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1

Effects of aging and reproduction on protein quality control in soma and gametes of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In organisms with a soma-germ demarcation, the germline must be 'preserved' such that harmful damage is not transmitted to the offspring. Keeping the progeny free of damage may be achieved by gametes enjoying elevated, and/or more functional, homeostatic maintenance systems. This possibility was approached here by testing whether the soma and maturating oocytes (eggs) dissected from female Drosophila melanogaster in reproductive ages display differential capacities for protein quality control and whether these capacities change during aging and mating. Eggs exhibited a high capacity to prevent protein aggregation, strong capacity for 26S proteasome-dependent degradation and reduced levels of oxidatively damaged (carbonylated) proteins compared to the soma. The capacity to prevent protein aggregation was not affected in either soma or eggs by age and/or mating, while the 26S proteasome capacity declined in the soma but was maintained in the eggs of aged females. However, the levels of carbonylated proteins increased with age in both soma and eggs, and this increase was more pronounced in females allowed to mate continuously. Furthermore, the levels of carbonylated proteins in the eggs of mated flies correlated negatively with the propensity of the eggs to develop into an adult fly. In young flies, mating caused a decrease in 26S proteasome capacity and an increase in protein carbonylation in the soma, but not in the eggs. These results are in line with trade-off theories of aging where aging is considered a consequence of investment in reproduction over somatic maintenance. PMID:22507075

Fredriksson, Åsa; Johansson Krogh, Elin; Hernebring, Malin; Pettersson, Ellinor; Javadi, Ala; Almstedt, Alvar; Nyström, Thomas

2012-08-01

2

Embryo Transfer: A Discussion on its Potential for Infectious Disease Control Based on a Review of Studies on Infection of Gametes and Early Embryos by Various Agents  

PubMed Central

Studies on laboratory animals have shown that viruses vary as to whether or not they are transmissible by the gametes or are capable of passing through the zona pellucida and infecting the embryo. Methods of studying early embryos for the presence of infectious agents include electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and cell cultivation. Determination that early bovine embryos do not become infected by certain agents might allow for easing of restrictions in the current import and export regulations for cattle embryos. Embryo transfer could be used as a means of controlling or eliminating disease in a herd or flock if the causal agent does not infect the early embryo via the gametes or by penetrating the zona pellucida. PMID:17422065

Eaglesome, M. D.; Hare, W. C. D.; Singh, Elizabeth L.

1980-01-01

3

Gamete intra-fallopian transfer or intrauterine insemination after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for treatment of infertility due to endometriosis.  

PubMed

We compared the effectiveness of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in the treatment of infertility due to endometriosis. This was a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary teaching medical center. A total of 127 consecutive patients with endometriosis were treated with GIFT or IUI after COH between June 1990 and December 1998. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 97) included patients with stages 1 and 2 endometriosis, and group 2 (n = 30) included patients with stages 3 and 4 endometriosis. Laparoscopic conservative surgery for endometriosis was performed prior to IUI for patients in both group 1 and group 2. In group 1, 55 patients underwent 95 cycles of IUI after COH and 42 patients underwent 57 cycles of GIFT. In group 2, 14 patients underwent 16 cycles of IUI after COH, while 16 patients underwent 22 cycles of GIFT. The stimulation protocol for both GIFT and IUI was mid-luteal pituitary down-regulation with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) followed by gonadotropins. In group 1, the pregnancy rates (GIFT = 50.9%, IUI = 29.4%) and the delivery rates (GIFT = 28.1%, IUI = 14.7%) per cycle were significantly higher in GIFT compared to IUI (p = 0.009 and p = 0.05, respectively). There was no significant differences in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 69%, IUI 50.9%, respectively) or the delivery rate (GIFT 38.1%, IUI 25.5%) per patient. In group 2, there was no significant difference in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 54.5%, IUI 31.3%) or the delivery rate (GIFT 40.9%, IUI 12.5%) per cycle, but the difference in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 75%, IUI 35.7%) and the delivery rate (GIFT 56.3%, IUI 14.3%) per patient was significantly higher in GIFT compared to IUI (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). We conclude that, when the same stimulation protocol is used in the early stages of endometriosis, a few cycles of IUI can achieve similar results to GIFT, and therefore should be used first. In advanced stages of endometriosis GIFT appears to be more effective. PMID:15697077

Lodhi, S; Abdel Fattah, A; Abozaid, T; Murphy, J; Formantini, E; Sasy, M; Barber, K; Abuzeid, M

2004-09-01

4

Management control in audit firms—Partners’ perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have consistently reported high levels of quality threatening behaviours in response to traditional budgetary controls at audit trainee levels in Big Four audit firms. Partners simultaneously occupy positions as owners and members of top management, and their perspectives on these behaviours and control procedures that may mitigate potential consequences are therefore important. These perceptions, which have been missing

Bernard Pierce; Breda Sweeney

2005-01-01

5

Partner Selection and Power Control for Asymmetrical Collaborative Networks  

E-print Network

of Newcastle, United Kingdom Email: r.carrasco@ncl.ac.uk Abstract--We derive an adaptive power control method to only the relay-to-destination paths [8] and to the power distribution between two users [9]. ThereforePartner Selection and Power Control for Asymmetrical Collaborative Networks Weisi Guo, Ioannis

Cambridge, University of

6

Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to investigate associations between ejaculatory latency and control in partnered and non-partnered sexual activities.  

PubMed

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used to investigate associations between, and variations in, ejaculatory control and ejaculation latency time (ELT) over repeated measurements of sexual activities. Differences between measures recorded in partnered or non-partnered settings were also investigated. The sample consisted of 21 male Finns aged 18 years or above, contributing a total of 158 reports of partnered and non-partnered sexual activities over a six-week period. In the context of non-partnered sexual activities, after controlling for within-subjects dependence, ELTs between events were predictive of one another, but ELT did not predict ejaculatory control when measured simultaneously, nor at subsequent events. Also, ejaculatory control could not predict simultaneously measured ELT or ejaculatory control at subsequent events. During partnered sexual activities, both ejaculatory control and ELT could be accurately predicted by observing ejaculatory control at prior events. In this context, ejaculatory control could also reliably predict simultaneously measured ELT. ELT or ejaculatory control during partnered sexual activity could not be predicted by observing ELT at prior events. Between-event correlations were generally low, indicating considerable variation in ejaculatory functioning over time. EMA is a thrifty assessment method for studying variations in ejaculatory function, and is likely suitable for studying sexual dysfunctions in general. PMID:20924943

Jern, Patrick; Gunst, Annika; Sandqvist, Felicia; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

2011-07-01

7

In Vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity  

EPA Science Inventory

Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...

8

Power, Control, and Intimate Partner Sexual Violence in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine how power and control in intimate relationships influenced women's exposure to sexual violence.\\u000a Multilevel modeling was used to determine the risk of partner sexual violence in the past 12 months among 2240 women aged\\u000a 15–49 years who were currently married or cohabiting. The data were drawn from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey.\\u000a Strong

Anastasia J. Gage; Paul L. Hutchinson

2006-01-01

9

SACY-1 DEAD-Box Helicase Links the Somatic Control of Oocyte Meiotic Maturation to the Sperm-to-Oocyte Switch and Gamete Maintenance in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

In sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest at diplotene or diakinesis and resume meiosis (meiotic maturation) in response to hormones. In Caenorhabditis elegans, major sperm protein triggers meiotic resumption through a mechanism involving somatic G?s–adenylate cyclase signaling and soma-to-germline gap-junctional communication. Using genetic mosaic analysis, we show that the major effector of G?s–adenylate cyclase signaling, protein kinase A (PKA), is required in gonadal sheath cells for oocyte meiotic maturation and dispensable in the germ line. This result rules out a model in which cyclic nucleotides must transit through sheath-oocyte gap junctions to activate PKA in the germ line, as proposed in vertebrate systems. We conducted a genetic screen to identify regulators of oocyte meiotic maturation functioning downstream of G?s–adenylate cyclase–PKA signaling. We molecularly identified 10 regulatory loci, which include essential and nonessential factors. sacy-1, which encodes a highly conserved DEAD-box helicase, is an essential germline factor that negatively regulates meiotic maturation. SACY-1 is a multifunctional protein that establishes a mechanistic link connecting the somatic control of meiotic maturation to germline sex determination and gamete maintenance. Modulatory factors include multiple subunits of a CoREST-like complex and the TWK-1 two-pore potassium channel. These factors are not absolutely required for meiotic maturation or its negative regulation in the absence of sperm, but function cumulatively to enable somatic control of meiotic maturation. This work provides insights into the genetic control of meiotic maturation signaling in C. elegans, and the conserved factors identified here might inform analysis in other systems through either homology or analogy. PMID:22887816

Kim, Seongseop; Govindan, J. Amaranath; Tu, Zheng Jin; Greenstein, David

2012-01-01

10

Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…

Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra

2010-01-01

11

Spawning and gamete follicle rupture in the cnidarian Renilla koellikeri: effects of putative neurohormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuroendocrine control of spawning (release of intact gamete follicles) and of the ensuing exfoliation (freeing of gametes by follicle epithelium rupture) was investigated in colonies of the sea pansy Renilla koellikeri, an octocorallian of the sea pen family. Polyps of male colonies produce substantially more sperm follicles than female colonies do egg follicles, and significantly more sperm follicles are

Marie-Ève Tremblay; Josée Henry; Michel Anctil

2004-01-01

12

Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program"  

E-print Network

effective manner. A pilot program which will be discussed in detail was conducted during the summer of 1991. Following this successful pilot the Energy Partners program began implementation in September of 1992. Our marketing goals are aggressive, but we...

Cook, J. D.

1994-01-01

13

Will artificial gametes end infertility?  

PubMed

In this paper we will look at the various ways in which infertility can be understood and at how need for reproductive therapies can be construed. We will do this against the background of research with artificial gametes (AGs). Having explored these questions we will attempt to establish the degree to which technologies such as AGs could expand the array of choices that people have to reproduce and/or become parents. Finally, we will examine whether and in what ways the most promising developments of such technologies are likely to bring about the "end of infertility". PMID:24293033

Smajdor, Anna; Cutas, Daniela

2015-06-01

14

Is Partner Violence Worse in the Context of Control?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

M. P. Johnson's (1995) proposal that there are two qualitatively distinct types of intimate partner violence--intimate terrorism and situational couple violence--has been an influential explanation for disparate findings on sex symmetry in domestic violence. This study examines whether this typology increases our ability to explain variations in…

Anderson, Kristin L.

2008-01-01

15

Sex differences in intimate partner violence and the use of coercive control as a motivational factor for intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the motivator for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of 762 divorcing couples participating in divorce mediation. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data with CC predicting two latent common factors of the overall level of victimization separately for men and women. Significant causal relationships between CC and the latent construct of victimization for both members of the couples were found. In addition, CC, psychological abuse, sexual assault/intimidation/coercion, threats of and severe physical violence were disproportionately reported as perpetrated by men against women whereas reports of physical abuse (e.g., pushing, shoving, scratching) were not. PMID:20018921

Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J A; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Raghavan, Chitra

2010-10-01

16

How safe is gamete micromanipulation by laser tweezers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.

Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.

1998-04-01

17

CA++ in fertilization and mitosis: the phosphatidylinositol cycle in sea urchin gametes and zygotes is involved in control of fertilization and mitosis.  

PubMed

We determined that the phosphatidylinositol (PI) cycles in both sea urchin sperm and eggs are necessary for normal fertilization, and that the PI cycle in sea urchin zygotes is involved in control of mitosis. The PI cycle is involved in Ca++ homeostasis so our data are direct evidence that Ca++ is involved with control of mitosis and fertilization. We implicated the PI cycle by adding Li+ to sea urchin eggs, sperm, or zygotes: those effects of Li+ due to effects on the PI cycle were overcome by myo-inositol but not by its optical isomer, scyllitol, and not by mannitol. PMID:3986921

Sillers, P J; Forer, A

1985-03-01

18

Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

2012-01-01

19

Drug Use Trajectories After a Randomized Controlled Trial of MTFC: Associations with Partner Drug Use  

PubMed Central

Trajectories of drug use were examined in a sample of women with prior juvenile-justice system involvement. One hundred fifty-three young women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) in adolescence were assessed on five occasions over a 24-month period in young adulthood (mean age = 22.29 years at T1). Participants assigned to the MTFC condition during adolescence reported greater decreases in drug use than girls assigned to the treatment as usual (TAU) condition. Partner drug use was significantly associated with women’s concurrent drug use, although participants in the MTFC condition were more resilient to partner drug use than in the TAU condition. Implications for drug use prevention and intervention programs during adolescence are discussed. PMID:24729667

Rhoades, Kimberly A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Kim, Hyoun; Chamberlain, Patricia

2013-01-01

20

Rethinking the moral permissibility of gamete donation.  

PubMed

The dominant philosophical view of gamete donation as morally permissible (when practiced in the right way) rests on two premises: (1) parental obligations are triggered primarily by playing a causal role (as agent cause) in procreation, not by genetic ties, and (2) those obligations are transferable-that is, they are obligations to make adequate provision for the child's needs, not necessarily to raise the child oneself. Thus while gamete donors are indeed agent causes of the children that their donation helps to bring into existence, most think that donors' obligations are discharged insofar as they know that competent others intend to care for those children. In this article, I call into question this dominant view by challenging both of its premises. Challenging the first premise, I argue that genetic parenthood is what primarily triggers parental obligations. Challenging the second premise, I claim that those obligations are non-transferable-i.e., that they are obligations not simply to ensure that someone will raise one's genetic child, but to raise that child oneself (unless one is incompetent). The implication of my argument is that gamete donation is inherently wrong insofar as it involves acquiring non-transferable obligations that one has no intention of fulfilling. PMID:25359235

Moschella, Melissa

2014-12-01

21

Unreduced gametes in diploid Medicago and their importance in alfalfa breeding.  

PubMed

In the genus Medicago, it is known that 2n gametes have been important in the evolution and breeding of cultivated alfalfa, which is a natural polysomic polyploid (2n=4x=32), however little is known on the frequency of male and female 2n gametes in diploid relatives of alfalfa. To obtain data on the frequency of 2n gametes, more than 12,000 2x-4x and 4x-2x crosses were made in 1982 at Madison (USA). Diploid parents in crosses were from four populations of M. coerulea, two of M. falcata and one diploid population of cultivated M. sativa which was derived by haploidy. The tetraploid seed parent in the crosses was a male-sterile M. sativa clone and vigorous tetraploid M. sativa plants were used as pollen parents. Each of 274 diploid plants was utilized both as male and as female. Of the 548 cross combinations, 266 crosses produced variable quantities of seeds which were sown in 1983 in a greenhouse at Perugia (Italy); the plants were subsequently space transplanted in the field in 1984. The identification of ploidy level of these genotypes was made on the basis of morphological characters, plant fertility, pollen stainability and chromosome counts.Of the 515 plants analyzed, the majority behaved as normal tetraploids indicating that many diploid plants produced 2n gametes. Diplogynous and diplandrous gamete production was not correlated with each other, which indicated a different genetic control of 2n sporogenesis in the 2 sexes. Only 4 F1 triploid plants confirmed the presence of a very effective triploid block in alfalfa. In consequence, bilateral sexual polyploidization is a more likely alternative for the origin of tetraploid alfalfa than triploid bridges. The present study showed that it is possible to efficiently identify genotypes able to produce high frequencies of 2n gametes within natural populations of diploids Medicago that are useful in alfalfa breeding. PMID:24247768

Veronesi, F; Mariani, A; Bingham, E T

1986-04-01

22

Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions  

PubMed Central

The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete’s positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645

Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

2011-01-01

23

Smart Men, Beautiful Women: Social Values and Gamete Commodification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For couples for whom assisted reproduction is the only way to have genetically related offspring, the donation of gametes by others makes available enhanced reproductive options. There has been an increasing demand for such services, as evidenced by the Web site launched by fashion photographer Ron Harris in the fall of 1999. Although the sale of such gametes is not

Toby L. Schonfeld

2003-01-01

24

Study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia.  

PubMed

This study investigated meiotic segregation in spermatozoa to determine if severe teratozoospermia should prevent the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of the high production of gametes with chromosomal aneuploidies and analysed DNA fragmentation in gametes from the same semen to determine if DNA integrity was worse in patients with severe teratozoospermia. Sperm samples from 12 infertile patients were studied by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 and by TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling. Four patients with a majority of macrocephalic forms with multiple flagella had more than 99% spermatozoa with abnormal chromosomal content. The other patients (globozoospermia or other abnormalities concerning sperm heads) had no increased aneuploidy or a slightly significant increase (P<0.05). The rate of DNA fragmentation was significantly higher in infertile patients than in the controls (P<0.001; 14.3% versus 1.20%, respectively) but presented important variability. Therefore, ICSI should not be attempted if men have macrocephalic gametes with multiple flagella but morphology is not always a good predictor of chromosomal content, depending upon the kind of teratozoospermia. Evaluation of the rate of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia is recommended. PMID:21233018

Perrin, A; Louanjli, N; Ziane, Y; Louanjli, T; Le Roy, C; Gueganic, N; Amice, V; De Braekeleer, M; Morel, F

2011-02-01

25

Is HAP2-GCS1 an ancestral gamete fusogen?  

PubMed

Eukaryotes employ a diversity of strategies to ensure that gametes come together, but the cellular climax is less varied: gamete plasma membranes must fuse to allow the combination of parental genomes. Recent studies of HAP2-GCS1, a sex-restricted transmembrane protein found in genomes representing all major eukaryotic taxa except fungi, suggest that a broad array of eukaryotic organisms could share a common mechanism for gamete fusion. Plant, protozoan, and algal gametes carrying loss-of-function mutations in HAP2-GCS1 fail to fuse with their complements. We propose that HAP2-GCS1 is a crucial component of an ancient mechanism that mediates the fusion of gamete plasma membranes and could have been a key early innovation in the evolution of sexual reproduction. PMID:20080406

Wong, Julian L; Johnson, Mark A

2010-03-01

26

Dimensional and temporal controls of three-dimensional cell migration by zyxin and binding partners  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. But to our knowledge, periodic cell migratory patterns have not been observed. Here we report the highly regular, periodic migration of cells along rectilinear tracks generated inside three-dimensional matrices, with each excursion encompassing several cell lengths, a phenotype that does not occur on conventional substrates. Short hairpin RNA depletion shows that these one-dimensional oscillations are uniquely controlled by zyxin and binding partners ?-actinin and p130Cas, but not vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and cysteine-rich protein 1. Oscillations are recapitulated for cells migrating along one-dimensional micropatterns, but not on two-dimensional compliant substrates. These results indicate that although two-dimensional motility can be well described by speed and persistence, three-dimensional motility requires two additional parameters, the dimensionality of the cell paths in the matrix and the temporal control of cell movements along these paths. These results also suggest that the zyxin/?-actinin/p130Cas module may ensure that motile cells in a three-dimensional matrix explore the largest space possible in minimum time. PMID:22395610

Fraley, Stephanie I.; Feng, Yunfeng; Giri, Anjil; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis

2015-01-01

27

Ureaplasma urealyticum Is Associated With Nongonococcal Urethritis Among Men With Fewer Lifetime Sexual Partners: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Ureaplasmas have been inconsistently associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). We evaluated the association of the newly differentiated species Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) with NGU using 2 separate control groups. Methods.?Case patients were men who attended a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Seattle, Washington, during the period 2007–2009 with NGU (defined as visible urethral discharge and/or ?5 polymorphonuclear neutrophils per high-powered field; n = 329). Control subjects were STD clinic attendees (n = 191) and emergency department (ED) attendees (n = 193) without NGU. Polymerase chain reaction assays detected UU and UP in ureaplasma culture-positive urine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations of UU and UP with NGU. Results.?UU was only marginally associated with NGU in aggregate multivariable analyses, irrespective of control group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]STD-control, 1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.9–2.8]; aORED-control, 1.7 [95% CI, 0.97–3.0]). This association was significantly stronger when analyses were restricted to men with fewer lifetime sex partners (<10 vaginal partners: aORSTD-control, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.2–6.7]; aORED-control, 3.2 [95% CI, 1.3–7.6]; <5 vaginal partners: aORSTD-control, 6.2 [95% CI, 1.8–21.0]; aORED-control, 5.2 [95% CI, 1.3–20.2]). UP was not positively associated with NGU overall or among subgroups. Conclusions.?The absence of an association of UU with NGU among men with more lifetime sex partners suggests that adaptive immunity may attenuate the clinical manifestation of UU infection. Similar relationships were not observed with UP, which suggests that it is not a urethral pathogen. PMID:21917901

Manhart, Lisa E.; Lowens, M. Sylvan; Golden, Matthew R.; Jensen, Nicole L.; Astete, Sabina G.; Whittington, William L. H.; Totten, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

28

Oxidative stress–induced assembly of PML nuclear bodies controls sumoylation of partner proteins  

PubMed Central

The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein organizes PML nuclear bodies (NBs), which are stress-responsive domains where many partner proteins accumulate. Here, we clarify the basis for NB formation and identify stress-induced partner sumoylation as the primary NB function. NB nucleation does not rely primarily on intermolecular interactions between the PML SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) and SUMO, but instead results from oxidation-mediated PML multimerization. Oxidized PML spherical meshes recruit UBC9, which enhances PML sumoylation, allow partner recruitment through SIM interactions, and ultimately enhance partner sumoylation. Intermolecular SUMO–SIM interactions then enforce partner sequestration within the NB inner core. Accordingly, oxidative stress enhances NB formation and global sumoylation in vivo. Some NB-associated sumoylated partners also become polyubiquitinated by RNF4, precipitating their proteasomal degradation. As several partners are protein-modifying enzymes, NBs could act as sensors that facilitate and confer oxidative stress sensitivity not only to sumoylation but also to other post-translational modifications, thereby explaining alterations of stress response upon PML or NB loss. PMID:24637324

Sahin, Umut; Ferhi, Omar; Jeanne, Marion; Benhenda, Shirine; Berthier, Caroline; Jollivet, Florence; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Faklaris, Orestis; Setterblad, Niclas; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie

2014-01-01

29

SHORT REVIEW Speciation and the evolution of gamete recognition  

E-print Network

and Hayashi, 2005; Tomaiuolo et al., 2007), reinforcement (Geyer and Palumbi, 2003) or other aspects of the evolution of reproductive isolation (Tomaiuolo et al., 2007). Because gamete recognition involves relatively

Palumbi, Stephen

30

[What strategy to improve the recruitment of gamete donors?].  

PubMed

To a high demand for donated gametes, sperm and oocytes, centers often face difficulties in recruiting enough donors. To increase the number of donors are needed financial and human resources to accommodate them in good conditions, information and a strong promotion to motivate approaches donations, diversify recruitment methods. In France, the gametes donation comes from couples with children and is free. The opening of the gift for men and women without children and remuneration of these gifts are discussed. PMID:24268325

Le Lannou, D

2013-12-01

31

Chemoattraction of male gametes by a pheromone produced by female gametes of Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed Central

In isogamous species of Chlamydomonas, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas eugametos, the sexual process involves the use of flagella agglutinins by which the gametes of compatible strains adhere through chance encounter and ultimately pair and fuse to form zygotes. In a newly described heterogamous species, Chlamydomonas allensworthii, the sexual process is initiated by the chemoattraction of small sperm to a sexually competent female gamete, which continues to secrete the pheromone until it has fused with one of the sperm so attracted. From bacteria-free female strains of C. allensworthii, the chemoat-tractant has been isolated and identified as a pentosylated hydroquinone (Mr = 532) whose spectral, chemical, and physical properties are in accord with the structure of a 2,3-dimethyl-5-(triprenylcarboxymethyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone-1-(beta-xyloside). A rapid bioassay of the pheromone uses DEAE-Toyopearl 650M beads to which the pheromone adsorbs. When such activated beads are placed in a suspension of sperm, they act as surrogate females and attract the small motile sperm. The purified pheromone shows activity at a concentration as low as 1 pM. PMID:11607510

Starr, R C; Marner, F J; Jaenicke, L

1995-01-01

32

Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions.  

PubMed

The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete's positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645

Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

2011-08-01

33

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Transfer Tokens Repeatedly with a Partner to Accumulate Rewards in a Self-Control Task  

PubMed Central

There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one’s social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees’ self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691

Parrish, Audrey E.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

2013-01-01

34

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) transfer tokens repeatedly with a partner to accumulate rewards in a self-control task.  

PubMed

There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691

Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

2013-07-01

35

Epigenetic effects of methoxychlor and vinclozolin on male gametes.  

PubMed

Imprinting is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that mediates a parent-of-origin-dependent expression of the alleles of a number of genes. Imprinting, which occurs at specific sites within or surrounding the gene, called differentially methylated domains, consists in a methylation of CpGs. The appropriate transmission of genomics imprints is essential for the control of embryonic development and fetal growth. A number of endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect male reproductive tract development and spermatogenesis. It was postulated that the genetic effects of EDs might be induced by alterations in gene imprinting. We tested two EDs: methoxychlor and vinclozolin. Their administration during gestation induced in the offspring a decrease in sperm counts and significant modifications in the methylation pattern of a selection of paternally and maternally expressed canonical imprinted genes. The observation that imprinting was largely untouched in somatic cells suggests that EDs exert their damaging effects via the process of reprogramming that is unique to gamete development. Interestingly, the effects were transgenerational, although disappearing gradually from F1 to F3. A systematic analysis showed a heterogeneity in the CpG sensitivity to EDs. We propose that the deleterious effects of EDs on the male reproductive system are mediated by imprinting defects in the sperm. The reported effects of EDs on human male spermatogenesis might be mediated by analogous imprinting alterations. PMID:24388192

Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

2014-01-01

36

Plant chemical defence: a partner control mechanism stabilising plant - seed-eating pollinator mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutualisms are inherently conflictual as one partner always benefits from reducing the costs imposed by the other. Despite the widespread recognition that mutualisms are essentially reciprocal exploitation, there are few documented examples of traits that limit the costs of mutualism. In plant\\/seed-eating pollinator interactions the only mechanisms reported so far are those specific to one particular system, such as

Sébastien Ibanez; Christiane Gallet; Fanny Dommanget; Laurence Després

2009-01-01

37

Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

Villarreal, Andres

2007-01-01

38

Gamete evolution and sperm numbers: sperm competition versus sperm limitation.  

PubMed

Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models in sperm economics. We show quite generally for the intensity model (where N males compete for each set of eggs) that however severe the degree of SL, if there is at least one competitor for fertilization (N - 1 ? 1), the marginal gains through SC exceed those for SL, provided that the relationship between the probability of fertilization (F) and increasing sperm numbers (x) is a concave function. In the risk model, as fertility F increases from 0 to 1.0, the threshold SC risk (the probability q that two males compete for fertilization) for SC to be the dominant force drops from 1.0 to 0. The gamete competition and gamete limitation theories for the evolution of anisogamy rely on very similar considerations: our results imply that gamete limitation could dominate only if ancestral reproduction took place in highly isolated, small spawning groups. PMID:25100694

Parker, Geoff A; Lehtonen, Jussi

2014-09-22

39

Genetic generations: artificial gametes and the embryos produced with them.  

PubMed

Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this topic for discussion, it also wades into the ethical fray over the practice. Several possible lines of objection can be raised against this practice, but these accounts are by and large insufficient as an ethical analysis of this possible, future way of conceiving human children. PMID:23966423

Murphy, Timothy F

2014-11-01

40

Larval development of certain gamete-spawning scleractinian corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenesis and larval development were documented in 19 species of hermatypic scleractinians which release gametes during the summer coral spawning season on the Great Barrier Reef. Cleavage of fertilized eggs began approximately 2 h after spawning in all species, and gave rise to blastulae after 7–10 h. Endoderm formation in Platygyra sinensis was by invagination, and this appeared to occur

R. C. Babcock; A. J. Heyward

1986-01-01

41

Mammalian gamete plasma membranes re-assessments and reproductive implications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Establishment of the diploid status occurs with the fusion of female and male gametes. Both the mammalian oocyte and spermatozoa are haploid cells surrounded with plasma membranes that are rich in various proteins playing a crucial role during fertilization. Fertilization is a complex and ordered st...

42

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Temperature and food interact to influence gamete  

E-print Network

mussels Heather S. Galbraith Ã? Caryn C. Vaughn Received: 14 April 2009 / Revised: 13 August 2009 / Accepted: 24 August 2009 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Freshwater mussels are one closely related species of freshwater mussels in a south central U.S. river. Successful gamete development

Vaughn, Caryn

43

A Chromosome-Specific Estimate of Transmission of Heterozygosity by 2n Gametes in Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyploid plants are formed when numerically unreduced (2n) gametes participate in fertilization. Based on cytological and genetic analyses, modes of 2n gamete formation have been determined for a number of plant species. Gametes formed by a first division (FDR) restitution mechanism contain non-s...

44

A Screen for Recessive Speciation Genes Expressed in the Gametes of F1 Hybrid Yeast  

E-print Network

A Screen for Recessive Speciation Genes Expressed in the Gametes of F1 Hybrid Yeast Duncan Greig the effects of (recessive) incompatible speciation genes. But in the haploid gametes produced by F1 hybrids, recessive speciation genes may be exposed, killing the gametes and thus preventing F1 hybrids from

Nachman, Michael

45

Cyclic AMP functions as a primary sexual signal in gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

When Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gametes of opposite mating type are mixed together, they adhere by a flagella-mediated agglutination that triggers three rapid mating responses: flagellar tip activation, cell wall loss, and mating structure activation accompanied by actin polymerization. Here we show that a transient 10-fold elevation of intracellular cAMP levels is also triggered by sexual agglutination. We further show that gametes of a single mating type can be induced to undergo all three mating responses when presented with exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP). These events are also induced by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous cAMP levels and act synergistically with db-cAMP. Non-agglutinating mutants of opposite mating type will fuse efficiently in the presence of db- cAMP. No activation of mating events is induced by calcium plus ionophores, 8-bromo-cGMP, dibutyryl-cGMP, nigericin at alkaline pH, phorbol esters, or forskolin. H-8, an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide- dependent protein kinase, inhibits mating events in agglutinating cells and antagonizes the effects of cAMP on non-agglutinating cells. Adenylate cyclase activity was detected in both the gamete cell body and flagella, with the highest specific activity displayed in flagellar membrane fractions. The flagellar membrane adenylate cyclase is preferentially stimulated by Mn++, unresponsive to NaF, GTP, GTP gamma S, AlF4-, and forskolin, and is inhibited by trifluoperazine. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity is also present in flagella. Our observations indicate that cAMP is a sufficient initial signal for all of the known mating reaction events in C. reinhardtii, and suggest that the flagellar cyclase and/or phosphodiesterase may be important loci of control for the agglutination-stimulated production of this signal. PMID:2824527

1987-01-01

46

Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go?  

PubMed

Murine embryonic stem cells have recently been shown to be capable of differentiating in vitro into oocytes or sperm. Should these findings be duplicated using human embryonic stem cells, this would raise a number of social and ethical concerns, some specific to these particular developments, others shared with other aspects of stem cell research. This review outlines the properties of stem cells and their conversion to gametes. Concerns raised include embryo destruction, quality of gametes derived in this way, possibility for children with two male biological parents, movement towards germ line gene therapy and 'designer babies', and the future impacts on health service provisions. It is important that public discussion of some of these issues should take place. PMID:17454202

Whittaker, Peter

2007-03-01

47

Judicial review of restrictions on gamete donation in Europe.  

PubMed

The decision of S.H. and Others v. Austria vindicates the right of governments to enact restrictions on gamete donation against claims that these restrictions violate the guarantees of the European Convention on Human Rights. Van Hoof and Pennings in this issue predict that legal diversity on the question of gamete donation will persist in the wake of this decision and discuss how the decision itself is insufficiently protective of the private and family interests of individuals who seek reproduction-assisting medical treatment. This commentary discusses the difficult balancing work of the European Court of Human Rights, its questionable expansion of the margin appreciation doctrine in S.H. and Others v. Austria and how the decision might influence national courts in the future. PMID:23084881

Storrow, Richard F

2012-12-01

48

Gametic imprinting effects on rate and composition of pig growth.  

PubMed

Genetic improvement schemes in livestock are based on the assumption that the expression of relevant genes is independent of parent of origin. Until now no evidence has been found to reject this assumption. The present study on three purebred pig populations, however, shows that a significant proportion of the phenotypic variance in backfat thickness (5-7%) can be explained by genes subject to paternal imprinting. The implication is that there are genes affecting backfat that are expressed only when derived from the paternal gamete. Paternal imprinted effects explained 1-4% of the phenotypic variation for growth rate. Maternal imprinted effects were heavily confounded with heritable maternal environmental effects. When modelled separately, these effects explained 2-5% and 3-4% of the phenotypic variance in backfat thickness and growth rate, respectively. Gametic imprinting may have consequences for the optimization of breeding programmes, especially in crossbreeding systems with specialized sire and dam lines. PMID:24186259

de Vries, A G; Kerr, R; Tier, B; Long, T; Meuwissen, T H

1994-09-01

49

Application of population genetics theory to a gametic sampling scheme  

E-print Network

- able ;opulai:ion. The technique has the advantage of ;ncreas~ng the probability of detecting exceptional gcnotypes, as compared to direct isolation of lines from varietal sources. Stadler's Gamete Selection scheme was based on early- Lesting, a... in which gamctes , , ere sampled from three complex hybrid populations and evaluated using an inbred tester. He concluded that the var- ibiiity obse. ved in the Lest-cross populations was a reflection of the vari ability of the source populations...

