Science.gov

Sample records for parts manufacturing complex

  1. Manufacturing complexity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the complexity of a typical system is presented. Starting with the subsystems of an example system, the step-by-step procedure for analysis of the complexity of an overall system is given. The learning curves for the various subsystems are determined as well as the concurrent numbers of relevant design parameters. Then trend curves are plotted for the learning curve slopes versus the various design-oriented parameters, e.g. number of parts versus slope of learning curve, or number of fasteners versus slope of learning curve, etc. Representative cuts are taken from each trend curve, and a figure-of-merit analysis is made for each of the subsystems. Based on these values, a characteristic curve is plotted which is indicative of the complexity of the particular subsystem. Each such characteristic curve is based on a universe of trend curve data taken from data points observed for the subsystem in question. Thus, a characteristic curve is developed for each of the subsystems in the overall system.

  2. Intelligent freeform manufacturing of complex organs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong

    2012-11-01

    Different from the existing tissue engineering strategies, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques aim to automatically produce complex organs directly from computer-aided design freeform models with high resolution and sophistication. Analogous to building a nuclear power plant, cell biology (especially, renewable stem cells), implantable biomaterials, tissue engineering, and single/double/four nozzle RP techniques currently enable researchers in the field to realize a part of the task of complex organ manufacturing. To achieve this multifaceted undertaking, a multi-nozzle rapid prototyping system which can simultaneously integrate an anti-suture vascular system, multiple cell types, and a cocktail of growth factors in a construct should be developed. This article reviews the pros and cons of the existing cell-laden RP techniques for complex organ manufacturing. It is hoped that with the comprehensive multidisciplinary efforts, the implants can virtually replace the functions of a solid internal organ, such as the liver, heart, and kidney. PMID:22888830

  3. Software for integrated manufacturing systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, R. A.; Naylor, A. W.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 presented an overview of the unified approach to manufacturing software. The specific characteristics of the approach that allow it to realize the goals of reduced cost, increased reliability and increased flexibility are considered. Why the blending of a components view, distributed languages, generics and formal models is important, why each individual part of this approach is essential, and why each component will typically have each of these parts are examined. An example of a specification for a real material handling system is presented using the approach and compared with the standard interface specification given by the manufacturer. Use of the component in a distributed manufacturing system is then compared with use of the traditional specification with a more traditional approach to designing the system. An overview is also provided of the underlying mechanisms used for implementing distributed manufacturing systems using the unified software/hardware component approach.

  4. Manufacturing of GLARE Parts and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinke, J.

    2003-07-01

    GLARE is a hybrid material consisting of alternating layers of metal sheets and composite layers, requiring special attention when manufacturing of parts and structures is concerned. On one hand the applicable manufacturing processes for GLARE are limited, on the other hand, due to the constituents and composition of the laminate, it offers new opportunities for production. One of the opportunities is the manufacture of very large skin panels by lay-up techniques. Lay-up techniques are common for full composites, but uncommon for metallic structures. Nevertheless, large GLARE skin panels are made by lay-up processes. In addition, the sequences of forming and laminating processes, that can be selected, offer manufacturing options that are not applicable to metals or full composites. With respect to conventional manufacturing processes, the possibilities for Fibre Metal Laminates in general, are limited. The limits are partly due to the different failure modes, partly due to the properties of the constituents in the laminate. For machining processes: the wear of the cutting tools during machining operations of GLARE stems from the abrasive nature of the glass fibres. For the forming processes: the limited formability, expressed by a small failure strain, is related to the glass fibres. However, although these manufacturing issues may restrict the use of manufacturing processes for FMLs, application of these laminates in aircraft is not hindered.

  5. Software for integrated manufacturing systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naylor, A. W.; Volz, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    For several years, a broad, unified approach to programming manufacturing cells, factory floors, and other manufacturing systems has been developed. It is based on a blending of distributed Ada, software components, generics and formal models. Among other things the machines and devices which make up the components, and the entire manufacturing cell is viewed as an assembly of software components. The purpose of this project is to reduce cost, increase the reliability and increase the flexibility of manufacturing software. An overview is given of the approach and an experimental generic factory floor controller that was developed using the approach is described. The controller is generic in the sense that it can control any one of a large class of factory floors making an arbitrary mix of parts.

  6. Visual inspection reliability for precision manufactured parts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    See, Judi E.

    2015-09-04

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted an experiment for the National Nuclear Security Administration to determine the reliability of visual inspection of precision manufactured parts used in nuclear weapons. In addition visual inspection has been extensively researched since the early 20th century; however, the reliability of visual inspection for nuclear weapons parts has not been addressed. In addition, the efficacy of using inspector confidence ratings to guide multiple inspections in an effort to improve overall performance accuracy is unknown. Further, the workload associated with inspection has not been documented, and newer measures of stress have not been applied.

  7. Manufacturing technology methodology for propulsion system parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, M. M.

    1992-07-01

    A development history and a current status evaluation are presented for lost-wax casting of such gas turbine engine components as turbine vanes and blades. The most advanced such systems employ computer-integrated manufacturing methods for high process repeatability, reprogramming versatility, and feedback monitoring. Stereolithography-based plastic model 3D prototyping has also been incorporated for the wax part of the investment casting; it may ultimately be possible to produce the 3D prototype in wax directly, or even to create a ceramic mold directly. Nonintrusive inspections are conducted by X-radiography and neutron radiography.

  8. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  9. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  10. Inspection of additive manufactured parts using laser ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévesque, D.; Bescond, C.; Lord, M.; Cao, X.; Wanjara, P.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing is a novel technology of high importance for global sustainability of resources. As additive manufacturing involves typically layer-by-layer fusion of the feedstock (wire or powder), an important characteristic of the fabricated metallic structural parts, such as those used in aero-engines, is the performance, which is highly related to the presence of defects, such as cracks, lack of fusion or bonding between layers, and porosity. For this purpose, laser ultrasonics is very attractive due to its non-contact nature and is especially suited for the analysis of parts of complex geometries. In addition, the technique is well adapted to online implementation and real-time measurement during the manufacturing process. The inspection can be performed from either the top deposited layer or the underside of the substrate and the defects can be visualized using laser ultrasonics combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). In this work, a variety of results obtained off-line on INCONEL® 718 and Ti-6Al-4V coupons that were manufactured using laser powder, laser wire, or electron beam wire deposition are reported and most defects detected were further confirmed by X-ray micro-computed tomography.

  11. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  12. Manufacturing and fabrication, part 3. [extraterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    The accessibility of material and energy off the Earth and the leverage that these nonterrestrial resources can exert on the space transportation system are important influences on the long-term goal of exploring the solar system. Research on separation of lunar materials and manufacturing of useful products from them is in its infancy. A few possible processes and products are described in this report. Specific attention is given to oxygen, metal, and silicate products.

  13. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part I. Morphology.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece. PMID:27359150

  15. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts. PMID:27359151

  16. The role of variation, error, and complexity in manufacturing defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, C.M.; Barkan, P.

    1994-03-01

    Variation in component properties and dimensions is a widely recognized factor in product defects which can be quantified and controlled by Statistical Process Control methodologies. Our studies have shown, however, that traditional statistical methods are ineffective in characterizing and controlling defects caused by error. The distinction between error and variation becomes increasingly important as the target defect rates approach extremely low values. Motorola data substantiates our thesis that defect rates in the range of several parts per million can only be achieved when traditional methods for controlling variation are combined with methods that specifically focus on eliminating defects due to error. Complexity in the product design, manufacturing processes, or assembly increases the likelihood of defects due to both variation and error. Thus complexity is also a root cause of defects. Until now, the absence of a sound correlation between defects and complexity has obscured the importance of this relationship. We have shown that assembly complexity can be quantified using Design for Assembly (DFA) analysis. High levels of correlation have been found between our complexity measures and defect data covering tens of millions of assembly operations in two widely different industries. The availability of an easily determined measure of complexity, combined with these correlations, permits rapid estimation of the relative defect rates for alternate design concepts. This should prove to be a powerful tool since it can guide design improvement at an early stage when concepts are most readily modified.

  17. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of iron and tungsten parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Bai; Yang, Lihmei; Huang, Huan; Bai, Shuang; Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, femtosecond laser additive manufacturing is demonstrated. Pure iron and tungsten powders, having very different melting temperature and mechanical properties, are used for the demonstration. Parts with various shapes, such as ring and cube, are fabricated. Micro-hardness and ultimate tensile strength are investigated for the fabricated samples. The results are also compared to the similar parts made by a continuous-wave laser. It is found that fs laser additive manufacturing can obtain better mechanical properties and fabricate materials that are not possible before.

