; Adrian Miura; Debby Knotts-callahan; Mark Platt
This article reviews research on cultural beliefs and expectations about gender and romantic relationships that are related to male intimate partner violence. We link beliefs about men (manhood is tenuous and must be proven, men must protect women, and honor must be defended), about women (good women put sacrifice and family loyalty first and good women are morally and sexually
|Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…
|Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…
A situational or event perspective examines the connections between unfolding events and their surrounding contexts. This perspective offers great promise for increasing our understanding of violence among intimate partners, yet, has been rarely applied to this problem. Using such an approach, this review summarizes what is known in this area and highlights gaps in our knowledge about the connections between
|Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult…
|Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…
|Teachers often miss opportunities to use their classroom computers as teaching partners because of a lack of knowledge or confidence about how the computers can support learning. Internet-connected computers can enable teachers to access well-designed websites that support literacy instruction and involve students in interactive responses to…
WorkPartner is the prototype of a lightweight mobile service robot designed to work interactively with humans in outdoor environment. The mobility is based on a hybrid system, which combine benefits of both legged and wheeled locomotion to provide at the same time good terrain negotiating capability and large velocity range. The working tool is a two-hand human like manipulator which
Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health issue; however, many healthcare providers do not routinely ask about IPV or administer screening. Due to the high incidence of this problem, providers must be aware of risk factors, screening methods, and appropriate interventions, and screen all female patients for abuse. PMID:21294465
|This handbook is designed to help instructors and advisory committees interact effectively in the Partners in Program Excellence (PIPE) system. It describes a way to keep a local advisory committee involved throughout the life of the training program. The handbook takes the instructor and the advisory committee through the 10 activities into…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese
Women's experiences of partner violence, both before and during pregnancy, are described using a convenience sample of women recruited from prenatal clinics. Included were an “index group” of women who told their clinicians that they had been physically abused during pregnancy, and a “comparison group” of women who told their clinicians that they had not been physically abused during pregnancy
Sandra L. Martin; April Harris-Britt; Yun Li; Kathryn E. Moracco; Lawrence L. Kupper; Jacquelyn C. Campbell
Current U.S. and international laws prohibit commercial supersonic flight over land due to the impact of conventional sonic boom noise. Aircraft manufacturers, however, now have modern computational fluid dynamics and optimization tools, unavailable when those laws were enacted, that will allow them to design and build aircraft with boom signatures that are substantially smoothed compared with traditional N-waves. One purpose of the FAA/NASA/Transport Canada PARTNER Center of Excellence Project 8 is to determine exactly which waveforms would be heard by the public if low-boom supersonic aircraft are put into service. Another purpose is to ascertain the acceptability of those waveforms. The project involves the following universities, government, and industry partners: Penn State, Purdue, Stanford, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, Boeing, Cessna, Gulfstream, Lockheed-Martin, and Wyle Laboratories. Some of the initial project work includes studies on the propagation of sonic booms through atmospheric turbulence, on the mutual reproducibility of three sonic boom simulators, and on the realism of those simulators as determined by expert listeners. The results of all the studies are intended to provide the FAA with new data to reassess current regulations. [Work supported by NASA, the FAA, and the PARTNER industrial partners.
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F (1, 444.08) = 20.72, p < .001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (?2= 11.30, p=.01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F (1, 419.64) = 5.10, p < .01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC.