Ball, Mary Virginia Uhrich

1971-01-01

50

An ultrastructural analysis of the gametes and early fertilization in two bivalve molluscs, Chama macerophylla and Spisula solidissima with special reference to gamete binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrastructural investigation of the gametes and their interaction during the early events of fertilization in molluscs has been performed. A gamete binding event involving large numbers of sperm has been identified and examined in detail. The surface of the oocyte is projected into numerous microvilli which extend through the vitelline envelope. Tufts of fibrillar material radiate from the tips

B. L. Hylander; R. G. Summers

1977-01-01

51

Segregation for Sexual Seed Production in Paspalum as Directed by Male Gametes of Apomictic Triploid Plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Gametophytic apomixis is regularly associated with polyploidy. It has been hypothesized that apomixis is not present in diploid plants because of a pleiotropic lethal effect associated with monoploid gametes. Rare apomictic triploid plants for Paspalum notatum and P. simplex, which usually have sexual diploid and apomictic tetraploid races, were acquired. These triploids normally produce male gametes through meiosis with a range of chromosome numbers from monoploid (n = 10) to diploid (n = 20). The patterns of apomixis transmission in Paspalum were investigated in relation to the ploidy levels of gametes. Methods Intraspecific crosses were made between sexual diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants as female parents and apomictic triploid plants as male parents. Apomictic progeny were identified by using molecular markers completely linked to apomixis and the analysis of mature embryo sacs. The chromosome number of the male gamete was inferred from chromosome counts of each progeny. Key Results The chromosome numbers of the progeny indicated that the chromosome input of male gametes depended on the chromosome number of the female gamete. The apomictic trait was not transmitted through monoploid gametes, at least when the progeny was diploid. Diploid or near-diploid gametes transmitted apomixis at very low rates. Conclusions Since male monoploid gametes usually failed to form polyploid progenies, for example triploids after 4x × 3x crosses, it was not possible to determine whether apomixis could segregate in polyploid progenies by means of monoploid gametes. PMID:17766843

Martínez, Eric J.; Acuña, Carlos A.; Hojsgaard, Diego H.; Tcach, Mauricio A.; Quarin, Camilo L.

2007-01-01

52

Motile Male Gametes of the Araphid Diatom Tabularia fasciculata Search Randomly for Mates  

PubMed Central

Sexuality in the marine araphid diatom Tabularia involves an unusual type of gamete, not only among diatoms but possibly in all of nature. The non-flagellated male gamete is free and vigorously motile, propelled by pseudopodia. However, the cues (if any) in their search for compatible female gametes and the general search patterns to locate them are unknown. We tracked and compared male gamete movements in the presence and absence of receptive female gametes. Path linearity of male movement was not affected by presence of female gametes. Male gametes did not move towards female gametes regardless of their proximity to each other, suggesting that the detection range for a compatible mate is very small compared to known algal examples (mostly spermatozoids) and that mate recognition requires (near) contact with a female gamete. We therefore investigated how male gametes move to bring insight into their search strategy and found that it was consistent with the predictions of a random-walk model with changes in direction coming from an even distribution. We further investigated the type of random walk by determining the best-fit distribution on the tail of the move length distribution and found it to be consistent with a truncated power law distribution with an exponent of 2.34. Although consistent with a Lévy walk search pattern, the range of move lengths in the tail was too narrow for Lévy properties to emerge and so would be best described as Brownian motion. This is somewhat surprising because female gametes were often outnumbered by male gametes, thus contrary to the assumption that a Brownian search mode may be most optimal with an abundant target resource. This is also the first mathematically analysed search pattern of a non-flagellated protistan gamete, supporting the notion that principles of Brownian motion have wide application in biology. PMID:24991803

Edgar, Robyn; Drolet, David; Ehrman, James M.; Kaczmarska, Irena

2014-01-01

53

A controlled trial of Partners in Dementia Care: veteran outcomes after six and twelve months  

PubMed Central

Introduction “Partners in Dementia Care” (PDC) tested the effectiveness of a care-coordination program integrating healthcare and community services and supporting veterans with dementia and their caregivers. Delivered via partnerships between Veterans Affairs medical centers and Alzheimer’s Association chapters, PDC targeted both patients and caregivers, distinguishing it from many non-pharmacological interventions. Hypotheses posited PDC would improve five veteran self-reported outcomes: 1) unmet need, 2) embarrassment about memory problems, 3) isolation, 4) relationship strain and 5) depression. Greater impact was expected for more impaired veterans. A unique feature was self-reported research data collected from veterans with dementia. Methods and Findings Five matched communities were study sites. Two randomly selected sites received PDC for 12 months; comparison sites received usual care. Three structured telephone interviews were completed every 6 months with veterans who could participate. Results Of 508 consenting veterans, 333 (65.6%) completed baseline interviews. Among those who completed baseline interviews, 263 (79.0%) completed 6-month follow-ups and 194 (58.3%) completed 12-month follow-ups. Regression analyses showed PDC veterans had significantly less adverse outcomes than those receiving usual care, particularly for more impaired veterans after 6 months, including reduced relationship strain (B?=??0.09; p?=?0.05), depression (B?=??0.10; p?=?0.03), and unmet need (B?=??0.28; p?=?0.02; and B?=??0.52; p?=?0.08). PDC veterans also had less embarrassment about memory problems (B?=??0.24; p?=?0.08). At 12 months, more impaired veterans had further reductions in unmet need (B?=??0.96; p?

2014-01-01

54

Historical background of gamete and embryo culture.  

PubMed

The first tissue culture media were developed nearly 150 years ago by Ludwig and Ringer. These were simple salt solutions, which were initially based on the chemical properties of blood serum. The second generation of culture media was developed more than a century later, in the 1970s, aiming to mimic the reproductive environment. In the 1990s, simplex optimization was used to design the third group of media, to some extent ignoring existing formulations and principles. Simultaneous with the development of culture media, it became evident that it was necessary to carefully control the culture conditions, including temperature, pH, osmolarity, and air quality. Equally important was the development of instruments and tools specifically designed for cell tissue culture such as the inverted microscope, the incubator, the Petri dish, sterile plasticware, the laminar flow cabinet, and air filtration equipment. PMID:22829365

Cohen, Jacques; Rieger, Don

2012-01-01

55

Gametic embryogenesis and haploid technology as valuable support to plant breeding.  

PubMed

Plant breeding is focused on continuously increasing crop production to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population, improving food quality to ensure a long and healthy life and address the problems of global warming and environment pollution, together with the challenges of developing novel sources of biofuels. The breeders' search for novel genetic combinations, with which to select plants with improved traits to satisfy both farmers and consumers, is endless. About half of the dramatic increase in crop yield obtained in the second half of the last century has been achieved thanks to the results of genetic improvement, while the residual advance has been due to the enhanced management techniques (pest and disease control, fertilization, and irrigation). Biotechnologies provide powerful tools for plant breeding, and among these ones, tissue culture, particularly haploid and doubled haploid technology, can effectively help to select superior plants. In fact, haploids (Hs), which are plants with gametophytic chromosome number, and doubled haploids (DHs), which are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication, represent a particularly attractive biotechnological method to accelerate plant breeding. Currently, haploid technology, making possible through gametic embryogenesis the single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, has already had a huge impact on agricultural systems of many agronomically important crops, representing an integral part in their improvement programmes. The aim of this review was to provide some background, recent advances, and future prospective on the employment of haploid technology through gametic embryogenesis as a powerful tool to support plant breeding. PMID:21431908

Germanà, Maria Antonietta

2011-05-01

56

An mt+ gamete-specific nuclease that targets mt? chloroplasts during sexual reproduction in C. reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

Although the active digestion of mating-type minus (mt?) chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in young zygotes is considered to be the basis for the uniparental inheritance of cpDNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. One model of active digestion proposes that nucleases are either synthesized or activated to digest mt? cpDNA. We used a native-PAGE/in gelo assay to investigate nuclease activities in chloroplasts from young zygotes, and identified a novel Ca2+-dependent nuclease activity. The timing of activation (?60–90 min after mating) and the localization of the nuclease activity (in mt? chloroplasts) coincided with the active digestion of mt? cpDNA. Furthermore, the activity of the nuclease was coregulated with the maturation of mating-type plus (mt+) gametes, which would enable the efficient digestion of mt? cpDNA. Based on these observations, we propose that the nuclease (designated as Mt+-specific DNase, MDN) is a developmentally controlled nuclease that is activated in mt+ gametes and participates in the destruction of mt? cpDNA in young zygotes, thereby ensuring uniparental inheritance of chloroplast traits. PMID:12000794

Nishimura, Yoshiki; Misumi, Osami; Kato, Ko; Inada, Noriko; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Momoyama, Yu; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

2002-01-01

57

Unreduced gametes in diploid Medicago and their importance in alfalfa breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the genus Medicago, it is known that 2n gametes have been important in the evolution and breeding of cultivated alfalfa, which is a natural polysomic polyploid (2n=4x=32), however little is known on the frequency of male and female 2n gametes in diploid relatives of alfalfa. To obtain data on the frequency of 2n gametes, more than 12,000 2x–4x and

F. Veronesi; A. Mariani; E. T. Bingham

1986-01-01

58

Ethical Aspects of the Use of Stem Cell Derived Gametes for Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of interest has been generated by the possibility of deriving gametes from embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stem\\u000a cells. These stem cell derived gametes may become useful for research and for the treatment of infertility. In this article\\u000a we consider prospectively the ethical issues that will arise if stem cell derived gametes are used in the clinic,

Heidi Mertes; Guido Pennings

2010-01-01

59

| Partnering | Dismantling  

E-print Network

| Partnering with Local Schools | Dismantling the Great Wall Around Autism | Multiplying the Next Generation of MathTeachers Inside .edu Queens College Division of Education WINTER 2011 #12;Q U E E N S C O L of Education on the memo line--to the Queens College Foundation, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367. What

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

60

Multivariate Analysis of Gametic Disequilibrium in the Yanomama  

PubMed Central

The gametic disequilibria between all possible pairs of loci were examined for a set of eight codominant loci in each of fifty Yanomama villages, using a multivariate correlation analysis which reduces the results to a single measure of departure from multiple-locus-gametic equilibrium. Thirty-two of the fifty villages departed significantly from multiple-locus gametic equilibrium. The largest contributions to the departure from multiple-locus equilibrium were due to the disequilibria between MN and Ss and between Rh(Cc) and Rh(Ee), indicating the effects of tight linkage. After removing the effects of these obvious sources of disequilibrium, sixteen of the fifty villages still remained significantly out of equilibrium. The disequilibrium between any particular pair of loci was highly erratic from village to village, and (with the exception of the MN-Ss and Cc-Ee disequilibria) averaged out very close to zero overall, suggesting a lack of systematic forces (epistatic selection). The departure from equilibrium in any one village is in excess of that expected from random sampling alone, and is attributed primarily to the fission-fusion mode of village formation operative in the Yanomama and the fact that a single village consists of a few extended lineages. Village allele frequencies are highly correlated across loci, and most of the non-independence is accounted for by large correlations in the average allelic frequencies of different loci for related villages. It is suggested that these correlations also are due to territorial expansion and population growth. For the tribe as a whole, all but the tightly linked markers of the MNSs and Rh complexes are approximately uncorrelated, and large departures from multiple-locus Hardy-Weinberg expectation are primarily due to substantial Wahlund variance within the tribe. There is no need to postulate a role for selection in these disequilibria. PMID:863243

Smouse, Peter E.; Neel, James V.

1977-01-01

61

Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function  

PubMed Central

Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB complexed with nucleotide reveals a new conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active, but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an auto-regulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to nucleotide and both replication initiation and elongation factors. PMID:24373746

Strycharska, Melania S.; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Erzberger, Jan P.; O’Shea, Valerie; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Berger, James M.

2014-01-01

62

HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase control the architecture of their nucleocapsid partner.  

PubMed

The HIV-1 nucleocapsid is formed during protease (PR)-directed viral maturation, and is transformed into pre-integration complexes following reverse transcription in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. Here, we report a detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis of the impact of HIV-1 PR and reverse transcriptase (RT) on nucleocapsid plasticity, using in vitro reconstitutions. After binding to nucleic acids, NCp15, a proteolytic intermediate of nucleocapsid protein (NC), was processed at its C-terminus by PR, yielding premature NC (NCp9) followed by mature NC (NCp7), through the consecutive removal of p6 and p1. This allowed NC co-aggregation with its single-stranded nucleic-acid substrate. Examination of these co-aggregates for the ability of RT to catalyse reverse transcription showed an effective synthesis of double-stranded DNA that, remarkably, escaped from the aggregates more efficiently with NCp7 than with NCp9. These data offer a compelling explanation for results from previous virological studies that focused on i) Gag processing leading to nucleocapsid condensation, and ii) the disappearance of NCp7 from the HIV-1 pre-integration complexes. We propose that HIV-1 PR and RT, by controlling the nucleocapsid architecture during the steps of condensation and dismantling, engage in a successive nucleoprotein-remodelling process that spatiotemporally coordinates the pre-integration steps of HIV-1. Finally we suggest that nucleoprotein remodelling mechanisms are common features developed by mobile genetic elements to ensure successful replication. PMID:17712401

Mirambeau, Gilles; Lyonnais, Sébastien; Coulaud, Dominique; Hameau, Laurence; Lafosse, Sophie; Jeusset, Josette; Borde, Isabelle; Reboud-Ravaux, Michèle; Restle, Tobias; Gorelick, Robert J; Le Cam, Eric

2007-01-01

63

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

2002-02-26

64

Fertilization success in marine invertebrates: the influence of gamete age.  

PubMed

Gamete age has been postulated to be unimportant to the fertilization ecology of marine invertebrates. However, recent research suggests that, for some species at least, it may have a direct impact upon fertilization success. We present comparative data on the influence of gamete age on fertilization and development success in several marine invertebrates: the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the asteroid echinoderm Asterias rubens. Oocytes are much longer lived in the polychaetes than in the echinoderm, with A. marina oocytes still capable of fertilizing and developing normally 96 h post-spawning. Developmental abnormalities and failure to reach blastula tend to occur well before the fertilizable life of the oocytes has expired. Sperm are similarly longer lived in the polychaetes; however, fertilizing capacity is markedly reduced following incubation in conspecific egg-conditioned seawater. These results are discussed in terms of the fertilization strategies of the three species. We further suggest that, for A. marina at least, longer-lived sperm and eggs are central to the fertilization strategy of this species. PMID:11842013

Williams, Mark Elliott; Bentley, Matthew Graeme

2002-02-01

65

The gametic synapse: RNA transfer to the bovine oocyte.  

PubMed

Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build the reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between the gamete and the surrounding cells that is limited to paracrine signaling and direct transfer of small molecules via gap junctions existing at the end of the somatic cells' projections that are in contact with the oolemma. The purpose of this work was to explore the role of cumulus cell projections as a means of conductance of large molecules, including RNA, to the mammalian oocyte. By studying nascent RNA with confocal and transmission electron microscopy in combination with transcript detection, we show that the somatic cells surrounding the fully grown bovine oocyte contribute to the maternal reserves by actively transferring large cargo, including mRNA and long noncoding RNA. This occurrence was further demonstrated by the reconstruction of cumulus-oocyte complexes with transfected cumulus cells transferring a synthetic transcript. We propose selective transfer of transcripts occurs, the delivery of which is supported by a remarkable synapselike vesicular trafficking connection between the cumulus cells and the gamete. This unexpected exogenous contribution to the maternal stores offers a new perspective on the determinants of female fertility. PMID:25143353

Macaulay, Angus D; Gilbert, Isabelle; Caballero, Julieta; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fournier, Eric; Tossou, Prudencio; Sirard, Marc-André; Clarke, Hugh J; Khandjian, Édouard W; Richard, Francois J; Hyttel, Poul; Robert, Claude

2014-10-01

66

How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity.  

PubMed

Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government. PMID:22786778

Pennings, Guido

2012-10-01

67

Utilizing a dihaploid-gamete selection strategy for tall fescue development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gamete selection as originally defined by Stadler is based on the principal that selection exerted at the gametophytic level can increase desirable allelic frequencies detectable at the sporophytic level. If superior gametes can be recognized with certainty through a selection cycle, then such a sy...

68

Gametic behavior in a marine green alga, Monostroma angicava : an effect of phototaxis on mating efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The role of phototactic behavior of gametes was tested experimentally in the slightly anisogamous marine green alga Monostroma angicava Kjellman, and the effect of phototaxis on mating efficiency was discovered. Both male and female gametes showed positive\\u000a phototaxis in response to a white light source. In contrast, they did not respond to a red light source. Their swimming velocity

Tatsuya Togashi; Taizo Motomura; Terunobu Ichimura; Paul Alan Cox

1999-01-01

69

Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid\\u000a formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads\\u000a from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from

Annaliese S Mason; Matthew N Nelson; Guijun Yan; Wallace A Cowling

2011-01-01

70

Sociological Theories of Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociological theories of intimate partner violence seek to explain violent behavior as a function of social structures rather than individual pathology. This review examines the major theories used by sociologists to understand intimate partner violence, categorizing them by their respective views regarding the role of gender in intimate partner violence. Family violence theories (including systems theory, ecological theory, exchange\\/social control

Jennifer Lawson

2012-01-01

71

Gamete compatibility and sperm competition affect paternity and hybridization between sympatric Asterias sea stars.  

PubMed

Gamete interactions may strongly influence speciation and hybridization in sympatric broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates. We examined the role of gamete compatibility in species integrity using cross-fertilization studies between sympatric Asterias sea stars from a secondary contact zone in the northwest Atlantic. In crosses between single males and single females, gametes of both species were compatible and produced viable, fertile hybrid offspring, but with considerable variation in the receptivity of eggs to heterospecific sperm. Differential compatibility of heterospecific gametes was detected in sperm competition studies in which we used a nuclear DNA marker to assign paternity to larval offspring. Several families showed conspecific sperm precedence in A. forbesi eggs, and one family showed competitive superiority of A. forbesi sperm fertilizing A. rubens eggs. Gametic interactions are an important component of prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatric Asterias. The interaction between gametes of these closely related sea stars is consistent with the function of gamete recognition systems that are known to mediate fertilization success and speciation in other marine invertebrates. PMID:16260771

Harper, F M; Hart, M W

2005-10-01

72

Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner switching?emi_2269 2051..2059  

E-print Network

and Immunology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA. Summary Bacteria employ a variety. Best characterized in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram- positive bacteria, partner switching colonization of their respective hosts, bacteria have evolved complex signalling networks to ensure the proper

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

73

The Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Exploring Personal Attitudes and Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health and social problem. However, our understanding of how the geographic community or neighborhood influences its distribution is underdeveloped. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence that neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, are…

Frye, Victoria

2007-01-01

74

Adaptive evolution of M3 lysin--a candidate gamete recognition protein in the Mytilus edulis species complex.  

PubMed

Marine invertebrate gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) are classic examples of rapid adaptive evolution of reproductive proteins, and hybridizing Mytilus blue mussels allow us to study the evolution of GRPs during speciation following secondary contact. Even with frequent hybridization, positive selection drives divergence of M7 lysin, one of the three Mytilus egg vitelline envelope (VE) lysins. Mytilus trossulus and M. edulis form a broad hybrid zone in the Canadian Maritimes and eastern Maine, isolated by strong (but partial) gamete incompatibility. M7 lysin, however, is an unlikely GRP controlling this gametic incompativility, as earlier studies showed either weak or no positive selection and extensive introgression between the two species. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and cloned several alleles of M3 lysin, a potent VE lysin encoded by a nonhomologous gene whose evolution has not been studied. McDonald-Kreitman and HKA tests reveal strong positive selection, which PAML branch-site models detect in 19.7% of the codons. Protein structure predictions show that replacements map exclusively to one face of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of this C-type lectin, with codons under positive selection localizing to CRD regions known to control ligand specificity. Polymorphism/divergence analyses show that selective sweep has purged M. edulis but not M. trossulus of polymorphism, and unique to M3 is an absence of fixed substitutions and broad haplotype sharing between M. edulis and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. Taken together, these results suggest that different lysins serve as GRPs in different Mytilus hybrid zones, with M3 likely co-opted to play this role in the western Atlantic. PMID:24048587

Lima, Thiago G; McCartney, Michael A

2013-12-01

75

GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT  

EPA Science Inventory

GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711...

76

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2010-01-01

77

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

2010-01-01

78

The evolution of conspecific gamete precedence and its effect on reinforcement  

E-print Network

., 1989; Ritchie et al., 1989; Butlin, 1998; ladybird beetles: Nakano, 1985, and striped-ground crickets gamete precedence have been found primarily in insects (such as flour beetles: e.g. Wade et al., 1993

Lorch, Patrick D.

79

9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.904 Health...

2013-01-01

80

9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.904 Health...

2014-01-01

81

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

2014-01-01

82

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2011-01-01

83

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2012-01-01

84

9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits...

2014-01-01

85

9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration...

2011-01-01

86

Downregulation of egg cell-secreted EC1 is accompanied with delayed gamete fusion and polytubey  

PubMed Central

One major player known to be essential for successful gamete interactions during double fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana is the recently identified family of egg cell-secreted EC1 proteins. Both gamete fusion events are affected in EC1-deficient female gametophytes. Here, we show that the number of ovules with unfused sperm cells is considerably higher than the number of undeveloped seeds in the same ec1-RNAi knockdown lines. We found that some sperm cells are able to fuse with the female gametes even 2 to 3 days after pollination, as reflected by delayed embryo and endosperm development, and by polytubey. We propose that the egg cell secretes EC1 proteins upon sperm arrival to promote rapid sperm activation, thereby accelerating gamete fusion and preventing polytubey. PMID:24384993

Rademacher, Svenja; Sprunck, Stefanie

2013-01-01

87

The Effect of Filamentous Turf Algal Removal on the Development of Gametes of the Coral Orbicella annularis  

PubMed Central

Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7–10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete lack of recruitment. PMID:25658586

Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P.; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J.; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragán, Guillermina

2015-01-01

88

High resistance of Acropora coral gametes facing copper exposure.  

PubMed

Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4 ± 4.8 ?g L(-1) and 75.4 ± 6.4 ?g L(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220 ?g Cu L(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity. PMID:25462298

Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia

2015-02-01

89

Gamete rescue in the African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).  

PubMed

Mortality rates are high among captive African black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), due to increased susceptibility to disease. The ability to rescue genetic material from individuals that die unexpectedly represents a practical approach to assist ex situ conservation efforts. The objectives of the present study were to attempt postmortem oocyte recovery from ovaries of African black rhinoceroses (N = 6) and to test the efficacy of equine protocols for rhinoceros oocyte IVM and IVF using cryopreserved rhinoceros sperm. The interval from ovary removal to oocyte recovery was 25.3 ± 13.9 h (mean ± SD). Ovaries were transported at 4 °C or 22 °C and effects of temperature on postmortem oocyte competence was evaluated. Numbers of oocytes collected per female averaged 15.8 ± 6.9. In total, 95 oocytes were recovered. Of these, 85 were inseminated using homologous sperm and 10 were inseminated using heterologous sperm. Overall, substantial numbers of viable oocytes were retrieved from African black rhinoceros ovaries 1 to 2 days postmortem from ovaries stored at ambient temperature. A proportion of these oocytes matured and underwent penetration and fertilization by heterologous or homologous frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm. The reproductive competence of postmortem oocytes was further demonstrated by development of a single two-cell embryo. Despite the need for further refinements, gamete rescue in the rhinoceros has promise for producing rhinoceros embryos, as well as testing sperm functions in vitro. PMID:21752452

Stoops, M A; O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L

2011-10-15

90

Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.  

PubMed

This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought. PMID:22908618

Rees, Anne

2012-06-01

91

Delayed childbearing: determining responsibilities for prime gamete quality.  

PubMed

Delayed parenting affects fertility in women and in men, and cryopreservation of oocytes and sperm is becoming the latest trend as a solution for those who want or need to postpone procreation, in an attempt to avoid the damage medical conditions or time itself produces in gametes. Although "social freezing" is considered legitimate, its ethical and social aspects are in need of an overdue medical, public and legal debate. Assisted reproduction and cryopreservation, in combination with womb outsourcing, have opened the door to biological ectogenesis and the subsequent question of whether delayed childbearing means we should formally separate procreation from sexual activity. This article briefly summarizes what cryotechniques are capable of presently and in the near future, to separate fact from fiction. It names the implications for and discusses the practically virgin subject of the underlying responsibilities of delayed parenting techniques towards the child-to-be-not only the unborn but also the not-yet-conceived child. Considering the medical, economic, legal and social consequences of these rapidly growing developments in reproduction, several reasons point at the need to formally separate procreation from sexual activity, specifying responsibilities in the first while respecting personal choice in the second. PMID:24568049

Campagne, Daniel M

2013-01-01

92

Viability assessment for artificial gametes: the need for biomarkers of functional competency.  

PubMed

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has resulted in more than 5 million births worldwide. However, mainstream ART techniques are not always successful for an estimated 30% of infertile patients in whom gametes are nonviable. Most patients would clearly prefer genetic parenthood, currently possible only via the use of donated gametes or, in future, via the clinical use of artificial gametes (AGs) incorporating parental DNA. Despite much recent progress in the derivation of AGs, significant obstacles remain. Although it is possible to create artificial cells exhibiting some of the molecular and physiological traits of human gametes, they do not yet exhibit the same level of functionality as their in vivo counterparts. Most current effort pays scant attention to confirmation of molecular integrity and clinical applicability of AGs. Here we discuss the various clinical parameters used to assess gamete and embryo viability and discuss markers of gamete function that may be used within future studies attempting to derive AGs. The use of AGs may prove controversial to some members of the general public, and, as such, there is significant need for an appropriate ethical and legal framework governing the clinical use of such cells. However, provided these issues can be successfully overcome, it is highly likely that AGs will represent powerful biological tools for reproductive science, a valuable training resource for embryologists and for potential use in the clinical treatment of human infertility. PMID:23018181

Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Child, Tim; Williams, Suzannah A; Coward, Kevin

2012-11-01

93

Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions  

PubMed Central

Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

2010-01-01

94

Vaccines for immunological control of fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines have been proposed as one of the strategies for population control. Immunocontraceptive vaccines can be designed\\u000a to inhibit: (1) production of gametes (sperm and egg); (2) functions of gametes, leading to blocking of fertilization; and\\u000a (3) gamete outcome (pregnancy). Immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone coupled to different carriers has shown curtailment\\u000a in the production of sperm with concomitant infertility in

Satish K. Gupta; Pankaj Bansal

2010-01-01

95

Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.

Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

96

Examination of relaxin and its receptors expression in pig gametes and embryos  

PubMed Central

Background Relaxin is a small peptide also known as pregnancy hormone in many mammals. It is synthesized by both male and female tissues, and its secretions are found in various body fluids such as plasma serum, ovarian follicular fluid, utero-oviduct secretions, and seminal plasma of many mammals, including pigs. However, the presence and effects of relaxin in porcine gametes and embryos are still not well-known. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in pig gametes and embryos. Methods Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from sows' ovaries collected at the abattoir. After in vitro-maturation, COCs were in vitro-fertilized and cultured. For studies, immature and mature COCs were separately collected, and oocytes were freed from their surrounding cumulus cells. Denuded oocytes, cumulus cells, mature boar spermatozoa, zygotes, and embryos (cleaved and blastocysts) were harvested for temporal and spatial gene expression studies. Sections of ovary, granulosa and neonatal porcine uterine cells were also collected to use as controls. Results Using both semi-quantitative and quantitative PCRs, relaxin transcripts were not detected in all tested samples, while RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA were present. Both receptor gene products were found at higher levels in oocytes compared to cumulus cells, irrespective of the maturation time. Cleaved-embryos contained higher levels of RXFP2 mRNA, whereas, blastocysts were characterized by a higher RXFP1 mRNA content. Using western-immunoblotting or in situ immunofluorescence, relaxin and its receptor proteins were detected in all samples. Their fluorescence intensities were consistently more important in mature oocytes than immature ones. The RXFP1 and RXFP2 signal intensities were mostly located in the plasma membrane region, while the relaxin ones appeared homogeneously distributed within the oocytes and embryonic cells. Furthermore, spermatozoa displayed stronger RXFP2 signal than RXFP1 after western-immunoblotting. Conclusion All together, our findings suggest potential roles of relaxin and its receptors during oocyte maturation, early embryo development, and beyond. PMID:21251292

2011-01-01

97

31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...by the military forces of the United...by the military forces of the United...or operational control of the commander...come under the control of the military forces of the United...

2013-07-01

98

31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...by the military forces of the United...by the military forces of the United...or operational control of the commander...come under the control of the military forces of the United...

2014-07-01

99

31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...by the military forces of the United...by the military forces of the United...or operational control of the commander...come under the control of the military forces of the United...

2011-07-01

100

31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...by the military forces of the United...by the military forces of the United...or operational control of the commander...come under the control of the military forces of the United...

2012-07-01

101

Quantitative analysis of gametic incompatibility between closely related species of neotropical sea urchins.  

PubMed

Species of the sea urchin genus Echinometra found on the two coasts of Panamá are recently diverged and only partially isolated by incomplete barriers to interspecific fertilization. This study confirms previous work that revealed incompatibility between the eggs of the Atlantic E. lucunter and the sperm of the other two neotropical species, whereas eggs of its sympatric congener E. viridis and allopatric E. vanbrunti are largely compatible with heterospecific sperm. Here we quantify fertilization using a range of sperm dilutions. We demonstrate a much stronger block to cross-species fertilization of E. lucunter eggs than was previously shown at fixed sperm concentrations, and mild incompatibility of the other two species' eggs where previous crosses between species were not distinguishable from within-species controls. Additionally, we present evidence for intraspecific variation in egg receptivity towards heterospecific sperm. Our findings here again discount the "reinforcement model" as a viable explanation for the pattern of prezygotic isolation. Gamete incompatibility in these Echinometra has appeared recently-within the last 1.5 million years-but is weaker in sympatry than in allopatry. Accidents of history may help explain why incompatibility of eggs emerged in one species and not in others. Compensatory sexual selection on sperm in this species could follow, and promote divergence of proteins mediating sperm-egg recognition. PMID:11971812

McCartney, Michael A; Lessios, H A

2002-04-01

102

A Design to Investigate the Feasibility and Effects of Partnered Ballroom Dancing on People With Parkinson Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Self-help and physical leisure activities has become increasingly important in the maintenance of safe and functional mobility among an increasingly elderly population. Preventing the cycle of deterioration, falling, inactivity, dependency, and secondary complications in people with Parkinson disease (PD) is a priority. Research has shown that people with PD are interested in dance and although the few existing trials are small, initial proof of principle trials from the United States have demonstrated beneficial effects on balance control, gait, and activity levels. To our knowledge, there has been no research into long-term effects, cost effectiveness, the influence on spinal posture and turning, or the personal insights of dance participants. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the methodological feasibility of conducting a definitive phase III trial to evaluate the benefits of dance in people with PD. We will build on the proof of principle trials by addressing gaps in knowledge, focusing on areas of greatest methodological uncertainty; the choice of dances and intensity of the program; for the main trial, the availability of partners, the suitability of the currently envisaged primary outcomes, balance and spinal posture; and the key costs of delivering and participating in a dance program to inform economic evaluation. Methods Fifty participants (mild-to-moderate condition) will be randomized to the control (usual care) or experimental (dance plus usual care) groups at a ratio of 15:35. Dance will be taught by professional teachers in a dance center in the South of England. Each participant in the experimental group will dance with his or her spouse, a friend, or a partner from a bank of volunteers. A blinded assessor will complete clinical measures and self-reported ability at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. A qualitative study of a subgroup of participants and partners will examine user’s views about the appropriateness and acceptability of the intervention, assessment protocol, and general trial procedures. Procedures for an economic evaluation of dance for health care will be developed for the main trial. Results Recruitment began in January 2013 and the last participant is expected to complete the trial follow-up in June 2014. Conclusions Findings from our study may provide novel insights into the way people with PD become involved in dance, their views and opinions, and the suitability of our primary and secondary outcomes. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 63088686; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN63088686/63088686 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6QYyjehP7). PMID:25051989

Roberts, Lisa; Pickering, Ruth; Roberts, Helen Clare; Wiles, Rose; Kunkel, Dorit; Hulbert, Sophia; Robison, Judy; Fitton, Carolyn

2014-01-01

103

Sperm competition and the evolution of gametic compatibility in externally fertilizing taxa.  