  18. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-18

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  19. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-01

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  20. Manufacture of superconducting niobium cavity parts by hydropercussion punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaryan, N. S.; Shirkov, G. D.; Zhurauski, A. Yu.; Petrakovski, V. S.; Batouritski, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    A complete cycle of manufacturing all parts of superconducting niobium cavities which comprise two half-cells, two drift tubes, and two flanges each has been developed. The cavity half-cells are manufactured by hydropercussion punching, which has a number of advantages over the instrumental stamping technique. For the first time, the diagram of formability of ultrapure niobium has been experimentally obtained for hydropercussion punching and the key parameters of the process have been determined that ensure complete deep-drawing of workpieces, viz., the value of the limit drawing ratio of ultrapure niobium that is 1.92 at a specific impact energy of 0.42 MJ/m2. The deviations of the half-cell dimensions from the rated values do not exceed 0.1 mm. Production tools required for all manufacturing steps have been created. The parameters of machining of the niobium cavity parts prior to welding have been experimentally established.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PRIORITY POLLUTANTS FROM AN AIRPLANE PARTS MANUFACTURING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater from an airplane parts manufacturing plant was sampled using the U.S. EPA screening protocol for the 129 priority pollutants. The wastewater treatment facilities at this site include batch systems to destroy cyanides, remove oil, and reduce hexavalent chromium to the t...

  2. Fabrication of Flex Joint Utilizing Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) manufacturing technique has been utilized in the manufacture of a flex joint typical of those found in rocket engine and main propulsion system ducting. The SLM process allowed for the combination of parts that are typically machined separately and welded together. This resulted in roughly a 65% reduction of the total number of parts, roughly 70% reduction in the total number of welds, and an estimated 60% reduction in the number of machining operations. The majority of the new design was in three SLM pieces. These pieces, as well as a few traditionally fabricated parts, were assembled into a complete unit, which has been pressure tested. The design and planned cryogenic testing of the unit will be presented.

  3. Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components

    SciTech Connect

    Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann; Day, Robert D; Espinoza, Brent F; Hatch, Doug; Patterson, Brian M; Feng, Shihai

    2008-01-01

    Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

  4. Computerized parts list system coordinates engineering releases, parts control, and manufacturing planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W.; Kinsey, M.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized parts list system compiles and summarize all pertinent and available information on complex new systems. The parts list system consists of three computer subroutines - list of parts, parts numerical sequence list, and specifications list.

  5. Design and manufacturing of complex optics: the dragonfly eye optic.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Sweatt, William C.; Hodges, V. Carter; Adams, David Price; Gill, David Dennis; Vasile, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The ''Design and Manufacturing of Complex Optics'' LDRD sought to develop new advanced methods for the design and manufacturing of very complex optical systems. The project team developed methods for including manufacturability into optical designs and also researched extensions of manufacturing techniques to meet the challenging needs of aspherical, 3D, multi-level lenslet arrays on non-planar surfaces. In order to confirm the applicability of the developed techniques, the team chose the Dragonfly Eye optic as a testbed. This optic has arrays of aspherical micro-lenslets on both the exterior and the interior of a 4mm diameter hemispherical shell. Manufacturing of the dragonfly eye required new methods of plunge milling aspherical optics and the development of a method to create the milling tools using focused ion beam milling. The team showed the ability to create aspherical concave milling tools which will have great significance to the optical industry. A prototype dragonfly eye exterior was created during the research, and the methods of including manufacturability in the optical design process were shown to be successful as well.

  6. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.

  7. Dimensional Stability of Complex Shapes Manufactured by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is a cost effective, innovative method that is being considered for manufacture of large aircraft-quality components where high mechanical properties and dimensional tolerance are essential. In the present work, carbon fiber SAERTEX fabric/SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin C-shaped laminates were manufactured by VARTM using different cure cycles followed by the same post-cure cycle. The final part thickness was uniform except at the corner were thinning was observed. The cure cycle selected is shown to significantly affect the part spring-in and a long cycle at 66 C followed by a 178 C post-cure produced a part with negligible spring-in.

  8. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surface of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The six commonly used methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed. Special emphasis shall focus on the use of multiple extraction, a technique that has been demonstrated for additively manufactured parts.

  9. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  10. Strengthening of 3D Printed Fused Deposition Manufactured Parts Using the Fill Compositing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Joseph T.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for increasing the strength of thermoplastic fused deposition manufactured printed parts while retaining the benefits of the process such as ease, speed of implementation, and complex part geometries. By carefully placing voids in the printed parts and filling them with high-strength resins, we can improve the overall part strength and stiffness by up to 45% and 25%, respectively. We discuss the process parameters necessary to use this strengthening technique and the theoretically possible strength improvements to bending beam members. We then show three-point bend testing data comparing solid printed ABS samples with those strengthened through the fill compositing process, as well as examples of 3D printed parts used in real-world applications. PMID:25880807

  11. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final use of the parts you manufacture. (b) If your source is subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and all... subject to this subpart. (c) If you are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and meet...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final use of the parts you manufacture. (b) If your source is subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and all... subject to this subpart. (c) If you are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and meet...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final use of the parts you manufacture. (b) If your source is subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and all... subject to this subpart. (c) If you are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and meet...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final use of the parts you manufacture. (b) If your source is subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and all... subject to this subpart. (c) If you are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and meet...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final use of the parts you manufacture. (b) If your source is subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and all... subject to this subpart. (c) If you are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV, and meet...

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effeort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  17. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  18. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  19. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  20. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  1. Continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture according to one embodiment includes a plurality of plies in a stacked configuration, where each ply includes a plurality of tape winds having edges. A distance between the edges of adjacent tape winds in the same ply is about constant along a length of the wind. Each tape wind comprises elongated fibers and a matrix, axes of the fibers being oriented about parallel to a longitudinal axis of the tape wind. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  2. Differences in microstructure and properties between selective laser melting and traditional manufacturing for fabrication of metal parts: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Zhao, Xiao; Li, Shuai; Han, Changjun; Wei, Qingsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2015-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM), as one of the additive manufacturing technologies, is widely investigated to fabricate metal parts. In SLM, parts are manufactured directly from powders in a layer-by-layer fashion; SLM also provides several advantages, such as production of complex parts with high three-dimensional accuracy, compared with other additive manufacturing technologies. Therefore, SLM can be applied in aeronautics, astronautics, medicine, and die and mould industry. However, this technique differs from traditional methods, such as casting and forging; for instance, the former greatly differs in terms of microstructure and properties of products. This paper summarizes relevant studies on metal material fabrication through SLM. Based on a work completed in Huazhong Univ. Sci Tech., Rapid Manuf. Center (HUST-RMC) and compared with characteristics described in other reported studies, microstructure, properties, dimensional accuracy, and application of SLM are presented.

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING GALVANIZED STEEL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  4. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MACHINED PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their-generation of waste bin who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  5. Manufacturing Component Parts of Mining Equipment With Application of Hardening Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valuev, D. V.; Malushin, N. N.; Valueva, A. V.; Dariev, R. S.; Mamadaliev, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    To ensure highest hardness and wear resistance the authors develop an aggregate technology of manufacturing mining equipment component parts. The aggregate technology of manufacturing faced component parts includes the following operations: plasma-jet hard-facing with high-speed steels; high-temperature tempering after the facing, ultrasonic surface strengthening treatment, additional tempering, reconstructive facing.

  6. Laser cladding: repairing and manufacturing metal parts and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Leo

    2003-03-01

    Laser cladding is presently used to repair high volume aerospace, automotive, marine, rail or general engineering components where excessive wear has occurred. It can also be used if a one-off high value component is either required or has been accidentally over-machined. The ultimate application of laser cladding is to build components up from nothing, using a laser cladding system and a 3D CAD drawing of the component. It is thus emerging that laser cladding can be classified as a special case of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Up to this point in time RP was seen, and is still seen, as in intermediately step between the design stage of a component and a finished working product. This can now be extended so that laser cladding makes RP a one-stop shop and the finished component is made from tool-steel or some alloy-base material. The marriage of laser cladding with RP is an interesting one and offers an alternative to traditional tool builders, re-manufacturers and injection mould design/repair industries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence of this new technology, along with the transference of the process out of the laboratory and into the industrial workplace and show it is finding its rightful place in the manufacturing/repair sector. It will be shown that it can be used as a cost cutting, strategic material saver and consequently a green technology.