Thomas, KaMala S.; Bower, Julienne E.; Williamson, Timothy J.; Hoyt, Michael A.; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L.; Irwin, Michael
Given the far-reaching social, personal, and economic costs of crime and violence, as well as the lasting health effects, understanding how women respond to domestic violence and the types of help sought are critical in addressing intimate partner violence. We use a nationally representative dataset (Canadian General Social Survey, Personal Risk, 1999) to examine the help-seeking behaviors of female intimate partner violence victims (N = 250). Although victims of violent crime often do not call the police, many victims, particularly women who have been battered by their partner rely on family, friends, social service, and mental health interventions in dealing with the consequences of violent crime. We examine the role of income, education, and employment status in shaping women's decisions to seek help, and we treat these economic variables as symbolic and relative statuses as compared to male partners. Although family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the dynamics of intimate partner violence with respect to the structural dimensions of sociodemographic factors, feminist researchers connect economic power to family dynamics. Drawing on these literatures, we tap the power in marital and cohabiting relationships, rather than treating these variables as simply socioeconomic resources. Controlling for other relevant variables we estimate a series of multivariate models to examine the relationship between status compatibilities and help-seeking from both formal and informal sources. We find that status incompatibilities between partners that favor women increase the likelihood of seeking support in dealing with the impact of violence. PMID:22946106
Introduction The nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) has become increasingly problematic in the United States. A variety of individual-level risk factors have been investigated for their role in prescription drug misuse; however, much less work has considered other factors that may relate to increased risk for the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Aims The objective of the current report was to examine individual, partner, and relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction) associated with the NMUPD in a community sample of married adults. Methods The current report used two waves of data from an ongoing study of couples who were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage license and are now in the 10th year of follow-up. Logistic regression models examined the relation between individual, partner, and relationship factors and NMUPD. Results Among wives, there was evidence that a partner’s prescription drug use and relationship factors were associated with increased risk for nonmedical use of prescription drugs. There was some evidence that suggested that it was the increased access or availability, and not the partner’s use per se, that was related to the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. These results persisted after controlling for other illicit drug use, heavy drinking, depressive symptomatology, and sociodemographic factors. Among men, neither partner use nor relationship factors were associated with nonmedical use of prescription drugs after considering the impact of individual-level risk factors. Discussion In addition to individual-level risk factors, intervention and prevention efforts should also consider the potential influence of partner and relationship factors.
Objectives To investigate the relation between partner dependence and sexual risk behavior in the context of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. Methods STI clinic patients (n = 1432) completed a computerized interview assessing partner dependence, condom use, and IMB variables. Results Men had higher partner-dependence scores than women did. Patients reporting greater dependence reported less condom use. Gender did not moderate the partner dependence-condom-use relationship. Partner dependence did not moderate the relation between IMB constructs and condom use. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine how partner dependence can be incorporated into conceptual models of safer sex behaviors.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
The 3D-partner is a web tool to predict interacting partners and binding models of a query protein sequence through structure complexes and a new scoring function. 3D-partner first utilizes IMPALA to identify homologous structures (templates) of a query from a heterodimer profile library. The interacting-partner sequence profiles of these templates are then used to search interacting candidates of the query from protein sequence databases (e.g. SwissProt) by PSI-BLAST. We developed a new scoring function, which includes the contact-residue interacting score (e.g. the steric, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic interactions) and the template consensus score (e.g. couple-conserved residue and the template similarity scores), to evaluate how well the interfaces between the query and interacting candidates. Based on this scoring function, 3D-partner provides the statistic significance, the binding models (e.g. hydrogen bonds and conserved amino acids) and functional annotations of interacting partners. The correlation between experimental energies and predicted binding affinities of our scoring function is 0.91 on 275 mutated residues from the ASEdb. The average precision of the server is 0.72 on 563 queries and the execution time of this server for a query is approximately 15 s on average. These results suggest that the 3D-partner server can be useful in protein-protein interaction predictions and binding model visualizations. The server is available online at: http://3D-partner.life.nctu.edu.tw. PMID:17517763