PubMed

Proteins expressed on the surface of sperm and egg mediate gametic compatibility and these proteins can be subject to intense positive selection. In this review, we discuss what is known about the patterns of adaptive evolution of gamete recognition proteins (GRPs). We focus on species that broadcast eggs and sperm into the environment for external fertilization, as the ease of observing and manipulating gamete interactions has allowed for greater advances in the understanding of GRP evolution, uncomplicated by confounding behavioral and physiological components that offer alternative evolutionary targets in internal fertilizers. We discuss whether interspecific mechanisms, such as selection to avoid fertilization between species (reinforcement selection), or intraspecific mechanisms, such as selection to increase (or decrease) the affinity between eggs and sperm based on the intensity of sperm competition, may be responsible for the pattern of GRP evolution observed. Variation in these proteins appears to influence gametic compatibility; GRP divergence among species is a better predictor of hybrid fertilization than neutral genetic markers and GRP variation within species predicts reproductive success among individuals within a population. Evidence suggests that sperm competition may play a large role in the evolution of gametic compatibility. PMID:25323969

Kosman, E T; Levitan, D R

2014-12-01

104

A parallel-group, randomised controlled trial of a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners: design and rationale  

PubMed Central

Introduction Coping skills training interventions have been found to be efficacious in helping both patients and their partners manage the physical and emotional challenges they face following a cancer diagnosis. However, many of these interventions are costly and not sustainable. To overcome these issues, a self-directed format is increasingly used. The efficacy of self-directed interventions for patients has been supported; however, no study has reported on the outcomes for their partners. This study will test the efficacy of Coping-Together—a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners. Methods and analysis The proposed three-group, parallel, randomised controlled trial will recruit patients diagnosed in the past 4?months with breast, prostate, colorectal cancer or melanoma through their treating clinician. Patients and their partners will be randomised to (1) a minimal ethical care (MEC) condition—selected Cancer Council New South Wales booklets and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline, (2) Coping-Together generic—MEC materials, the six Coping-Together booklets and DVD, the Cancer Council Queensland relaxation audio CD and login to the Coping-Together website or (3) Coping-Together tailored—MEC materials, the Coping-Together DVD, the login to the website and only those Coping-Together booklet sections that pertain to their direct concerns. Anxiety (primary outcome), distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed before receiving the study material (ie, baseline) and again at 3, 6 and 12?months postbaseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the relevant local area health and University ethics committees. Study findings will be disseminated not only through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations but also through educational outreach visits, publication of lay research summaries in consumer newsletters and publications targeting clinicians. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000491763 (03/05/2013) PMID:23883890

Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; McElduff, Patrick; Turner, Jane; Levesque, Janelle V; Kayser, Karen; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy T F; Barker, Daniel

2013-01-01

105

Gametes or organs? How should we legally classify ovaries used for transplantation in the USA?  

PubMed Central

Ovarian tissue transplantation is an experimental procedure that can be used to treat both infertility and premature menopause. Working within the current legal framework in the USA, I examine whether ovarian tissue should be legally treated like gametes or organs in the case of ovarian tissue transplantation between two women. One option is to base classification upon its intended use: ovarian tissue used to treat infertility would be classified like gametes, and ovarian tissue used to treat premature menopause would be classified like organs. In the end, however, I argue that this approach will not work because it engenders too many legal, cultural and logistical concerns and that, at least for the near future, we should treat ovarian tissue like gametes. PMID:21245477

Campo-Engelstein, Lisa

2011-01-01

106

Date _____________________ Language Partner Program  

E-print Network

? ___________________________________________________________________ Are you interested in a particular language/culture Date _____________________ Language Partner Program Volunteer Application Form The purpose of the Language Partner Program is to provide English as an additional language (EAL) students

Martin, Jeff

107

Find a Partner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

2010-01-01

108

Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?control women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?

2013-01-01

109

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).

Young, William; Kucera, Paul

2003-07-01

110

Oak somatic and gametic embryos maturation is affected by charcoal and specific aminoacids mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • Development of both somatic and gametic embryogenesis has many applications in clonal forestry and genetic improvement,\\u000a for instance as mass-propagation of genetically improved plants and production of pure lines through doubled-haploid plant\\u000a regeneration from gametic embryos.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The goal of this work was to improve growth, maturation and plantlet regeneration of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos

Beatriz Pintos; Jose A. Manzanera; M. Angeles Bueno

2010-01-01

111

Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

2013-04-01

112

Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in patients with lung cancer and their partners: the MILON study  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and characterized by a poor prognosis. It has a major impact on the psychological wellbeing of patients and their partners. Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is effective in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer patients. The generalization of these results is limited since most participants were female patients with breast cancer. Moreover, only one study examined the effectiveness of MBSR in partners of cancer patients. Therefore, in the present trial we study the effectiveness of MBSR versus treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Methods/Design A parallel group, randomized controlled trial is conducted to compare MBSR with TAU. Lung cancer patients who have received or are still under treatment, and their partners are recruited. Assessments will take place at baseline, post intervention and at three-month follow-up. The primary outcome is psychological distress (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (only for patients), caregiver appraisal (only for partners), relationship quality and spirituality. In addition, cost-effectiveness ratio (only in patients) and several process variables are assessed. Discussion This trial will provide information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBSR compared to TAU in patients with lung cancer and their partners. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01494883. PMID:24386906

2014-01-01

113

Reverse Correlating Love: Highly Passionate Women Idealize Their Partner’s Facial Appearance  

PubMed Central

A defining feature of passionate love is idealization—evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner’s facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships. PMID:25806540

Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E.

2015-01-01

114

Selection in the Rapid Evolution of Gamete Recognition Proteins in Marine Invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Animal fertilization is governed by the interaction (binding) of proteins on the surfaces of sperm and egg. In many examples presented herein, fertilization proteins evolve rapidly and show the signature of positive selection (adaptive evolution). This review describes the molecular evolution of fertilization proteins in sea urchins, abalone, and oysters, animals with external fertilization that broadcast their gametes into seawater. Theories regarding the selective forces responsible for the rapid evolution driven by positive selection seen in many fertilization proteins are discussed. This strong selection acting on divergence of interacting fertilization proteins might lead to prezygotic reproductive isolation and be a significant factor in the speciation process. Since only a fraction of all eggs are fertilized and only an infinitesimal fraction of male gametes succeed in fertilizing an egg, gametes are obviously a category of entities subjected to intense selection. It is curious that this is never mentioned in the literature dealing with selection, perhaps because we know so little about fitness differences among gametes.(ErnstMayr, 1997) PMID:21730046

Vacquier, Victor D.; Swanson, Willie J.

2011-01-01

115

Linking lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) condition with male gamete quality and quantity  

E-print Network

Linking lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) condition with male gamete quality and quantity E quality (i.e., sperm swimming speed) in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were related to residual of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) growth and body condition in Lake Michigan have been associated

Suski, Cory David

116

Patterns of gamete incompatibility between the blue mussels Mytilus edulis and M . trossulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on gametic incompatibility in marine invertebrates suggests that for highly dispersive marine invertebrate species, barriers to fertilization among closely related taxa are often incomplete and sometimes asymmetric. The nature of these barriers can dramatically affect the patterns of gene flow and genetic differentiation between species, and thus speciation. Blue mussels, in the genus Mytilus, are genetically distinct in

P. D. Rawson; C. Slaughter; P. O. Yund

2003-01-01

117

Factors associated with improving success rates with gamete intrafallopian transfer under thin-needle spinal anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In order to reduce the risk of major anesthetic complications associated with laparoscopic gamete intrafallopian transfer procedures, we have exclusively used thin-needle spinal anesthesia over the years 19911994. This paper will review complication rates in order to further establish the safety profile of.GIFT under thinneedle anesthesia and report the changes in our GIFT protocol from 1991 to 1994 which

Paul D. Silva; Abigail L. Meisch; Janene K. Meisch; Seuk B. Kang; Brenda Rooney

1995-01-01

118

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1999-03-01

119

Derivation of embryonic germ cells and male gametes from embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg and sperm cells (gametes) of the mouse are derived from a founder population of primordial germ cells that are set aside early in embryogenesis. Primordial germ cells arise from the proximal epiblast, a region of the early mouse embryo that also contributes to the first blood lineages of the embryonic yolk sac. Embryonic stem cells differentiate in vitro into

Niels Geijsen; Melissa Horoschak; Kitai Kim; Joost Gribnau; Kevin Eggan; George Q. Daley

2004-01-01

120

A Surface Glycoprotein Indispensable for Gamete Fusion in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction is essential for the maintenance of species in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, and even unicellular organisms that normally proliferate asexually possess a sexual cycle because of its contribution to increased genetic diversity. Information concerning the molecules involved in fertilization is accumulating for many species of the metazoan, plant, and fungal lineages, and the evolutionary consideration of sexual reproduction systems is now an interesting issue. Macrocyst formation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a sexual process in which cells become sexually mature under dark and submerged conditions and fuse with complementary mating-type cells. In the present study, we isolated D. discoideum insertional mutants defective in sexual cell fusion and identified the relevant gene, macA, which encodes a highly glycosylated, 2,041-amino-acid membrane protein (MacA). Although its overall similarity is restricted to proteins of unknown function within dictyostelids, it contains LamGL and discoidin domains, which are implicated in cell adhesion. The growth and development of macA-null mutants were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. The overexpression of macA using the V18 promoter in a macA-null mutant completely restored its sexual defects. Although the macA gene encoded exactly the same protein in a complementary mating-type strain, it was expressed at a much lower level. These results suggest that MacA is indispensable for gamete interactions in D. discoideum, probably via cell adhesion. There is a possibility that it is controlled in a mating-type-dependent manner. PMID:22389384

Araki, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Hideki D.; Saeki, Kentaro; Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Ishida, Kentaro; Sawada, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

121

A surface glycoprotein indispensable for gamete fusion in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction is essential for the maintenance of species in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, and even unicellular organisms that normally proliferate asexually possess a sexual cycle because of its contribution to increased genetic diversity. Information concerning the molecules involved in fertilization is accumulating for many species of the metazoan, plant, and fungal lineages, and the evolutionary consideration of sexual reproduction systems is now an interesting issue. Macrocyst formation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a sexual process in which cells become sexually mature under dark and submerged conditions and fuse with complementary mating-type cells. In the present study, we isolated D. discoideum insertional mutants defective in sexual cell fusion and identified the relevant gene, macA, which encodes a highly glycosylated, 2,041-amino-acid membrane protein (MacA). Although its overall similarity is restricted to proteins of unknown function within dictyostelids, it contains LamGL and discoidin domains, which are implicated in cell adhesion. The growth and development of macA-null mutants were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. The overexpression of macA using the V18 promoter in a macA-null mutant completely restored its sexual defects. Although the macA gene encoded exactly the same protein in a complementary mating-type strain, it was expressed at a much lower level. These results suggest that MacA is indispensable for gamete interactions in D. discoideum, probably via cell adhesion. There is a possibility that it is controlled in a mating-type-dependent manner. PMID:22389384

Araki, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Hideki D; Saeki, Kentaro; Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Ishida, Kentaro; Sawada, Hitoshi; Urushihara, Hideko

2012-05-01

122

Hyposalinity stress compromises the fertilization of gametes more than the survival of coral larvae.  

PubMed

The life cycle of coral is affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations occurring in the marine environment. In the context of global changes, it is likely that rainfall events will be more intense and that coastal reefs will be exposed to sudden drops in salinity. Therefore, a better understanding of how corals-especially during the pelagic life stages-are able to deal with declines in salinity is crucial. To fill this knowledge gap, this work investigated how gametes and larva stages of two species of Acropora (Acropora cytherea and Acropora pulchra) from French Polynesia cope with drops in salinity. An analysis of collected results highlights that both Acropora coral gametes displayed the same resistance to salinity changes, with 4h30-ES50 (effective salinity that decrease by 50% the fertilization success after 4h30 exposure) of 26.6 ± 0.1 and 27.5 ± 0.3‰ for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively. This study also revealed that coral gametes were more sensitive to decreases in salinity than larvae, for which significant changes are only observed at 26‰ for A. cytherea after 14 d of exposure. Although rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are often perceived as the main threat for the survival of coral reefs, our work indicates that 70% of the gametes could be killed during a single night of spawning by a rainfall event that decreases salinity to 26‰. This suggests that changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events associated with climate changes should be taken seriously in efforts to both preserve coral gametes and ensure the persistence and renewal of coral populations. PMID:25562765

Hédouin, Laetitia; Pilon, Rosanne; Puisay, Antoine

2015-03-01

123

Sweet Sensor, Surprising Partners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hexokinase1 (HXK1) is an evolutionarily conserved glucose sensor in plants. However, the molecular mechanism through which HXK1 controls the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis is a mystery. Recent research demonstrates that a previously unknown HXK1 nuclear complex controls the expression of specific photosynthetic genes, a process that is independent of glucose metabolism but requires two unexpected partners, VHA-B1 and RPT5B. Both VHA-B1 and RPT5B have well-established and conserved functions in processes that are seemingly unrelated to glucose-dependent regulation of gene expression, and neither of them is a predominantly nuclear protein. Biochemical, genetic, and molecular evidence demonstrates that VHA-B1 and RPT5B directly interact with HXK1 in the nucleus and that the HXK1 complex binds to the cis-acting elements of chlorophyll a/b binding protein 2, a photosynthetic gene that is transcriptionally suppressed by glucose. The identification of the HXK1 nuclear complex reveals an unexpected glucose-signaling mechanism and reinforces the notion that metabolic enzymes can play unique roles in signal transduction by directly controlling gene expression in the nucleus.

Jin-Gui Chen (University of British Columbia; Department of Botany REV)

2007-02-13

124

Reactions to a Partner-Assisted Emotional Disclosure Intervention: Direct Observation and Self-Report of Patient and Partner Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Partner-assisted emotional disclosure is a couple-based intervention designed to help patients disclose cancer-related concerns to their spouses-partners. We previously found that, compared with an education/support control condition, partner-assisted emotional disclosure led to significant improvements in relationship quality and intimacy for…

Porter, Laura S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Keefe, Francis J.; Patterson, Emily S.

2012-01-01

125

Mixing a Grounded Theory Approach with a Randomized Controlled Trial Related to Intimate Partner Violence: What Challenges Arise for Mixed Methods Research?  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase. PMID:23577245

Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.

2013-01-01

126

Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

1995-01-01

127

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2010-01-01

128

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2012-01-01

129

9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports...

2011-01-01

130

Pheromonal stimulation of spawning release of gametes by gonadotropin releasing hormone in the chiton, Mopalia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0mg\\/L) but dilutions to 50?g\\/L

Aubrey Gorbman; Arthur Whiteley; Scott Kavanaugh

2003-01-01

131

Counselling on disclosure of gamete donation to donor offspring: a search for facts  

PubMed Central

Background: High quality counseling of potential parents is needed in the process of disclosure to donor offspring, which is important for the child and for family relationships. We performed a search for facts to identify the role of counseling in couples undergoing gamete donation. Methods: We systematically searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Psychinfo. Studies were included if they reported on counseling in gamete donation. Results: A total of 20 studies were included. Twelve studies stated that counselling was offered. The reported studies reflected no consensus about when and how counselling in gamete donation should be offered and no theoretical background of the disclosure/ secrecy issue. About 50% of the parents expressed the need for guidance and support of a counsellor. Special concerns were the disclosure issue and the future contact with the donor. Parents did not receive the guidance and support they needed in the disclosure process after treatment. Conclusion: Empirical knowledge on counselling is lacking. This review demonstrates the need to know more precisely at what moments couples should be counselled, and which specific information and guidelines couples need to receive to be more confident in the disclosure process to donor offspring. PMID:24753905

Visser, M.; Kop, P.A.L.; van Wely, M.; van der Veen, F.; Gerrits, G.J.E.; van Zwieten, M.C.B.

2012-01-01

132

Making muslim babies: Ivf and gamete donation in sunni versus shi’a islam  

PubMed Central

Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the “local moral worlds” of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt’s famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims, with Iran’s leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi’ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

2006-01-01

133

Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.  

PubMed

'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

Inhorn, Marcia C

2011-04-01

134

Ploidy frequencies in plants with ploidy heterogeneity: fitting a general gametic model to empirical population data  

PubMed Central

Genome duplication (polyploidy) is a recurrent evolutionary process in plants, often conferring instant reproductive isolation and thus potentially leading to speciation. Outcome of the process is often seen in the field as different cytotypes co-occur in many plant populations. Failure of meiotic reduction during gametogenesis is widely acknowledged to be the main mode of polyploid formation. To get insight into its role in the dynamics of polyploidy generation under natural conditions, and coexistence of several ploidy levels, we developed a general gametic model for diploid–polyploid systems. This model predicts equilibrium ploidy frequencies as functions of several parameters, namely the unreduced gamete proportions and fertilities of higher ploidy plants. We used data on field ploidy frequencies for 39 presumably autopolyploid plant species/populations to infer numerical values of the model parameters (either analytically or using an optimization procedure). With the exception of a few species, the model fit was very high. The estimated proportions of unreduced gametes (median of 0.0089) matched published estimates well. Our results imply that conditions for cytotype coexistence in natural populations are likely to be less restrictive than previously assumed. In addition, rather simple models show sufficiently rich behaviour to explain the prevalence of polyploids among flowering plants. PMID:23193129

Suda, Jan; Herben, Tomáš

2013-01-01

135

Female and male gamete mitochondria are distinct and complementary in transcription, structure, and genome function.  

PubMed

Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals. Mitochondrial DNA mutation then accumulates with age, and may set a limit to the lifespan of individual, multicellular organisms. Why is this mutation not inherited? Here we demonstrate that female gametes-oocytes-have unusually small and simple mitochondria that are suppressed for DNA transcription, electron transport, and free radical production. By contrast, male gametes-sperm-and somatic cells of both sexes transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory electron carriers and produce oxygen free radicals. This germ-line division between mitochondria of sperm and egg is observed in both the vinegar fruitfly and the zebrafish-species spanning a major evolutionary divide within the animal kingdom. We interpret these findings as an evidence that oocyte mitochondria serve primarily as genetic templates, giving rise, irreversibly and in each new generation, to the familiar energy-transducing mitochondria of somatic cells and male gametes. Suppressed mitochondrial metabolism in the female germ line may therefore constitute a mechanism for increasing the fidelity of mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24068653

de Paula, Wilson B M; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Missirlis, Fanis; Ashworth, Rachel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lucas, Cathy H; Allen, John F

2013-01-01

136

Pheromonal stimulation of spawning release of gametes by gonadotropin releasing hormone in the chiton, Mopalia sp.  

PubMed

The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0 mg/L) but dilutions to 50 microg/L no longer were effective. Three other GnRHs: lamprey GnRH-3, tunicate GnRH-1, and a modified chicken GnRH-2, had no such action under the same test conditions. Since the spawning response could be produced by some GnRHs and not by others, it would appear that some kind of molecular recognition is involved, possibly by specific binding to a receptor. In earlier preliminary experiments tunicate GnRH-2 rapidly stimulated gamete release in a hemichordate, Saccoglossus. Thus it is suggested that GnRHs, in at least some invertebrates, may function as pheromones, serving to stimulate simultaneous spawning of individuals in a population of animals, and in this way assure more successful fertilization in species that must release their gametes into the water in which they live. PMID:12620248

Gorbman, Aubrey; Whiteley, Arthur; Kavanaugh, Scott

2003-03-01

137

Photoprotective effect of coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarin in sea urchin gametes and embryonic cells.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) represents 5% of all solar UV radiation and chronic exposure can induce harmful biological responses, including skin cancer. Prospection of new drugs with photoprotective properties and less toxic effects is constant and natural products have been the main options in this field. Coumarins are a group of natural phenolic compounds that shows several pharmacological activities. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of coumarin and six derivatives in sea urchin gametes and zygotes exposed to UVB. Embryonic development assay was used to monitor UVB embryotoxicity. Firstly, we demonstrated that coumarin inhibited first embryonic cell division from 5?M (EC50=52.9?M) and its derivatives showed an embryotoxic effect ten times higher. Then, gametes or zygotes were treated with coumarin compounds before or after UVB exposure (UVB doses ranged from 0.056 to 0.9kJm(-2)). Pretreatment of gametes or zygotes with coumarin or 3-hydroxycoumarin (1?M, both) decreased UVB embryotoxic effect. Protective effect of the compounds was observed only when cells were treated previous to UVB exposure. Coumarin derivatives 4-hydroxycoumarin, 6-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin did not exhibit photoprotective activity. Our data provides evidences that coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarin can be a promising class of photoprotective drugs. PMID:25795999

de Araujo Leite, Jocelmo Cássio; de Castro, Tainá Myra Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

2015-05-01

138

The Social Health Intervention Project (SHIP): Protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a brief motivational intervention for problem drinking and intimate partner violence in an urban emergency department  

PubMed Central

Background There is a strong reciprocal association between two highly prevalent public health problems: intimate partner violence and heavy drinking, both of which remain major sources of morbidity and mortality. Brief interventions in the Emergency Department setting have been found to be effective in reducing alcohol-related injury but neither classic intimate partner violence nor substance abuse interventions have adequately integrated assessment and treatment for these co-occurring conditions. The overall goal of this study is to determine whether a motivational intervention delivered at the time of an Emergency Department visit will reduce heavy drinking and improve the safety of women experiencing intimate partner violence. Methods and design We are completing data collection for a randomized controlled trial enrolling 600 female patients, age 18–64, presenting to one of two urban Emergency Departments, who self-disclose both problem drinking and intimate partner violence. Eligible patients are randomized to a brief manual-guided motivational intervention, and a phone booster at 10 days. The intervention, which is delivered by masters-level therapists during the Emergency Department visit, is recorded and monitored for fidelity. Primary outcomes are episodes of heavy drinking and incidents of intimate partner violence, assessed weekly by Interactive Voice Response System for 12 weeks and at 3, 6 and 12 months by interviewers blinded to group assignment. To identify the impact of assessment alone, we included a no-contact control group assessed only once at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include violence severity, changes in the Composite Abuse Scale and alcohol quantity/frequency, along with other health-related behaviors. The analysis will also explore the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. Discussion While screening and intervention for intimate partner violence is now recommended for women of child bearing age in health care settings, there is a need for rigorous evaluations of what works for whom. Upon completion, we will have high-quality evidence regarding the effectiveness of a low-intensity, brief motivational intervention, delivered by social workers in the Emergency Department setting, for decreasing episodes of heavy drinking and intimate partner violence. Ultimately, this is a model could be generalizable to other acute health care settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number: NCT01207258 PMID:24742322

2014-01-01

139

All Partner Organizations  

Cancer.gov

The following Universities and organizations partner with the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium with the ultimate goal of improving our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer. Accadia

140

Resources for Partners  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes the resources and opportunities available to partners how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.

Not Available

2006-02-01

141

Working with men to prevent intimate partner violence in a conflict-affected setting: a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Côte d’Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from armed conflict settings points to high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Current knowledge on how to prevent IPV is limited—especially within war-affected settings. To inform prevention programming on gender-based violence in settings affected by conflict, we evaluated the impact of adding a targeted men’s intervention to a community-based prevention programme in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods We conducted a two-armed, non-blinded cluster randomized trial in Côte d’Ivoire among 12 pair-matched communities spanning government-controlled, UN buffer, and rebel–controlled zones. The intervention communities received a 16-week IPV prevention intervention using a men’s discussion group format. All communities received community-based prevention programmes. Baseline data were collected from couples in September 2010 (pre-intervention) and follow-up in March 2012 (one year post-intervention). The primary trial outcome was women’s reported experiences of physical and/or sexual IPV in the last 12 months. We also assessed men’s reported intention to use physical IPV, attitudes towards sexual IPV, use of hostility and conflict management skills, and participation in gendered household tasks. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis was used to compare outcomes between intervention and control communities at follow-up. Results At follow-up, reported levels of physical and/or sexual IPV in the intervention arm had decreased compared to the control arm (ARR 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-1.51, not significant). Men participating in the intervention reported decreased intentions to use physical IPV (ARR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.06) and improved attitudes toward sexual IPV (ARR 1.21, 95% CI 0.77-1.91). Significant differences were found between men in the intervention and control arms’ reported ability to control their hostility and manage conflict (ARR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.58), and participation in gendered household tasks (ARR 2.47, 95% CI 1.24-4.90). Conclusions This trial points to the value of adding interventions working with men alongside community activities to reduce levels of IPV in conflict-affected settings. The intervention significantly influenced men’s reported behaviours related to hostility and conflict management and gender equitable behaviours. The decreased mean level of IPV and the differences between intervention and control arms, while not statistically significant, suggest that IPV in conflict-affected areas can be reduced through concerted efforts to include men directly in violence prevention programming. A larger-scale trial is needed to replicate these findings and further understand the mechanisms of change. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01803932 PMID:24716478

2014-01-01

142

Invitation Cards during Pregnancy Enhance Male Partner Involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Blantyre, Malawi: A Randomized Controlled Open Label Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Male involvement (MI) is vital for the uptake of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) interventions. Partner notification (PN) is among the strategies identified for MI in PMTCT services. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an invitation card to the male partners as a strategy for MI in PMTCT services by comparing the proportion of pregnant women that were accompanied by their partners between the intervention and the non-intervention study groups. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal care without a male partner at South Lunzu and Mpemba health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, were enrolled in the study from June to December 2013. In an intention-to-treat analysis, we compared all participants that were randomized in the invitation card group with the standard of care (SoC) group. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the efficacy of the invitation card. Results Of the 462 randomized women, 65/230 (28.26%) of the women in the invitation card group reported to the antenatal care clinic with their partners compared to 44/232 (18.97%) women in the SoC group. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis women in the invitation card group were 50% more likely to be accompanied by their male partners than those in the SoC group RR: 1.49 (95% CI: 1.06-2.09); p = 0.02. Our random effects analysis showed that there was no clustering by site of recruitment with an inter cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 1.98x 10-3, (95% CI: 1.78 x10-7 - 0.96 x 10-1); p =0.403. Conclusion An invitation card significantly increased the proportion of women who were accompanied by their male partners for the PMTCT services. An invitation card is a feasible strategy for MI in PMTCT. PMID:25734485

Nyondo, Alinane Linda; Choko, Augustine Talumba; Chimwaza, Angela Faith; Muula, Adamson Sinjani

2015-01-01

143

Steroid receptors and their ligands: effects on male gamete functions.  

PubMed

In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. PMID:25062984

Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

2014-11-01

144

Partner effects in social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person's behavior during social interaction is due not only to the person's dispositional characteristics but is also determined by his or her social partner. If a person consistently elicits the same behavior from others, the person has apartner effect. Partner effects in affect, cognition, and behavior are examined. Partner effects in behavior are presumed to be caused by partner

David A. Kenny; Thomas E. Malloy

1988-01-01

145

Reprotoxicity of gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on mammalian gametes.  

PubMed

Metal and alloy nanoparticles are increasingly developed for biomedical applications, while a firm understanding of their biocompatibility is still missing. Various properties have been reported to influence the toxic potential of nanoparticles. This study aimed to assess the impact of nanoparticle size, surface ligands and chemical composition of gold, silver or gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on mammalian gametes. An in vitro assay for porcine gametes was developed, since these are delicate primary cells, for which well-established culture systems exist and functional parameters are defined. During coincubation with oocytes for 46 h neither any of the tested gold nanoparticles nor the gold-silver alloy particles with a silver molar fraction of up to 50% showed any impact on oocyte maturation. Alloy nanoparticles with 80% silver molar fraction and pure silver nanoparticles inhibited cumulus-oocyte maturation. Confocal microscopy revealed a selective uptake of gold nanoparticles by oocytes, while silver and alloy particles mainly accumulated in the cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte. Interestingly sperm vitality parameters (motility, membrane integrity and morphology) were not affected by any of the tested nanoparticles. Only sporadic association of nanoparticles with the sperm plasma membrane was found by transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, mammalian oocytes were sensitive to silver containing nanoparticles. Likely, the delicate process of completing meiosis in maternal gametes features high vulnerability towards nanomaterial derived toxicity. The results imply that released Ag(+)-ions are responsible for the observed toxicity, but the compounding into an alloy seemed to alleviate the toxic effects to a certain extent. PMID:24171189

Tiedemann, Daniela; Taylor, Ulrike; Rehbock, Christoph; Jakobi, Jurij; Klein, Sabine; Kues, Wilfried A; Barcikowski, Stephan; Rath, Detlef

2014-03-01

146

Dancing with Multiple Partners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transmembrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and integrins, activate intracellular signaling pathways through interactions with downstream binding partners. Woodside discusses two examples in which GPCRs and integrins interact in a noncompeting manner with more than one partner. The specific GPCR described is the thrombin receptor, in experiments where G protein peptides selectively block signaling through a particular G protein that does not appear to inhibit coupling of the receptor to other G proteins. The second system described is the ?IIb?3 integrin and its activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk. Syk appeared capable of interacting with both the integrin and intracellular domains of immune response receptors, because binding of Syk to the integrin was not inhibited by peptides based on the Syk binding site in immune response receptors. Thus, multiple, noncompeting binding partners add to the complexity of signal transduction outputs from a single receptor complex.

Darren G. Woodside (Texas Biotechnology Corporation; REV)

2002-03-19

147

Oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion (AGE) is a preventive intervention, neither social nor nonmedical.  

PubMed

The scope of female fertility preservation through cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex has widened from mainly oncological indications to a variety of fertility-threatening conditions. So far, no specific universally accepted denomination name has been given to cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex for the prevention of age-related fertility decline. We argue that the commonly used phrases 'social' and 'nonmedical freezing' to denote the indication for cryopreservation are not entirely correct. We suggest 'AGE banking', as this has not only the advantage of being catchy but also depicts the exact indication for the strategy, anticipated gamete exhaustion. PMID:24631381

Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Deneyer, Michel; Nekkebroeck, Julie; Tournaye, Herman

2014-05-01

148

Use of partner agents in training systems for complex tasks  

E-print Network

Fortress. Space Fortress Controllers. 17 20 Test Game Instruction. 23 MEC Velocity Instruction. 24 Top-Level State Machine Diagram. Flight State Machine Diagram. Fortress State Machine Diagram. 32 32 Mine State Machine Diagram Bonus State... Machine Diagram. 34 10 12 Fire Comparison. Bonus Comparison. IFF Comparison. 40 40 41 13 14 Thrust Comparison. Partner Agent Test Scores. 41 15 16 17 18 19 20 Partner Agent Points Sub-Scores. . Partner Agent Velocity Sub...

Sims, Joseph Michael

2002-01-01

149

Partners: Forging Strong Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue asserts that sound, effective relationships in which diverse groups of people and organizations work together toward a common goal are the basis of the collaborative efforts in education that can accomplish change. The first article, "Partners: Forging Strong Relationships" (Sarah E. Torian), briefly describes the efforts of…

Spears, Ellen, Ed.

1999-01-01

150

Parents as Writing Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

Ehrenworth, Mary

2014-01-01

151

Introductio co-partners  

E-print Network

of John XXIII in a program to apply and Applicants m between 20 Applicants letter from a It is no imp XXIII study at the College wh m of study at d John XXIII must be 20 y 10 and 2013 must demon John XX Introductio The John X co-partners to higher ed criteria not Scholarship The scholar

Botea, Adi

152

Partners in Pollination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners identify the reproductive parts of plants and the animal (bee) structures involved in pollination. Learners then use this information to role play or act out the process of pollination. Use this activity to introduce learners to the importance of pollination partners and how plant and animals interact to accomplish pollination.

Lydia Pollack

2010-01-01

153

Partners of the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

Reese, Susan

2002-01-01

154

Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale.  

PubMed

Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284

Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N

2013-09-01

155

Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale  

PubMed Central

Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284

Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N

2013-01-01

156

Predictability of Conversation Partners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

2011-08-01

157

Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study  

PubMed Central

The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

158

Modeling forage legume polycross pollen-parent gamete contributions to progeny based on empirical measurements with implications for effective polycross size  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Random mating is a fundamental assumption in quantitative genetic theory and assumes pollen-parents contribute uniform gamete numbers to the progeny generation; polycross-size-expected-inbreeding rests on this assumption. This study empirically determined polycross pollen-parent gamete frequency con...

159

Aneuploid strawberry (2 n = 8 x + 2 = 58) was developed from homozygous unreduced gamete (8 x) produced by second division restitution in pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unreduced gamete formation is significant in the evolutionary development of complex polyploidy series found in wild strawberry, genus Fragaria (Rosaceae). Also, it is important for genetics and breeding in strawberry plants to elucidate the mechanism of unreduced gamete formation. The objective of this study was to search for ploidy anomalies resulting from artificial diploid×octoploid crosses, and examine the mechanism through

Tomohiro Yanagi; Kim E. Hummer; Takashi Iwata; Kazuyoshi Sone; Preeda Nathewet; Takejiro Takamura

2010-01-01

160

Narcissism and Type of Violent Relationships for Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence  

E-print Network

. The study of a cross-section of men in a Batterer Intervention Program included measures on self-perception, views of partner, and history of violent, aggressive, controlling, and psychologically abusive interactions with their partner. Structural Equation...

Rinker, Lee

2010-01-16

161

Partnering Management in Manufacturing Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of principles and aims of partnering to improve quality and efficiency within the manufacturing industry. Partnering is used to carry out this research so that we can ascertain the features and issues that contribute to trust within the partnering arrangements. There are many other procurement routes available in manufacturing industries which are having different qualities

Ankit Agarwal; Kapil Garg; Anuraag Shahi

2012-01-01

162

FIRST FRIENDS AMERICAN PARTNER APPLICATION  

E-print Network

FIRST FRIENDS AMERICAN PARTNER APPLICATION INTERNATIONAL STUDENT & SCHOLAR SERVICES PARTNER Student & Scholar Services (ISSS), First Friends is a friendship exchange, not a host/live-in program as possible. Partners will be notified of their First Friend match before the MATCHDAYPICNICon Sunday

Bordenstein, Seth

163

The comparative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) and substance abuse treatment alone: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Method Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N?=?52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Results Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Conclusions Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00847873 PMID:24059784

2013-01-01

164

Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization during Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th–8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and partners were significantly alike on popularity, physical attraction, and depressive symptoms. Controlling for initial similarity, partners' popularity, depressive symptoms, relational aggression and relational victimization significantly predicted changes in adolescents' functioning in these areas over time. However, the magnitude and direction of change varied according to adolescents' and partners' pre-relationship functioning. In general, adolescents who dated high-functioning partners changed more than those who dated low-functioning partners, and partner characteristics predicted greater change among low versus high-functioning adolescents. Results were consistent even when controlling for best friend characteristics. The current findings are among the first to demonstrate unique contributions of romantic partner characteristics to adolescents' psychosocial functioning. PMID:19037942

Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

2012-01-01

165

Spousal Suffering and Partner's Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The  

E-print Network

the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbiditySpousal Suffering and Partner's Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Health (cardiovascular disease [CVD]) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design

Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

166

Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

Wortham, Thomasine T.