  7. A manufactured solution for verifying CFD boundary conditions: part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Ryan Bomar; Ober, Curtis Curry; Knupp, Patrick Michael

    2005-01-01

    Order-of-accuracy verification is necessary to ensure that software correctly solves a given set of equations. One method to verify the order of accuracy of a code is the method of manufactured solutions. In this study, a manufactured solution has been derived and implemented that allows verification of not only the Euler, Navier-Stokes, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation sets, but also some of their associated boundary conditions (BC's): slip, no-slip (adiabatic and isothermal), and outflow (subsonic, supersonic, and mixed). Order-of-accuracy verification has been performed for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations and these BC's in a compressible computational fluid dynamics code. All of the results shown are on skewed, non-uniform meshes. RANS results will be presented in a future paper. The observed order of accuracy was lower than the expected order of accuracy in two cases. One of these cases resulted in the identification and correction of a coding mistake in the CHAD gradient correction that was reducing the observed order of accuracy. This mistake would have been undetectable on a Cartesian mesh. During the search for the CHAD gradient correction problem, an unrelated coding mistake was found and corrected. The other case in which the observed order of accuracy was less than expected was a test of the slip BC; although no specific coding or formulation mistakes have yet been identified. After the correction of the identified coding mistakes, all of the aforementioned equation sets and BC's demonstrated the expected (or at least acceptable) order of accuracy except the slip condition.

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... better than 5 parts per million boron equivalent and with a density greater than 1.50 g/cm3; (11) The... irradiated fuel element chopping machines. Irradiated fuel element chopping machines means equipment as... or greater than the equivalent of 0.5 meters of concrete, with a density of 3.2 g/cm3 or...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... better than 5 parts per million boron equivalent and with a density greater than 1.50 g/cm3; (11) The... irradiated fuel element chopping machines. Irradiated fuel element chopping machines means equipment as... or greater than the equivalent of 0.5 meters of concrete, with a density of 3.2 g/cm3 or...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... better than 5 parts per million boron equivalent and with a density greater than 1.50 g/cm3; (11) The... irradiated fuel element chopping machines. Irradiated fuel element chopping machines means equipment as... or greater than the equivalent of 0.5 meters of concrete, with a density of 3.2 g/cm3 or...

  11. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Raley, Randy

    2016-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surfaces of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed.

  12. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  13. Upgrading the steam and cooling systems at a machine tool manufacturing complex

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, G.R.; Drye, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Cincinnati Milacron, Inc., one of the world`s largest machine tool manufacturers, decided to upgrade the steam and cooling systems that serve Milacron`s multibuilding 1.5 million square foot (139,350 m{sup 2}) headquarters complex in Cincinnati, Ohio. The upgrades were begun in 1993 and were operational by March 1995. Program objectives were to: (1) Provide mechanical cooling of manufacturing areas for better temperature control to gain closer tolerances on machined parts. This was to support a corporate objective to obtain ISO 9000 Certification which has been achieved. (2) Phase-out use of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants in existing electric chillers and packaged air-conditioning (DX) units. (3) Minimize waste oil and wood leaving the complex to reduce disposal costs and environmental liabilities. (4) Reduce operating and maintenance costs to enhance industrial competitiveness. With co-funding help from the local utility company, Cinergy Corporation, the authors assisted Milacron in analyzing the feasibility of various mechanical cooling concepts such as single vs. two-stage steam absorption vs. electric chillers. This analysis provided the data needed to select the concepts which best met the program objectives.

  14. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings B Appendix B to Part 191 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191—Sample Formats...

  15. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - Textile and Apparel Manufacturer Identification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile and Apparel Manufacturer Identification...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Pt. 102, App. Appendix to Part 102—Textile and Apparel... § 102.23(a) of this part, all entries of textile or apparel products listed in § 102.21(b)(5)...

  16. Complex Modelling Scheme Of An Additive Manufacturing Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Liliana Georgeta

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a modelling scheme sustaining the development of an additive manufacturing research centre model and its processes. This modelling is performed using IDEF0, the resulting model process representing the basic processes required in developing such a centre in any university. While the activities presented in this study are those recommended in general, changes may occur in specific existing situations in a research centre.

  17. Logic For Qualification And Industrialisation Of Additive Layer Manufacturing Parts For Spatial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindeau, Aymeric; Lopes, Jean-Louis; Brivot, Frederic; Bourneaud, Florent; Desagulier, Christian

    2012-07-01

    ASTRIUM Space Transportation has been manufacturing composite equipments for satellite for 25 years. For this business, the development of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) processes has been identified as a real opportunity to improve design and performances. For satellite equipments, ASTRIUM ST has chosen to investigate in the Electron Beam Melting process (patented EBM® process from Arcam AB company) for the manufacturing of Titanium parts, in collaboration with MECACHROME who has developed strong skills in this ALM process. This first development step has been achieved by introducing a titanium part realised by EBM on an equipment of Atlantic Bird 7 satellite launched in September 2011. The new step consists in the formal industrialisation of the EBM process for the procurement of titanium parts for satellite equipments. The present paper describes the logic retained for this industrialisation. It includes the technical requirements but also the verifications and inspections which have to be performed to guarantee that technical requirements are met.

  18. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing, Part II: Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Arnold, Steven M.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Eugene; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Lao, Chao; Rhein, Morgan; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the second part of the three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimides-Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 mixed with 10% chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25 to 31%. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties. A preliminary modeling was also initiated to predict the mechanical properties of FDM-printed Ultem 9085 coupons in relation to varied raster angles and void contents, using the GRC-developed MAC/GMC program.

  19. In Situ Manufacturing is a Necessary Part of Any Planetary Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.; McLemore, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    The key to any sustainable presence in space is the ability to manufacture necessary tools, parts, structures, spares, etc. in situ and on demand. Cost, volume, and up-mass constraints prohibit launching everything needed for long-duration or long-distance missions from Earth, including spare parts and replacement systems. There are many benefits to building items as-needed in situ using computer aided drafting (CAD) models and additive manufacturing technology: (1) Cost, up-mass, and volume savings for launch due to the ability to manufacture specific parts when needed. (2) CAD models can be generated on Earth and transmitted to the station or spacecraft, or they can be designed in situ for any task. Thus, multiple people in many locations can work on a single problem. (3) Items can be produced that will enhance the safety of crew and vehicles (e.g., latches or guards). (4) Items can be produced on-demand in a small amount of time (i.e., hours or days) compared to traditional manufacturing methods and, therefore, would not require the lengthy amount of time needed to machine the part from a solid block of material nor the wait time required if the part had to be launched from Earth. (5) Used and obsolete parts can be recycled into powder or wire feedstock for use in later manufacturing. (6) Ultimately, the ability to produce items as-needed will reduce mission risk, as one will have everything they need to fix a broken system or fashion a new part making it available on a more timely basis.

  20. Mechanical Properties of INCONEL 718 Parts Manufactured by Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baufeld, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    INCONEL 718 parts have been manufactured by shaped metal deposition (SMD), an additive layer manufacturing technique applying wire-based tungsten inert gas welding. This technique is aimed toward mass customization of parts, omitting time- and scrap-intensive, subtractive fabrication routes. SMD results in dense, "near net-shaped" parts without pores, cracks, or fissures. The microstructure of the SMD parts exhibit large, columnar grains with a fine dendritic microstructure. The interdendritic boundaries are decorated by small Laves phase precipitates and by MC carbides. Tensile tests were performed with different strain rates (10-4, 10-3, and 2 × 10-3 1/s), but no dependency on strength or strain at failure was observed. The ultimate tensile strength was 828 ± 8 MPa, the true plastic strain at failure 28 ± 2%, the micro Vickers hardness 266 ± 21 HV200, and the dynamically measured Young's module was 154 ± 1 GPa.