On an individual level, human body odors carry information about whether a person is an eligible mate. The current studies investigate if body odors also transmit information about individuals being potential partners in more general terms, namely in regards to gender and sexual orientation. In study 1, 14 gay and 14 heterosexual men were presented with body odors obtained from potential partners (gay male and heterosexual female body odors, respectively) and heterosexual male body odor as a control. In study 2, 14 lesbian and 14 heterosexual women were presented with lesbian female and heterosexual male body odors representing body odors of potential partners, and heterosexual female body odor as a control. Central nervous processing was analyzed using chemosensory event-related potentials and current source density analysis (64-channel EEG recording). Gay and heterosexual men responded with shorter P2 latencies to the body odors of their preferred sexual partners, and lesbian women responded with shorter P2 latencies to body odors of their preferred gender. In response to heterosexual male body odors, lesbian women displayed the most pronounced P3 amplitude, and distinct neuronal activation in medial frontal and parietal neocortical areas. A similar pattern of neuronal activation was observed in gay men when presented with heterosexual male body odor. Both the early processing advantage (P2) for desirable partners' body odors as well as the enhanced evaluative processing (P3, CSD) of undesirable partners' body odors suggest that human body odors indeed carry information about individuals being potential partners in terms of gender and sexual orientation. PMID:22197679
Lübke, Katrin T; Hoenen, Matthias; Pause, Bettina M
Globally, 30% of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa involve injecting drug users (IDU) and in many countries, including Vietnam, HIV epidemics are concentrated among IDU. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, to evaluate whether a peer oriented behavioral intervention could reduce injecting and sexual HIV risk behaviors among IDU and their network members. 419 HIV-negative index IDU aged 18 years or older and 516 injecting and sexual network members were enrolled. Each index participant was randomly assigned to receive a series of six small group peer educator-training sessions and three booster sessions in addition to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) (intervention; n = 210) or HTC only (control; n = 209). Follow-up, including HTC, was conducted at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. The proportion of unprotected sex dropped significantly from 49% to 27% (SE (difference) = 3%, p < 0.01) between baseline and the 3-month visit among all index-network member pairs. However, at 12 months, post-intervention, intervention participants had a 14% greater decline in unprotected sex relative to control participants (Wald test = 10.8, df = 4, p = 0.03). This intervention effect is explained by trial participants assigned to the control arm who missed at least one standardized HTC session during follow-up and subsequently reported increased unprotected sex. The proportion of observed needle/syringe sharing dropped significantly between baseline and the 3-month visit (14% vs. 3%, SE (difference) = 2%, p < 0.01) and persisted until 12 months, but there was no difference across trial arms (Wald test = 3.74, df = 3, p = 0.44). PMID:24034963
Go, Vivian F; Frangakis, Constantine; Le Minh, Nguyen; Latkin, Carl A; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Vu, Pham The; Chen, Yong; Celentano, David D; Quan, Vu Minh
The document entitled 'Treatment Decisions in Localized Prostate Cancer: Patient, Partner and Physician,' is a project that used a cross-sectional survey to explore the role of the patient, partner and physician in decisions about treatment of localized p...
While neighbourhood influences on the risk of intimate partner violence have been reported, this body of research has suffered from a lack of strong theoretical and conceptual guidance, and few studies have examined the potential pathways from neighbourhoods to intimate partner violence. This paper used concept mapping methods with 37 women who were residents of Baltimore City to obtain cluster maps representing the important neighbourhood domains that affect the prevalence, perpetration, severity, and cessation of intimate partner violence. Domains important for intimate partner severity and perpetration differed from those important for cessation of intimate partner violence. Finally, diagrams of the domains, drawn by the concept mapping participants, illustrated the pathways by which neighbourhood characteristics potentially influence intimate partner violence severity, perpetration, and cessation. These results can be used to generate testable hypotheses regarding neighbourhood influences on intimate partner violence in future quantitative research and to inform the design of public health intimate partner violence programmes.
O'Campo, P.; Burke, J.; Peak, G. L.; McDonnell, K.; Gielen, A.
...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth...
... Violence Prevention National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey IPV-Related Impacts Among Victims of Rape, Physical ... by any National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636) • cdcinfo@cdc. ...
While neighbourhood influences on the risk of intimate partner violence have been reported, this body of research has suffered from a lack of strong theoretical and conceptual guidance, and few studies have examined the potential pathways from neighbourhoods to intimate partner violence. This paper used concept mapping methods with 37 women who were residents of Baltimore City to obtain cluster maps representing the important neighbourhood domains that affect the prevalence, perpetration, severity, and cessation of intimate partner violence. Domains important for intimate partner severity and perpetration differed from those important for cessation of intimate partner violence. Finally, diagrams of the domains, drawn by the concept mapping participants, illustrated the pathways by which neighbourhood characteristics potentially influence intimate partner violence severity, perpetration, and cessation. These results can be used to generate testable hypotheses regarding neighbourhood influences on intimate partner violence in future quantitative research and to inform the design of public health intimate partner violence programmes. PMID:15965146
O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica; Peak, Geri Lynn; McDonnell, Karen A; Gielen, Andrea C
...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER07-125-001] Keystone Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Filing May 10, 2010. Take notice that on December 16, 2009, Keystone Energy Partners, LP submit for filing an Updated Market Power...
Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a nationally representative survey of 10,847 women aged 15-44 years, and the 1994-95 Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Patient Survey, together with supplemental data from other sources, were used to estimate 1994 pregnancy rates for women by their age and marital status, according to the age difference between the women and their partner. Among all sexually active women, 10% had a partner who was 3 or more years younger, 52% a partner within 2 years of their age, 20% a partner 3-5 years older, and 18% a partner 6 or more years older. 64% of sexually active women aged 15-17 years had a partner within 2 years of their age, 29% a partner 3-5 years older, and 7% a partner 6 or more years older. Among women under 18 years old, the pregnancy rate among those with a partner 6 or more years older was 3.7 times higher than the rate among those whose partner was no more than 2 years older. Among women under age 18 who became pregnant, those with a partner 6 or more years older were less likely to have an unintended pregnancy or to terminate an unintended pregnancy than were those whose partner was no more than 2 years older. Among women under age 18 at risk of unintended pregnancy, 66% of those with a partner 6 or more years older used contraction at most recent sex, compared with 78% of those with a partner within 2 years of their own age. Young Catholic women and those who had first had sex with their partner within a relatively committed relationship were less likely to be involved with a man who was 6 or more years older than were young women who were Protestants and those who first had sex with their partner when they were dating, friends, or had just met. PMID:10435214
This study describes the risk of intimate partner violence for women in a low-income, urban setting and the impact of violence on condom use. Partner-specific data were used to link partner characteristics with the measures of both abuse and condom use. Using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), we determined annual rates, chronicity, and types of intimate partner violence among
Andrea Carlson Gielen; Karen A. McDonnell; Patricia J. O'Campo
This study examined the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) among 248 problem gamblers (43 women, 205\\u000a men) recruited from newspaper advertisements. The main outcome measures used were the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, the\\u000a Conflicts Tactics Scale-2, the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the drug and alcohol section of the Addiction Severity\\u000a Index and the substance use section
Lorne M. Korman; Jane Collins; Don Dutton; Bramilee Dhayananthan; Nina Littman-Sharp; Wayne Skinner
Charter One Hotels & Resorts has partnered with Tampa based VRteam to offer hotel virtual tours that can be hosted on brand as well as individual hotel sites. Each package will include ten still photographs as well as hosting of the tours for one year. More information can be found at www.charteronehotels.com or the VRteam website www.vrteam.com. With the advent
We propose a dance partner robot referred to as Ms DanceR (Mobile Smart Dance Robot), which has been developed as platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. Ms DanceR consists of an omni-directional mobile base and a Body Force Sensor, which is a force\\/torque sensor installed between the mobile base and the body of the robot. A
Plants are a ubiquitous piece of the elementary science curriculum. By the time they reach middle school, students have often grown enough bean seeds to feed a small city. Often these lessons don't "grow" deeper ideas from the basic observations of plant germination. To cultivate your students' understanding of plants, this month's column sheds light on a selection of engaging activities in this issue, which is devoted to the theme, "Plants and their Partners."