2014-01-01

167

Drug Abuse and Partner Violence among Women in Methadone Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to (1) describe rates of lifetime and current partner abuse among women on methadone; (2) examine the relationship between partner violence and demographics, substance abuse, and drug risk behaviors; and (3) explore the association between a victim's current use of crack\\/cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and drug risk behavior after controlling for demographics, household composition, history of victimization and

Nabila El-Bassel; Louisa Gilbert; Robert Schilling; Takeshi Wada

2000-01-01

168

Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous donors' needs and desires are not homogeneous; policy and practice should be sensitive and responsive to a wide range of circumstances and preferences. Decisions made to restrict or facilitate contact or the exchange of information have ramifications for donors as well as for donor-conceived people. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was funded by the Victorian Department of Health. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. PMID:24549216

Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

2014-01-01

169

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2001, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU). Two large freezer tanks are located at each university. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, an emphasis on cryopreserving wild unmarked fish, continued fertility trials, and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

2002-06-01

170

Function of the Male Gamete-Specific Fusion Protein, HAP2, in a Seven-Sexed Ciliate  

PubMed Central

Summary HAP2, a male gamete-specific protein conserved across vast evolutionary distances has garnered considerable attention as a potential membrane fusogen required for fertilization in taxa ranging from protozoa and green algae to flowering plants and invertebrate animals [1–6]. However, its presence in Tetrahymena thermophilaa ciliated protozoan with seven sexes or mating types that bypasses the production of male gametes raises interesting questions regarding the evolutionary origins of gamete-specific functions in sexually dimorphic species. Here we show that HAP2 is expressed in all seven mating types of T. thermophila and that fertility is only blocked when the gene is deleted from both cells of a mating pair. HAP2 deletion strains of complementary mating types can recognize one another and form pairs, however pair stability is compromised and membrane pore formation at the nuclear exchange junction is blocked. The absence of pore formation is consistent with previous studies suggesting a role for HAP2 in gamete fusion in other systems. We propose a model in which each of the several hundred membrane pores established at the conjugation junction of mating Tetrahymena represents the equivalent of a male/female interface, and that pore formation is driven on both sides of the junction by the presence of HAP2. Such a model supports the idea that many of the disparate functions of sperm and egg were shared by the “isogametes” of early eukaryotes, and became partitioned to either male or female sex cells later in evolution. PMID:25155508

Cole, Eric S.; Cassidy-Hanley, Donna; Pinello, Jennifer Fricke; Zeng, Hong; Hsueh, Marion; Kolbin, Daniel; Ozzello, Courtney; Giddings, Thomas; Winey, Mark; Clark, Theodore G.

2015-01-01

171

Sex-Specific Posttranslational Regulation of the Gamete Fusogen GCS1 in the Isogamous Volvocine Alga Gonium pectorale  

PubMed Central

Male and female, generally defined based on differences in gamete size and motility, likely have multiple independent origins, appearing to have evolved from isogamous organisms in various eukaryotic lineages. Recent studies of the gamete fusogen GCS1/HAP2 indicate that this protein is deeply conserved across eukaryotes, and its exclusive and/or functional expression generally resides in males or in male homologues. However, little is known regarding the conserved or primitive molecular traits of males and females within eukaryotes. Here, using morphologically indistinguishable isogametes of the colonial volvocine Gonium pectorale, we demonstrated that GCS1 is differently regulated between the sexes. G. pectorale GCS1 molecules in one sex (homologous to male) are transported from the gamete cytoplasm to the protruded fusion site, whereas those of the other sex (females) are quickly degraded within the cytoplasm upon gamete activation. This molecular trait difference might be conserved across various eukaryotic lineages and may represent male and female prototypes originating from a common eukaryotic ancestor. PMID:24632243

Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Hamaji, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao

2014-01-01

172

vol. 174, no. 5 the american naturalist november 2009 Sexual Selection and the Random Union of Gametes  

E-print Network

of Gametes: Testing for a Correlation in Fitness between Mates in Drosophila melanogaster Nathaniel P. Sharp and speeding adaptation. While there is evi- dence from many taxa that assortative mating for fitness may occur find evidence for positive assortative mating among virgins but no evidence of assortative mat- ing

Agrawal, Aneil F.

173

Microspore culture preferentially selects unreduced (2n) gametes from an interspecific hybrid of Brassica napus L. x Brassica carinata Braun.  

PubMed

We analysed the products of male meiosis in microspore-derived progeny from a Brassica napus (AAC(n)C(n)) x Brassica carinata (BBC(c)C(c)) interspecific hybrid (ABC(n)C(c)). Genotyping at 102 microsatellite marker loci and nuclear DNA contents provided strong evidence that 26 of the 28 progeny (93%) were derived from unreduced (2n) gametes. The high level of C(n)C(c) marker heterozygosity, and parallel spindles at Anaphase II in the ABC(n)C(c) hybrid, indicated that unreduced gametes were formed by first division restitution. The frequency of dyads at the tetrad stage of pollen development (2.6%) suggested that unreduced gametes were preferentially selected in microspore culture. Segregation of marker alleles in the microspore-derived progeny was consistent with homologous recombination between C(n) and C(c) chromosomes and homoeologous recombination involving A-, B- and C-genome chromosomes during meiosis in the ABC(n)C(c) hybrid. We discuss the potential for using microspore culture of unreduced gametes in interspecific hybrids to map Brassica centromeres through half-tetrad analysis. PMID:19436985

Nelson, Matthew N; Mason, Annaliese S; Castello, Marie-Claire; Thomson, Linda; Yan, Guijun; Cowling, Wallace A

2009-08-01

174

Function of the male-gamete-specific fusion protein HAP2 in a seven-sexed ciliate.  

PubMed

HAP2, a male-gamete-specific protein conserved across vast evolutionary distances, has garnered considerable attention as a potential membrane fusogen required for fertilization in taxa ranging from protozoa and green algae to flowering plants and invertebrate animals [1-6]. However, its presence in Tetrahymena thermophila, a ciliated protozoan with seven sexes or mating types that bypasses the production of male gametes, raises interesting questions regarding the evolutionary origins of gamete-specific functions in sexually dimorphic species. Here we show that HAP2 is expressed in all seven mating types of T. thermophila and that fertility is only blocked when the gene is deleted from both cells of a mating pair. HAP2 deletion strains of complementary mating types can recognize one another and form pairs; however, pair stability is compromised and membrane pore formation at the nuclear exchange junction is blocked. The absence of pore formation is consistent with previous studies suggesting a role for HAP2 in gamete fusion in other systems. We propose a model in which each of the several hundred membrane pores established at the conjugation junction of mating Tetrahymena represents the equivalent of a male/female interface, and that pore formation is driven on both sides of the junction by the presence of HAP2. Such a model supports the idea that many of the disparate functions of sperm and egg were shared by the "isogametes" of early eukaryotes and became partitioned to either male or female sex cells later in evolution. PMID:25155508

Cole, Eric S; Cassidy-Hanley, Donna; Fricke Pinello, Jennifer; Zeng, Hong; Hsueh, Marion; Kolbin, Daniel; Ozzello, Courtney; Giddings, Thomas; Winey, Mark; Clark, Theodore G

2014-09-22

175

Sex-specific posttranslational regulation of the gamete fusogen GCS1 in the isogamous volvocine alga Gonium pectorale.  

PubMed

Male and female, generally defined based on differences in gamete size and motility, likely have multiple independent origins, appearing to have evolved from isogamous organisms in various eukaryotic lineages. Recent studies of the gamete fusogen GCS1/HAP2 indicate that this protein is deeply conserved across eukaryotes, and its exclusive and/or functional expression generally resides in males or in male homologues. However, little is known regarding the conserved or primitive molecular traits of males and females within eukaryotes. Here, using morphologically indistinguishable isogametes of the colonial volvocine Gonium pectorale, we demonstrated that GCS1 is differently regulated between the sexes. G. pectorale GCS1 molecules in one sex (homologous to male) are transported from the gamete cytoplasm to the protruded fusion site, whereas those of the other sex (females) are quickly degraded within the cytoplasm upon gamete activation. This molecular trait difference might be conserved across various eukaryotic lineages and may represent male and female prototypes originating from a common eukaryotic ancestor. PMID:24632243

Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Hamaji, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Olson, Bradley J S C; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

2014-05-01

176

Does dietary folic acid supplementation in mouse NTD models affect neural tube development or gamete preference at fertilization?  

PubMed Central

Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common birth defect in humans. Dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation effectively and safely reduces the incidence of these often debilitating congenital anomalies. FA plays an established role in folate and homocysteine metabolism, but the means by which it suppresses occurrence of NTDs is not understood. In addition, many cases remain resistant to the beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation. To better understand the molecular, biochemical and developmental mechanisms by which FA exerts its effect on NTDs, characterized mouse models are needed that have a defined genetic basis and known response to dietary supplementation. Results We examined the effect of FA supplementation, at 5-fold the level in the control diet, on the NTD and vertebral phenotypes in Apob tm1Unc and Vangl2 Lp mice, hereafter referred to as Apob and Lp respectively. The FA supplemented diet did not reduce the incidence or severity of NTDs in Apob or Lp mutant homozygotes or the loop-tail phenotype in Lp mutant heterozygotes, suggesting that mice with these mutant alleles are resistant to FA supplementation. Folic acid supplementation also did not affect the rate of resorptions or the size of litters, but instead skewed the embryonic genotype distribution in favor of wild-type alleles. Conclusion Similar genotypic biases have been reported for several NTD models, but were interpreted as diet-induced increases in the incidence and severity of NTDs that led to increased embryonic lethality. Absence of differences in resorption rates and litter sizes argue against induced embryonic lethality. We suggest an alternative interpretation, namely that FA supplementation led to strongly skewed allelic inheritance, perhaps from disturbances in polyamine metabolism that biases fertilization in favor of wild-type gametes. PMID:25154628

2014-01-01

177

Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)  

PubMed Central

The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984

Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

2013-01-01

178

Active DNA Demethylation in Plant Companion Cells Reinforces Transposon Methylation in Gametes  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana central cell, the companion cell of the egg, undergoes DNA demethylation before fertilization, but the targeting preferences, mechanism, and biological significance of this process remain unclear. Here, we show that active DNA demethylation mediated by the DEMETER DNA glycosylase accounts for all of the demethylation in the central cell and preferentially targets small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements. The vegetative cell, the companion cell of sperm, also undergoes DEMETER-dependent demethylation of similar sequences, and lack of DEMETER in vegetative cells causes reduced small RNA–directed DNA methylation of transposons in sperm. Our results demonstrate that demethylation in companion cells reinforces transposon methylation in plant gametes and likely contributes to stable silencing of transposable elements across generations. PMID:22984074

Uzawa, Rie; Rodrigues, Jessica A.; Zemach, Assaf; Chumak, Nina; Machlicova, Adriana; Nishimura, Toshiro; Rojas, Denisse; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi; Zilberman, Daniel

2014-01-01

179

Meiotic Errors Activate Checkpoints that Improve Gamete Quality without Triggering Apoptosis in Male Germ Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Meiotic checkpoints ensure the production of gametes with the correct complement and integrity of DNA; in metazoans these pathways sense errors and transduce signals to trigger apoptosis to eliminate damaged germ cells. The extent to which checkpoints monitor and safeguard the genome differs between sexes and may contribute to the high frequency of human female meiotic errors. In the C. elegans female germ line, DNA damage, chromosome asynapsis and/or unrepaired meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs) activate checkpoints that induce apoptosis; conversely, male germ cells do not undergo apoptosis. Results Here we show that the recombination checkpoint is in fact activated in male germ cells despite the lack of apoptosis. The 9-1-1 complex and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase ATR, sensors of DNA damage, are recruited to chromatin in the presence of unrepaired meiotic DSBs in both female and male germ lines. Furthermore, checkpoint kinase CHK-1 is phosphorylated and p53 ortholog CEP-1 induces expression of BH3-only pro-apoptotic proteins in germ lines of both sexes under activating conditions. The core cell death machinery is expressed in female and male germ lines; however, CED-3 caspase is not activated in the male germ line. Although apoptosis is not triggered, checkpoint activation in males has functional consequences for gamete quality, as there is reduced viability of progeny sired by males with a checkpoint-activating defect in the absence of checkpoint function. Conclusions We propose that the recombination checkpoint functions in male germ cells to promote repair of meiotic recombination intermediates, thereby improving the fidelity of chromosome transmission in the absence of apoptosis. PMID:20970339

Jaramillo-Lambert, Aimee; Harigaya, Yuriko; Vitt, Jeffrey; Villeneuve, Anne; Engebrecht, JoAnne

2010-01-01

180

Comparative cryobiological traits and requirements for gametes and gonadal tissues collected from wildlife species.  

PubMed

A major challenge to retaining viability of frozen gametes and reproductive tissues is to understand and overcome species-specificities, especially because there is substantial diversity in cryobiological properties and requirements among cell types and tissues. Systematic studies can lead to successful post-thaw recovery, especially after determining: 1) membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant, 2) cryoprotectant toxicity, 3) tolerance to osmotic changes, and 4) resistance to cooling and freezing temperatures. Although species-dependency ultimately dictates the ability of specific cells and tissues to survive freeze-thawing, there are commonalities between taxa that allow a protocol developed for one species to be useful information for another. This is the reason for performing comparative cryopreservation studies among diverse species. Our laboratory has compared cellular cryotolerance, especially in spermatozoa, in a diverse group of animals-from corals to elephants-for more than 30 yrs. Characterizing the biophysical traits of gametes and tissues is the most efficient way to develop successful storage and recovery protocols, but, such data are only available for a few laboratory, livestock, and fish species, with virtually all others (wild mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) having gone unstudied. Nonetheless, when a rare animal unexpectedly dies, there is no time to understand the fundamentals of biophysics. In these emergencies, it is necessary to rely on experience and the best data from taxonomically-related species. Fortunately, there are some general similarities among most species, which, for example, allow adequate post-thaw viability. Regardless, there is a priority for more information on biophysical traits and freezing tolerance of distinctive biomaterials, especially for oocytes and gonadal tissues, and even for common, domesticated animals. Our colleague, Dr John Critser was a pioneer in cryobiology, earning that moniker because of his advocacy and devotion to understanding the differences (and similarities) among species to better store living genetic material. PMID:22704386

Comizzoli, P; Songsasen, N; Hagedorn, M; Wildt, D E

2012-11-01

181

The effect of using approximate gametic variance covariance matrices on marker assisted selection by BLUP  

PubMed Central

Under additive inheritance, the Henderson mixed model equations (HMME) provide an efficient approach to obtaining genetic evaluations by marker assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MABLUP) given pedigree relationships, trait and marker data. For large pedigrees with many missing markers, however, it is not feasible to calculate the exact gametic variance covariance matrix required to construct HMME. The objective of this study was to investigate the consequences of using approximate gametic variance covariance matrices on response to selection by MABLUP. Two methods were used to generate approximate variance covariance matrices. The first method (Method A) completely discards the marker information for individuals with an unknown linkage phase between two flanking markers. The second method (Method B) makes use of the marker information at only the most polymorphic marker locus for individuals with an unknown linkage phase. Data sets were simulated with and without missing marker data for flanking markers with 2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 alleles. Several missing marker data patterns were considered. The genetic variability explained by marked quantitative trait loci (MQTL) was modeled with one or two MQTL of equal effect. Response to selection by MABLUP using Method A or Method B were compared with that obtained by MABLUP using the exact genetic variance covariance matrix, which was estimated using 15 000 samples from the conditional distribution of genotypic values given the observed marker data. For the simulated conditions, the superiority of MABLUP over BLUP based only on pedigree relationships and trait data varied between 0.1% and 13.5% for Method A, between 1.7% and 23.8% for Method B, and between 7.6% and 28.9% for the exact method. The relative performance of the methods under investigation was not affected by the number of MQTL in the model. PMID:14713408

Totir, Liviu R; Fernando, Rohan L; Dekkers, Jack CM; Fernández, Soledad A; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2004-01-01

182

Effect of Reproductive Seasonality on Gamete Quality in the North American Bison (Bison bison bison).  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the effects of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in plains bison (Bison bison bison). Epididymal sperm (n = 61 per season), collected during the breeding season (July-September), had significantly higher post-thaw total motility (36.76 ± 14.18 vs 31.24 ± 12.74%), and lower linearity (0.36 ± 0.06 vs 0.39 ± 0.04) and wobbliness (0.49 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.03; mean ± SD) compared to non-breeding season (January-March) samples. Representative samples (n = 4) from each season were used in heterologous IVF trials using cattle oocytes. Cleavage, morulae and blastocyst percentage were higher for breeding vs non-breeding season sperm samples (81.88 ± 6.8 vs 49.94 ± 6.77; 41.89 ± 13.40 vs 27.08 ± 23.21; and 30.49 ± 17.87 vs 13.72 ± 18.98%, respectively). Plains bison ovaries collected during the breeding (n = 97 pairs) and non-breeding (n = 100 pairs) seasons were classified as luteal or follicular. Oocytes recovered from these ovaries were classified into five grades based on morphology. There was no significant difference in the number of luteal ovaries or grades of oocytes recovered. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (with frozen sperm from three bison bulls) and cultured in vitro. Cleavage percentage was higher for oocytes collected during breeding vs non-breeding season (83.72 ± 6.42 vs 73.98 ± 6.43), with no significant difference in subsequent development to blastocysts. In summary, epididymal sperm from non-breeding season had decreased total motility and resulted in reduced embryo production in vitro. Oocytes collected during non-breeding season had reduced ability to be matured, fertilized and/or undergo cleavage in vitro. Data suggested that season influenced gamete quality in plains bison. PMID:25529116

Krishnakumar, S; Whiteside, D P; Elkin, B; Thundathil, J C

2015-04-01

183

FEAR OF PAST ABUSIVE PARTNER(S) IMPACTS CURRENT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS AMONG WOMEN EXPERIENCING PARTNER VIOLENCE  

PubMed Central

This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514

Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P.

2014-01-01

184

Changing partners at the dance  

PubMed Central

Differential use of cellular and molecular components shapes immune responses, but understanding of how these are regulated to promote defense and health during infections is still incomplete. Examples include signaling from members of the Janus activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) cytokine family. Following receptor stimulation, individual JAK-STAT cytokines have preferences for particular key STAT molecules to lead to specific cellular responses. Certain of these cytokines, however, can conditionally activate alternative STATs as well as elicit pleiotropic and paradoxical effects. Studies examining basal and infection conditions are revealing intrinsic and induced cellular differences in various intracellular STAT concentrations to control the biological consequences of cytokine exposure. The system can be likened to changing partners at a dance based on competition and relative availability, and sets a framework for understanding the particular conditions promoting subset biological functions of cytokines as needed during evolving immune responses to infections. PMID:24058795

Kallal, Lara E.; Biron, Christine A.

2013-01-01

185

Intimate Partner Violence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released earlier this summer, this report on intimate partner violence from the Bureau of Justice Statistics "provides information on violence by intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends, or boyfriends) since the redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)." "The report covers trends in intimate violence, characteristics of victims (race, sex, age, income, ethnicity, and whether the victims live in urban, suburban, or rural areas), type of crime (physical assault, verbal threats), and trends for reporting to police. Intimate victimizations measured include rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. Data on murder by intimates are also given." Data for the report came from the NCVS and the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports.

Rennison, Callie Marie.

2000-01-01

186

Phototropin plays a crucial role in controlling changes in chemotaxis during the initial phase of the sexual life cycle in Chlamydomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

During sexual differentiation, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii changes its chemotactic behavior in response to ammonium. Just like gamete formation, the change in chemotaxis mode is controlled by the sequential action of two environmental cues, removal of ammonium or nitrate from the medium and light. Thus, vegetative cells and mating incompetent pre-gametes, the latter being generated by nitrogen starvation in the dark, exhibit

Elena V. Ermilova; Zhanna M. Zalutskaya; Kaiyao Huang; Christoph F. Beck

2004-01-01

187

SI – SRH Sexual-risk factors of partner age-discordance in adolescent girls and their male partners  

PubMed Central

Aim and objectives To investigate differences in sexual-risk factors between adolescent girls reporting similar-aged or older sex partners. Background Adolescent girls are at significant risk for heterosexual-acquired HIV infection and other long term reproductive health issues. Sexual partner age-discordance in teen girls has been correlated with STIs, lack of protection, multiple partners, and earlier age of sexual transition. Design A descriptive study comparing girls currently involved with age-discordant partners to those with similar-aged partners. Two-sample t-test for continuous variables and for categorical variables, Chi-square or Fisher exact test were used to compare groups. Methods Baseline data from 738 sexually-active, urban, adolescent girls ages 15 to 19, were analyzed to determine which behaviors were more likely to occur in girls with older partners. Data were collected as part of a gender specific HIV-prevention intervention in a randomized controlled trial tailored to adolescent girls. Results Multiple reported sexual risk behaviors were found to significantly differ between the two groups at baseline. Overall, girls with older partners had more episodes of sexual instances (vaginal, anal, and oral). Specific sexual risk behaviors were found to be statistically significant between the two groups. Girls with older partners started having sex at earlier ages, had more lifetime sexual partners, higher incidents of STIs and were reluctant to discuss using condoms with their partners. Girls with similar-aged partners were less willing to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Conclusions Findings from this investigation support data from other studies. Relationships with older male partners place adolescent girls at increased risk for HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy. Relevance to clinical practice Adolescent girls in age-discordant relationships are at risk for immediate and long term sexual health morbidities. Identifying girls who are at increased risk by asking tailored questions will enable nurses to recommend appropriate diagnostics for this population and provide age specific counseling. PMID:24580784

Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Xia, Yinglin; Passmore, Denise

2013-01-01

188

Self-Regulatory Failure and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Eli J. Finkel  

E-print Network

interaction with their romantic partner than they were to enact a violent behavior, suggesting that self-control, relationships Intimate partner violence seems puzzling, even shocking. Why would individuals deliberately intimate partners because society tells them that such perpetration is "perfectly appropriate" (Gelles

Reber, Paul J.

189

Predictors of expressed partner and non-partner violence among patients in substance abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined reports of expressed partner and non-partner violence among men (n=126) and women (n=126) in the 12 months prior to substance abuse treatment. Rates of violence were 57% for partner, 53% for non-partner, and 75% collapsing across partner and non-partner relationships. Factors associated with partner and non-partner violence severity differed substantially. Partner violence was predicted by age, marital

Stephen T. Chermack; Bret E. Fuller; Frederic C. Blow

2000-01-01

190

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

2001-06-01

191

Partner Discrepancies in Distressed Marriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spousal discrepancy theory posits that partners with wide personality differences are at risk for marital distress. In this study, we assessed links between partner personality and interpersonal characteristics and marital distress in 244 couples who sought marital therapy. The sample was divided into three subgroups according to marital duration. Longer married couples reflected significantly less impulsive, exploitive, and insensitive characteristics

Peter Richard Kilmann; Jennifer M. C. Vendemia

2012-01-01

192

Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

Not Available

2013-06-01

193

Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure  

PubMed Central

Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17?-HSD-11 and 17?-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

Cai, Zhong-Hua

2011-01-01

194

Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs) are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs) from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral) included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral) included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs. PMID:20849663

2010-01-01

195

First evidence of prothymosin ? localization in the acrosome of mammalian male gametes.  

PubMed

Prothymosin ? (PTMA) is a highly acidic intrinsically unstructured protein. Its expression in male gonads is evolutionary conserved; in rat testis it is specifically localized in the cytoplasm of post-meiotic germ cells, in association with the developing acrosome system. In the present paper we investigated on PTMA localization inside the head of mammalian spermatozoa (SPZ). We chose a confocal approach to ascertain whether PTMA is expressed in the acrosome or in the perinuclear theca, two regions that are tightly linked and partially overlapped in the mature haploid cells. The obtained results showed that PTMA is specifically localized in the acrosome of rat epididymal SPZ; the same experimental approach evidenced, for the first time, PTMA presence in human ejaculated SPZ. A Western blot analysis on protein extracts from human sperm head fractions confirmed the confocal data and demonstrated that the peptide is specifically associated with the inner acrosomal membrane fraction. Finally, when the acrosome reaction was induced in vitro by progesterone treatment on both rat and human sperm, PTMA signal was retained in the apical region of reacted SPZ. In conclusion, this study confirms the conservation of PTMA distribution in vertebrate male gametes and strongly supports a role for this polypeptide in their physiology. PMID:23359453

Ferrara, Diana; Pariante, Paolo; Di Matteo, Loredana; Serino, Ismene; Oko, Richard; Minucci, Sergio

2013-08-01

196

Transfer of intracolonial genetic variability through gametes in Acropora hyacinthus corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the new phenomenon of intracolonial genetic variability within a single coral colony has been described. This connotes that coral colonies do not necessarily consist of only a single genotype, but may contain several distinct genotypes. Harboring more than one genotype could improve survival under stressful environmental conditions, e.g., climate change. However, so far it remained unclear whether the intracolonial genetic variability of the adult coral is also present in the gametes. We investigated the occurrence of intracolonial genetic variability in 14 mature colonies of the coral Acropora hyacinthus using eight microsatellite loci. A grid was placed over each colony before spawning, and the emerging egg/sperm bundles were collected separately in each grid. The underlying tissues as well as the egg/sperm bundles were genotyped to determine whether different genotypes were present. Within the 14 mature colonies, we detected 10 colonies with more than one genotype (intracolonial genetic variability). Four out of these 10 mature colonies showed a transfer of different genotypes via the eggs to the next generation. In two out of these four cases, we found additional alleles, and in the two other cases, we found only a subset of alleles in the unfertilized eggs. Our results suggest that during reproduction of A. hyacinthus, more than one genotype per colony is able to reproduce. We discuss the occurrence of different genotypes within a single coral colony and the ability for those to release eggs which are genetically distinct.

Schweinsberg, M.; González Pech, R. A.; Tollrian, R.; Lampert, K. P.

2014-03-01

197

A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans  

PubMed Central

The extracellular zona pellucida surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates gamete recognition that is essential for mammalian fertilization. Zonae matrices contain three (mouse) or four (human) glycoproteins (ZP1–4), but which protein binds sperm remains controversial. A defining characteristic of an essential zona ligand is sterility after genetic ablation. We have established transgenic mice expressing human ZP4 that form zonae pellucidae in the absence of mouse or human ZP2. Neither mouse nor human sperm bound to these ovulated eggs, and these female mice were sterile after in vivo insemination or natural mating. The same phenotype was observed with truncated ZP2 that lacks a restricted domain within ZP251–149. Chimeric human/mouse ZP2 isoforms expressed in transgenic mice and recombinant peptide bead assays confirmed that this region accounts for the taxon specificity observed in human–mouse gamete recognition. These observations in transgenic mice document that the ZP251–149 sperm-binding domain is necessary for human and mouse gamete recognition and penetration through the zona pellucida. PMID:24934154

Avella, Matteo A.; Baibakov, Boris

2014-01-01

198

[Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].  

PubMed

The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 ?L, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 ?m and 3.8 ± 1.0 ?m (p < 0.05); the largest diameter was recorded 30 seconds after the contact with water. For oocytes, the smaller and larger diameters were recorded at 10 and 30s, respectively (both with/without water contact); the oocytes diameters after 10 and 30 seconds of contact with water were 1.11 and 1.55 mm, respectively. A higher ovulation rate was recorded using the in vitro fertilization: 250 ± 50 oocytes versus 28 ± 09 oocytes (during natural fertilization; p < 0.05). Nevertheless, fertilization and hatching rates were higher for the natural fertilization (80 and 60%, respectively). Considering the number of larvae obtained after 72 hours, our results showed a higher value for the in vitro fertilization (75 ± 18 compared to 13.4 ± 12 of the natural fertilization; p < 0.05). We propose this fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro fertilization is a very high viable option to optimize and maximize resources; besides, the reproduction management optimization under controlled conditions may enhance wild fish stocks preservation. PMID:25720172

Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

2014-12-01

199

Telling partners about chlamydia: how acceptable are the new technologies?  

PubMed Central

Background Partner notification is accepted as a vital component in the control of chlamydia. However, in reality, many sexual partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia are never informed of their risk. The newer technologies of email and SMS have been used as a means of improving partner notification rates. This study explored the use and acceptability of different partner notification methods to help inform the development of strategies and resources to increase the number of partners notified. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people who were recently diagnosed with chlamydia from three sexual health centres and two general practices across three Australian jurisdictions. Results Most participants chose to contact their partners either in person (56%) or by phone (44%). Only 17% chose email or SMS. Participants viewed face-to-face as the "gold standard" in partner notification because it demonstrated caring, respect and courage. Telephone contact, while considered insensitive by some, was often valued because it was quick, convenient and less confronting. Email was often seen as less personal while SMS was generally considered the least acceptable method for telling partners. There was also concern that emails and SMS could be misunderstood, not taken seriously or shown to others. Despite these, email and SMS were seen to be appropriate and useful in some circumstances. Letters, both from the patients or from their doctor, were viewed more favourably but were seldom used. Conclusion These findings suggest that many people diagnosed with chlamydia are reluctant to use the new technologies for partner notification, except in specific circumstances, and our efforts in developing partner notification resources may best be focused on giving patients the skills and confidence for personal interaction. PMID:20211029

2010-01-01

200

A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

2012-01-01

201

Security for Classroom Learning Partner  

E-print Network

This MENG thesis implements a security system for a classroom presentation system called the Classroom Learning Partner (CLP). The goal of the security system is to prevent cheating on electronic quizzes. CLP is a system ...

Iancu, Karin

2006-01-01

202

Gamete quality of streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) after GnRHa and dopamine antagonist treatment.  

PubMed

The efficiency of Ovaprim™ salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and dopamine antagonist on the induction of spawning and spermiation in Prochilodus lineatus in comparison with the commonly used method using pituitary extract (PE) was evaluated. Females received PE at 0.5 + 5.0 mg/kg and Ovaprim™ at 0.05 + 0.45 ml/kg or at 0.125 + 0.375 ml/kg. All males received a first dose of PE at 0.4 mg/kg and then PE at 4.0 mg/kg or Ovaprim™ at 0.25 ml/kg. Oocyte, egg, larvae and sperm quality were evaluated. All females spawned and oocyte, egg and larvae quality were similar between Ovaprim™-treated (both doses) and PE-treated females. Data from females were pooled and the mean values were: 242 g ova weight, 15% ova index, 1209 oocytes/g ova, 284,539 oocytes/female, 183 oocytes/g body weight, 1.18 mm oocyte diameter, 49% fertilization rate, 43% hatching rate and 89% normal larvae. Sperm quality was similar between Ovaprim™-treated and PE-treated males. Data from males were pooled and the mean values of semen were: volume of 3.0 ml, 14.9 × 109 sperm/ml, osmolality of 283 mOsm/kg, pH of 7.4, 71% motile sperm, 217 ?m/s curvilinear velocity, 102 ?m/s straight-line velocity and 189 ?m/s average path velocity. Ovaprim™ treatment can be used for commercial reproduction of P. lineatus, without any loss of gamete quality in comparison with PE treatment. PMID:24134911

Viveiros, Ana T M; Gonçalves, Antônio C S; Di Chiacchio, Isabela M; Nascimento, Ariane F; Romagosa, Elizabeth; Leal, Marcelo C

2015-04-01

203

Clinical aspects and perinatal outcomes after cryopreservation of embryos and gametes.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation techniques play today a central role in assisted reproduction, as they enhance the overall efficacy of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments by allowing the banking of supernumerary embryos obtained in these treatments, and their later use. The transfer of frozen/thawed embryos was established nearly 30 years ago, and although it has been clinical routine for a long time, the importance of freezing embryos has been newly emphasized. As recognized downsides of IVF treatment include the high prevalence of perinatal complications due to multiple births, the recommended practice of transferring fewer embryos in the fresh IVF treatment cycle, with the goal of performing single embryo transfer and the cryostorage of remaining embryos for their later use in frozen-thawed cycles, one at a time, is currently the trend. Also of great importance, cryopreservation techniques for spermatozoa and oocytes have additionally permitted gamete storage for long-term and the implementation of several new treatment modalities for assisted reproduction. Most of these methods are applied today in clinical programs of fertility preservation and third-part reproduction, such as sperm- and egg donor programs. Use of frozen thawed sperm has been in clinical use for over 50 years and banking sperm has been routinely offered to men, usually before gonadotoxic treatments, but also in many cases, practised as a "safety policy" previously to a vasectomy. Freezing methods for women's egg have required a much longer time to achieve a comparable effective clinical standard. Only recently, with the development of vitrification of oocytes, the clinical standard was recognized and since 2013 when the label "experimental" was removed, the freezing of oocytes could be regarded as an established method, and its use extended into clinical practice for fertility preservation but also performed after personal requirements, so called, "social freezing". PMID:25714875

Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A

2015-04-01

204

Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

205

When does intimate partner violence continue after separation?  