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  2. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  3. Human factoring the procedures element in a complex manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Caccamise, D.J.; Mecherikoff, M.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of Human Factors evaluations of procedures associated with incidents at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) it was determined that the existing procedure format created significant opportunities for confusion in their attempt to convey information about a work process. For instance, there was no mechanism to clearly identify the participants and their roles during the instructions portion of the procedure. In addition, procedure authors frequently used complex logic to convey a series of contingent actions within steps. It was also difficult to discern the actual procedure steps from other types of information in the procedure. These and other inadequacies prompted the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) department to propose solutions to these problems that followed well-researched principles of cognitive psychology, dealing with how humans process information. Format and style contribute to procedure usability, and therefore to safety and efficiency in operations governed by the procedures. Since it was difficult to tie specific performance failures to specific format and style characteristics and thereby dearly define costs and benefits, it was difficult on that basis to sell the idea that changes in procedure format and style were really necessary to improve safety and efficiency. In addition, we found that the socio-political systems governing this process, particularly at the subprocess interface level, were not functioning efficiently. Both the technological aspects of the process and the socio-political aspects were contributing to waste and considerable re-work. Fixing the customer feedback loop to the process owners not only minimized re-work and waste, but also provided the data to persuade subprocess owners to make the necessary changes that heretofore were being met with great resistance.

  4. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  5. New policy to manage tools in flexible manufacturing systems using network part programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Andrea; Tolio, Tullio; Grieco, Antonio; Nucci, Francesco

    2000-10-01

    The high investment related to the acquisition of Flexible Manufacturing Systems forces firms to a better utilization of the machines. Different actions can be taken in order to avoid idle times of the machines: reduction of the unproductive times (time dedicated to rapid movements, tool exchange, pallet exchange, etc.), improvement of machines and, not last, a better management of the resources. The paper proposes a new policy for the management of tool operations in parallel machine FMS to minimize the idle times due to the lack of tools. The proposed policy uses new opportunities in manufacturing technology related with the use of network part programs in NC machines. It is already known in literature the potentiality of network part programs, more flexible than traditional sequential part programs that execute simply the rigid list of operations. Network part programs allow the different alternative ways to process each part. The way in which network part programs are executed by machines depends on the state of the tools and availability of the tools. The proposed method has been compared with other existing ones based on a real test case, a parallel machine FMS with two machines and a tool carrier.

  6. Manufacturing near dense metal parts via indirect selective laser sintering combined with isostatic pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. H.; Shi, Y. S.; Lu, Z. L.; Huang, S. H.

    2007-11-01

    To fabricate metal parts via indirect selective laser sintering (SLS), isostatic pressing technology, including hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and cold isostatic pressing (CIP), are exploited to reform SLS green parts and make them near dense. The processes of SLS/HIP and SLS/CIP/HIP technologies are investigated respectively and the densification of AISI304 stainless steel specimens is mainly discussed. It is indicated that green parts made by indirect SLS can be pressed into near dense parts with the relative densities of 67.3% and more than 80% in SLS/HIP and SLS/CIP/HIP routes, respectively, and their densities rise if much higher CIP pressure is employed. Compared with SLS/HIP, SLS/CIP/HIP technology is regarded as a better method to manufactured dense parts, and it enlarges the application domain of indirect SLS simultaneously.

  7. Are Agile and Lean Manufacturing Systems Employing Sustainability, Complexity and Organizational Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Siriban-Manalang, Anna Bella; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to peruse theories and practices of agile and lean manufacturing systems to determine whether they employ sustainability, complexity and organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The critical review of the comparative operational similarities and difference of the two systems was conducted while the new views…

  8. A Complex Shaped Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Part Made of Commingled Yarns With Integrated Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risicato, Jean-Vincent; Kelly, Fern; Soulat, Damien; Legrand, Xavier; Trümper, Wolfgang; Cochrane, Cedric; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-02-01

    This paper focuses on the design and one shot manufacturing process of complex shaped composite parts based on the overbraiding of commingled yarns. The commingled yarns contain thermoplastic fibres used as the matrix and glass fibres as the reinforcement material. This technology reduces the flow path length for the melted thermoplastic and aims to improve the impregnation of materials with high viscosity. The tensile strength behaviour of the material was firstly investigated in order to evaluate the influence of the manufacturing parameters on flat structured braids that have been consolidated on a heating press. A good compatibility between the required geometry and the braiding process was observed. Additionally, piezo-resistive sensor yarns, based on glass yarns coated with PEDOT: PSS, have been successfully integrated within the composite structure. The sensor yarns have been inserted into the braided fabric, before consolidation. The inserted sensors provide the ability to monitor the structural health of the composite part in a real time. The design and manufacture of the complete complex shaped part has then been successfully achieved.

  9. Explicit correlation model of multi-source constraints for Re-design parts with complex curved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Wang, Fuji; Wang, Yongqing; Guo, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    In precision machining of complex curved surface parts with high performance, geometry accuracy is not the only constraint, but the performance should also be met. Performance of this kind of parts is closely related to the geometrical and physical parameters, so the final actual size and shape are affected by multiple source constraints, such as geometry, physics, and performance. These parts are rather difficult to be manufactured and new manufacturing method according to performance requirement is urgently needed. Based on performance and manufacturing requirements for complex curved surface parts, a new classification method is proposed, which divided the complex curved surface parts into two categories: surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints(PRCS) and surface unique complex curved surface parts with pure geometric constraints(PUCS). A correlation model is constructed between the performance and multi-source constraints for PRCS, which reveals the correlation between the performance and multi-source constraints. A re-design method is also developed. Through solving the correlation model of the typical part's performance-associated surface, the mapping relation between the performance-associated surface and the related removal amount is obtained. The explicit correlation model and the method for the corresponding related removal amount of the performance-associated surface are built based on the classification of surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints. Research results have been used in the actual processing of the typical parts such as radome, common bottom components, nozzle, et al., which shows improved efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining for the surface re-design parts with complex curved surface.

  10. Fuzzy Set Theory Applied to Measurement Data for Exposure Control in Beryllium Part Manufacturing.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Abeln, S. P.; Creek, K. L.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory has been applied to some exposure control problems encountered in the machining and the manufacturing of beryllium parts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A portion of that work is presented here. The major driving force for using fuzzy techniques in this case rather than classical statistical process control is that beryllium exposure is very task dependent and this manufacturing plant is quite atypical. It is feared that standard techniques produce too many false alarms. Our beryllium plant produces parts on a daily basis, but every day is different. Some days many parts are produced and some days only a few. Some times the parts are large and sometimes the parts are small. Some machining cuts are rough and some are fine. These factors and others make it hard to define a typical day. The problem of concern, for this study, is the worker beryllium exposure. Even though the plant is new and very modern and the exposure levels are expected to be well below the required levels, the Department of Energy (DOE), who is our major customer, has demanded that the levels for this plant be well below required levels. The control charts used to monitor this process are expected to answer two questions: (1) Is the process out of Control? Do we need to instigate special controls such as requiring workers to use respirators? (2) Are new, previously untested, controls making a difference? The standard Schewart type control charts, based on consistent plant operating conditions do not adequately answer this question. The approach described here is based upon a fuzzy modification to the Schewart Xbar-R chart. This approach is expected to yield better results than work based upon the classical probabilistic control chart.

  11. Monitoring deep twist drilling for a rapid manufacturing of light high-strength parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Lacalle, L. N.; Fernández, A.; Olvera, D.; Lamikiz, A.; Olvera, D.; Rodríguez, C.; Elias, A.

    2011-10-01

    In this work the manufacturing of high strength and/or high functional components is presented, using a new technique based on considerably long twist drills, called Deep Twist Drilling (DTD). This technology opens a rapid and economical method to manufacture parts for structural applications. Components made with this technique can reach high mass reduction and better stress distribution in comparison with welding or bolted parts with the same weight. However the application of DTD must be optimized to improve the reliability of the process and to make it economically feasible. In order to reach it, previous optimization by process monitoring was performed in AISI 1045, stainless steels, Ti6Al4V and nodular cat iron GGG70(AISI A536, SAE-ASTM 100-70-03). These materials are commonly used for structural applications in several sectors. Monitoring opened the way to improve cutting conditions and allow the application of the DTD technique focusing on a new design concept. In the same way monitoring makes drilling process reliable enough to be systematically used in industrial applications by a controlled increase of the performance demanded from the tool. In this manner, not only the objective to produce high-strength and light pieces is achieved, but also a high repetitive process is reached. In this research work a case of study is presented. A monolithic satellite-type component, its mass were reduced from 25 to 4.5 kg. The structural behavior of the component was studied under FEM analysis and the results showed high strength to compression and shear forces. During the machining of this element there was a serious risk of drill breakage due to the depth of the holes and crossing points between them; however, the previous process optimization eliminated this drawback. As a matter of fact, this paper brings out a good example where manufacturing technology allows a better performance of mechanical components within the philosophy of "new processes drive to new

  12. Scanning laser ultrasound and wavenumber spectroscopy for in-process inspection of additively manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskelo, EliseAnne C.; Flynn, Eric B.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new in-process laser ultrasound inspection technique for additive manufacturing. Ultrasonic energy was introduced to the part by attaching an ultrasonic transducer to the printer build-plate and driving it with a single-tone, harmonic excitation. The full-field response of the part was measured using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer after each printer layer. For each scan, we analyzed both the local amplitudes and wavenumbers of the response in order to identify defects. For this study, we focused on the detection of delamination between layers in a fused deposition modeling process. Foreign object damage, localized heating damage, and the resulting delamination between layers were detected in using the technique as indicated by increased amplitude and wavenumber responses within the damaged area.