This paper examines factors influencing the number of female sexual partners for heterosexual men. Men's pursuit of multiple female sex partners can be measured two ways: the frequency of purchasing sexual services from prostitutes and the maintenance of sexual relationships with multiple women within a short span of time. Factors influencing the number of sexual partners include male differences in
This article examines the relationship between gender and heterosexual partnering in midlife, using survey data from 1240 women and men aged 40 to 59. Although older ages are associated with lower numbers of sexual partners for both genders, larger proportions of women report having no partners, and at earlier ages than men. Sexual conservatism and non-cohabitation predict lower numbers of
Laura M. Carpenter; Constance A. Nathanson; Young J. Kim
|This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn…
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. METHODS:
Joseph Ntaganira; Adamson S Muula; Florence Masaisa; Fidens Dusabeyezu; Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira
Support from a partner can play a key role in a woman's emotional adjustment to breast cancer. However, little is known about the influence of partner behaviours on a woman's sexual adjustment. This study examined the prospective relationship between baseline levels of several types of perceived partner support (instrumental, informational, emotional and negative) and psychosexual adjustment (sexual functioning and relationship
Sarah Wimberly Kinsinger; Jean-Philippe Laurenceau; Charles S. Carver; Michael H. Antoni
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…
|Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…
This paper adopts a qualitative, case study approach to examine the market and partner selection processes of retailers operating internationally via franchising. Despite the increasing prevalence of franchising as an entry mode for international retailers, little research exists that considers how these firms choose franchise markets and franchise partners. The paper proposes a conceptual framework of the market and partner
Identifying and selecting the ‘right partner’ is one of the key topics in the international retailing literature. Yet, current research provides little knowledge of how international retailers find and select joint venture (JV) partners in foreign markets. We investigate seven cases of British retail multinationals to address this research gap. We find that some retailers initiate formalised partner searches. In
Identifying and selecting the ‘right partner’ is one of the key topics in the international retailing literature. Yet, current research provides little knowledge of how international retailers find and select joint venture (JV) partners in foreign markets. We investigate seven cases of British retail multinationals to address this research gap. We find that some retailers initiate formalised partner searches. In
This article provides an overview of research on women's partner violence as well as the literature that investigates the developmental pathway to women's aggressive behavior. While women are known to commit partner violence toward their male partners, the prevalence and motivations for such behavior is still debated. Evidence that finds gender symmetry is reviewed and alternative literature discussed. Research challenging
|Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…
The current research evaluates how perceptions of one's partner's drinking problem relate to attempts to regulate partner behavior and relationship functioning, and whether this varies by perceptions of one's own drinking. New measures are offered for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and Partner Management Strategies (PMS). Participants included 702 undergraduates who had been in a romantic relationship for at least three months. Participants completed an online survey assessing perceptions of problematic drinking for one's self and partner, ways in which attempts were made to regulate or restrain their partner's drinking, relationship outcomes (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, trust, and need fulfillment), and alcohol use and consequences for self and partner. Factor analyses supported a single factor for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and two factors for the Partner Management Strategies (PMS) scale (i.e., punishment and reward). Results using structural equation modeling indicated that perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with lower relationship functioning. Further, this association was mediated by strategies using punishment aimed at changing one's partner's drinking, but was not mediated by strategies using rewards. Finally, moderation results suggested that this relationship was not as detrimental for participants who perceived they also had an alcohol problem. In sum, perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with relationship problems through punishing regulation strategies, and was weaker among individuals who also perceived themselves to have a drinking problem. PMID:24070719
Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Dibello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton
|This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…
The effect of a water soluble nonsteroidal factor extracted from the male gamete on the activity of certain liver inducible enzymes during aging has been examined. Three enzymes have been studied: delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase, NADPH-oxidase and tyrosine aminotransferase whose inducibility by ethanol, phenobarbital and ACTH, respectively, show age dependent alterations. The results here reported show that this factor is able to restore the enzyme inducibility in the liver of aging (600-day-old) rats without affecting the response of young (40-day-old) rats. Since the enzyme inducibility is altered during aging, and in the majority of rat hepatomas this factor might enter, possibly, in the regulation of enzyme activity also of neoplastic cells. PMID:6108799
Casellato, M M; Manera, E; Riboni, L; Comolli, R; Lugaro, G
Women account for a quarter of all new HIV/AIDS cases, with approximately 65% having contracted the infection via heterosexual contact (CDC, 2008). Few experimental studies have examined interactions among background, partner, and situational characteristics in predicting women’s sexual decisions. The Cognitive Mediation Model provides a useful theoretical framework for assessing likelihood of unprotected sex (Norris, Masters, & Zawacki, 2004). Female social drinkers (n = 230) who had answered questions related to their general intention to have unprotected sex were randomly assigned to an experimental condition based on partner risk level (unknown, low, high) and beverage (control, placebo, low dose, high dose). Participants projected themselves into a story depicting a sexual situation with a man and answered questions about their cognitive appraisals, assertive condom request, and likelihood of unprotected sex. Alcohol effects on appraisal of sexual potential differed by partner risk condition. In the unknown and low risk conditions, placebo and alcohol participants appraised the situation as having greater sexual potential than controls whereas in the high risk condition, only those who consumed alcohol did so. Sexual potential appraisals in turn predicted impelling cognitions about having sex, which in turn predicted assertive condom request and unprotected sex intentions. General intention for unprotected sex independently predicted cognitive appraisals and outcomes. These findings highlight the need for prevention programs that focus on teaching women how to pay attention and consider sexual risk cues presented by potential partners, particularly when under the influence of alcohol.