PubMed

Over their lifetime, approximately 10% of all women become victims of postseparation stalking or assault. We use a nationally representative survey of separated Swedish women to examine whether men who strive to control their partners during their relationships are more likely to stalk or assault their ex-partners after separation. The empirical analysis shows that basic measures of control behaviors explain 18% of the variance in stalking victimization and 8% of the assault victimization. Moreover, the predictive values of our measures of control by far surpass those of other common risk markers included in the analysis. PMID:23743350

Ornstein, Petra; Rickne, Johanna

2013-05-01

206

Empowerment, partner’s behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners’ behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women’s empowerment and partners’ behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. Methods The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. Results The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women’s occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. Conclusion In the Ugandan context, women’s empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners’ negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence. PMID:24289495

2013-01-01

207

Spouse Beliefs about Partner Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

While research has shown that patients’ beliefs about their pain are related to pain adjustment and treatment outcomes, little is known about the beliefs of their significant others. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of pain beliefs in significant others and to examine the correlates of these beliefs. Participants were 104 married couples in which one partner reported chronic pain. Spouses completed an amended version of the Survey of Pain Beliefs (SOPA)14. The scale development procedure described in Jensen et al.12 was used to select appropriate items for the significant other version of the SOPA. This procedure yielded 7 subscales that closely resembled the original SOPA. Spousal pain beliefs about disability, emotion, control, and medication were significantly correlated with partners’ pain severity and other indicators of pain adjustment. Emotion, disability, and other beliefs were related to spouse responses to pain, and spouses’ depressive symptoms and marital dissatisfaction. Spouses’ personal experiences with pain were not related to their beliefs about their partners’ pain. Additional research on the pain-related beliefs of significant others may extend cognitive-behavioral theory concerning the social context of pain and provide an additional avenue through which clinicians can address cognition in patients and families. Perspective: This study describes a new measure that can be used to assess significant others’ beliefs about their partners’ pain problems. Little is known about the beliefs of family members so this measure is expected to provide a way for clinicians and researchers to assess and track changes in those beliefs. PMID:19345155

Cano, Annmarie; Miller, Lisa Renee; Loree, Amy

2009-01-01

208

The Enhancer of split transcription factor Her8a is a novel dimerisation partner for Her3 that controls anterior hindbrain neurogenesis in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Background Neurogenesis control and the prevention of premature differentiation in the vertebrate embryo are crucial processes, allowing the formation of late-born cell types and ensuring the correct shape and cytoarchitecture of the brain. Members of the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hairy/E(spl)) family of bHLH-Orange transcription factors, such as zebrafish Her3, 5, 9 and 11, are implicated in the local inhibition of neurogenesis to maintain progenitor pools within the early neural plate. To better understand how these factors exert their inhibitory function, we aimed to isolate some of their functional interactors. Results We used a yeast two-hybrid screen with Her5 as bait and recovered a novel zebrafish Hairy/E(spl) factor - Her8a. Using phylogenetic and synteny analyses, we demonstrate that her8a evolved from an ancient duplicate of Hes6 that was recently lost in the mammalian lineage. We show that her8a is expressed across the mid- and anterior hindbrain from the start of segmentation. Through knockdown and misexpression experiments, we demonstrate that Her8a is a negative regulator of neurogenesis and plays an essential role in generating progenitor pools within rhombomeres 2 and 4 - a role resembling that of Her3. Her8a co-purifies with Her3, suggesting that Her8a-Her3 heterodimers may be relevant in this domain of the neural plate, where both proteins are co-expressed. Finally, we demonstrate that her8a expression is independent of Notch signaling at the early neural plate stage but that SoxB factors play a role in its expression, linking patterning information to neurogenesis control. Overall, the regulation and function of Her8a differ strikingly from those of its closest relative in other vertebrates - the Hes6-like proteins. Conclusions Our results characterize the phylogeny, expression and functional interactions involving a new Her factor, Her8a, and highlight the complex interplay of E(spl) proteins that generates the neurogenesis pattern of the zebrafish early neural plate. PMID:21586122

2011-01-01

209

The embryonic transcription factor Hlxb9 is a menin interacting partner that controls pancreatic ?-cell proliferation and the expression of insulin regulators.  

PubMed

The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the MEN1 gene encoding menin, with tissue-specific tumors of the parathyroids, anterior pituitary, and enteropancreatic endocrine tissues. Also, 30-40% of sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors show somatic MEN1 gene inactivation. Although menin is expressed in all cell types of the pancreas, mouse models with loss of menin in either pancreatic ?-cells, or ?-cells, or total pancreas develop ?-cell-specific endocrine tumors (insulinomas). Loss of widely expressed tumor suppressor genes may produce tissue-specific tumors by reactivating one or more embryonic-specific differentiation factors. Therefore, we determined the effect of menin overexpression or knockdown on the expression of ?-cell differentiation factors in a mouse ?-cell line (MIN6). We show that the ?-cell differentiation factor Hlxb9 is posttranscriptionally upregulated upon menin knockdown, and it interacts with menin. Hlxb9 reduces cell proliferation and causes apoptosis in the presence of menin, and it regulates genes that modulate insulin level. Thus, upon menin loss or from other causes, dysregulation of Hlxb9 predicts a possible combined mechanism for ?-cell proliferation and insulin production in insulinomas. These observations help to understand how a ubiquitously expressed protein such as menin might control tissue-specific tumorigenesis. Also, our findings identify Hlxb9 as an important factor for ?-cell proliferation and insulin regulation. PMID:23419452

Shi, Kerong; Parekh, Vaishali I; Roy, Swarnava; Desai, Shruti S; Agarwal, Sunita K

2013-02-01

210

Partner notification requires unique skills.  

PubMed

The success of health care workers involved in partner notification depends greatly on accepting unusual working conditions and developing unique skills. According to Katharyn Waldron, MA, HIV educator at the University of Pittsburgh, the challenge is one of both educating and gaining trust. The payoff is that people may make life-changing decisions because they are able to see beyond the day-to-day needs of another fix or trick. She suggests dressing appropriately for the locale and being concerned about safety. Many partners often want to know who gave the health care worker their name. Confidentiality works both ways--protect the identity of the index partner as well as the other partner. To persuade HIV-positive partners to share information about contacts, she suggests avoiding blame and appealing to their sense of compassion and fairness. Providing prevalence statistics for the contact's community can help in educating individuals. Also provide basic information about HIV transmission and prevention, and assure availability for further contact. PMID:11362434

1995-06-01

211

Treaty verification with an uncertain partner  

SciTech Connect

A simple model is used to analyze the performance of a system for verifying compliance with an arms control treaty. Blue and Red are partners in to a treaty. Blue prefers to comply, but is uncertain whether Red similarly prefers compliance (in the absence of threatened violation detection). Blue's uncertainty is modeled as a probability distribution over three different Red types: Violators, Compilers, and Deterrables. Criteria are derived to determine the level at which Blue should set his detection threshold, and when it is best for Blue not to verify at all. The results involve both game-theoretic and Bayes solutions. 9 refs., 14 figs.

Weissenberger, S.

1991-01-01

212

Automated monitoring to detect H1N1 symptoms among urban, Medicaid-eligible, pregnant women: a community-partnered randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

In response to the H1N1 epidemic, we used community health workers to design and implement a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a new automated call-monitoring system for second and third trimester predominantly Medicaid-eligible pregnant women in an urban free standing birth center to promptly detect symptoms of influenza and assure rapid treatment to prevent adverse outcomes from influenza. Daily automated telephone call to second and third trimester pregnant women asking if the woman experienced flu-like symptoms. Calls continued daily until 38 weeks gestation. A community health worker's voice was used for the automated call recording. Positive responses triggered an immediate referral to a nurse-midwife for prompt treatment with anti-viral medication. Fifty pregnant participants were randomized into daily-automated call group (n = 26) or health information group (n = 24). The automated call group participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 (mean = 23.5, SD = 6.3), 84.7 % identified their race/ethnicity as African-American Non-Hispanic, and 80.7 % were Medicaid-Eligible. In the automated call group, 11.5 % chose to be immunized against H1N1. The mean percent of patients reached daily was 45.1 % (SD = 3.2 %) and at least once every 3 days was 65.1 % (SD = 3.1 %). One pregnant woman in the automated call group contracted H1N1 influenza and received prompt anti-viral treatment without any serious outcomes. Participation in daily-automated telephone calls did not differ significantly between patients younger than 18 years old versus patients 18 years or older. There was also no difference in participation between patients with parity of 0 versus patients with parity ?1. Participation in daily telephone calls significantly (alpha ?0.05) increased when a community health worker provided personal follow-up of non-responsive participants. 93.3 % of surveyed pregnant women, who received automated daily calls, recommended to use a similar daily call system in response to a future health crisis. Automated daily phone calls, designed and produced by community health workers, is a feasible, well received strategy to provide urgent health information to an urban, Medicaid-eligible group of pregnant women, regardless of age or parity. PMID:23990336

Nassar, Amy Filmore; Alemi, Farrokh; Hetmyer, Alisha; Alemi, Yara; Randolph, Linda A; Ramey, Sharon Landesman

2014-02-01

213

In-vitro fertilization, gamete donation and surrogacy: perceptions of women attending an infertility clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149

Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo

2014-06-01

214

Effects of Analogs of the Fungal Sexual Pheromone Sirenin on Male Gamete Motility in Allomyces macrogynus1  

PubMed Central

The ability of various structural analogs of the sexual pheromone sirenin to attract male gametes of the aquatic fungus Allomyces macrogynus was determined. Previous studies had shown that several structural analogs and stereoisomers of natural l-sirenin were devoid of activity at physiological concentrations. We now report the discovery of a structural analog that exhibits biological activity indistinguishable from the natural pheromone. The bioassay system used to determine chemotaxis was calibrated using synthetic, racemic sirenin, which exhibited a threshold concentration for gamete attraction at an applied concentration of 10 picomolar. The new synthetic monohydroxy analog of sirenin also had a threshold concentration of 10 picomolar. In the process of developing a new total synthesis of sirenin, a variety of other analogs were prepared and tested. All of these analogs exhibited threshold concentrations at 1 micromolar or higher, although attraction at these higher concentrations still varied according to their structural resemblance to sirenin. Thus, the results of these studies demonstrate that the hydroxymethyl group attached to the six-membered ring of sirenin is not essential for biological activity at physiological concentrations. The studies with other analogs demonstrate that biological activity at any concentration involves a balance between hydrophilic hydroxyl groups and hydrophobic hydrocarbon groups in the structure. PMID:16666254

Pommerville, Jeffrey C.; Strickland, J. Byron; Romo, Daniel; Harding, Kenn E.

1988-01-01

215

Primary structure and expression of a gamete lytic enzyme in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: similarity of functional domains to matrix metalloproteases.  

PubMed Central

A gamete lytic enzyme (GLE) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a zinc metalloprotease and mediates digestion of the cell walls of the two mating-type gametes during mating as a necessary prelude to cell fusion. The nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA revealed that GLE is synthesized in a preproenzyme form, a 638-amino acid polypeptide (Mr, 69,824) with a 28-amino acid signal peptide, a 155-amino acid propolypeptide, and a 455-amino acid mature polypeptide (Mr, 49,633). A potential site for autocatalytic activation was contained within the propolypeptide and a zinc binding site found within the mature polypeptide; both sites were highly homologous to those in mammalian collagenase. A putative calcium binding site was present in the near C-terminal region of the mature GLE. Both propolypeptide and mature polypeptide had potential sites for asparagine-linked glycosylation, and the Arg-(Pro)3 and Arg-(Pro)2 motifs, which are known to exist in hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the Chlamydomonas cell wall. Northern blot analysis revealed that steady-state levels of the 2.4-kilobase GLE mRNA increased during growth and mitotic cell division in the vegetative cell cycle and also increased markedly during gametogenesis under nitrogen-starved conditions. Images PMID:1584806

Kinoshita, T; Fukuzawa, H; Shimada, T; Saito, T; Matsuda, Y

1992-01-01

216

TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power  

SciTech Connect

The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013: ? 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered. ? 797 new participants installed a HAN. ? Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components. ? Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program. ? On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly. ? An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

None

2013-11-19

217

Building community, partnering for success!  

E-print Network

Parent & Family Handbook 2009-2010 Building community, partnering for success! www.umaine.edu #12;Dear Parents, Families, & Friends, Welcome to the University of Maine community. We truly value your contributions to UMaine and welcome your involvement in University activities and events. Our experience has

Thomas, Andrew

218

Macomb Reading Partners Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated Macomb Reading Partners (MRP), the tutoring program of the Macomb Literacy Project. It researched the effectiveness of literacy training and its impact on the lives of a target group of 30 automotive workers. Data sources were a structured interview, the Word Opposites Test of the Botel Reading Inventory (1962), and participant…

Snoddy, James E.

219

The Computer as Lab Partner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also…

Nicklin, R. C.

1985-01-01

220

Telling Your Partner You Have an STD  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Partner You Have an STD KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > Telling Your Partner You Have ... have questions about STDs, talk to a doctor, sexual health clinic, or student health center. Reviewed by: D' ...

221

Reverse Correlating Love: Highly Passionate Women Idealize Their Partner's Facial Appearance.  

PubMed

A defining feature of passionate love is idealization-evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships. PMID:25806540

Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E

2015-01-01

222

Childhood Bullying Involvement and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13 years of age reported a substantial amount of bullying and victimization; a large majority were bully-victims and female. Regression analyses did not show that children who were exposed to intimate partner violence were more likely to engage in relational bullying. However, children who are exposed to intimate partner violence have a higher likelihood of internalizing behaviors and physical aggression. PMID:16882768

Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

2008-01-01

223

Implicit thinking about implicit theories in intimate partner violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature pertaining to cognitive structures of intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders. Relevant theoretical propositions, attitudinal studies and clinical material are described, and implicit theories (ITs) which appear to be linked with IPV are identified and discussed. Ten potential ITs are identified: ‘violence is normal’, ‘women are dangerous’, ‘uncontrollability’, ‘need for control’, ‘women are objects’, ‘entitlement\\/respect’, ‘sex

Elizabeth Gilchrist

2009-01-01

224

Partner violence and substance abuse: Treatment interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partner violence is a serious public health issue. For couples who enter treatment for drug and alcohol abuse, rates of partner aggression are alarmingly high, with 53% to 63% of couples reporting one or more episodes of partner violence in the year prior to program entry (Murphy & O'Farrell, 1994; Murphy, O'Farrell, Fals-Stewart, & Feeham, 2001; Stuart et al., 2003).

Keith Klostermann; Michelle L. Kelley; Theresa Mignone; Lori Pusateri; William Fals-Stewart

2010-01-01

225

Informal Helping in Partner and Stranger Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared helping interactions of partners in close relationships and of strangers. Participants (N=92) from 46 couples completed semistructured helping tasks with their partner and with an opposite-sex stranger. Partners were less empathic and used fewer acknowledgements and more behavioral advisements, interpretations, and self-disclosures than…

Barker, Chris; Lemle, Russell

1987-01-01

226

Partner Stalking and Implications for Women's Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In general research suggests partner violence has a negative impact on women's employment. However, there has been limited examination of partner stalking and consequences for employment. The purpose of this study was to examine partner stalking and employment consequences among two samples of women. One sample was women who had obtained a…

Logan, TK; Shannon, Lisa; Cole, Jennifer; Swanberg, Jennifer

2007-01-01

227

Gamete cryobanks for laboratory research: developing a rapid and easy-to-perform protocol for the cryopreservation of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lmk, 1816) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Gamete cryopreservation is a biotechnology that can guarantee a continuous supply of gametes, regardless of the seasonal reproductive cycle. In this study we developed a protocol for the cryopreservation of the sea urchin Paracentrotuslividus spermatozoa, with a view to the creation of cryobanks of semen to be used as a model system in laboratory research and ecotoxicological tests. All the key phases of the procedure were separately considered and the effect on sperm motility was evaluated by means of computer assisted analysis. The best results were obtained using 7% dimethylsulfoxide in 1% NaCl plus 0.04 M trehalose as the extender, at a freezing rate of -20 °C/min. On thawing, in semen samples cryopreserved in accordance with this protocol the velocity parameters of the sub-population of rapid sperm (best performing spermatozoa) did not significantly differ from semen on collection; in addition also the fertilization ability was restored, and about 50% of normal developed plutei larvae were obtained by thawed semen. The developed protocol is rapid and easy-to-perform; moreover, the use of gametes from reared urchins makes it unnecessary to continuously collect specimens from natural populations, making this procedure a promising starting point for the creation of alternative and more sustainable methodologies in laboratory research on sea urchin gametes and embryos. PMID:24997279

Fabbrocini, Adele; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Pelosi, Sergio; Oliveira, Luis F J; Silvestri, Fausto; Sansone, Giovanni

2014-08-01

228

Associating pregnancy with partner violence against Chinese women.  

PubMed

The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence of men's violence against their female partners was computed and compared in terms of demographic, behavioral, and relationship characteristics. The preceding-year prevalence of physical assault, sexual violence, and "any violence or injury" among the group whose partners were pregnant was 11.9%, 9.1%, and 18.8%, respectively. This is significantly higher than the nonpregnant group. Pregnancy was significantly associated with increased odds of violence, including physical assault, sexual violence, and "any violence or injury" (ORs = 2.42, 2.42, and 2.60, respectively). Having controlled for relationship characteristics including social desirability, social support, in-law conflict, dominance, and jealousy of male perpetrators, pregnancy was significantly associated with "any violence or injury." Demographic and behavioral variables accounted for pregnant women's significantly higher odds of having been abused in the year preceding the data collection. This study provides preliminary findings on the association between pregnancy and partner violence. Our findings underscore the need to screen for violence among pregnant women in clinical health care settings as well as in communities. Perpetrator-related risk factors should be included in the assessment of risk for partner violence against pregnant women. For the prevention of intimate partner violence, family-based intervention is needed to work with victims as well as perpetrators. PMID:20495098

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2011-05-01

229

DIFFERENTIATION AMONG TYPES OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE: RESEARCH UPDATE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERVENTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of empirical research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence is not a unitary phenomenon and that types of domestic violence can be differentiated with respect to partner dynamics, context, and con- sequences. Four patterns of violence are described: Coercive Controlling Violence, Violent Resistance, Situational Couple Violence, and Separation-Instigated Violence. The controversial matter of gender symmetry and asymmetry

Joan B. Kelly; Michael P. Johnson

2008-01-01

230

Anger Problem Profiles among Partner Violent Men: Differences in Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cluster analysis of 139 partner violent men's self-reports on the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory identified profiles reflecting pathological anger (PA), low anger control (LAC), and normal anger (NA). The PA group self-reported higher pretreatment partner abuse, interpersonal dysfunction, distress, and substance abuse and had lower…

Murphy, Christopher M.; Taft, Casey T.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

2007-01-01

231

Conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with adult inclusion conjunctivitis.  

PubMed

To compare the incidence of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with newly diagnosed adult inclusion conjunctivitis (AIC) and a control group with healthy eyes. We also compare the observed signs and symptoms of conjunctival infection in patients with newly diagnosed AIC and their sexual partners. We performed a prospective comparative case-control study between patients with newly diagnosed AIC confirmed with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) (n = 11), their sexual partners (n = 11), and a control group of healthy subjects (n = 11). Clinical history, physical examination, and a DFA test for C. trachomatis of a conjunctival scrapping from the tarsal conjunctiva were performed in all patients. A significantly higher frequency of positive DFA tests for C. trachomatis was observed in the sexual partner group (n = 8, 73 %) compared with the healthy control group (n = 2, 18.2 %) (P = 0.03). Ocular symptoms and signs were observed significantly more often in patients from the confirmed clinically active AIC group (n = 11, 100 %) than in their sexual partners (n = 2, 12.5 %). Sexual partners of patients with AIC are at greater risk of having an asymptomatic conjunctival infection with C. trachomatis than healthy subjects. Sexual partners might be considered a bacterial reservoir and a possible source for chlamydia reinfection. Not treating sexual partners might increase the probability of reinfection. More extended studies with a greater sample size should be done. PMID:24643518

Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Valdés-Navarro, Manuel A; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar Eliezar; Fernández-Espinosa, Martín Cesar; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús

2015-04-01

232

Battered Women's Reports of Their Partners' and Their Children's Cruelty to Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal reports of cruelty to pet animals in families where partner battering occurs are common but there exist few empirical data on this issue. Determining the forms and prevalence of such cruelty is important since abuse of pets may be a method batterers use to control their partners, may be related to batterers' lethality, and may result in children in

Frank R. Ascione

1997-01-01

233

Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?  

PubMed

We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

2015-01-01

234

Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

2008-01-01

235

Partnering on construction projects: a study of the relationship between partnering activities and project success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project partnering has generated considerable attention in the construction industry as a means for transforming hostile, adversarial owner-contractor relationships into a more collaborative, productive team. Empirical support for partnering, however, is limited. The present study used mailed questionnaire data to examine the relationship between specific partnering related activities and project success for 291 construction projects. All of the major partnering

Erik Larson

1997-01-01

236

Partner Buffering of Attachment Insecurity  

PubMed Central

Insecurely attached people have less happy, unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships should depend on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to buffer (emotionally and behaviorally regulate) insecurely attached individuals, which makes them feel better, behave more constructively, and improves their relationships. Understanding when and how this important interpersonal process works requires a dyad-centered approach. In this article, we describe core tenets of attachment theory and the two forms of attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance). We then present the Dyadic Regulation Model of Insecurity Buffering, which explains how and why certain types of buffering behaviors soothe the worries and improve the relationship perceptions and behaviors of anxious or avoidant people. We next review studies of couples trying to resolve major conflicts that illustrate some ways in which partners can successfully buffer the insecure reactions of anxious and avoidant individuals. We conclude by discussing other traits and social contexts to which our model can be applied. PMID:25214722

Simpson, Jeffry A.; Overall, Nickola C.

2014-01-01

237

Intimate partner violence towards women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Between 10% and 70% of women may have been physically or sexually assaulted by a partner at some stage, with assault rates against men reported at about one quarter of the rate against women. In at least half of people studied, the problem lasts for 5 years or more. Women reporting intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely than other women to complain of poor physical or mental health, and of disability. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions initiated by healthcare professionals aimed at female victims of intimate partner violence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other relevant databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advocacy; career counselling plus critical consciousness awareness; cognitive behavioural counselling; cognitive trauma therapy; counselling; nurse support and guidance; peer support groups; safety planning; and shelters. PMID:21733197

2010-01-01

238

First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals. PMID:24933287

Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M

2014-07-01

239

Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

240

Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children.  

PubMed

Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

Berger, Lawrence M; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

2012-02-01

241

Detecting the trustworthiness of novel partners in economic exchange.  

PubMed

Because trusting strangers can entail high risk, an ability to infer a potential partner's trustworthiness would be highly advantageous. To date, however, little evidence indicates that humans are able to accurately assess the cooperative intentions of novel partners by using nonverbal signals. In two studies involving human-human and human-robot interactions, we found that accuracy in judging the trustworthiness of novel partners is heightened through exposure to nonverbal cues and identified a specific set of cues that are predictive of economic behavior. Employing the precision offered by robotics technology to model and control humanlike movements, we demonstrated not only that experimental manipulation of the identified cues directly affects perceptions of trustworthiness and subsequent exchange behavior, but also that the human mind will utilize such cues to ascribe social intentions to technological entities. PMID:23129062

Desteno, David; Breazeal, Cynthia; Frank, Robert H; Pizarro, David; Baumann, Jolie; Dickens, Leah; Lee, Jin Joo

2012-12-01

242

Partners  

E-print Network

appreciate any donations of art to our charity: THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF CHILD ABUSE For further info on Dealers' Room ojr Art Show, please send SASE to Paulie Gilmore, 117 W. Main Ct, Kalamazoo, MI 49007. HALLOWEEN PARTY: Since we... by Ruth Kurz ,. - "Singularity by Susan Burchfield*' P art by Paulie _ ak - "Every Cloud" by D. C. Black P# 3 mT , art by Cheryl Newsome ? fa - -Healing Time" by Susan Burchfield ???????. oo _?, .. art by Jan Lindner ~ ro THE "BLOND BLINTZ" SECTION...

Multiple Contributors

1980-01-01

243

Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism.  

PubMed

Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that different plant species vary in the spatial precision with which they can select partners. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is presumably context-dependent and can be mediated by factors like (relative) resource abundance and resource fluctuations, competition among mycorrhizas, arrival order and cultivation history. Such factors complicate our current understanding of the importance of partner selection and its effectiveness in stimulating mutualistic cooperation. PMID:25421912

Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

2015-03-01

244

Healthy girl born after cryopreservation of gametes and ICSI in a patient with seminoma.  

PubMed

This study reports birth in a case of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved oocytes and spermatozoa banked after radiotherapy and prior to chemotherapy due the occurrence of two non-synchronous seminomas. A 30-year-old male with a diagnosis of seminoma cryopreserved six vials of spermatozoa. After oncological treatment was completed, his partner, a 24-year-old woman, underwent ovarian stimulation. Seventeen oocytes were retrieved; one was at the germinal vesicle stage and two were injected, resulting in two embryos. Fourteen metaphase II oocytes were frozen. The woman presented moderated ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and embryo cryopreservation was indicated. After endometrial preparation, two embryos were transferred and a pregnancy was achieved. The woman suffered eclampsia during week 28 of gestation. Caesarean section was performed and a preterm girl weighing 1000 g was born, but died 2 weeks after delivery. A year later, a second procedure was begun. Frozen oocytes and one vial of semen were thawed. Eight of the 14 oocytes survived and were microinjected; two became fertilized and one good quality cleaved embryo was transferred. Pregnancy was achieved and a healthy girl was born with a birth weight of 2800 g. Oocyte cryopreservation associated with sperm banking in cancer patients is a useful tool for couples seeking deferred parenthood. PMID:15670407

Notrica, Judith; Divita, Andrea; Neuspiller, Fernando; Arenas, Gabriela; de Fried, Ester Polak

2004-12-01

245

Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone. PMID:16020047

Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

2005-04-01

246

Virtual Conversation Partner for Adults with Autism.  

PubMed

Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD. PMID:20545476

Trepagnier, Cheryl Y; Olsen, Dale E; Boteler, Laura; Bell, Corinne A

2010-06-14

247

Virtual conversation partner for adults with autism.  

PubMed

Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD. PMID:21329439

Trepagnier, Cheryl Y; Olsen, Dale E; Boteler, Laura; Bell, Corinne A

2011-01-01

248

Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

2014-01-01

249

Silenced suffering: the need for a better understanding of partner sexual violence.  

PubMed

This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners. PMID:24379191

Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer

2015-04-01

250

Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.  

PubMed

Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility. PMID:18388488

Ramachandra, Rangappa

2008-01-01

251

Prioritizing partners across the continuum.  

PubMed

With the advent of accountable care organizations, bundled payments, value-based purchasing, and penalties for preventable hospital readmission, tight connections and collaboration across the care continuum will become critical to achieve successful patient outcomes and to reduce the cost of care delivery. Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN), the largest provider of health services in eastern Pennsylvania, set out on a journey to build collaborative relationships with skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in their eastern Pennsylvania community. LVHN desired SNF partners with mutual interests in improving quality of care and lowering costs of delivery where possible. Recognizing that not all SNFs are alike, LVHN developed a Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool to assess and prioritize skilled nursing facilities in an effort to determine those that would make the best collaborators. SNFs were reviewed based on their volume of mutual patients, quality of care delivery, and their perceived willingness to align with LVHN. Six variables were used to assess these facilities, including (1) patient discharge destination volume by SNF; (2) 30-day all-cause readmission rate to an LVHN hospital; (3) Medicare's Nursing Home Compare 5-Star Overall Rating; (4) the health network affiliation of the SNF's medical director; (5) the level of LVHN-employed or -affiliated physician presence at the SNF; and (6) the SNF's current participation in LVHN-sponsored programs and meetings. Through use of the Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool, it was discovered that roughly 70% of LVHN patients who required skilled nursing care following their inpatient stay received care at 1 of 20 SNFs. Of these, 5 facilities performed well on the 6-variable assessment, deeming them the "Tier 1 Facilities" to initially focus collaborative efforts. LVHN has strategically deployed physician resources and has increased physician presence at these "Tier 1 SNFs." These facilities have also gained remote read-only access to LVHN's inpatient electronic medical record and have had opportunity to participate in LVHN-sponsored programs. Special projects have been co-developed with several SNFs, including a telemedicine-based Parkinson's disease program to increase patient access to a neurologist specially trained in movement disorders. The Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool has become a powerful tool when used for prioritization of relationships and allocation of LVHN physicians and resources. Collaboration with strong SNF partners has offered a shared opportunity to improve quality of care, reduce costs, and prepare for the many policies affecting the health care industry. Future outcomes of this work will include quality metrics, such as readmissions, patient satisfaction with care, time for decision to admit, and overall costs of care. The data and metrics used to define the prioritization tool will continue to be adapted as the post-acute market and hospital-SNF relationships continue to evolve. PMID:23018039

Maly, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Susan; Jordan, M Kim; Davies, William J; Weiss, Michael J; Deitrick, Lynn; Salas-Lopez, Debbie

2012-11-01

252

Dancing cheek to cheek : haptic communication between partner dancers and swing as a finite state machine  

E-print Network

To see two expert partners, one leading and the other following, swing dance together is to watch a remarkable two-agent communication and control system in action. Even blindfolded, the follower can decode the leader's ...

Gentry, Sommer Elizabeth

2005-01-01

253

Actor-partner effects associated with experiencing intimate partner violence or coercion among male couples enrolled in an HIV prevention trial  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and coercion have been associated with negative health outcomes, including increased HIV risk behaviors, among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is the first study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with experiencing IPV or coercion among US MSM dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), an analytic framework to describe interdependent outcomes within dyads. Methods Among MSM couples enrolled as dyads in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial (RCT), two outcomes are examined in this cross-sectional analysis: 1) the actor experiencing physical or sexual IPV from the study partner in the past 3-months and 2) the actor feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by the study partner. Two multilevel APIM logistic regression models evaluated the association between each outcome and actor, partner, and dyad-level factors. Results Of 190 individuals (95 MSM couples), 14 reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV from their study partner in the past 3 months (7.3%) and 12 reported feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by their study partner (6.3%). Results of multivariate APIM analyses indicated that reporting experienced IPV was associated (p?partner education. Reporting experienced coercion was associated (p?partner education. Conclusions These findings from an HIV prevention RCT for MSM show considerable levels of IPV experienced in the past 3-months and coercion to participate in the research study, indicating the need for screening tools and support services for these behaviors. The identification of factors associated with IPV and coercion demonstrate the importance of considering actor and partner effects, as well as dyadic-level effects, to improve development of screening tools and support services for these outcomes. PMID:24580732

2014-01-01

254

ECHO Status for International Partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO) is a clearinghouse of spatial and temporal metadata, inclusive of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data holdings, that enables the science community to more easily exchange NASA data and information. Currently, ECHO has metadata descriptors for over 55 million individual data granules and 13 million browse images. The majority of ECHO's holdings come directly from data held in the NASA DAACs. The science disciplines and domains represented in ECHO are diverse and include metadata for all of NASA's Science Focus Area data. As middleware for a service-oriented enterprise, ECHO offers access to its capabilities through a set of publicly available Application Program Interfaces (APIs). More information about ECHO is available at http://eos.nasa.gov.echo. The presentation will discuss the status of the ECHO Partners, holdings, and activities, including the transition from the EOS Data Gateway to the Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST)

Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff

2006-01-01

255

The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction.  

PubMed

Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction. PMID:25655701

Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J

2015-03-01

256

Development of bovine embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): effect of gamete donors, sperm chromatin structure and activation treatment Vývoj bovinních embryí po intracytoplasmatické injikaci spermatu (ICSI): vliv dárce gamet, chromatinové struktury spermatu a aktiva?ního ošet?ení  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to study the effect of gamete donors, sperm chromatin structure and activa- tion procedure on ICSI outcome. Four experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, oocytes recovered from six donor cows by the ovum pick-up method (OPU) were matured and injected with the spermatozoa of one bull. The cleavage rate between individual donor cows ranged from

M. SKRZYSZOWSKA; Z. SMOR?G; L. K?TSKA; M. BOCHENEK; P. GOGOL; G. KANIA; B. RY?SKA

257

Spinophilin: from partners to functions.  