  13. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drossel, W.-G.; Lies, C.; Albert, A.; Haase, R.; Müller, R.; Scholz, P.

    2016-03-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific stiffness and strength. A pure material substitution through reinforced plastics is still not economical. The approach of using hybrid metal-plastic structures with the principle of “using the right material at the right place” is a promising solution for the economical realization of lightweight structures with a high achievement potential. The article shows four innovative manufacturing possibilities for the realization of metal-plastic-hybrid parts.

  14. SnapShot: SMC Protein Complexes Part II.

    PubMed

    Haering, Christian H; Gruber, Stephan

    2016-02-11

    This second of two SnapShots on SMC proteins depicts their roles at different stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle. The composition and architecture of SMC protein complexes and their regulators appear in SMC Protein Complexes Part I (available at http://www.cell.com/cell/pdf/S0092-8674%2815%2901690-6.pdf). To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26871638

  15. SnapShot: SMC Protein Complexes Part I.

    PubMed

    Haering, Christian H; Gruber, Stephan

    2016-01-14

    This first of two SnapShots on SMC proteins depicts the composition and architecture of SMC protein complexes and their regulators. Their roles at different stages of the cell cycle will appear in Part II. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26771499

  16. Net shape manufacturing of ceramic micro parts with tailored graded layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanin, H.; Jiang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a novel net shape manufacturing technology for making three-dimensional micro parts with functionally graded layers. Alumina/zirconia micro parts with either core-shell or top-bottom functionally graded material (FGM) profiles have been successfully fabricated by altering both the surface characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro moulds and ceramic suspensions composition. PDMS surface modifications were performed to achieve moulds with hydrophilic surfaces, which were used to form core/shell FGM green layers. On the other hand, moulds with hydrophobic surfaces were used to form top-bottom green layers. Cracks have been found between consecutive layers in both the green and sintered micro parts. It was found that, at dispersant concentration of about 9.0 mg g-1, the differences in the drying shrinkage between layers is less than 0.5%. In addition, layers of composition of 100% Al2O3-0% YSZ, 20% Al2O3-80% YSZ and 40% Al2O3-60% YSZ were found to produce less shrinkage difference during sintering. After optimization of both green and sintering layers, crack free core/shell and top-bottom alumina/zirconia FGM micro parts were successfully obtained. The proposed process enables the production of micro patterns tailored with functionally graded microstructures to locally enhance properties and performance.

  17. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  18. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control, Part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert A.

    2012-09-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space-based satellite imaging, and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase-shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful toward the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive the system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper, in three parts, reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  19. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control: Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space based satellite imaging and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful towards the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper, in three parts, reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  20. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To...

  1. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. (a) In the... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites...

  2. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To...

  3. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. (a) In the... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites...

  4. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  5. Next-generation biomedical implants using additive manufacturing of complex, cellular and functional mesh arrays.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Gaytan, S M; Medina, F; Lopez, H; Martinez, E; Machado, B I; Hernandez, D H; Martinez, L; Lopez, M I; Wicker, R B; Bracke, J

    2010-04-28

    In this paper, we examine prospects for the manufacture of patient-specific biomedical implants replacing hard tissues (bone), particularly knee and hip stems and large bone (femoral) intramedullary rods, using additive manufacturing (AM) by electron beam melting (EBM). Of particular interest is the fabrication of complex functional (biocompatible) mesh arrays. Mesh elements or unit cells can be divided into different regions in order to use different cell designs in different areas of the component to produce various or continually varying (functionally graded) mesh densities. Numerous design elements have been used to fabricate prototypes by AM using EBM of Ti-6Al-4V powders, where the densities have been compared with the elastic (Young) moduli determined by resonant frequency and damping analysis. Density optimization at the bone-implant interface can allow for bone ingrowth and cementless implant components. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of metal (aluminium alloy) foam have also allowed for the building of Ti-6Al-4V foams by embedding the digital-layered scans in computer-aided design or software models for EBM. Variations in mesh complexity and especially strut (or truss) dimensions alter the cooling and solidification rate, which alters the alpha-phase (hexagonal close-packed) microstructure by creating mixtures of alpha/alpha' (martensite) observed by optical and electron metallography. Microindentation hardness measurements are characteristic of these microstructures and microstructure mixtures (alpha/alpha') and sizes. PMID:20308113

  6. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer producing galvanized-steel parts. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant producing galvanized steel parts - approximately 10,000 tons/yr. The major process operations are degreasing and rinsing, acid pickling and rinsing, prefluxing, and galvanizing. All these operations, except galvanizing, result in the formation of waste streams requiring off-site disposal. Bottom dross from the galvanizing kettle and zinc oxide skimmed from the surface of the molten zinc are sold as usable products. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that most waste was generated in acid pickling and rinsing and that the greatest savings could be obtained by continuous air agitation to extend the life of the pickling acid and rinse by enabling more complete removal of dissolved iron when those solutions are treated.

  7. Greening up Auto Part Manufacturing: A Collaboration between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneas, Kristi A.; Armstrong, Drew L.; Brank, Alice R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Kissinger, Chelsea A.; Mabe, Adam R.; Sezer, Ozge; Fontinell, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Historically, manufacture of automotive electronic components and screen-printing of automotive instrument clusters at DENSO Manufacturing Tennessee, Inc. required washing of equipment such as screens, stencils, and jigs with sizable quantities of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Collaborative efforts between the Maryville…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  9. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: POLLUTION PREVENTION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL PARTS COATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  15. Part A - Advanced turbine systems. Part B - Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    The DOE Offices of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy have initiated a program to develop advanced turbine systems for power generation. The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial applications. One of the supporting elements of the ATS Program is the Materials/Manufacturing Technologies Task. The objective of this element is to address the critical materials and manufacturing issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines.

  16. Vertical movement of iron-cyanide complexes in soils of a former Manufactured Gas Plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, soil and groundwater at more than a thousand sites are contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations originate from the gas purification process that was conducted in Manufactured Gas Plants (MGP). The phenomenon of iron-cyanide complexes mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (< 1 mg L-1) under acidic conditions. This study suggests vertical transport of a colloidal ferric ferrocyanide, in the excess of iron and circum-neutral pH conditions, as an alternative process that influences the retardation of the pollutant movement through the soil profile. Preliminary in situ investigations of the two boreholes implied transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). The acidic character of the wastes and the accumulation of the blue patches suggested the potential filter function of a sandy loam material due to colloidal transport of the ferric ferricyanide. Series of batch and column experiments, using sandy loam soil, revealed reduction of CN concentration due to mechanical filtration of precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes and due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  17. Annual book of ASTM standards. Part 17. Refractories, glass, and other ceramic materials; manufactured carbon and graphite products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The standards are assembled in each part in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designation numbers. Each part has two tables of contents: a list of the standards in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designations; and a list of the standards classified according to subject. A subject index of the standards and tentatives in each part appears at the back of each volume. This part contains standards concerning refractories; glass and glass products; ceramic whitewares; porcelain enamel and related ceramic-metal systems; ceramics for electronics; manufactured carbon and graphite products; and general methods of testing.

  18. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  19. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  20. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  1. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  7. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  8. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    PubMed

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems. PMID:23889602

  9. Modern Endodontic Planning Part 1: Assessing Complexity and Predicting Success.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Following a diagnosis of irreversible pulpal disease, periapical disease or failed endodontic therapy, the options for the tooth are extraction or root canal treatment. There is increasing evidence that certain factors may allow the clinician to predict the likely outcome of root canal therapy (RCT) and thus better inform the patient of the possible success rates. Should the patient choose root canal treatment, the clinician must also be able to gauge the potential difficulties that may be encountered and consequently determine whether it is within their competency. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Assessing outcomes and complexity of care is an essential part of informed consent. Knowing when to refer is an essential component of best clinical practice. PMID:26630858

  10. Complex foamed aluminum parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings

    SciTech Connect

    Simancik, F.; Schoerghuber, F.