Purdie, Michele Parkhill; Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina; Morrison, Diane M.; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.
Irgarol and diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replace organotin compounds in antifouling paints, and metolachlor is one of the most extensively used chloroacetamide herbicides in agriculture. The toxicity of S-metolachlor, irgarol and diuron was evaluated in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes or embryos exposed to concentrations of pesticides ranging from 0.1× to 1000×, with 1× corresponding to environmental concentrations of the three studied pesticides in Arcachon Bay (France). Exposures were performed on (1) spermatozoa alone (2) oocytes alone and (3) both spermatozoa and oocytes, and adverse effects on fertilization success and offspring development were recorded. The results showed that the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was significantly affected after gamete exposure to pesticide concentrations as low as 1× of irgarol and diuron and 10× of metolachlor. The offspring obtained from pesticide-exposed spermatozoa displayed a dose-dependent increase in developmental abnormalities. In contrast, treating oocytes with pesticide concentrations up to 10× did not alter fertilization rate and offspring quality. However, a significant decline in fertilization success and increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence were observed at higher concentrations 10× (0.1 ?g L(-1)) for S-metolachlor and 100× for irgarol (1.0 ?g L(-1)) and diuron (4.0 ?g L(-1)). Irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor also induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence when freshly fertilized embryos were treated with pesticide concentrations as low as concentration of 1× (0.01 ?g L(-1) for irgarol or S-metolachlor, and 0.04 ?g L(-1) for diuron). The two bioassays on C. gigas spermatozoa and embryos displayed similar sensitivities to the studied pesticides while oocytes were less sensitive. Diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor induced spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations and therefore might be a threat to oyster recruitment in coastal areas facing chronic inputs of pesticides. PMID:23727205
Ascidians are hermaphrodites, and most release sperm and eggs nearly simultaneously. Many species, including Halocynthia roretzi and Ciona intestinalis, are self-sterile. We previously reported that the interaction between a 12 EGF-like repeat-containing vitelline-coat (VC) protein, HrVC70, and a sperm GPI-anchored CRISP, HrUrabin, in lipid rafts plays a key role in self-/nonself-recognizable gamete interaction in H. roretzi. On the other hand, we recently identified two pairs of polymorphic genes responsible for self-incompatibility in C. intestinalis by positional cloning: The sperm polycystin 1-like receptors s-Themis-A/B and its fibrinogen-like ligand v-Themis-A/B on the VC. However, it is not known if the orthologs of HrVC70 and HrUrabin also participate in gamete interaction in C. intestinalis since they are from different orders. Here, we tested for a C. intestinalis ortholog (CiUrabin) of HrUrabin by searching the genome database and proteomes of sperm lipid rafts. The identified CiUrabin belongs to the CRISP family, with a PR domain and a GPI-anchor-attachment site. CiUrabin appears to be specifically expressed in the testis and localized at the surface of the sperm head, as revealed by Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The specific interaction between CiVC57, a C. intestinalis ortholog of HrVC70, and CiUrabin was confirmed by Far Western analysis, similarly to the interaction between HrVC70 and HrUrabin. The molecular interaction between CiVC57 and CiUrabin may be involved in the primary binding of sperm to the VC prior to the allorecognition process, mediated by v-Themis-A/B and s-Themis-A/B, during fertilization of C. intestinalis. PMID:21656869
NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105 radio astronomical remote observations have been performed with users. Until now, more than 2,000 students have been involved in radio astronomical observations.