PubMed

Spinophilin/neurabin 2 has been isolated independently by two laboratories as a protein interacting with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and F-actin. Gene analysis and biochemical approaches have contributed to define a number of distinct modular domains in spinophilin that govern protein-protein interactions such as two F-actin-, three potential Src homology 3 (SH3)-, a receptor- and a PP1-binding domains, a PSD95/DLG/zo-1 (PDZ) and three coiled-coil domains, and a potential leucine/isoleucine zipper (LIZ) motif. More than 30 partner proteins of spinophilin have been discovered, including cytoskeletal and cell adhesion molecules, enzymes, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) and regulator of G-protein signalling protein, membrane receptors, ion channels and others proteins like the tumour suppressor ARF. The physiological relevance of some of these interactions remains to be demonstrated. However, spinophilin structure suggests that the protein is a multifunctional protein scaffold that regulates both membrane and cytoskeletal functions. Spinophilin plays important functions in the nervous system where it is implicated in spine morphology and density regulation, synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration. Spinophilin regulates also seven-transmembrane receptor signalling and may provide a link between some of these receptors and intracellular mitogenic signalling events dependent on p70(S6) kinase and Rac G protein-GEF. Strikingly a role for spinophilin in cell growth was demonstrated and this effect was enhanced by its interaction with ARF. Here we review the current knowledge of the protein partners of spinophilin and present the available data that are contributing to the appreciation of spinophilin functions. PMID:16737766

Sarrouilhe, D; di Tommaso, A; Métayé, T; Ladeveze, V

2006-09-01

258

ATP-binding cassette transporters protect sea urchin gametes and embryonic cells against the harmful effects of ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

Embryos of marine organisms whose development occurs externally are particularly sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light (bands A and B, respectively, UVA and UVB). ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the first line of cellular defense against chemical or physical stress. The present work investigated the involvement of ABC transporters on UVA or UVB effects on eggs, spermatozoa, and embryonic cells of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. Gametes or embryos were exposed to UVA (3.6-14.4?kJ?m(-2)) or UVB (0.112-14.4?kJ?m(-2)), and embryonic development was monitored by optical microscopy at different developmental stages in the presence or absence of the ABC-transporter blockers reversin205 (ABCB1 blocker) or MK571 (ABCC1 blocker). E. lucunter eggs, spermatozoa and embryos were resistant to UVA exposure. Resistance to the harmful effects of UVB was strongly associated to ABC transporter activity (embryos?>?eggs?>?spermatozoa). ABCB1 or ABCC1 blockage promoted the injurious effects of UVA on spermatozoa. ABCC1 transporter blockage increased UVB-dependent damage in eggs while ABCB1 transporter inhibition increased harmful effects of UVB in embryonic cells. ABC-transporter activity was not, however, affected by UVB exposure. In conclusion, the present study is the first report on the protective role of ABC transporters against harmful effects of UVA and UVB on sea urchin eggs and embryonic cells. PMID:24254332

Leite, Jocelmo Cássio de Araujo; de Vasconcelos, Raianna Boni; da Silva, Suélenn Guedes; de Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

2014-01-01

259

Novel sperm crypts and behavior of gametes in the fallopian tube of the white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula monacha.  

PubMed

The gametes of an insectivore, the white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula monacha, present certain idiosyncratic features not seen in most other eutherian mammals. The spermatozoa display an acrosome of giant proportions, and are produced in relatively small numbers. In trans-illuminated oviducts examined with DIC optics, spermatozoa were first sequestered in languid clutches within the isthmus in deep narrow crypts, with some eventually ingested by the crypt epithelium. Then, at ovulation (ca. 15 hr after hCG), many ascended to occupy "bubble-like" ciliated crypts distributed randomly within the ampulla, as active groups of acrosome-intact spermatozoa. However, eggs (3.95; range 2-6) were first retained for several hours and were fertilized in an upper crypt-free infundibulum before moving down to the ampulla. At fertilization, individual spermatozoa penetrate an unusually compact matrix-free cumulus oophorus which is stabilized by intercellular junctions, is insensitive to hyaluronidase, and persists for approximately 13 hr around fertilized and for approximately 24 hr around unfertilized eggs. In contrast to the free ampullary spermatozoa, active spermatozoa accumulating within the cumulus all had shed the acrosome, an observation consistent with evidence from other shrews suggesting that the cumulus may necessarily induce the acrosome reaction in this ancient line. Hypertrophy of the acrosome, isthmic sperm storage crypts, and stable cumulus oophorus that develops a peri-zona space, all may prove to be typically crocidurine characteristics of use where the classification of a shrew is in doubt. PMID:9063000

Bedford, J M; Phillips, D M; Mover-Lev, H

1997-02-15

260

Gamete derivation from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells: state of the art.  

PubMed

Generating gametes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has many scientific justifications and several biomedical rationales. Here, we consider several strategies for deriving gametes from PSCs from mice and primates (human and non-human) and their anticipated strengths, challenges and limitations. Although the 'Weismann barrier', which separates the mortal somatic cell lineages from the potentially immortal germline, has long existed, breakthroughs first in mice and now in humans are artificially creating germ cells from somatic cells. Spermatozoa with full reproductive viability establishing multiple generations of seemingly normal offspring have been reported in mice and, in humans, haploid spermatids with correct parent-of-origin imprints have been obtained. Similar progress with making oocytes has been published using mouse PSCs differentiated in vitro into primordial germ cells, which are then cultured after xenografting reconstructed artificial ovaries. Progress in making human oocytes artificially is proving challenging. The usefulness of these artificial gametes, from assessing environmental exposure toxicity to optimising medical treatments to prevent negative off-target effects on fertility, may prove invaluable, as may basic discoveries on the fundamental mechanisms of gametogenesis. PMID:25472048

Easley, Charles A; Simerly, Calvin R; Schatten, Gerald

2014-12-01

261

Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner.  

PubMed

The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women. PMID:24277856

Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

2013-12-10

262

Getting acquainted: Actor and partner effects of attachment and temperament on young children's peer behavior.  

PubMed

Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted. PMID:24635647

McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G

2014-06-01

263

Juggling Work Among Multiple Projects and Partner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research suggests people have trouble juggling effort across multiple projects with multiple partners. We investigated this problem, with an experiment where groups of four participants enacted the roles of police detectives. Each detective was assigned two homicide cases, each case with a different partner. To solve each case, detectives read their case documents and discussed relevant information with their

Peter Scupelli; Susan R. Fussell; Sara B. Kiesler; Pablo Quinones; Gail Kusbit

2007-01-01

264

The Relationship Talk: Assessing Partner Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211…

Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

2012-01-01

265

Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

2007-01-01

266

Partner influence on oral contraceptive discontinuation  

E-print Network

teenage mothers in East Los Angeles. Family PlanningTeenage partners‘ communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent—teenager discussions. Family PlanningTeenage partners‘ communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions. Family Planning

Kerns, Jennifer L

2002-01-01

267

Crack users' intentions to use condoms with different partner types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Evidence suggests that farmworkers are practicing high risk behavior, particularly crack cocaine use and unprotected sex, that consequently places them at an increased risk for HIV transmission. This study examined the intention to use condoms with four different sexual partner types (loved partner, casual partner, paying partner, and new partner) among a sample of farm workers who were also

Sherril L. Aversa; H. Virginia McCOY; Lee A. Crandall

1999-01-01

268

Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.  

PubMed

A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2?) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P?=?0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288

Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E; Moreno, Juan F; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Lammoglia, Miguel A; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V; Esperón-Sumano, A Enrique; Romo, Salvador

2013-01-01

269

Adaptive evolution of signaling partners.  

PubMed

Proteins that interact coevolve their structures. When mutation disrupts the interaction, compensation by the partner occurs to restore interaction otherwise counterselection occurs. We show in this study how a destabilizing mutation in one protein is compensated by a stabilizing mutation in its protein partner and their coevolving path. The pathway in this case and likely a general principle of coevolution is that the compensatory change must tolerate both the original and derived structures with equivalence in function and activity. Evolution of the structure of signaling elements in a network is constrained by specific protein pair interactions, by requisite conformational changes, and by catalytic activity. The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling is a paragon of this protein interaction/function complexity and our deep understanding of this pathway in diverse organisms lends itself to evolutionary study. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the G? subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. An important RGS-contact site is a hydroxyl-bearing residue on the switch I region of G? subunits in animals and most plants, such as Arabidopsis. The exception is the grasses (e.g., rice, maize, sugarcane, millets); these plants have G? subunits that replaced the critical hydroxyl-bearing threonine with a destabilizing asparagine shown to disrupt interaction between Arabidopsis RGS protein (AtRGS1) and the grass G? subunit. With one known exception (Setaria italica), grasses do not encode RGS genes. One parsimonious deduction is that the RGS gene was lost in the ancestor to the grasses and then recently acquired horizontally in the lineage S. italica from a nongrass monocot. Like all investigated grasses, S. italica has the G? subunit with the destabilizing asparagine residue in the protein interface but, unlike other known grass genomes, still encodes an expressed RGS gene, SiRGS1. SiRGS1 accelerates GTP hydrolysis at similar concentration of both G? subunits containing either the stabilizing (AtGPA1) or destabilizing (RGA1) interface residue. SiRGS1 does not use the hydroxyl-bearing residue on G? to promote GAP activity and has a larger G?-interface pocket fitting to the destabilizing G?. These findings indicate that SiRGS1 adapted to a deleterious mutation on G? using existing polymorphism in the RGS protein population. PMID:25568345

Urano, Daisuke; Dong, Taoran; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Jones, Alan M

2015-04-01

270

Emotional bookkeeping and high partner selectivity are necessary for the emergence of partner-specific reciprocal affiliation in an agent-based model of primate groups.  

PubMed

Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed) rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation. PMID:25785601

Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

2015-01-01

271

Emotional Bookkeeping and High Partner Selectivity Are Necessary for the Emergence of Partner-Specific Reciprocal Affiliation in an Agent-Based Model of Primate Groups  

PubMed Central

Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed) rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation. PMID:25785601

Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

2015-01-01

272

BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

2012-01-01

273

The stress response in gametes and embryos after paternal chemical exposures  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing concern that paternal exposure to toxic chemicals impacts negatively on progeny outcome. Exposure of male rats to a model male-mediated developmental toxicant and anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss, as well as in malformations. We hypothesize that the stage specificity of the effects of paternal cyclophosphamide exposure on progeny depends on the ability of germ cells to respond to stress, repair DNA or undergo apoptosis. Acute high dose exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide increased the expression of heat shock proteins and DNA repair genes, predominantly in round spermatids. In contrast, chronic low dose treatment dramatically decreased the expression of stress response genes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in elongated spermatids; this reduced ability to respond to stress may allow damage to accumulate, resulting in altered sperm function. Increased DNA damage was maximal 3 weeks after drug exposure, during spermiogenesis, a key point in sperm chromatin remodelling. Drug exposure for 9 weeks increased the frequency of spermatozoa with chromosome 4 disomy and nullisomy. DNA damage found in cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa was imparted to the newly fertilized zygote. Drug-exposed spermatozoa decondensed more rapidly than control spermatozoa and male pronuclear formation was earlier. RNA synthesis was higher in 1-cell embryos sired by drug-treated fathers than in controls. Significantly, the profile of gene expression was altered in embryos sired by drug-treated males as early as the 1-cell stage. Thus, exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide altered male germ cell quality with a consequent temporal and spatial disruption of the zygotic genome activation.

Hales, Barbara F. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada)]. E-mail: barbara.hales@mcgill.ca; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Robaire, Bernard [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2005-09-01

274

Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars  

PubMed Central

Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

2014-01-01

275

The Specification and Global Reprogramming of Histone Epigenetic Marks during Gamete Formation and Early Embryo Development in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

In addition to the DNA contributed by sperm and oocytes, embryos receive parent-specific epigenetic information that can include histone variants, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), and DNA methylation. However, a global view of how such marks are erased or retained during gamete formation and reprogrammed after fertilization is lacking. To focus on features conveyed by histones, we conducted a large-scale proteomic identification of histone variants and PTMs in sperm and mixed-stage embryo chromatin from C. elegans, a species that lacks conserved DNA methylation pathways. The fate of these histone marks was then tracked using immunostaining. Proteomic analysis found that sperm harbor ?2.4 fold lower levels of histone PTMs than embryos and revealed differences in classes of PTMs between sperm and embryos. Sperm chromatin repackaging involves the incorporation of the sperm-specific histone H2A variant HTAS-1, a widespread erasure of histone acetylation, and the retention of histone methylation at sites that mark the transcriptional history of chromatin domains during spermatogenesis. After fertilization, we show HTAS-1 and 6 histone PTM marks distinguish sperm and oocyte chromatin in the new embryo and characterize distinct paternal and maternal histone remodeling events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. These include the exchange of histone H2A that is marked by ubiquitination, retention of HTAS-1, removal of the H2A variant HTZ-1, and differential reprogramming of histone PTMs. This work identifies novel and conserved features of paternal chromatin that are specified during spermatogenesis and processed in the embryo. Furthermore, our results show that different species, even those with diverged DNA packaging and imprinting strategies, use conserved histone modification and removal mechanisms to reprogram epigenetic information. PMID:25299455

Samson, Mark; Jow, Margaret M.; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Aslanian, Aaron; Saucedo, Israel; Estrada, Rodrigo; Ito, Takashi; Park, Sung-kyu Robin; Yates, John R.; Chu, Diana S.

2014-01-01

276

Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

2014-09-01

277

An Essential Role for Katanin p80 and Microtubule Severing in Male Gamete Production  

PubMed Central

Katanin is an evolutionarily conserved microtubule-severing complex implicated in multiple aspects of microtubule dynamics. Katanin consists of a p60 severing enzyme and a p80 regulatory subunit. The p80 subunit is thought to regulate complex targeting and severing activity, but its precise role remains elusive. In lower-order species, the katanin complex has been shown to modulate mitotic and female meiotic spindle dynamics and flagella development. The in vivo function of katanin p80 in mammals is unknown. Here we show that katanin p80 is essential for male fertility. Specifically, through an analysis of a mouse loss-of-function allele (the Taily line), we demonstrate that katanin p80, most likely in association with p60, has an essential role in male meiotic spindle assembly and dissolution and the removal of midbody microtubules and, thus, cytokinesis. Katanin p80 also controls the formation, function, and dissolution of a microtubule structure intimately involved in defining sperm head shaping and sperm tail formation, the manchette, and plays a role in the formation of axoneme microtubules. Perturbed katanin p80 function, as evidenced in the Taily mouse, results in male sterility characterized by decreased sperm production, sperm with abnormal head shape, and a virtual absence of progressive motility. Collectively these data demonstrate that katanin p80 serves an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in several aspects of male germ cell development. PMID:22654669

O'Donnell, Liza; Rhodes, Danielle; Smith, Stephanie J.; Merriner, D. Jo; Clark, Brett J.; Borg, Claire; Whittle, Belinda; O'Connor, Anne E.; Smith, Lee B.; McNally, Francis J.; de Kretser, David M.; Goodnow, Chris C.; Ormandy, Chris J.; Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Bryan, Moira K.

2012-01-01

278

Effects of a Randomized Couple-Based Intervention on Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…

Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.

2010-01-01

279

Partners in Leadership for Pearl River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

2007-01-01

280

Preliminary Evaluation of a Coping Skills Training Program for Those with a Pathological-Gambling Partner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals living with a pathological-gambling partner can experience significant psychological distress. In this report, we conduct a preliminary evaluation of a coping skills training program (CST) for this population. Twenty-three individuals experiencing stress from living with a pathological-gambling partner who was not in treatment were randomly assigned to either CST or a delayed treatment control (DTC) condition. CST consisted of

Robert G. Rychtarik; Neil B. McGillicuddy

2006-01-01

281

Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control  

PubMed Central

The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function) seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent. PMID:25110702

Kaur, Kiranjeet; Prabha, Vijay

2014-01-01

282

The interpersonal worlds of bullies: parents, peers, and partners.  

PubMed

Research has yet to examine the social influences of parents, peers, and partners on bullying. This study explored the impact of social relationships on bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved participants. A sample of 370 college-age participants was asked about bullying, family environment, friends' illegal behavior, and conflict resolution tactics in romantic relationships. Results indicated controls came from more secure and engaged families. Bully/victims reported friends engaging in more illegal behaviors than victims and uninvolved participants. Bullies and bully/victims reported more psychological coercion from their romantic partner. A logistic regression revealed peer illegal behaviors, psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion in romantic relationships best predicted bullies from non-bullies (67.3%). Based on these results, the interpersonal world of those involved with bullying significantly impacts behaviors. PMID:24305866

Keelan, Colleen M; Schenk, Allison M; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J

2014-05-01

283

Intimate Partner Violence and Children’s Memory  

PubMed Central

The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084

Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.

2014-01-01

284

Immunological control of male fertility.  

PubMed

A notable feature of the male gametes is the presence in them of proteins that are "foreign" to the immune system of both male and the female. It is there that are considered responsible for the elicitation of auto- and iso-antibodies in certain natural infertility cases. By virtue of their dual application in both sexes the sperm antigens have interesting potential for exploration as possible agents for control of fertility. PMID:7283528

Talwar, G P; Naz, R K

1981-09-01

285

48 CFR 1852.236-75 - Partnering for construction contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Partnering for construction contracts. As prescribed in 1836...Partnering for Construction Contracts (AUG 1998) (a) The...beneficial, proactive, cooperative environment within which to achieve contract objectives and...

2010-10-01

286

My partner is also on my mind: social context modulates the N1 response.  

PubMed

When individuals share a task with a partner, one's own actions and one's partner's actions have to be precisely tuned to one another. With behavioral means, it has been numerously shown that splitting a simple reaction time task between two participants produces similar interference patterns to those occurring when controlling the whole task on one's own. Less is known about the neuronal correlates when sharing a task with a partner. The processes of agent identification ("my turn" vs. "my partner's turn") were the focus of this study. In an EEG study, pairs of participants responded to different action-associated stimuli in a Go/NoGo paradigm. The same task was performed together with a partner (joint Go/NoGo condition) and when a partner was not present (single Go/NoGo condition). This study showed a top-down influence of social setting on early visual processing as indexed by the Go-N1 and NoGo-N1 response. This effect was only present in the joint Go/NoGo condition. It was particularly present in those trials where the partner did not have to act. Taken together, these results yield evidence for an early top-down influence of social setting on early processes of stimulus identification and differentiation. PMID:25224703

Baess, Pamela; Prinz, Wolfgang

2015-01-01

287

Is sexual function in female partners of men with premature ejaculation compromised?  

PubMed

The authors enrolled 32 female partners of sexually active men with premature ejaculation to investigate their sexual functions. An age-matched sample of the same number women whose partners had no sexual dysfunction was also included. Premature ejaculation was defined for all participants as ejaculation that nearly always occurs before or within 2 min of vaginal penetration. An invitation letter was given to men with premature ejaculation to ask whether their female partners could be contacted about completing a questionnaire to measure female sexual status. On the basis of the Female Sexual Function Index, the average sexual function score was significantly lower in partners of men with premature ejaculation (21.8 ± 7.6) compared with that in healthy controls (25.9 ± 6.6). Female sexual dysfunction was diagnosed in 78% of women who has a male partner with premature ejaculation, while 40% of female partner of healthy men. All of the domain scores of Female Sexual Function Index, except the desire and pain levels, were significantly lower in female partners of men with premature ejaculation group than those of healthy subjects. PMID:24779361

Kaya, Cevdet; Gunes, Mustafa; Gokce, Ali Murat; Kalkan, Senad

2015-01-01

288

Glucose-Specific Enzyme IIA Has Unique Binding Partners in The Vibrio cholerae Biofilm  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Glucose-specific enzyme IIA (EIIAGlc) is a central regulator of bacterial metabolism and an intermediate in the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS), a conserved phosphotransfer cascade that controls carbohydrate transport. We previously reported that EIIAGlc activates transcription of the genes required for Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. While EIIAGlc modulates the function of many proteins through a direct interaction, none of the known regulatory binding partners of EIIAGlc activates biofilm formation. Therefore, we used tandem affinity purification (TAP) to compare binding partners of EIIAGlc in both planktonic and biofilm cells. A surprising number of novel EIIAGlc binding partners were identified predominantly under one condition or the other. Studies of planktonic cells revealed established partners of EIIAGlc, such as adenylate cyclase and glycerol kinase. In biofilms, MshH, a homolog of Escherichia coli CsrD, was found to be a dominant binding partner of EIIAGlc. Further studies revealed that MshH inhibits biofilm formation. This function was independent of the Carbon storage regulator (Csr) pathway and dependent on EIIAGlc. To explore the existence of multiprotein complexes centered on EIIAGlc, we also affinity purified the binding partners of adenylate cyclase from biofilm cells. In addition to EIIAGlc, this analysis yielded many of the same proteins that copurified with EIIAGlc. We hypothesize that EIIAGlc serves as a hub for multiprotein complexes and furthermore that these complexes may provide a mechanism for competitive and cooperative interactions between binding partners. PMID:23131828

Pickering, Bradley S.; Smith, Daniel R.; Watnick, Paula I.

2012-01-01

289

Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

2012-01-01

290

Partner support and maternal depression in the context of the Iowa floods.  

PubMed

A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576

Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

2014-12-01

291

JAMA Patient Page: Intimate Partner Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... to commit acts of violence against their partners. Women who have been abused may develop sleep disturbances, sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and malnutrition, and they may attempt suicide. ...

292

Robot Partners: Collaborative Perceptual Robotic Systems  

E-print Network

Robot Partners: Collaborative Perceptual Robotic Systems Working paper Cooperative Distributed robotic systems, including remote-brained soccer players, visually guided mobile robots, and visual been supported by the the Networks of Centres of Excellence Institute for Robotics and Intelligent

Little, Jim

293

Librarians work with other campus partners  

E-print Network

Literacy Librarians Develop Teaching and Learning Tools Librarians produce: · Online library research session for their class. Library computer classrooms foster interactive, hands-on learningLibrarians work with other campus partners Center for Teaching and Faculty Development www

Schweik, Charles M.

294

Kidventure Summer Camp Corporate Partners 2013  

E-print Network

Kidventure Summer Camp Corporate Partners 2013 Kidventure is proud to provide its Summer Camp for the children of Rice University employees at a discounted rate. Kidventure Camp Highlights · Programs for 3-15 Years of Age

295

Bioenergy Business Partner Information Gathering Form  

E-print Network

Incubator Program at (808) 9563547 or via email agincubator@ctahr.hawaii.edu. Direct questions to Janel Partner Information Gathering Form Fax completed form to the Agribusiness Incubator Program at (808

296

Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners  

MedlinePLUS

... you know? A new mother might not recognize depression or anxiety because she is tired, overwhelmed, or simply adjusting to life with a baby. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners Pregnancy and postpartum mood and ...

297

Influence of Partner Type on Condom Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined sexual risk reduction practices of inner-city African American women. Specifically, the intersection of condom use and partner type is examined through the effectiveness of a single session, one-to-one behavioral skills and motivational enhancement HIV prevention intervention for women at risk for HIV. At pre-intervention, women with non-regular partners reported higher frequency condom use than those with

Ernestine A. W. Duncan

2011-01-01

298

Health consequences of intimate partner violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reviews of US and Canadian population-based surveys during 1985-98, between 8 and 14% of women of all ages reported physical assault in the previous year by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-partner; the lifetime prevalence was between 25 and 30%. 1,2 Such assault is most often termed intimate partner violence in North America, with the definition usually including acts of

Jacquelyn C Campbell

2002-01-01

299

Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386

Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

2014-11-11

300

Interaction between Polo and BicD proteins links oocyte determination and meiosis control in Drosophila  

E-print Network

1 Interaction between Polo and BicD proteins links oocyte determination and meiosis control and meiosis control Key words : Polo, BicD, oocyte, meiosis, polarized transport 6999 words 1 INSERM U384 Univ/2006; 133(20): 4005-13 #12;2 SUMMARY Meiosis is a specialized cell cycle limited to the gametes in Metazoa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

Risk assessment of minute virus of mice transmission during rederivation: detection in reproductive organs, gametes, and embryos of mice after in vivo infection.  

PubMed

Murine parvoviruses, including minute virus of mice (MVM), represent major infectious disease problems encountered in contemporary laboratory animal research facilities with embryo transfer (ET), one of the most widely used techniques for rederivation. Using an in vivo approach, the objectives of this study were to assess the risk of MVM transmission during rederivation and to provide data that allow recommendation of preventive measures. Therefore, we determined whether immunosuppressive variant MVMi viral DNA is detectable in reproductive organs, gametes (oocytes and spermatozoa), and embryos collected from experimentally infected mice and whether washing as recommended before ET eliminates MVMi sufficiently from gametes and embryos. Fractions of reproductive organs tested positive from Day 5 to Day 30 postinoculation, demonstrating a risk for a minimum period of 4 wk; the highest incidence of positive organs was found between Day 9 and Day 13 postinoculation. Real-time PCR detected viral DNA to a lesser extent in male than in female reproductive organs. MVMi DNA was detected in oocytes and sperm cells derived after in vivo infection but not in two-cell embryos. In vitro contamination studies revealed that the virus firmly adheres to the zona pellucida after 10 wash steps, indicating that even extensive washing might not eliminate MVMi completely from embryos. According to this systematic in vivo approach, recommended measures to prevent transmission of MVM during rederivation include sufficient washing of embryos, accompanying testing using adequate (PCR) methods, and using embryos rather than in vitro fertilization techniques; furthermore, the exchange of gametes should be considered a risk factor. PMID:19553599

Janus, Lydia M; Smoczek, Anna; Hedrich, Hans-J; Bleich, Andre

2009-11-01

302

Change in relationship quality for partners from lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual couples.  

PubMed

Growth curves for relationship quality over the first 10 years of cohabitation, controlling for separation, were estimated on the basis of survey data obtained over part or all of this time interval. Participants were both partners from 95 lesbian, 92 gay male, and 226 heterosexual couples living without children, and both partners from 312 heterosexual couples living with children. Relative to other partners, those from lesbian couples showed the highest levels of relationship quality averaged over all assessments. Pattern of change in relationship quality varied by type of couple. Partners from lesbian and gay male couples showed no change, those from heterosexual couples without children showed an early phase of accelerated decline followed by a leveling off, and those from heterosexual couples with children showed an early phase of accelerated decline followed by a 2nd phase of accelerated decline. PMID:18855506

Kurdek, Lawrence A

2008-10-01

303

Jealousy and partner preference among butch and femme lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the differences in partner preference and jealousy among lesbians who identified themselves as butch or femme. We hypothesized that butch and femme lesbians would behave analogously to male and female heterosexual persons, with butches more attracted to a partner's physical appearance and more jealous of a partner's sexual behaviour and femmes more attracted to a partner's

Jonathan Bassett; Sharon Pearcey; James M. Dabbs Jr

2001-01-01

304

The nature of interfirm partnering in supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper conceptually integrates the antecedents and consequences of strategic and operational partnering. We suggest a continuum exists from strategic to operational partnering depending on the level of antecedents, orientation, and implementation. This paper, thus, expands the theory of partnering by providing an inclusive picture of the “partnering” phenomenon with the environmental pressures, antecedents, orientation, implementation, and consequences of strategic

John T Mentzer; Soonhong Min; Zach G Zacharia

2000-01-01

305

Opposite-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Certification Instructions  

E-print Network

Opposite-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Certification Instructions Adding an Opposite-Sex Domestic not return this form; keep for your own records. #12;Opposite-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Declaration of Tax Partner's Child To add a domestic partner's child: Complete and return the form(s) in this packet. You

Ziurys, Lucy M.

306

Organization of Partner Knowledge: Relationship Outcomes and Longitudinal Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between organization of knowledge about a romantic partner (partner structure) and relationship status (ongoing or ended) 1 year later. Ironically, partner structures that were associated with more positive feel- ings about one's partner at Time 1 were associated with greater rates of breakup by Time 2. These results are interpreted in terms of the vulnerability

Carolin J. Showers; Virgil Zeigler-Hill

2004-01-01

307

Preferential partner selection in an evolutionary study of Prisoner's Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partner selection is an important process in many social interactions, permitting individuals to decrease the risks associated with cooperation. In large populations, defectors may escape punishment by roving from partner to partner, but defectors in smaller populations risk social isolation. We investigate these possibilities for an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma in which agents use expected payoffs to choose and refuse partners.

Daniel Ashlock; Mark D. Smucker; E. Ann Stanley; Leigh S. Tesfatsion

1996-01-01

308

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Circumcised and Uncircumcised Adult Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring and transmitting a number of venereal infections. However, little is known about the association between male circumcision and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the female partner. The authors pooled data on 305 adult couples enrolled as controls in one of five case-control studies of invasive cervical cancer

Xavier Castellsague; Rosanna W. Peeling; Silvia Franceschi; Silvia de Sanjose; Jennifer S. Smith; Ginesa Albero; Mireia Diaz; Rolando Herrero; Nubia Munoz

309

Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running Head: Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence  

E-print Network

, path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence against them partner violence (IPV) are overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against women (Dobash & Dobash, 1992; Daly, benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings

Almor, Amit

310

Neural Responses to Partner Rejection Cues  

PubMed Central

Little is known about neural responses in the early automatic-stage processing of rejection cues from a partner. Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a window to study processes that may be difficult to detect via behavioral methods. We focused on the N400 ERP component, which reflects the amount of semantic processing prompted by a target. When participants were primed by attachment-related contexts (“If I need help from my partner, my partner will be …”), rejection-related words (e.g., dismissing) elicited greater N400 amplitudes than acceptance-related words (e.g., supporting). Analyses of results for nonattachment primes suggest that these findings were not simply caused by target valence; the brain responds differentially to cues of partner rejection versus acceptance in under 300 ms. Moreover, these early-stage neurophysiological responses were heightened or dampened as a function of individuals’ adult attachment; women characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance showed the greatest N400 responses to cues of partner rejection (vs. acceptance). PMID:19493321

Zayas, Vivian; Shoda, Yuichi; Mischel, Walter; Osterhout, Lee; Takahashi, Melissa

2009-01-01

311

Another way of being anisogamous in Drosophila subgenus species: giant sperm, one-to-one gamete ratio, and high zygote provisioning.  

PubMed Central

It is generally assumed that sexes in animals have arisen from a productivity versus provisioning conflict; males are those individuals producing gametes necessarily small, in excess, and individually bereft of all paternity assurance. A 1- to 2-cm sperm, 5-10 times as long as the male body, might therefore appear an evolutionary paradox. As a matter of fact, species of Drosophila of the Drosophila subgenus differ from those of other subgenera by producing exclusively sperm of that sort. We report counts of such giant costly sperm in Drosophila littoralis and Drosophila hydei females, indicating that they are offered in exceedingly small amounts, tending to a one-to-one gamete ratio after a single mating. As a result, most of them are successfully involved in a fertilization. Hence, the concept of "paternity assurance of individual sperm" arises. Evidence is further provided here that almost the entire sperm is incorporated into the egg during fertilization. Labeling with specific antibodies in fertilized eggs reveals intact axonemes up to late gastrulation. The question, then, is why selection has favored such an unusual strategy. Explanations related to some prefertilization functions are ruled out. It is therefore tentatively proposed that virtually every giant sperm constitutes a "direct paternal legacy to the embryo," which, in contrast to any male-derived nuptial gift, cannot be minimized by female remating. We suggest that dramatic shortage of giant sperm with a high prospect of fusion and increased zygote provisioning is merely another way of being anisogamous. Images PMID:7937962

Bressac, C; Fleury, A; Lachaise, D

1994-01-01

312

Microtus oeconomus (Rodentia), a useful mammal for studying the induction of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid gametes in male germ cells.  

PubMed Central

Preliminary data indicate that chemicals can also increase the frequency of sex-chromosome nondisjunction. Positive results--which certainly need further confirmation--have been obtained for MMS, p-fluorophenylalanine, vincristine, procarbazine, carbendazim, and bleomycin. Nocodazole, benomyl, colcemic, 6-mercaptopurine, and halothane were all negative at the concentrations tested. For the induction of diploid spermatids positive results were only obtained for MMS and parafluorophenylalanine. In view of the results obtained, the Microtus system is considered a very useful tool for analyzing factors contributing to the high frequency of aneuploidy and triploidy among abortuses and of aneuploidy in liveborn infants of men. A method is described for the detection of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid spermatids in male germ cells of the field vole Microtus oeconomus. The method is based on the unique distribution pattern of heterochromatin in Microtus cells, which makes it possible to identify X and Y chromosomes in early spermatids with a simple C-banding procedure. Slide preparation is easy. Scoring of early spermatids for extra sex-chromosomes is simple and 2000-4000 cells per hour can be examined. With the Microtus system it has now been demonstrated that radiation of spermatocyte stages with doses of 50, 100 and 200 R results in a higher frequency of sex chromosome nondisjunction and of diploid gametes. Both types of aberrant gametes can be produced during the first and second meiotic division. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:387396

Tates, A D

1979-01-01

313

Microtus oeconomus (Rodentia), a useful mammal for studying the induction of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid gametes in male germ cells.  

PubMed

Preliminary data indicate that chemicals can also increase the frequency of sex-chromosome nondisjunction. Positive results--which certainly need further confirmation--have been obtained for MMS, p-fluorophenylalanine, vincristine, procarbazine, carbendazim, and bleomycin. Nocodazole, benomyl, colcemic, 6-mercaptopurine, and halothane were all negative at the concentrations tested. For the induction of diploid spermatids positive results were only obtained for MMS and parafluorophenylalanine. In view of the results obtained, the Microtus system is considered a very useful tool for analyzing factors contributing to the high frequency of aneuploidy and triploidy among abortuses and of aneuploidy in liveborn infants of men. A method is described for the detection of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid spermatids in male germ cells of the field vole Microtus oeconomus. The method is based on the unique distribution pattern of heterochromatin in Microtus cells, which makes it possible to identify X and Y chromosomes in early spermatids with a simple C-banding procedure. Slide preparation is easy. Scoring of early spermatids for extra sex-chromosomes is simple and 2000-4000 cells per hour can be examined. With the Microtus system it has now been demonstrated that radiation of spermatocyte stages with doses of 50, 100 and 200 R results in a higher frequency of sex chromosome nondisjunction and of diploid gametes. Both types of aberrant gametes can be produced during the first and second meiotic division. PMID:387396

Tates, A D

1979-08-01

314

Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.  