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of complex shaped aluminum foam parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings has been investigated. The foamed samples were prepared by injection of the foam into sand molds. It turned out that sound castings can be produced if the foam core is properly preheated and/or surface treated before casting. The effect of the foam core on the performance of the casting was evaluated by in compression testing and by measuring structural damping. The gain in the related properties turned out to be much higher than the weight increase of the casting due to the presence of the core. The weight increase may be partially offset through a reduction of the wall-thickness of the shell.

  11. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts.

    PubMed

    Stavroulakis, P I; Leach, R K

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement. PMID:27131645

  13. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavroulakis, P. I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  14. Manufacturing of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) that can actuate into complex curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoimenov, Boyko L.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2007-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are soft actuators with potential applications in the fields of medicine and biologically inspired robotics. Typically, an IPMC bends with approximately constant curvature when voltage is applied to it. More complex shapes were achieved in the past by pre-shaping the actuator or by segmentation and separate actuation of each segment. There are many applications for which fully independent control of each segment of the IPMC is not required and the use of external wiring is objectionable. In this paper we propose two key elements needed to create an IPMC, which can actuate into a complex curve. The first is a connection between adjacent segments, which enables opposite curvature. This can be achieved by reversing the polarity applied on each side of the IPMC, for example by a through-hole connection. The second key element is a variable curvature segment. The segment is designed to bend with any fraction of its full bending ability under given electrical input by changing the overlap of opposite charge electrodes. We demonstrated the usefulness of these key elements in two devices. One is a bi-stable buckled IPMC beam, also used as a building block in a linear actuator device. The other one is an IPMC, actuating into an S-shaped curve with gradually increasing curvature near the ends. The proposed method of manufacturing holds promise for a wide range of new applications of IPMCs, including applications in which IPMCs are used for sensing.

  15. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  16. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  17. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  18. Integrated Design for Manufacturing of Braided Preforms for Advanced Composites Part I: 2D Braiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan Tao; Ko, Frank K.; Hu, Hong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a 2D braiding design system for advanced textile structural composites was based on dynamic models. A software package to assist in the design of braided preform manufacturing has been developed. The package allows design parameters (machine speeds, fiber volume fraction, tightness factor, etc.) to be easily obtained and the relationships between said parameters to be demonstrated graphically. The fabirc geometry model (FGM) method was adopted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. Experimental evidence demonstrates the success of the use of dynamic models in the design software for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms.

  19. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  20. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives (T.D. 84-49) X. General... drawback ruling; 7. Only for General Manufacturing Drawback Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives, the name of each article to be exported or, if the identity of the product is...

  1. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives (T.D. 84-49) X. General... drawback ruling; 7. Only for General Manufacturing Drawback Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives, the name of each article to be exported or, if the identity of the product is...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical preparations, not elsewhere classified. 29 1 Petroleum refining and related industries. 291 1... devices. 279 1 Service industries for the printing trade. 2796 1 Platemaking and related services. 28 1... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage...

  3. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives (T.D. 84-49) X. General... drawback ruling; 7. Only for General Manufacturing Drawback Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives, the name of each article to be exported or, if the identity of the product is...

  4. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... published in the Customs Bulletin, as provided in 19 CFR 191.8. In these application formats, remarks in... obligations to obtain the appropriate certificates of delivery (19 CFR 191.10), certificates of manufacture and delivery (19 CFR 191.24), or both?) 2. Will an agent be used to process the designated or...

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chemical preparations, not elsewhere classified. 29 1 Petroleum refining and related industries. 291 1... devices. 279 1 Service industries for the printing trade. 2796 1 Platemaking and related services. 28 1... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage...

  6. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives (T.D. 84-49) X. General... drawback ruling; 7. Only for General Manufacturing Drawback Ruling Under 19 U.S.C. 1313(b) for Petroleum or Petroleum Derivatives, the name of each article to be exported or, if the identity of the product is...

  7. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... published in the Customs Bulletin, as provided in 19 CFR 191.8. In these application formats, remarks in... obligations to obtain the appropriate certificates of delivery (19 CFR 191.10), certificates of manufacture and delivery (19 CFR 191.24), or both?) 2. Will an agent be used to process the designated or...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chemical preparations, not elsewhere classified. 29 1 Petroleum refining and related industries. 291 1... devices. 279 1 Service industries for the printing trade. 2796 1 Platemaking and related services. 28 1... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical preparations, not elsewhere classified. 29 1 Petroleum refining and related industries. 291 1... devices. 279 1 Service industries for the printing trade. 2796 1 Platemaking and related services. 28 1... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage...

  10. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... published in the Customs Bulletin, as provided in 19 CFR 191.8. In these application formats, remarks in... obligations to obtain the appropriate certificates of delivery (19 CFR 191.10), certificates of manufacture and delivery (19 CFR 191.24), or both?) 2. Will an agent be used to process the designated or...

  11. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... published in the Customs Bulletin, as provided in 19 CFR 191.8. In these application formats, remarks in... obligations to obtain the appropriate certificates of delivery (19 CFR 191.10), certificates of manufacture and delivery (19 CFR 191.24), or both?) 2. Will an agent be used to process the designated or...

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL CABINETS AND PRECISION METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  14. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF ETHANOL MANUFACTURING FACILITIES. PART II: PROCESS ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol manufacturing facilities represent an important segment of our agricultural production system. The ethanol industry is currently experiencing a rapid expansion throughout the country, and is poised to substantially contribute to our country’s growing need for energy, especially as non-renew...

  15. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

  16. The Effectiveness of Hot Isostatic Pressing for Closing Porosity in Titanium Parts Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammas-Williams, Samuel; Withers, Philip J.; Todd, Iain; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2016-05-01

    Ti-6Al-4V parts, produced by selective electron beam melting additive manufacturing, have been studied by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to track pore closure during a standard hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) cycle. Comparison of repeated XCT scans before and after HIPing, on worst-case samples with different geometries, confirmed that all internal porosity was shrunk to below the resolution limit of the equipment used (~5 µm) following the HIPing cycle, apart from defects with surface connected ligaments.

  17. Waste-minimization audit report: case studies of corrosive and heavy-metal waste minimization at a specialty steel-manufacturing complex

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste-minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (ORD/HWERL), Cincinnati, Ohio, is promoting the development of a generalized or model waste-minimization audit (WMA) procedure and testing this procedure in actual production facilities agreeing to cooperate with the audit teams selected for this task. In the report, results are presented of WMAs conducted at generators of corrosive heavy metals wastes. A specialty steel manufacturing complex employing electric arc furnaces (EAFs) for the manufacture of stainless and electrical steels, hot and cold rolling facilities for fabrication of the various steel grades into strip, and annealing and pickling facilities for finishing the strip, agreed to provide host facilities for the WMA effort reported herein.

  18. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth (and Final) Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing; windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems; airborne windshear detection systems; certification and regulatory issues; development and applications of sensors for wake vortex detection; and synthetic and enhanced vision systems.

  19. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing, windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems, airborne windshear detection systems, certification and regulatory issues, and development and applications of sensors for wake vortices and for synthetic and enhanced vision systems. This report was compiled to record and make available the technology updates and materials from the conference.