The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed examination of sexual behavior with different types of partners. A sample of 163 young adults reported on their light nongenital, heavy nongenital, and genital sexual activity with romantic partners, friends, and casual acquaintances. They described their sexual activity with “friends with benefits” as well as with friends in general. Young adults were most likely to engage in sexual behavior with romantic partners, but sexual behavior also often occurred with some type of nonromantic partner. More young adults engaged in some form of sexual behavior with casual acquaintances than with friends with benefits. The frequencies of sexual behavior, however, were greater with friends with benefits than with friends or casual acquaintances. Interview and questionnaire data revealed that friends with benefits were typically friends, but not necessarily. Nonsexual activities were also less common with friends with benefits than other friends. Taken together, the findings illustrate the value of differentiating among different types of nonromantic partners and different levels of sexual behavior.
The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed examination of sexual behavior with different types of partners. A sample of 163 young adults reported on their light nongenital, heavy nongenital, and genital sexual activity with romantic partners, friends, and casual acquaintances. They described their sexual activity with "friends with benefits," as well as with friends in general. Young adults were most likely to engage in sexual behavior with romantic partners, but sexual behavior also often occurred with some type of nonromantic partner. More young adults engaged in some form of sexual behavior with casual acquaintances than with friends with benefits. The frequencies of sexual behavior, however, were greater with friends with benefits than with friends or casual acquaintances. Interview and questionnaire data revealed that friends with benefits were typically friends, but not necessarily. Nonsexual activities were also less common with friends with benefits than other friends. Taken together, the findings illustrate the value of differentiating among different types of nonromantic partners and different levels of sexual behavior. PMID:21128155
Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263
This study describes the type and extent of intimate partner stalking and threatening behaviors that occurred within 12 months prior to a major assault or attempted or actual partner femicide and specifies which behaviors were associated with an increased risk of potential or actual lethality. The design was a ten-city case-control study of 821 women: 384 abuse victims and 437 attempted or actual femicide informants. Data were derived using a 16-item inventory. Logistic regressions, with adjustments for demographic variables, were used to identify the significant perpetrator behaviors associated with attempted/actual femicide. Women who reported the perpetrator followed or spied on them were more than twice as likely t o become attempted/actual femicide victims. Threats by the perpetrator to harm the children if the woman left or did not return to the relationship place the woman at a ninefold increase in the risk of attempted/actual femicide. Conclusions are that certain stalking and threatening behaviors are strong risk factors for lethality, and women must be so advised. PMID:12030246
We have investigated the binding characteristics of a potent member of the bis-ortho-substituted five-membered nitrogen heterocycle class of ALK-5 kinase inhibitors with lysates of cultured HEK-293 cells to identify protein binding partners of potential biological significance. An affinity chromatographic resin containing an immobilized ALK-5 kinase inhibitor, 2-phenyl-4-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]pyridine, was used to capture specific proteins from the cell lysate. The soluble inhibitor was then used to specifically elute the proteins which selectively bound to the pharmacophore ligand structure. Application of 2-D SDS-PAGE analysis with positive and negative controls demonstrated the inhibitor bound several different proteins via selective molecular recognition processes. The structural features of the specifically eluted proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) methods and included proteins with structural, metabolic and chaperone functions. Furthermore, these PMF results identified the therapeutic target in various cancer treatment studies, HSP-70, as a potential high-affinity binding partner. These observations warrant examination of bis-ortho-substituted five-membered nitrogen heterocycles as dual ALK-5/HSP-70 inhibitors for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:24055074
Ciayadi, Rudy; Kelso, Geoffrey F; Potdar, Mahesh K; Harris, Simon J; Walton, Kelly L; Harrison, Craig A; Hearn, Milton T W