PubMed

Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research. PMID:25540257

Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

2015-02-01

315

Adolescent pregnancy. Involvement of the male partner.  

PubMed

The role played by the male partner in an adolescent pregnancy was investigated. Questionnaires were completed by the male partners of 41 adolescent females who continued their pregnancy to term and attended an optional education program. Most fathers (81%) maintained an ongoing relationship with the mother and informed their own family about the pregnancy. Only 48% helped with the decision regarding the outcome of the pregnancy. Only 19% saw a health care professional to discuss the pregnancy and only 9% received contraceptive information. Our data suggest that a significant number of these males suffered negative psychosocial consequences such as depression and increased social isolation. We believe that more effort should be made to identify those males interested in participating in their partner's pregnancy, encourage them to play a role in the decision-making process regarding the outcome of the pregnancy, and provide them with contraceptive counseling and psychologic support. PMID:6643203

Vaz, R; Smolen, P; Miller, C

1983-12-01

316

Post-traumatic Disorder Symptoms and Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Production in Partners of Prostate Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F (1, 444.08) = 20.72, p < .001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (?2= 11.30, p=.01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F (1, 419.64) = 5.10, p < .01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC. PMID:22222119

Thomas, KaMala S.; Bower, Julienne E.; Williamson, Timothy J.; Hoyt, Michael A.; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L.; Irwin, Michael

2012-01-01

317

Intimate partner violence within law enforcement families.  

PubMed

Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The authors consulted general strain theory and angry aggression theory to explain domestic violence in police families. Significant positive effects on physical aggression toward an intimate partner were found for variables measuring authoritarian spillover and negative emotions. However, these effects were different for different gender and racial groups. PMID:20587471

Anderson, Anita S; Lo, Celia C

2011-04-01

318

Disclosure of microbicide gel use to sexual partners: influence on adherence in the CAPRISA 004 trial.  

PubMed

Young women in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV, making the development of women initiated and controlled methods of prevention, including microbicides, a priority. Adherence is pivotal to microbicide efficacy and partner related factors are known to impact adherence. An analysis of disclosure of gel use to sexual partners and adherence in CAPRISA 004 women was conducted to better understand this relationship. Partner disclosure was significantly associated with a modest 4.2 % increased adherence (71.0 vs. 66.8 %, p = 0.03). Most women rated the experience of disclosure as positive, despite 6.7 % of partners expressing a negative reaction.Participants who disclosed were more likely to reside with their regular partner (14.4 vs. 8.4 %; p = 0.01) and reported consistent condom use at baseline (32.9 vs. 20.9 %; p < 0.01). Partner disclosure needs to be better understood as a potential facilitator or barrier to microbicide adherence. PMID:24633715

Mngadi, Kathryn Therese; Maarschalk, Silvia; Grobler, Anneke C; Mansoor, Leila E; Frohlich, Janet A; Madlala, Bernadette; Ngcobo, Nelisiwe; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

2014-05-01

319

Quality of life in couples living with Huntington’s disease: the role of patients’ and partners’ illness perceptions  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that chronically ill patients and their partners perceive illness differently, and that these differences have a negative impact on patients’ quality of life (QoL). This study assessed whether illness perceptions of patients with Huntington’s disease (HD) differ from those of their partners, and examined whether spousal illness perceptions are important for the QoL of the couples (n = 51 couples). Partners reported that their HD-patient spouses suffered more symptoms and experienced less control than the patients themselves reported. Illness perceptions of patients and partners correlated significantly with patient QoL. Partners’ beliefs in a long duration of the patients’ illness and less belief in cure, were associated with patient vitality scores. Suggestions for future research emphasize the importance of qualitative research approaches in combination with cognitive-behavioural approaches. PMID:17375373

Scharloo, M.; Helder, D. I.; Snoei, L.; van Kempen, G. M. J.; Weinman, J.; van Houwelingen, J. C.; Roos, R. A. C.

2007-01-01

320

Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood  

PubMed Central

The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

321

Sound Partners. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Sound Partners" (Vadasy et al., 2004) is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides supplemental reading instruction to elementary school students grades K-3 with below average reading skills. The program is designed specifically for use by tutors with minimal training and experience. Instruction emphasizes letter-sound correspondences,…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

322

Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

2011-01-01

323

STAGE QUALITY-PARTNER CAHIER DES CHARGES  

E-print Network

STAGE QUALITY-PARTNER CAHIER DES CHARGES �LABORATION DE MODULES POUR UN FRAMEWORK (PHP/MYSQL) SUJET fluide du PHP littéral (l'écriture "objet" n'est pas suivie actuellement, PHP 5.4.x) Connaissance fluide" avec gestion des erreurs, transactions, réessais. o client SOAP (inclus dans PHP 5) --> rendre

Ernst, Damien

324

Librarians as Community Partners: An Outreach Handbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Including 66 focused snapshots of outreach in action, this resource reflects the creative solutions of librarians searching for new and innovative ways to build programs that meet customer needs while expanding the library's scope into the community. This contributed volume includes: (1) A huge array of program options for partnering with other…

Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

2010-01-01

325

Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

2009-01-01

326

Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes  

SciTech Connect

High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

Prahl, D.

2013-01-01

327

Children as Our Technology Design Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

"That's silly!" "I'm bored!" "I like that!" "Why do I have todo this?" "What is this for?" These are all importantresponses and questions that come from children. As ourdesign partners in developing new technologies, childrencan offer bluntly honest views of their world. They havetheir own likes, dislikes, and needs that are not the same asadults\\

Allison Druin; Ben Bederson; Angela Boltman; Adrian Miura; Debby Knotts-callahan; Mark Platt

1998-01-01

328

UMIC Day`13 Industry & Research partner sessions  

E-print Network

. At first Augmented reality application will be implemented in industrial companies. With the raiseUMIC Day`13 Industry & Research partner sessions Session 1 (15:1516:15) Speaker: Mostafa.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Aachen Technical University and holds a master`s degree

329

Changes in Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's experiences of partner violence, both before and during pregnancy, are described using a convenience sample of women recruited from prenatal clinics. Included were an “index group” of women who told their clinicians that they had been physically abused during pregnancy, and a “comparison group” of women who told their clinicians that they had not been physically abused during pregnancy

Sandra L. Martin; April Harris-Britt; Yun Li; Kathryn E. Moracco; Lawrence L. Kupper; Jacquelyn C. Campbell

2004-01-01

330

Intimate Partner Violence of Rural Aging Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) decrease with age, a significant number of aging women experience IPV in their relationships. The structure and culture of rural environments may inadvertently conceal violence against aging women and inhibit prevention and treatment efforts. Guided by an ecological community framework, 3 focus…

Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.; Dugar, Tyler A.

2006-01-01

331

The USGS Partners with Professional Beekeepers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Clint Otto, a research ecologist at the USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, partners with professional beekeepers in North Dakota to evaluate what plant species honey bees forage on and when.  Society needs healthy bees and other insects to pollinate crops, but land use change...

332

Parents-as-Partners-as-Learners Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on the Parents-as-Partners-as-Learners project that is designed to encourage a love of reading in children and to increase communication between the home and school. Section A is an overview of the four phases of the project that are initiated by an adult literacy animator (facilitator) in a primary school: Phase I,…

Fear, Marion

333

Pennsylvania`s community partnering plan  

SciTech Connect

Pennsylvania has had a positive response to a switch to a volunteer approach for finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. This article describes the plan and how it has been received: plan elements; reaction to the community partnering plan; the prospects; the facility. 5 figs.

Burk, J.

1996-09-01

334

Partners in the Wildland-Urban Interface  

E-print Network

Partners in the Wildland-Urban Interface #12;Partnerships in Sustainable Tourism Development-million dollar private sector tourism development projects proposed for the small town of Canmore, adjacent-interests and collective- interests in tourism development projects could help ensure that sustainable tourism occurs

Standiford, Richard B.

335

Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

2011-01-01

336

Women's Response to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The responses of women to a situation of abuse by their partner has hardly been addressed in the literature. Using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, 400 women attending three practices in a primary health care center in Granada (Spain) were studied. The women's response to abuse was used as a dependent variable. Sociodemographics,…

Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Mata-Pariente, Nelva; Plazaola-Castano, Juncal

2006-01-01

337

Risk Recognition and Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…

Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel

2010-01-01

338

Making the Most of a Teaching Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers often miss opportunities to use their classroom computers as teaching partners because of a lack of knowledge or confidence about how the computers can support learning. Internet-connected computers can enable teachers to access well-designed websites that support literacy instruction and involve students in interactive responses to…

Hamilton, Boni

2009-01-01

339

Sustained Engagement with a Single Community Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As scholarly work has recently turned its attention to the role of the community partner in Community Service-Learning (CSL) relationships, empirical frameworks for describing and executing community partnerships have emerged. This article applies those frameworks to one such partnership, which is presented from the perspective of both the…

Lear, Darcy W.; Sanchez, Alejandro

2013-01-01

340

U.S.-Brazil: Partners in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Partners of the Americas, a 22-year-old private organization that has arranged mutually beneficial partnerships between 44 states of the United States and 28 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, is described. The Brazil-U.S. partnerships, establishing special linkages between universities, are discussed. (MLW)

Harrison, Charles

1986-01-01

341

Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.  

PubMed

There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships. PMID:25402720

Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

2015-04-01

342

"Do you think your main partner has other sex partners?" A simple question provides insight into sexual risk in Jamaica.  

PubMed

To estimate the association between a simple measure of sexual partner concurrency and sexually transmitted infection (STI) we conducted a cross-sectional population-based household survey (n?=?1795) and targeted surveys of people at venues where people meet sexual partners (n?=?1580) to ask about sexual behaviour. Persons interviewed at venues were tested for HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. We compared the association between STI and reporting a partner had other partners. More women than men reported their main partner had other partners. Thirteen percent of all women in the population-based survey and 14.4% in the targeted survey reported having one partner in the past 12 months and that partner had additional partners. STI prevalence was significantly associated with reporting a partner had other partners (36.8% vs. 30.2%; prevalence ratio [PR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.4). Construction of complete sexual networks is costly and not routinely feasible. We recommend adding a question to cross-sectional surveys used to monitor sexual behaviour about whether the respondent believes his or her partner has other sexual partners. Although subject to bias, the question was useful in Jamaica to identify a group of women with only one sexual partner at increased risk of infection. PMID:24695013

Weir, Sharon S; Figueroa, J Peter; Byfield, Lovette L; Scott, Marion A; Hobbs, Marcia M; Edwards, Jessie E; Duncan, Jacqueline P

2015-01-01

343

Cripto, a Multifunctional Partner in Signaling: Molecular Forms and Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Within a multicellular organism, communication between cells is essential during development to ensure proper execution of cell migration, cell fate decisions, and differentiation events. It is also essential in the adult for the coordination of many physiological functions. Cell-to-cell communications often rely on the interaction of cell surface receptors with soluble or membrane-bound ligands. Receptors or ligands may interact with additional partners to trigger specific signaling cascades inside the cell. In most cases, partners act in a specific configuration, either as a diffusible "co-ligand" or a membrane-bound co-receptor. Here, we examine the case of Cripto, a signaling molecule that has prominent functions during vertebrate development. Conflicting results have suggested that Cripto has the unusual capacity to act both as a secreted ligand and as a cell surface component to control a single signaling pathway. Here, we review the recent experiments that attempt to reconcile those results. Furthermore, three reports have described the fact that Cripto is modified by the addition of sugar residues, including a rare case of fucosylation. These modifications are essential for Cripto function, suggesting that, as is the case for other key developmental or physiological regulators such as Notch or selectins, the activity of Cripto may be controlled by the extent of its glycosylation or fucosylation (or both).

Frederic M. Rosa (Ecole Normale Superieure; Groupe Danio REV)

2002-11-12

344

Genetic Control of Hotspots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the exception of identical twins, individuals have different genetic makeup, which results from two key processes. During meiosis, maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes assort randomly to form daughter cells (gametes), thus generating different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Additional variation is generated by recombinations or crossovers, in which parts of homologous chromosomes are exchanged, resulting in a new combination of parental alleles. Parvanov et al., Baudat et al., and Myers et al. report the identification of a mammalian geneâ??PR domain containing 9 (PRDM9)â??that controls the extent to which crossovers occur in preferred chromosomal locations, known as "hotspots."

Vivian Cheung (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics)

2010-02-12

345

Efficiency of partner choice and sanctions in Lotus is not altered by nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic hosts must exhibit control mechanisms to select against ineffective bacterial symbionts. Hosts can minimize infection by less-effective symbionts (partner choice) and can divest of uncooperative bacteria after infection (sanctions). Yet, such host-control traits are predicted to be context dependent, especially if they are costly for hosts to express or maintain. Legumes form symbiosis with rhizobia that vary in symbiotic effectiveness (nitrogen fixation) and can enforce partner choice as well as sanctions. In nature, legumes acquire fixed nitrogen from both rhizobia and soils, and nitrogen deposition is rapidly enriching soils globally. If soil nitrogen is abundant, we predict host control to be downregulated, potentially allowing invasion of ineffective symbionts. We experimentally manipulated soil nitrogen to examine context dependence in host control. We co-inoculated Lotus strigosus from nitrogen depauperate soils with pairs of Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness and fertilized plants with either zero nitrogen or growth maximizing nitrogen. We found efficient partner choice and sanctions regardless of nitrogen fertilization, symbiotic partner combination or growth season. Strikingly, host control was efficient even when L. strigosus gained no significant benefit from rhizobial infection, suggesting that these traits are resilient to short-term changes in extrinsic nitrogen, whether natural or anthropogenic. PMID:24573843

Regus, John U; Gano, Kelsey A; Hollowell, Amanda C; Sachs, Joel L

2014-04-22

346

Partner's Influences and Other Correlates of Prenatal Alcohol Use.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of partners on alcohol consumption in pregnant women within the context of other factors. A Dutch nationwide online cross-sectional study among 158 pregnant women and their partners was conducted. To identify correlates of prenatal alcohol use, including perceived and reported partner norm (i.e. partner's belief regarding acceptability of prenatal alcohol use), partner modeling (i.e. partner's alcohol use during the woman's pregnancy) and partner support (i.e. partner's help in abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy), independent sample T-tests and Chi square tests were conducted. Correlation analyses tested the relationship between perceived and reported partner influence. Multivariate logistic hierarchical regression analyses tested the independent impact of partner's perceived and reported influence next to other correlates from the I-Change Model. Pregnant women who consumed alcohol perceived a weaker partner norm (p < 0.001) and less partner modeling (p < 0.05), with the partner reporting a weaker norm (p < 0.001), more drinking days per week (p < 0.05) and weaker support (p < 0.05). Perceived and reported partner norm, modeling and support were positively related (respectively p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). The multivariate analyses demonstrated that pregnant women with a higher education who perceived lower severity of harm due to prenatal alcohol use and a weaker partner norm were more likely to use alcohol (R(2) = 0.42). This study demonstrated that perceived partner norm was the most critical of the constructs of perceived and reported partner influences in explaining prenatal alcohol use. PMID:25087003

van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein

2015-04-01

347

Ants Use Partner Specific Odors to Learn to Recognize a Mutualistic Partner  

PubMed Central

Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants. PMID:24489690

Hojo, Masaru K.; Yamamoto, Ari; Akino, Toshiharu; Tsuji, Kazuki; Yamaoka, Ryohei

2014-01-01

348

77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth...

2012-12-31

349

26 CFR 1.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...not substantial if, at the time the allocation...economic consequences of at least one partner...not substantial in the two situations described...not substantial if, at the time the allocation... ) Partners that are look-through entities...

2012-04-01

350

26 CFR 1.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not substantial if, at the time the allocation...economic consequences of at least one partner...not substantial in the two situations described...not substantial if, at the time the allocation... ) Partners that are look-through entities...

2011-04-01

351

Uncovering neighbourhood influences on intimate partner violence using concept mapping  

PubMed Central

While neighbourhood influences on the risk of intimate partner violence have been reported, this body of research has suffered from a lack of strong theoretical and conceptual guidance, and few studies have examined the potential pathways from neighbourhoods to intimate partner violence. This paper used concept mapping methods with 37 women who were residents of Baltimore City to obtain cluster maps representing the important neighbourhood domains that affect the prevalence, perpetration, severity, and cessation of intimate partner violence. Domains important for intimate partner severity and perpetration differed from those important for cessation of intimate partner violence. Finally, diagrams of the domains, drawn by the concept mapping participants, illustrated the pathways by which neighbourhood characteristics potentially influence intimate partner violence severity, perpetration, and cessation. These results can be used to generate testable hypotheses regarding neighbourhood influences on intimate partner violence in future quantitative research and to inform the design of public health intimate partner violence programmes. PMID:15965146

O'Campo, P.; Burke, J.; Peak, G. L.; McDonnell, K.; Gielen, A.

2005-01-01

352

12 CFR 1710.18 - Change of audit partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not accept audit services from an external auditing firm if the lead or coordinating audit partner who has primary responsibility for the external...

2013-01-01

353

12 CFR 1710.18 - Change of audit partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not accept audit services from an external auditing firm if the lead or coordinating audit partner who has primary responsibility for the external...

2014-01-01

354

12 CFR 1710.18 - Change of audit partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not accept audit services from an external auditing firm if the lead or coordinating audit partner who has primary responsibility for the external...

2012-01-01

355

12 CFR 1710.18 - Change of audit partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not accept audit services from an external auditing firm if the lead or coordinating audit partner who has primary responsibility for the external...

2010-01-01

356

12 CFR 1710.18 - Change of audit partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.18 Change of audit partner. An Enterprise may not accept audit services from an external auditing firm if the lead or coordinating audit partner who has primary responsibility for the external...

2011-01-01

357

Environmental concentrations of irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor induce deleterious effects on gametes and embryos of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

Irgarol and diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replace organotin compounds in antifouling paints, and metolachlor is one of the most extensively used chloroacetamide herbicides in agriculture. The toxicity of S-metolachlor, irgarol and diuron was evaluated in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes or embryos exposed to concentrations of pesticides ranging from 0.1× to 1000×, with 1× corresponding to environmental concentrations of the three studied pesticides in Arcachon Bay (France). Exposures were performed on (1) spermatozoa alone (2) oocytes alone and (3) both spermatozoa and oocytes, and adverse effects on fertilization success and offspring development were recorded. The results showed that the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was significantly affected after gamete exposure to pesticide concentrations as low as 1× of irgarol and diuron and 10× of metolachlor. The offspring obtained from pesticide-exposed spermatozoa displayed a dose-dependent increase in developmental abnormalities. In contrast, treating oocytes with pesticide concentrations up to 10× did not alter fertilization rate and offspring quality. However, a significant decline in fertilization success and increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence were observed at higher concentrations 10× (0.1 ?g L(-1)) for S-metolachlor and 100× for irgarol (1.0 ?g L(-1)) and diuron (4.0 ?g L(-1)). Irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor also induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence when freshly fertilized embryos were treated with pesticide concentrations as low as concentration of 1× (0.01 ?g L(-1) for irgarol or S-metolachlor, and 0.04 ?g L(-1) for diuron). The two bioassays on C. gigas spermatozoa and embryos displayed similar sensitivities to the studied pesticides while oocytes were less sensitive. Diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor induced spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations and therefore might be a threat to oyster recruitment in coastal areas facing chronic inputs of pesticides. PMID:23727205

Mai, Huong; Morin, Bénédicte; Pardon, Patrick; Gonzalez, Patrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme

2013-08-01

358

Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3) compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The higher the education level of the women the less the likelihood of experiencing PIPV (ptrend?partners is a strong determinant of PIPV among women in Uganda. PIPV prevention measures should address reduction of problem drinking among men. Longerterm prevention measures should address empowerment of women including ensuring higher education, employment and increased income. PMID:22672439

2012-01-01

359

Association of Violence against Partner and Former Victim Experiences: A Sample of Clients Voluntarily Attending Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…

Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

2011-01-01

360

Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control

Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

2010-01-01

361

Building trust in construction partnering projects: An exploratory case-study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper generates insights into the establishment and maintenance of cooperative, trusting relationships in partnering projects between client and contractor organizations. For this purpose we first explore the concept of trust, and review the literature on trust in inter-organizational relationships. We describe how trust is related to risk, control and performance, and how initial conditions and expectations may lead to

Albertus Laan; Niels Noorderhaven; Hans Voordijk; Geert Dewulf

2011-01-01

362

The cleaning goby mutualism: a system without punishment, partner switching or tactile stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cleanerfish-client mutualism involving the Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus and its reef fish clients, mechanisms such as 'tactile stimula- tion', partner switching and punishment are used by clients to control cheating by cleaners. We sought to establish whether these behaviours are general features of cleaning mutualisms by examining their presence in interactions between Caribbean cleaning gobies (Elacatinus spp.)

M. C. Soares; I. M. Cote ´; S. C. Cardoso; R. Bshary; Unidade de Investigacao; Jean-Nicolas Volff

363

The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…

Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

2010-01-01

364

The Role of the Social Partners in Youth and Adult Vocational Education and Training in Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document about Denmark has the following four aims: (1) to provide an overview on the vocational education and training system; (2) to describe and evaluate the social partners' (employers, employers' organizations, and unions) role in implementation, management, and control in relation to the vocational training system; (3) to outline the…

Sorensen, John Houman; Jensen, Grethe

365

An Examination of Whether Coordinated Community Responses Affect Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the impact of coordinated community response (CCR) on reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) and on modifying knowledge and attitudes. The authors conduct hierarchical linear modeling of data from a stratified random-digit dial telephone survey (n = 12,039) in 10 test and 10 control sites, which include 23 counties from different regions in the United States, to establish

Lori Ann Post; Joanne Klevens; Christopher D. Maxwell; Gene A. Shelley; Eben Ingram

2010-01-01

366

Implicit Attitudes toward Violence among Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of…

Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

2012-01-01

367

Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

2007-01-01

368

An Examination of Whether Coordinated Community Responses Affect Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tests the impact of coordinated community response (CCR) on reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) and on modifying knowledge and attitudes. The authors conduct hierarchical linear modeling of data from a stratified random-digit dial telephone survey (n = 12,039) in 10 test and 10 control sites, which include 23 counties from…

Post, Lori Ann; Klevens, Joanne; Maxwell, Christopher D.; Shelley, Gene A.; Ingram, Eben

2010-01-01

369

Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

2012-01-01

370

Domestic Partner Health Insurance Stipend (DPHIS) Program Partnership Certification  

E-print Network

Domestic Partner Health Insurance Stipend (DPHIS) Program Partnership Certification Employee ID: E will provide proof of domestic partner's health insurance coverage and premium payment as required 9. neither, show documentation that his or her employer does not provide health insurance coverage, or the partner

Fernandez, Eduardo

371

Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Male Alcoholic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male-to-female partner violence was investigated in heterosexual couples with an alcoholic male partner. Partner violent (PV) alcoholic patients (n = 183), when compared with nonviolent (NV) alcoholic patients (n = 120), had more antisocial personality characteristics, greater alcohol problem severity, greater use of other drugs, higher relationship distress, and stronger beliefs in the link between alcohol consumption and relationship problems.

Christopher M. Murphy; Timothy J. OFarrell; William Fals-Stewart; Michael Feehan

2001-01-01

372

Arizona Department of Administration Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child  

E-print Network

Arizona Department of Administration Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Declaration of Tax Status, _________________________________________________, declare ______________________________________________ as my Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child. Print Name of Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child I understand that my employer has a legitimate need to know

Ziurys, Lucy M.

373

Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner

Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

2012-01-01

374

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. METHODS:

Joseph Ntaganira; Adamson S Muula; Florence Masaisa; Fidens Dusabeyezu; Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira

2008-01-01

375

The Language Partner Program The University of Winnipeg  

E-print Network

as understanding of different cultures is learned and shared by both partners. What do language partners do and differences in culture Have a chance to share knowledge about their own language and culture The Volunteers AThe Language Partner Program The University of Winnipeg English Language Program What is a Language

Martin, Jeff

376

The Language Partner Program The University of Winnipeg  

E-print Network

country and differences in culture Have a chance to share knowledge about their own language and cultureThe Language Partner Program The University of Winnipeg English Language Program What is a Language Partner? Language partners are native (or fluent) English speaking volunteers who give EAL

Martin, Jeff

377

Perceptions of partner drinking problems, regulation strategies and relationship outcomes.  

PubMed

The current research evaluates how perceptions of one's partner's drinking problem relate to attempts to regulate partner behavior and relationship functioning, and whether this varies by perceptions of one's own drinking. New measures are offered for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and Partner Management Strategies (PMS). Participants included 702 undergraduates who had been in a romantic relationship for at least three months. Participants completed an online survey assessing perceptions of problematic drinking for one's self and partner, ways in which attempts were made to regulate or restrain their partner's drinking, relationship outcomes (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, trust, and need fulfillment), and alcohol use and consequences for self and partner. Factor analyses supported a single factor for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and two factors for the Partner Management Strategies (PMS) scale (i.e., punishment and reward). Results using structural equation modeling indicated that perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with lower relationship functioning. Further, this association was mediated by strategies using punishment aimed at changing one's partner's drinking, but was not mediated by strategies using rewards. Finally, moderation results suggested that this relationship was not as detrimental for participants who perceived they also had an alcohol problem. In sum, perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with relationship problems through punishing regulation strategies, and was weaker among individuals who also perceived themselves to have a drinking problem. PMID:24070719

Rodriguez, Lindsey M; DiBello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-12-01

378

Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

2010-05-01

379

Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

2010-07-01

380

HPV genotypes concordance between sex partners.  

PubMed

The HPV genotype concordance in the sexual couples could support the sexual viral transmission of HPV infection. The present study contains a case-report of a stable Italian sex couple harbouring the same five HPV genotypes in their genital samples. The female partner, affected by vulvar condilomatosis, evidenced positivity in her cervicovaginal scraping with high risk HPV DNA Hybrid Capture 2 test and was negative at liquid-based performed Pap Test and at colposcopic examination. The male partner was clinically healthy regarding his external genitalia. In both male and female genital scrapings, the following HPV genotypes were detected by means of a PCR-based assay: 6, 16, 53, 73 and 84. This considerably high genotype concordance does not appear to be casual and supports, in our opinion, the hypothesis that genital HPV types are sexually transmitted agents PMID:18365561

Benevolo, M; Mottolese, M; Marandino, F; Carosi, M; Diodoro, M G; Sentinelli, S; Visca, P; Rollo, F; Mariani, L; Vocaturo, G; Sindico, R; Di Giannuario, D; Perrone Donnorso, R; Pellicciotta, M; Vocaturo, A

2007-12-01

381

Women's response to intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

The responses of women to a situation of abuse by their partner has hardly been addressed in the literature. Using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, 400 women attending three practices in a primary health care center in Granada (Spain) were studied. The women's response to abuse was used as a dependent variable. Sociodemographics, intensity, duration, and combination of the types of abuse were used as independent variables. Lifetime prevalence of any type of partner abuse was 22.8%. Of abused women, 68% showed an active response, attempting to resolve the situation mainly through separation (58.2%). The factors independently associated with a woman's active response were being separated, widowed, or divorced; reporting a greater intensity of abuse; and being younger than age 35 years. The results of this study show that a large majority of abused women in Spain try to resolve their situation, and that they are not passive victims. PMID:16893963

Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Mata-Pariente, Nelva; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal

2006-09-01

382

PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105 radio astronomical remote observations have been performed with users. Until now, more than 2,000 students have been involved in radio astronomical observations.

Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

2010-10-01

383

Editor's Note: Plants and Their Partners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants are a ubiquitous piece of the elementary science curriculum. By the time they reach middle school, students have often grown enough bean seeds to feed a small city. Often these lessons don't "grow" deeper ideas from the basic observations of plant germination. To cultivate your students' understanding of plants, this month's column sheds light on a selection of engaging activities in this issue, which is devoted to the theme, "Plants and their Partners."

Chris Ohana

2009-02-01

384

Nurses Christian Fellowship International: Partners in Care.  

PubMed

The Nurses Christian Fellowship International Quadrennial Conference was held November 5-10, 2012, in Santiago, Chile. The theme, "Partners in Care: Unity in diversity through Christ" brought together nurses from all over the world for Bible teaching, education, networking, and fellowship. Plenary and session abstracts are available as supplemental digital content through the HTML and PDF versions of this article at journalofchristiannursing.com. PMID:23607156

White, Barbara

2013-01-01

385

Novel ALK fusion partners in lung cancer.  

PubMed

Detection of ALK rearrangements in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a significant technical challenge due to the existence of multiple translocation partners and break-points. To improve the performance of PCR-based tests, we utilized the combination of 2 assays, i.e. the variant-specific PCR for the 5 most common ALK rearrangements and the test for unbalanced 5'/3'-end ALK expression. Overall, convincing evidence for the presence of ALK translocation was obtained for 34/400 (8.5%) cases, including 14 EML4ex13/ALKex20, 12 EML4ex6/ALKex20, 3 EML4ex18/ALKex20, 2 EML4ex20/ALKex20 variants and 3 tumors with novel translocation partners. 386 (96.5%) out of 400 EGFR mutation-negative NSCLCs were concordant for both tests, being either positive (n?=?26) or negative (n?=?360) for ALK translocation; 49 of these samples (6 ALK+, 43 ALK-) were further evaluated by FISH, and there were no instances of disagreement. Among the 14 (3.5%) "discordant" tumors, 5 demonstrated ALK translocation by the first but not by the second PCR assay, and 9 had unbalanced ALK expression in the absence of known ALK fusion variants. 5 samples from the latter group were subjected to FISH, and the presence of translocation was confirmed in 2 cases. Next generation sequencing analysis of these 2 samples identified novel translocation partners, DCTN1 and SQSTM1; furthermore, the DCTN1/ALK fusion was also found in another NSCLC sample with unbalanced 5'/3'-end ALK expression, indicating a recurrent nature of this translocation. We conclude that the combination of 2 different PCR tests is a viable approach for the diagnostics of ALK rearrangements. Systematic typing of ALK fusions is likely to reveal new NSCLC-specific ALK partners. PMID:25813404

Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Raskin, Grigory A; Tiurin, Vladislav I; Sokolenko, Anna P; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Aleksakhina, Svetlana N; Garifullina, Aigul R; Strelkova, Tatiana N; Merkulov, Valery O; Ivantsov, Alexandr O; Kuligina, Ekatherina Sh; Pozharisski, Kazimir M; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

2015-06-28

386

Two-Player Partnered Exergame for Obesity Prevention: Using Discrepancy in Players’ Abilities as a Strategy to Motivate Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames—video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players’ duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject’s (S’) persistence with the task. Method Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner’s performance was manipulated to be always better than the S’s, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Results Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control condition (M = -49.04 s). Subjects demonstrated more persistence in the moderate-discrepancy condition (M = 51.36 s) than in the low-discrepancy condition (M = 22.52 s) or the high-discrepancy condition (M = 26.89 s). A significant quadratic trend confirmed the expected inverted-U function relating partner discrepancy and persistence (p = .025). Although Ss persisted longer and had higher heart rate in partnered conditions, they did not perceive their exertion to be any higher than those in the individual condition. Conclusions Virtually presented partners who are moderately more capable than participants are the most effective at improving persistence in exergame tasks. PMID:22920808

Feltz, Deborah L.; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

2012-01-01

387

Do aphids actively search for ant partners?  

PubMed

The aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbor ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants' services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially toward ant-frequented plants. However, our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies. PMID:24659520

Fischer, Christophe Y; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges C; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, François J

2015-04-01

388

Neutrino Masses from Neutral Top Partners  

E-print Network

We present theories of `Natural Neutrinos' in which neutral fermionic top partner fields are simultaneously the right-handed neutrinos (RHN), linking seemingly disparate aspects of the Standard Model structure: a) The RHN top partners are responsible for the observed small neutrino masses, b) They help ameliorate the tuning in the weak scale and address the little hierarchy problem, and c) The factor of $3$ arising from $N_c$ in the top-loop Higgs mass corrections is countered by a factor $3$ from the number of vector-like generations of RHN. The RHN top partners may arise in pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson (pNGB) Higgs models such as the Twin Higgs, as well as more general Composite, Little, and Orbifold Higgs scenarios, and three simple example models are presented. This framework firmly predicts a TeV-scale seesaw, as the RHN masses are bounded to be below the TeV scale by naturalness. The generation of light neutrino masses relies on a collective breaking of lepton number, allowing for comparatively large ne...

Batell, Brian

2015-01-01

389

Intimate partner violence: IPV in the LGBT community.  

PubMed

Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263

Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

2013-09-01

390

The impact of intimate partner violence on women's condom negotiation efficacy.  