  20. Design and development of a layer-based additive manufacturing process for the realization of metal parts of designed mesostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher Bryant

    Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that are characterized by their high strength, low mass, good energy absorption characteristics, and good thermal and acoustic insulation properties. In an effort to take advantage of this entire suite of positive mechanical traits, designers are tailoring the cellular mesostructure for multiple design objectives. Unfortunately, existing cellular material manufacturing technologies limit the design space as they are limited to certain part mesostructure, material type, and macrostructure. The opportunity that exists to improve the design of existing products, and the ability to reap the benefits of cellular materials in new applications is the driving force behind this research. As such, the primary research goal of this work is to design, embody, and analyze a manufacturing process that provides a designer the ability to specify the material type, material composition, void morphology, and mesostructure topology for any conceivable part geometry. The accomplishment of this goal is achieved in three phases of research: (1) Design---Following a systematic design process and a rigorous selection exercise, a layer-based additive manufacturing process is designed that is capable of meeting the unique requirements of fabricating cellular material geometry. Specifically, metal parts of designed mesostructure are fabricated via three-dimensional printing of metal oxide ceramic powder followed by post-processing in a reducing atmosphere. (2) Embodiment ---The primary research hypothesis is verified through the use of the designed manufacturing process chain to successfully realize metal parts of designed mesostructure. (3) Modeling & Evaluation ---The designed manufacturing process is modeled in this final research phase so as to increase understanding of experimental results and to establish a foundation for future analytical modeling research. In addition to an analysis of

  1. Optimisation of Shape Parameters and Process Manufacturing for an Automotive Safety Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildemyn, Eric; Dal Santo, Philippe; Potiron, Alain; Saïdane, Delphine

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, the weight and the cost of automotive vehicles have considerably increased due to the importance devoted to safety systems. It is therefore necessary to reduce the weight and the production cost of components by improving their shape and manufacturing process. This work deals with a numerical approach for optimizing the manufacturing process parameters of a safety belt anchor using a genetic algorithm (NSGA II). This type of component is typically manufactured in three stages: blanking, rounding of the edges by punching and finally, bending with a 90° angle. In this study, only the rounding and the bending will be treated. The numerical model is linked to the genetic algorithm in order to optimize the process parameters. This is implemented by using ABAQUSscript files developed in the Python programming language. The algorithm modifies the script files and restarts the FEM analysis automatically. Lemaitre's damage model is introduced in the material behaviour laws and implemented in the FEM analysis by using a FORTRAN subroutine. The influence of two process parameters (die radius and the rounding punch radius) and five shape parameters were investigated. The objective functions are (i) the material damage state at the end of the forming process, (ii) the stress field and (iii) the maximum Von Mises stress in the folded zone.

  2. Laser beam welding of high stressed, complex aircraft structural parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Hummel, Peter; Ferstl, Stefan; Sengotta, Marcus; Lang, Roland

    2003-03-01

    Laser beam welding of primary aircraft structures manufactured from aluminum alloys is considered to have a great potential in cost saving. In order to evaluate this advantage, a technology program has been adopted at EADS, Military Aircraft. The goal was to manufacture air intake shells for the Eurofighter in a cost efficient way. Stretch formed skins and machined stiffeners are joined together with laser beam welding. The baseline for a comparison in terms of cost and weight was the conventional process based on stretch forming of thick plates and subsequent milling. The major tasks of the program have been the optimization of the twin focus laser beam welding process and the proof of the structural integrity including weld strength evaluation.

  3. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  4. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space based satellite imaging and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful towards the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  5. Methods for tape fabrication of continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Weisberg, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    A method for forming a composite structure according to one embodiment includes forming a first ply; and forming a second ply above the first ply. Forming each ply comprises: applying a bonding material to a tape, the tape comprising a fiber and a matrix, wherein the bonding material has a curing time of less than about 1 second; and adding the tape to a substrate for forming adjacent tape winds having about a constant distance therebetween. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  6. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  7. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  8. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  9. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  10. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4247 Section 60.4247 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  11. Layered YSZ/SCSZ/YSZ Electrolytes for Intermediate Temperature SOFC Part I: Design and Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Orlovskaya, Nina; Klimov, Mikhail; Huang, Xinyu; Cullen, David A; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    (Sc2O3)0.1(CeO2)0.01(ZrO2)0.89 (SCSZ) ceramic electrolyte has superior ionic conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (700 800 C), but it does not exhibit good phase and chemical stability in comparison with 8 mol% Y2O3 ZrO2 (YSZ). To maintain high ionic conductivity and improve the stability in the whole electrolyte, layered structures with YSZ outer layers and SCSZ inner layers were designed. Because of a mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli of SCSZ and YSZ phases, upon cooling of the electrolytes after sintering, thermal residual stresses will arise, leading to a possible strengthening of the layered composite and, therefore, an increase in the reliability of the electrolyte. Laminated electrolytes with three, four, and six layers design were manufactured using tape-casting, lamination, and sintering techniques. After sintering, while the thickness of YSZ outer layers remained constant at 30 m, the thickness of the SCSZ inner layer varied from 30 m for a Y SC Y three-layered electrolyte, 60 m for a Y 2SC Y four-layered electrolyte, and 120 m for a Y 4SC Y six-layered electrolyte. The microstructure, crystal structure, impurities present, and the density of the sintered electrolytes were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and water immersion techniques.

  12. 75 FR 12148 - Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Would not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Ontic...

  13. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  14. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 146.53) which meets the Grade A standard of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (7 CFR 52.1557, Table IV... regulations and rulings (see 19 CFR 191.11). H. Stock In Process Stock in process does not result; or if it... applicable, as well as 19 CFR part 191 (see particularly, § 191.9). A. Name and Address of Principal...

  15. Developments in Agile Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Clinesmith, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    As part of a project design initiative, Sandia National Laboratories and AlliedSignal Inc. Kansas City Division have joined efforts to develop a concurrent engineering capability for the manufacturing of complex precision components. The primary effort of this project, called Agile Manufacturing, is directed toward: (1) Understand the error associated with manufacturing and inspection. (2) Develop methods for correcting error. (3) Integrate diverse software technologies into a compatible process. The Agile Manufacturing System (AMS) is a system that integrates product design, manufacturing, and inspection into a closed loop, concurrent engineering process. The goal of developing the Agile Manufacturing System is to: (1) Optimize accuracy in manufacturing and inspection. (A) Use of softgage software for product evaluation. This will ensure ANSI Y14.5 compliance. (B) Establish and monitor bias between CMM and machine center. (C) Map probe deflection error and apply correction to inspection results. This applies to both on machine probing and CMM inspections. (D) Inspection process. (2) Compress the cycle time from product concept to production level manufacturing and verification. (3) Create a self-correcting process that feeds inspection results back into the machining process. (4) Link subordinate processes (cutting/probing path, softgage model, etc.) to the solid model definition.

  16. How to Build a Complex, Functional Propeller Protein, From Parts.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia L

    2016-04-01

    By combining ancestral sequence reconstruction and in vitro evolution, Smock et al. identified single motifs that assemble into a functional five-bladed β-propeller, and a likely route for conversion into the more complex, extant single chain fusion. Interestingly, although sequence diversification destabilized five-motif fusions, it also destabilized aggregation-prone intermediates, increasing the level of functional protein in vivo. PMID:26971075

  17. Mortality of workers in an automobile engine and parts manufacturing complex.

    PubMed

    Vena, J E; Sultz, H A; Fiedler, R C; Barnes, R E

    1985-02-01

    A proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study was conducted using data on workers from three local unions representing an integrated automobile factory composed of forge, foundry, and engine (machine and assembly) plants. Ninety four percent of the death certificates were obtained for all active and non-active workers who died during the period 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1979 and were vested in union and company benefit programmes. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with expected numbers based on two standards, the proportionate mortality among men in the United States 1970-9 and among men in Erie County 1975. There was close agreement between the number of observed and expected deaths by either standard of comparison among white auto workers in the forge and foundry plants. Valid analyses of cause specific mortality among non-whites could be conducted for the foundry plant only. Although there was raised PMR for deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system using the Erie County standard, none of the other cause specific PMRs was significant. Although based on small numbers, the risk of cancer of the lung was significantly high in non-whites under age 50 in the foundry (PMR = 2.6; p less than 0.05). The cause specific PMRs for whites in the engine plant were statistically significant for malignant neoplasms (1.2) and all external causes (0.62) based on the US white male standard. Analysis of cancer specific mortality among white men in the machining/assembly plant showed significant excesses for cancer of the digestive system (PMR=1.5), particularly of the liver (PMR=2.6) and pancreas (PMR=1.9); cancers of the respiratory system (PMR=1.4 using the Erie County standard); and cancer of the urinary bladder (PMR=2.3). Workers employed for more than 20 years showed statistically increased mortality ratios for cancers of the digestive system (1.9), particularly cancer of the pancreas (2.3) and cancer of the rectum (2.8). Individuals whose employment began during or before 1950 exhibited increased PMRs for cancers of the digestive organs (1.8), particularly of the pancreas (2.5) and of the bladder (3.4). Workers whose employment began after 1950, on the other hand, exhibited raised PMRs for cancers of the respiratory system (1.5) and of the kidney (3.2). Since the foundry and forge plants did not start production until 1955, mortality associated with those work settings may be greater in the future. PMID:3970876