In recent decades medicine--like all social institutions--has fallen from public trust. Managed care has made third-party payers a partner in the physician-patient relationship. Advocate groups, some lawyers, and bioethicists have encouraged patients to demand a greater voice in medical decisions. Physicians and patients are forced to relate to each other in a narrower range, and more of the physician's actions are being dictated and standardized. Physicians are often seen as a threat to the patient's autonomy and believed to be too paternalistic, authoritarian, and too concerned with profit to be reliable partners. A review and synthesis of the literature supports the view that patients prefer to have decisional control over outcomes but leave technical decisions on how to achieve those outcomes to physicians. Good medical care is a process of having one's autonomy respected and knowing when to relinquish it. Promoting patient autonomy as an ultimate value in medicine rather than recognizing it as one value among others (such as caring, trust, and honesty) is an error. The task of medicine is not to banish paternalism, but to preserve kindness and respect for the patient as a person. PMID:11288462
Introduction: There has been a significant increase in general awareness about Sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) among the general public. However, rates of partner notification and treatment which are an integral part of STD awareness is still questionable. Methodology and Results: We analyzed the statistics for prevalence of partner notification (which is about 52%) as well as the possible reasons for non-compliance. An overview of various ways of partner notification has been given as patient delivered partner medication (PDPM) and patient based partner referral (PBPR) of which PDPM is the most acceptable and effective method worldwide.
This analysis of data from a 10-city control study of 821 women describes the frequency and types of justice services used during the 12 months prior to an attempted or completed femicide perpetrated by an intimate partner (EP). A total of 437 victims of attempted or completed femicide were identified from police and medical examiner records. Interviews with attempted femicide
Judith McFarlane; Jacquelyn C. Campbell; Kathy Watson
In the cleanerfish-client mutualism involving the Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus and its reef fish clients, mechanisms such as 'tactile stimula- tion', partner switching and punishment are used by clients to control cheating by cleaners. We sought to establish whether these behaviours are general features of cleaning mutualisms by examining their presence in interactions between Caribbean cleaning gobies (Elacatinus spp.)
M. C. Soares; I. M. Cote ´; S. C. Cardoso; R. Bshary; Unidade de Investigacao; Jean-Nicolas Volff
This study assessed the prevalence of different types and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) among 600 women aged 15 to 49 years in selected rural and urban communities in southwestern Nigeria between October and December, 2007. . Lifetime prevalences of IPV were 64% in the rural and 70% in the urban areas. Controlling behavior was the most frequently reported
Mary O. Balogun; Eme T. Owoaje; Olufunmilayo I. Fawole
|The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…
Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.
|Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of…
Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy
This mixed methods study seeks to explain women's decision making regarding intimate partner violence disclosure in urban emergency departments. It contributed to an overall program of research led by Dr. H.L. MacMillan examining the effectiveness of screening in health care settings to reduce violence and improve the quality of women's lives. ^ The study included a randomized, controlled trial with
The level of intimate partner abuse that occurs in Hong Kong Chinese families and the type, nature, and severity of abuse are primary concerns of those who are engaged in efforts to reduce and control abuse. A total of 1200 postnatal women were recruited at a university-affiliated regional public hospital to participate in a study with a retrospective explorative comparative
|Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…
Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.
|This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…
Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert
Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners.
Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.
Background Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames—video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players’ duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject’s (S’) persistence with the task. Method Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner’s performance was manipulated to be always better than the S’s, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Results Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control condition (M = -49.04 s). Subjects demonstrated more persistence in the moderate-discrepancy condition (M = 51.36 s) than in the low-discrepancy condition (M = 22.52 s) or the high-discrepancy condition (M = 26.89 s). A significant quadratic trend confirmed the expected inverted-U function relating partner discrepancy and persistence (p = .025). Although Ss persisted longer and had higher heart rate in partnered conditions, they did not perceive their exertion to be any higher than those in the individual condition. Conclusions Virtually presented partners who are moderately more capable than participants are the most effective at improving persistence in exergame tasks.