PubMed

HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV. PMID:21987514

Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J

2012-03-01

391

Why Do Women Use Intimate Partner Violence? A Systematic Review of Women’s Motivations  

PubMed Central

Studies report that women use as much or more physical intimate partner violence (IPV) as men. Most of these studies measure IPV by counting the number of IPV acts over a specified time period, but counting acts captures only one aspect of this complex phenomenon. To inform interventions, women’s motivations for using IPV must be understood. A systematic review therefore was conducted to summarize evidence regarding women’s motivations for the use of physical IPV in heterosexual relationships. Four published literature databases were searched, and. articles that met inclusion criteria were abstracted. This was supplemented with a bibliography search and expert consultation. Eligible studies included English-language publications that directly investigated heterosexual women’s motivations for perpetrating non-lethal, physical IPV. Of the 144 potentially eligible articles, 23 met inclusion criteria. Over two-thirds of studies enrolled participants from IPV shelters, courts, or batterers’ treatment programs. Women’s motivations were primarily assessed through interviews or administration of an author-created questionnaire. Anger and not being able to get a partner’s attention were pervasive themes. Self-defense and retaliation also were commonly cited motivations, but distinguishing the two was difficult in some studies. Control was mentioned, but not listed as a primary motivation. IPV prevention and treatment programs should explore ways to effectively address women’s relationship concerns and ability to manage anger, and should recognize that women commonly use IPV in response to their partner’s violence. PMID:20823071

Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica; Trent, Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn

2010-01-01

392

Prenatal Stress, Partner Support, and Infant Cortisol Reactivity in Low-Income Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to significant prenatal stress can negatively affect infant neurobiological development and increase the risk for developmental and health disturbances. These effects may be pronounced in low SES and ethnic minority families. We explored prenatal partner support as a buffer of the impact of prenatal stress on cortisol reactivity of infants born to low-income Mexican American women. Women (N=220; age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; 89% foreign born; modal family income $10,000–$15,000) reported on economic stress and satisfaction with spousal/partner support during the prenatal period (26–38 weeks gestation), and infant salivary cortisol reactivity to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks was assessed at women’s homes at six weeks postpartum. Multilevel models estimated the interactive effect of prenatal stress and partner support on cortisol reactivity, controlling for covariates and potential confounds. Infants born to mothers who reported high prenatal stress and low partner support exhibited higher cortisol reactivity relative to those whose mothers reported high support or low stress. The effects did not appear to operate through birth outcomes. For low-income Mexican American women, partner support may buffer the impact of prenatal stress on infant cortisol reactivity, potentially promoting more adaptive infant health and development. PMID:24090585

Luecken, Linda J.; Lin, Betty; Coburn, Shayna S.; MacKinnon, David P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Crnic, Keith A.

2013-01-01

393

Doing community-driven research: a description of Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities.  

PubMed

Seattle Partners, an Urban Research Center (URC) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a partnership of community agency representatives, community activists, public health professionals, academics, and health care providers whose mission is to improve the health of urban Seattle, Washington, communities by conducting community-based participatory research. This article describes the development and characteristics of Seattle Partners. Using primarily qualitative methods, including periodic in-depth interviews, evaluators identified the components necessary for Seattle Partners to maintain a collaborative and establish a research center driven by community interests. Seattle Partners is run by an unrestricted and inclusive board that has spent 5 years developing both an operating structure and various research interventions. Operating under Community Collaboration Principles, the board identified social determinants of health as the priority area in which to work. Collaboration, "small and concrete" accomplishments, skilled individuals, and funder support directly influence the success of the center. Decision making, project selection, and board composition have all been challenges to work through. Learning how to do and sustain the work are lessons being learned as Seattle Partners matures. PMID:11564854

Eisinger, A; Senturia, K

2001-09-01

394

The IPV-GBM Scale: A New Scale to Measure Intimate Partner Violence among Gay and Bisexual Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay and bisexual men. Methods Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S). Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence. Results A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90). The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures. Conclusions The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S. PMID:23755098

Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

2013-01-01

395

Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A 20-year prospective study  

E-print Network

An unselected sample of 543 children was followed over 20 years to test the independent effects of parenting, exposure to domestic violence between parents (ETDV), maltreatment, adolescent disruptive behavior disorders, and emerging adult substance abuse disorders (SUDs) on the risk of violence to and from an adult partner. Conduct disorder (CD) was the strongest risk for perpetrating partner violence for both sexes, followed by ETDV, and power assertive punishment. The effect of child abuse was attributable to these 3 risks. ETDV conferred the greatest risk of receiving partner violence; CD increased the odds of receiving partner violence but did not mediate this effect. Child physical abuse and CD in adolescence were strong independent risks for injury to a partner. SUD mediated the effect of adolescent CD on injury to a partner but not on injury by a partner. Prevention implications are highlighted. Violent behavior toward a romantic partner is highly resistant to treatment (Dunford, 2000; McCord, 1992), yet preventive services for partner violence remain largely undeveloped (Chalk & King, 1998). Designing empirically informed partner violence preven-tion programs will require identification of major modifiable risk factors for both perpetrating and being the victim of partner

Miriam K. Ehrensaft; Patricia Cohen; Jocelyn Brown; Elizabeth Smailes; Henian Chen; Jeffrey G. Johnson

2003-01-01

396

The Contribution of Emotional Partners to Sexual Risk Taking and Violence among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess sexual risk-taking of female sex workers (FSWs) with emotional partners (boyfriends and husbands), compared to regular and casual clients. Experiences of violence and the degree of relationship control that FSWs have with emotional partners are also described. Design Cohort study with quarterly follow-up visit over 12-months. Methods Four hundred HIV-uninfected FSWs older than 16 years were recruited from their homes and guesthouses in Mombasa, Kenya. A structured questionnaire assessed participant characteristics and study outcomes at each visit, and women received risk-reduction counselling, male and female condoms, and HIV testing. Results Four or more unprotected sex acts in the past week were reported by 21.3% of women during sex with emotional partners, compared to 5.8% with regular and 4.8% with casual clients (P<0.001). Total number of unprotected sex acts per week was 5–6-fold higher with emotional partners (603 acts with 259 partners) than with regular or casual clients (125 acts with 456, and 98 acts with 632 clients, respectively; P<0.001). Mostly, perceptions of “trust” underscored unprotected sex with emotional partners. Low control over these relationships, common to many women (36.9%), was linked with higher partner numbers, inconsistent condom use, and being physically forced to have sex by their emotional partners. Half experienced sexual or physical violence in the past year, similarly associated with partner numbers and inconsistent condom use. Conclusions High-risk sexual behaviour, low control and frequent violence in relationships with emotional partners heighten FSWs' vulnerability and high HIV risk, requiring targeted interventions that also encompass emotional partners. PMID:23950879

Bosire, Wilkister; Nelson, Gill; Kingola, Nzioki; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Temmerman, Marleen; Chersich, Matthew F.

2013-01-01

397

Child Abuse and Neglect and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration: A Prospective Investigation  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0–11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with children without such histories (n = 395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage = 39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups–childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls–reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49], physical abuse (AOR = 2.52, 95% CI [1.17, 5.40]), and neglect (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.04, 2.59]) predicted increased risk for being victimized by a partner via physical injury. CAN and neglect also predicted being victimized by a greater number and variety of IPV acts. CAN and control groups did not differ in reports of perpetration of IPV, although neglect predicted greater likelihood of perpetrating physical injury to a partner, compared to controls. Abused/neglected females were more likely to report being injured by their partner, whereas maltreated males did not. This study found that child maltreatment increases risk for the most serious form of IPV involving physical injury. Increased attention should be paid to IPV (victimization and perpetration) in individuals with histories of neglect. PMID:24325940

Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

398

Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

2011-11-01

399

Assessing conflict communication in couples: comparing the validity of self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings.  

PubMed

This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. PMID:20438192

Sanford, Keith

2010-04-01

400

For better or worse: reduced adult lifespan following early-life stress is transmitted to breeding partners  

PubMed Central

Stressful conditions early in life can give rise to exaggerated stress responses, which, while beneficial in the short term, chronically increase lifetime exposure to stress hormones and elevate disease risk later in life. Using zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we show here that individuals whose glucocorticoid stress hormones were experimentally increased for only a brief period in early post-natal life, inducing increased stress sensitivity, had reduced adult lifespans. Remarkably, the breeding partners of such exposed individuals also died at a younger age. This negative effect on partner longevity was the same for both sexes; it occurred irrespective of the partner's own early stress exposure and was in addition to any longevity reduction arising from this. Furthermore, this partner effect continued even after the breeding partnership was terminated. Only 5 per cent of control birds with control partners had died after 3 years, compared with over 40 per cent in early stress–early stress pairs. In contrast, reproductive capability appeared unaffected by the early stress treatment, even when breeding in stressful environmental circumstances. Our results clearly show that increased exposure to glucocorticoids early in life can markedly reduce adult life expectancy, and that pairing with such exposed partners carries an additional and substantial lifespan penalty. PMID:21849320

Monaghan, Pat; Heidinger, Britt J.; D'Alba, Liliana; Evans, Neil P.; Spencer, Karen A.

2012-01-01

401

Jacobi photonic lattices and their SUSY partners.  

PubMed

We present a classical analog of quantum optical deformed oscillators in arrays of waveguides. The normal modes of these one-dimensional photonic crystals are given in terms of Jacobi polynomials. We show that it is possible to attack the problem via factorization by exploiting the corresponding quantum optical model. This allows us to provide an unbroken supersymmetric partner of the proposed Jacobi lattices. Thanks to the underlying SU(1, 1) group symmetry of the lattices, we present the analytic propagators and impulse functions for these one-dimensional photonic crystals. PMID:24515058

Zúñiga-Segundo, A; Rodríguez-Lara, B M; Fernández C, David J; Moya-Cessa, H M

2014-01-13

402

Children's exposure to intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized as a form of child maltreatment associated with significant mental health impairment. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk, and protective factors and associated impairment, and a summary of assessment and interventions aimed at preventing its occurrence and responding to children and families. Information about evidence-based approaches to responding to children who present with impairment after exposure to IPV, such as posttraumatic-stress disorder symptoms, is discussed. Some of the challenges in understanding children's needs with regard to safety and protection are outlined with recommendations for future directions. PMID:24656581

MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine

2014-04-01

403

Partners in Science Education: SOFIA EPO Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a unique opportunity for education and public outreach (EPO) as the first research observatory designed to include by educators, journalists and others in research missions. The EPO program will include formal K-12 and undergraduate educational activities, informal education, public outreach, and media relations. SOFIA will carry educators on science flights, enabling them to partner with scientists and see science in action. Up to 200 formal and informal educators will participate in the SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program each year. The AAAs will be sustained as a national network via continued communications and material support from the observatory's EPO program office, and will constitute a wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. wide-spread outreach cadre for NASA and space sciences. Scientists, engineers, and other members of the SOFIA team will partner with local teachers and visit their classrooms as a part of the SOFIA Education Partners Program. Trained via the Project ASTRO network of astronomy education sites, SOFIA team members will work with teachrs and students to forge long-lasting science education partnerships. Participating educators may fly onboard SOFIA with their scientist partners. The professors and instructors at community colleges, small colleges, and minority serving institutions teach astronomy in general education courses that include the majority of future K-12 teachers. SOFIA EPO will provide an opportunity for this important segment of the college/university faculty plus staff of science and technology centers and planetaria to learn about research astronomy through summer workshops at the observatory. Participants will be encouraged to develop partnerships with SOFIA-affiliated scientists and participate in research flights. SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by SOFIA is being developed and will be operated for NASA by USRA. The EPO program is being developed and will be operated jointly by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and SETI Institute. For more information please contact the SOFIA EPO program director, Dr. Dana Backman: dbackman@mail.arc.nasa.gov

Backman, D.; DeVore, E.; Bennett, M.

2003-05-01

404

Hiring your next partner: AOA critical issues.  

PubMed

Hiring a new partner into an orthopaedic department or group can be a daunting task. A recent American Orthopedic Association symposium sought to address three major aspects of hiring that affect orthopaedic leaders: (1) when to hire-the chairperson's role; (2) generational issues that affect hiring; and (3) the development of an initial compensation package.How does the chairperson recruit new physicians? Hiring a new partner into the academic setting requires a good deal of foresight. There must be an established game plan. Advertising and interviews need to be orchestrated. Chairpersons can find information about candidates from many unique sources. Fit within the department and community is important and must be cultivated. Spouses and families need special attention. Research candidates have individual needs. Perhaps the most important aspect of recruitment is the development of a realistic business plan. This paper provides an overview of factors to consider in managing a new hire.Generational issues are intriguing. Should they affect our hiring practices? It seems clear to established physicians that the new generation of graduates is different from their predecessors. Is this really true? Most everyone is familiar with the terms "Silent Generation," "Baby Boomers," "Generation X," and "Generation Y." Is there anything to be gained by categorizing an applicant? Is it important to hire a replica of one's self? This paper provides a thoughtful overview of generational issues as they apply to hiring new partners.Most department chairpersons are not trained as negotiators. Some preparation and experience are helpful in guiding the process of making an initial offer to a candidate. It is not all about pay. The package includes the guarantee period, expectations for the new hire, mentorship, and resources. How much should new orthopaedic academic hires be paid? Recent benchmark data from the Academic Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean income of $282,667 for physicians who have just finished a fellowship. New hires are concerned about call frequency and available time free from work. How much work should be expected from an academic surgeon? Recent survey data from the American Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean of 9200 relative value units per year. This article offers some guidelines for the chairperson who needs to formulate an initial offer for a new hire.There is a lot involved in hiring a new partner, as times are changing. This paper offers considerable food for thought about hiring. PMID:25187594

Blasier, R Dale; Gagnon, Michael R; Iannotti, Joseph P; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

2014-09-01

405

Perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction in heterosexual committed relationships.  

PubMed

Sexual script theory implies that partners' ability to gauge one another's level of sexual satisfaction is a key factor in determining their own sexual satisfaction. However, relatively little research has examined how well partners gauge one another's sexual satisfaction and the factors that predict their accuracy. We hypothesized that the degree of bias in partner judgments of sexual satisfaction would be associated with quality of sexual communication. We further posited that emotion recognition would ameliorate the biases in judgment such that poor communicators with good emotion recognition would make less biased judgments of partner satisfaction. Participants were 84 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples who completed measures of their own and their partners' sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, quality of communication about sexual issues within their relationships, and emotion recognition ability. Results indicated that both men and women tended to be accurate in perceiving their partners' levels of sexual satisfaction (i.e., partner perceptions were strongly correlated with self-reports). One sample t-tests indicated that men's perceptions of their partners' sexual satisfaction were biased such that they slightly underestimated their partners' levels of sexual satisfaction whereas women neither over- nor underestimated their partners' sexual satisfaction. However, the gender difference was not significant. Bias was attenuated by quality of sexual communication, which interacted with emotion recognition ability such that when sexual communication was good, there was no significant association between emotion recognition ability and bias, but when sexual communication was poor, better emotion recognition ability was associated with less bias. PMID:23990145

Fallis, Erin E; Rehman, Uzma S; Purdon, Christine

2014-04-01

406

Hidden harms: women's narratives of intimate partner violence in a microbicide trial, South Africa.  

PubMed

In a context of high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), trials of female-controlled technologies for HIV prevention such as microbicides may increase the possibility of social harms. Seeking to explore the relationship between IPV and microbicide use further, this paper documents women's narratives of participating in the Microbicide Development Program (MDP) trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, and experiences of partner violence and conflict. A social science sub-study, nested within the trial, was conducted between September 2005 and August 2009, and 401 serial in-depth-interviews were undertaken with 150 women. Using coded interview transcripts, we describe the distribution of IPV and the possible association thereof with microbicide gel use and trial participation. More than a third of these 150 women reported IPV, of which half the cases were related to involvement in the trial. In their narratives, those women reporting IPV cast their partners as authoritarian, controlling and suspicious and reported verbal abuse, abandonment, and in some cases, beatings. Shared experiences of everyday violence shaped women's feelings of unease about revealing their participation in the trial to intimate partners and attempted concealment further contributed to strains and conflict within relationships. Our findings point to the role of social scientific enquiry in identifying the less obvious, hidden negative impacts of participation in a clinical trial therefore exposing limitations in the biomedical construction of 'social harms', as well as the implications thereof for potential future use outside the clinical trial setting. PMID:24721447

Stadler, Jonathan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Palanee, Thesla; Rees, Helen

2014-06-01

407

Viral Linkage in HIV-1 Seroconverters and Their Partners in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ?50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%). Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters. Conclusions/Significance In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage determination process. PMID:21399681

Campbell, Mary S.; Mullins, James I.; Hughes, James P.; Celum, Connie; Wong, Kim G.; Raugi, Dana N.; Sorensen, Stefanie; Stoddard, Julia N.; Zhao, Hong; Deng, Wenjie; Kahle, Erin; Panteleeff, Dana; Baeten, Jared M.; McCutchan, Francine E.; Albert, Jan; Leitner, Thomas; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Lingappa, Jairam R.

2011-01-01

408

Rules About Casual Sex Partners, Relationship Satisfaction, and HIV Risk in Partnered Gay and Bisexual Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used Latent Class Analysis to investigate rules guiding non-monogamy in partnered gay and bisexual men. Data are from a 2010 survey (n = 463) from which those in relationships (n = 191) were analyzed. Over half (56%) were non-monogamous and these men responded to 13 rules about sex outside of their relationship. The Safe Anonymous Sex group (34%) included

Christian Grov; Tyrel J. Starks; H. Jonathon Rendina; Jeffrey Parsons

2012-01-01

409

New Partners, More Kids: Multiple-Partner Fertility in the United States  

PubMed Central

Declining rates of marriage and overall increases in union instability, combined with high levels of unintended and nonmarital fertility, create the possibility for parents to have children with more than one partner, called multiple-partner fertility, or MPF. The unique characteristics of families with MPF present data and other logistical challenges to researchers studying the phenomenon. Drawing from recent studies and updated data, I present new estimates of MPF that show that about 13 percent of men aged 40 to 44 and 19 percent of women aged 41 to 49 have children with more than one partner, with a higher prevalence among the disadvantaged. Compared to parents with two or more children by only one partner, people with MPF become parents at younger ages, largely with unintended first births, and often do so outside of marriage. This article touches on the implications of MPF for families and concludes by discussing the theoretical difficulties in studying MPF and the challenges it presents to public policy. PMID:25284822

Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

2014-01-01

410

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

411

Evolution of equal division among unequal partners.  

PubMed

One of the hallmarks of human fairness is its insensitivity to power: although strong individuals are often in a position to coerce weak individuals, fairness requires them to share the benefits of cooperation equally. The existence of such egalitarianism is poorly explained by current evolutionary models. We present a model based on cooperation and partner choice that can account for the emergence of a psychological disposition toward fairness, whatever the balance of power between the cooperative partners. We model the evolution of the division of a benefit in an interaction similar to an ultimatum game, in a population made up of individuals of variable strength. The model shows that strong individuals will not receive any advantage from their strength, instead having to share the benefits of cooperation equally with weak individuals at the evolutionary equilibrium, a result that is robust to variations in population size and the proportion of weak individuals. We discuss how this model suggests an explanation for why egalitarian behaviors toward everyone, including the weak, should be more likely to evolve in humans than in any other species. PMID:25522195

Debove, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas; André, Jean-Baptiste

2015-02-01

412

Experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons  

PubMed Central

This study explores the intimate relationship experiences of cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners’ self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified. PMID:23668602

Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L.

2013-01-01

413

Judge orders Life Partners to suspend viatical business.  

PubMed

Life Partners, Inc., a viatical settlement company, has been enjoined from selling new life insurance policies until it complies with Federal securities laws. U.S. District Judge Royce C. Lamberth stated that Life Partners did not comply with court orders to restructure its operations in such a way that its viatical settlement contracts would not constitute securities. The Securities and Exchange Commission asked that Life Partners be held in contempt of court, as the company is not registered to trade securities. Life Partners asked people to assign their life insurance policy to the company and not to individual investors. When the person died, the benefits were paid to Life Partners and then to investors. As a result, investors had no contractual rights against the insurance companies that issued the policies. The judge ruled that Life Partners had made some changes and improvements and would therefore not hold the company in contempt of court. PMID:11363417

1996-03-01

414

Addressing intimate partner violence in substance-abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of partner-involved therapies for alcoholism and drug abuse become more common in substance-abuse treatment programs, providers are more frequently encountering one of the most challenging and politically charged public health issues of our time: intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent investigations reveal 40–60% of married or cohabiting substance-abusing patients report episodes of partner aggression in the year preceding

William Fals-Stewart; Cheryl Kennedy

2005-01-01

415

Cultivation of the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura: controlled fertilization and early development of seedlings in raceway tanks in ambient light and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial cultivation of the dioecious brown macroalga Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura in East Asia depends on the supply of young seedlings from regenerated holdfasts or from wild population. Recent development of synchronized release of male and female gametes in tumble culture provides a possibility of mass production of young seedlings via sexual reproduction. In this paper, we demonstrate that controlled

ShaoJun Pang; SuQin Gao; JianZhang Sun

2006-01-01

416

Conversion of partially reprogrammed cells to fully pluripotent stem cells is associated with further activation of stem cell maintenance- and gamete generation-related genes.  

PubMed

Somatic cells are reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by overexpression of a combination of defined transcription factors. We generated iPSCs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (with Oct4-GFP reporter) by transfection of pCX-OSK-2A (Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4) and pCX-cMyc vectors. We could generate partially reprogrammed cells (XiPS-7), which maintained more than 20 passages in a partially reprogrammed state; the cells expressed Nanog but were Oct4-GFP negative. When the cells were transferred to serum-free medium (with serum replacement and basic fibroblast growth factor), the XiPS-7 cells converted to Oct4-GFP-positive iPSCs (XiPS-7c, fully reprogrammed cells) with ESC-like properties. During the conversion of XiPS-7 to XiPS-7c, we found several clusters of slowly reprogrammed genes, which were activated at later stages of reprogramming. Our results suggest that partial reprogrammed cells can be induced to full reprogramming status by serum-free medium, in which stem cell maintenance- and gamete generation-related genes were upregulated. These long-term expandable partially reprogrammed cells can be used to verify the mechanism of reprogramming. PMID:24892478

Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sol; Seo, Han Geuk; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Chung, Hyung-Min; Do, Jeong Tae

2014-11-01

417

The consequences of S.H. and Others v. Austria for legislation on gamete donation in Europe: an ethical analysis of the European Court of Human Rights judgments.  

PubMed

There is a high degree of legal diversity within Europe concerning medically assisted reproduction. This is in direct opposition to the project of harmonization of the European institutions. This paper takes a closer look at the different national interpretations of the European Convention on Human Rights with regard to gamete donation. In the case of S.H. and Others v. Austria, the European Court of Human Rights originally condemned the prohibitions on egg donation and sperm donation for the purpose of IVF. The court judged the law to be incoherent and disproportionate. This decision was recently reversed on appeal based on the margin of appreciation doctrine. This paper critically reviews the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights and analyses what this case means for the future of legislation on medically assisted reproduction in Europe. It is concluded that legal diversity and cross-border reproductive care will persist and that the court failed to protect European patients from arbitrary interference with their right to procreation. PMID:23063819

Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido

2012-12-01

418

Employment status and intimate partner violence among mexican women.  

PubMed

Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide. PMID:25031103

Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

2015-04-01

419

Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents. PMID:20076773

Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

2009-01-01

420

Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and “predictors” of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique). Methods Data were collected during a 12?month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once) from 1,442 women aged 15–49?years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R). The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Results The overall experienced IPV during the past 12?months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe) was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8?±?120.9).a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1?±?9.1-12.8?±?26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3?±?117.6) of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV) varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7?±?80.3-64.9?±?110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in “explaining” the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child). Conclusions In our study, controlling behaviours over/by partner, own perpetration, co-occurring victimization and childhood abuse were more important factors in “explaining” sustained IPV. More investigation into women’s IPV exposure and its “predictors” is warranted in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Mozambique. PMID:23241146

2012-01-01

421

Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence: Clarifying the Relevance of Women’s Use and Partners’ Use  

PubMed Central

Research has shown that when women and/or their partners are involved in substance use, women’s risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) is higher. Prior research has not examined whether substance use by both women and their partners contributes independently or interactively to women’s risk of victimization and has not identified factors moderating the effect of substance use by victim or partner. Mental health and social support are explored as moderators of the association between women’s victimization and substance use by victim or partner in a study of 590 impoverished women residing in the Los Angeles area. This study found that substance use by both the woman and her partner independently predicted IPV and that social support moderated the effect of women’s substance use. These findings clarify the relevance of substance use in the context of intimate relationships and that of social support as a buffer against IPV among impoverished women. PMID:18535909

Golinelli, Daniela; Longshore, Douglas; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

2013-01-01

422

The Compatibility of Ideal and Real Romantic Partner Characteristics, Attachment to Partner and Relationship Satisfaction Among Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the compatibility between the characteristics of ideal and real romantic partners, attachment to partner\\u000a (defined by two categories—avoidance and anxiety) and relationship satisfaction of (N?=?272) women involved in close heterosexual relationships. As hypothesized, higher compatibility of ideal and real romantic\\u000a partner characteristics was related to lower levels of avoidance and anxiety and higher levels of relationship satisfaction.

Aiste Gerdvilyte; Shobhana C. Abhyankar

2010-01-01

423

Partner choice and fidelity stabilize coevolution in a Cretaceous-age defensive symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Many insects rely on symbiotic microbes for survival, growth, or reproduction. Over evolutionary timescales, the association with intracellular symbionts is stabilized by partner fidelity through strictly vertical symbiont transmission, resulting in congruent host and symbiont phylogenies. However, little is known about how symbioses with extracellular symbionts, representing the majority of insect-associated microorganisms, evolve and remain stable despite opportunities for horizontal exchange and de novo acquisition of symbionts from the environment. Here we demonstrate that host control over symbiont transmission (partner choice) reinforces partner fidelity between solitary wasps and antibiotic-producing bacteria and thereby stabilizes this Cretaceous-age defensive mutualism. Phylogenetic analyses show that three genera of beewolf wasps (Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus) cultivate a distinct clade of Streptomyces bacteria for protection against pathogenic fungi. The symbionts were acquired from a soil-dwelling ancestor at least 68 million years ago, and vertical transmission via the brood cell and the cocoon surface resulted in host–symbiont codiversification. However, the external mode of transmission also provides opportunities for horizontal transfer, and beewolf species have indeed exchanged symbiont strains, possibly through predation or nest reuse. Experimental infection with nonnative bacteria reveals that—despite successful colonization of the antennal gland reservoirs—transmission to the cocoon is selectively blocked. Thus, partner choice can play an important role even in predominantly vertically transmitted symbioses by stabilizing the cooperative association over evolutionary timescales. PMID:24733936

Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Koehler, Sabrina; Peterson, Ashley; Nechitaylo, Taras Y.; Stubblefield, J. William; Herzner, Gudrun; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard

2014-01-01

424

Condom Use by Partner Type Among Military and Police Personnel in Peru  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the rates of condom use among military and police populations in Peru, focusing on differences in use by type of partner. A Knowledge Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted among 6,808 military and police personnel in 18 Peruvian cities between August–September 2006 and September–October 2007. A total of 90.2% of the survey respondents were male; mean age was 37.8 years and 77.9% were married/cohabiting. In all, 99.5% reported having had sex; 89% of the participants had their last sexual contact with their stable partner, 9.7% with a nonstable partner, and 0.8% with a sex worker. Overall, 20.4% used a condom during their most recent sexual contact. Reasons for nonuse of condoms included the following: perception that a condom was not necessary (31.3%) and using another birth control method (26.7%). Prevention efforts against sexually transmitted diseases should focus on strengthening condom use, especially among individuals with nonstable partners. PMID:22398988

Villaran, Manuel V.; Bayer, Angela; Konda, Kelika A.; Mendoza, Carlos; Quijandria, Hilda; Ampuero, Julia S.; Apolaya, Moises; Palacios, Oswaldo; Lescano, Andres G.; Vega, Antonio M.; Blazes, David L.; Kochel, Tadeusz; Montano, Silvia M.

2014-01-01

425

Partner choice and fidelity stabilize coevolution in a Cretaceous-age defensive symbiosis.  

PubMed

Many insects rely on symbiotic microbes for survival, growth, or reproduction. Over evolutionary timescales, the association with intracellular symbionts is stabilized by partner fidelity through strictly vertical symbiont transmission, resulting in congruent host and symbiont phylogenies. However, little is known about how symbioses with extracellular symbionts, representing the majority of insect-associated microorganisms, evolve and remain stable despite opportunities for horizontal exchange and de novo acquisition of symbionts from the environment. Here we demonstrate that host control over symbiont transmission (partner choice) reinforces partner fidelity between solitary wasps and antibiotic-producing bacteria and thereby stabilizes this Cretaceous-age defensive mutualism. Phylogenetic analyses show that three genera of beewolf wasps (Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus) cultivate a distinct clade of Streptomyces bacteria for protection against pathogenic fungi. The symbionts were acquired from a soil-dwelling ancestor at least 68 million years ago, and vertical transmission via the brood cell and the cocoon surface resulted in host-symbiont codiversification. However, the external mode of transmission also provides opportunities for horizontal transfer, and beewolf species have indeed exchanged symbiont strains, possibly through predation or nest reuse. Experimental infection with nonnative bacteria reveals that--despite successful colonization of the antennal gland reservoirs--transmission to the cocoon is selectively blocked. Thus, partner choice can play an important role even in predominantly vertically transmitted symbioses by stabilizing the cooperative association over evolutionary timescales. PMID:24733936

Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Koehler, Sabrina; Peterson, Ashley; Nechitaylo, Taras Y; Stubblefield, J William; Herzner, Gudrun; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard

2014-04-29

426

EXPERIENCE WITH COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE FROM A PARTNER LAB PERSPECTIVE.  

SciTech Connect

Collaborative development and operation of large physics experiments is fairly common. Less common is the collaborative development or operation of accelerators. A current example of the latter is the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The SNS project was conceived as a collaborative effort between six DOE facilities. In the SNS case, the control system was also developed collaboratively. The SNS project has now moved beyond the collaborative development phase and into the phase where Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is integrating contributions from collaborating ''partner labs'' and is beginning accelerator operations. In this paper, the author reflects on the benefits and drawbacks of the collaborative development of an accelerator control system as implemented for the SNS project from the perspective of a partner lab.

HOFF, L.T.

2005-10-10

427

Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.  

PubMed

This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24597452

Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

2013-10-01

428

Proactive and Reactive Violence among Intimate Partner Violent Men Diagnosed with Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorder features have been an important basis of many batterer typologies (Babcock et al. J Fam Violence 15:391–409,\\u000a 2000; Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart Psychol Bull 116:476–497, 1994), most notably Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders. Aggression that partner violent men commit has also been\\u000a found to be heterogeneous, motivated by the need to control (proactive) or enacted out of emotion (reactive).

Jody M. Ross; Julia C. Babcock

2009-01-01

429

The Adapted Dance Process: Planning, Partnering, and Performing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contains specific planning, partnering, and performing techniques for fully integrating dancers with special needs into a dance pedagogy program. Each aspect is discussed within the context of the domains of learning. Fundamental partnering strategies are related to each domain as part of the integration process. The authors recommend…

Block, Betty A.; Johnson, Peggy V.

2011-01-01

430

The Role of Partners for Employees' Recovery during the Weekend  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of positive and negative experiences with the partner (absorption in joint activities and conflict with the partner) during the weekend on affective states at the beginning of the following work week and tested whether recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences) mediated these…

Hahn, Verena C.; Binnewies, Carmen; Haun, Sascha

2012-01-01

431

Reflections on Partner Violence: 20 Years of Research and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors reflect on past research and technology as well as their hopes for future innovations within the field of intimate partner violence. They review work that has contributed to current conceptual definitions of partner violence, particularly those that have shaped the fields broadened perspective. They discuss technological and…

Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Moore, Todd M.; Street, Amy E.

2005-01-01

432

Psychopathology and Marital Satisfaction: The Importance of Evaluating Both Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using path analysis and hierarchical linear modeling, the authors evaluated the associations between both partners' level of depression and anxiety, as measured by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) content scales, and both partners' level of marital satisfaction among married couples (N = 774) that participated in the MMPI…

Whisman, Mark A.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.

2004-01-01

433

Psychopathology and Marital Satisfaction: The Importance of Evaluating Both Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using path analysis and hierarchical linear modeling, the authors evaluated the associations between both partners' level of depression and anxiety, as measured by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) content scales, and both partners' level of marital satisfaction among married couples (N = 774) that participated in the MMPI restandardization study (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A.

Mark A. Whisman; Lisa A. Uebelacker; Lauren M. Weinstock

2004-01-01

434

Governance Mechanisms of Small and Medium Enterprise International Partner Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how small and medium enterprises manage their international partners across different market servicing modes, namely exporting, joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries. The international business literature has placed emphasis on soft issues of international partner management (such as trust, cultural sensitivity etc.) in each mode category independently. Since network arrangements and knowledge sharing are involved in all these

Pavlos Dimitratos; Spyros Lioukas; Kevin I. N. Ibeh; Colin Wheeler

2010-01-01

435

Associating Pregnancy with Partner Violence against Chinese Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2011-01-01

436

Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

2010-01-01

437

How Children and Their Caregivers Adjust after Intimate Partner Femicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner

Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.

2008-01-01

438

Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

2010-01-01

439

Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

2006-01-01

440

What College Women Want in a Marriage Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred-and-ninety seven undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 22-item questionnaire designed to assess the qualities college women want in their prospective marital partners. The data revealed that women (when compared to what men want in a partner) were significantly more likely to prefer men…

O'Reilly, Sarah; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

2009-01-01

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