  18. Mortality of workers in an automobile engine and parts manufacturing complex.

    PubMed Central

    Vena, J E; Sultz, H A; Fiedler, R C; Barnes, R E

    1985-01-01

    A proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study was conducted using data on workers from three local unions representing an integrated automobile factory composed of forge, foundry, and engine (machine and assembly) plants. Ninety four percent of the death certificates were obtained for all active and non-active workers who died during the period 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1979 and were vested in union and company benefit programmes. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with expected numbers based on two standards, the proportionate mortality among men in the United States 1970-9 and among men in Erie County 1975. There was close agreement between the number of observed and expected deaths by either standard of comparison among white auto workers in the forge and foundry plants. Valid analyses of cause specific mortality among non-whites could be conducted for the foundry plant only. Although there was raised PMR for deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system using the Erie County standard, none of the other cause specific PMRs was significant. Although based on small numbers, the risk of cancer of the lung was significantly high in non-whites under age 50 in the foundry (PMR = 2.6; p less than 0.05). The cause specific PMRs for whites in the engine plant were statistically significant for malignant neoplasms (1.2) and all external causes (0.62) based on the US white male standard. Analysis of cancer specific mortality among white men in the machining/assembly plant showed significant excesses for cancer of the digestive system (PMR=1.5), particularly of the liver (PMR=2.6) and pancreas (PMR=1.9); cancers of the respiratory system (PMR=1.4 using the Erie County standard); and cancer of the urinary bladder (PMR=2.3). Workers employed for more than 20 years showed statistically increased mortality ratios for cancers of the digestive system (1.9), particularly cancer of the pancreas (2.3) and cancer of the rectum (2.8). Individuals whose employment began during or before 1950 exhibited increased PMRs for cancers of the digestive organs (1.8), particularly of the pancreas (2.5) and of the bladder (3.4). Workers whose employment began after 1950, on the other hand, exhibited raised PMRs for cancers of the respiratory system (1.5) and of the kidney (3.2). Since the foundry and forge plants did not start production until 1955, mortality associated with those work settings may be greater in the future. PMID:3970876

  19. Research in manufacturing of micro-structured injection molded polymer parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucyshyn, Thomas; Struklec, Tobias; Burgsteiner, Martin; Graninger, Georg; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    An overview of current research results is given for the topic of injection molding of micro-structured polymer parts regarding filling behavior and demolding process of micro-structures as well as the production of micro-structures on curved surfaces. In order to better understand how micro-structures are formed during the filling stage of injection molding, a study was performed on a test part with micro-channels placed parallely and perpendicularly to flow direction. Short shots with a highly fluent Polypropylene grade were injection molded with the melt front stopping in the structure fields. The melt and mold temperature, the injection rate as well as the use of a variotherm heating system were varied in a systematic Design of Experiments. The shape of the flow front was investigated with the optical measurement system Alicona InfiniteFocus. The data gained was analyzed with Matlab scripts and provided the needed distance to completely fill the structures as a reference value. The next topic covers the demolding step, which is a crucial process step in injection molding of micro-structured parts as the successfully replicated structures often get destroyed in the following demolding step. In order to evaluate the influence of the four aspects polymer, mold surface (coatings), structure (geometry and placement) and process settings on the demolding behavior, an injection mold with integrated measurement system was built, which makes it possible to measure the demolding force respectively a demolding energy under process conditions. These values can be used to quantitatively compare the impact of the above mentioned influencing factors on demolding. Finally, a concept to produce micro-structures on curved surfaces with injection molding is shown: A flat metal premaster structure is used to produce an elastomeric polymer (dimethylsiloxane) master in a casting process. This master is fixed in a conventional injection mold and a thermoplastic polymer is replicated

  20. Diffusion bonding and its application to manufacturing. [for joining of metal parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurgeon, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    In its simplest form diffusion bonding is accomplished by placing clean metal surfaces together under a sufficient load and heating. The natural interatomic attractive force between atoms transforms the interface into a natural grain boundary. Therefore, in principle, the properties of the bond area are identical to those of the parent metal. Other advantages of diffusion bonding over conventional methods of bonding include freedom from residual stresses, excessive deformation, foreign metals, or changed crystal structures. Stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, and aluminum alloys have all been successfully joined. Complex hardware, including integrated flueric devices, jet engine servovalves, and porous woven structures have been fabricated. The processing involved is discussed, along with such theoretical considerations as the role of metal surfaces, the formation of metal contact junctions, and the mechanisms of material transport in diffusion bonding.

  1. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. B Appendix B to Part 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. B Appendix B to Part 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing...

  4. Experimental and computational investigation of an electromagnetic pump used for manufacturing aluminium parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinigo, D.; Rodrigues, M. A.; Rivas, A.; Duque, O.; Vazquez, V.; Maroto, J. A.; Cuesta, R.

    2007-03-01

    An experimental and computational investigation was carried out on an electromagnetic pump for molten aluminum. The electromagnetic pump is a MHD device to drive molten metals by means of electromagnetic fields and without mechanical parts in contact with the metal at high temperature. An exact computer simulation of the electromagnetic pump would require the simultaneous solution of electromagnetic and fluid dynamics problems. However, in this study we divide the simulation into two independent stages. First, the electromagnetic system is simulated by ANSYS considering the secondary of the pump as a solid. This simulation is experimentally validated in a test bed with a solid secondary replacing the molten metal. Secondly, a 3D field of electromagnetic forces provided by the ANSYS simulation is imported into the FLUENT CFD code to simulate the fluid dynamic problem, considering now the secondary of the pump as a liquid. This second simulation is also experimentally validated by measuring the static head provided by the pump. This simulation process is valid only if the electromagnetic system and the fluid dynamic problem are uncoupled, which has been verified by calculating the magnetic Reynolds number and the interaction parameter. Tables 4, Figs 14, Refs 15.

  5. [Music therapy as a part of complex healing].

    PubMed

    Sliwka, Agnieszka; Jarosz, Anna; Nowobilski, Roman

    2006-10-01

    Music therapy is a method which takes the adventage of therapeutic influence of musie on psychological and somatic sphere of the human body. Its therapeutic properties are more and more used. Current scientific research have proved its modifying influence on vegetative, circulatory, respiratory and endocrine systems. Works devoted to the effects of musie on the patients' psychological sphere have also confirmed that it reduces psychopathologic symptoms (anxiety and depression), improves self-rating, influences quality and disorders of sleep, reduces pain, improves moral immunity and patients' openness, readiness, co-operation in treatment process. Music therapy is treated as a method which complements conventional treatment and makes up part of an integral whole together with physiotherapy, kinesitherapy and recuperation. PMID:17205788

  6. Research and Development: A Complex Relationship Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John Douglas Edward

    Part 1 of this document describes the background, format, and early groundwork that went into the development of a test sponsored entirely by private enterprise. The discipline imposed by a financial bottom line imposes special pressures but also offers new opportunities. This private enterprise model is a multi-constructional process where…

  7. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  8. A Case of Complicated Silicosis with a Complex Clinical Course in a Glass Manufacturing Worker

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We reported a case of complicated silicosis that occurred in a glass manufacturing plant worker who had presumably been exposed to low-concentration free silica for almost 20 years. To the best of our knowledge this report is the first in the Republic of Korea. The physician’s first impression was cancer since the enlargement of neck and supraclavicuar lymph nodes had clearly progressed and metastasis was suspected in ultrasonography. However, it turned out to be reactive hyperplasia and anthracosis. Although lung cancer was suspected and tests were performed in 2 hospitals due to repetitive cough and dyspnea, along with weight loss of approximately 10% over the course of 7 months, the patient was eventually diagnosed with complicated silicosis and pneumothorax occurred after 1 year. Herein, we report this case with a literature review. PMID:24914413

  9. Design and manufacture of a pick & place apparatus for manipulation of the SMD parts along with the glue head manipulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosouhi, R.; Koupaei, M. Shams; Rabiei, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    A pick & place apparatus is designed and manufactured to manipulate the Surface Mounting Devices (known as SMD) parts on the glue pattern on a flat surface. SMD parts are little resistors which transmit light whenever an appropriate voltage is applied on them. Manipulation of these small parts on a flat surface which is supposed to form an electric circuit is of a great importance. Also to locate the SMD parts on the flat surface, a glue pattern should have been produced primarily. These objectives are achieved by design and manufacture of an apparatus which manipulates the SMD parts on the flat surface. The flat surface is being located in the appropriate position under the apparatus by a CNC machine where the pick & place operations along with glue head operation is carried out.

  10. Toward Failure Modeling In Complex Dynamic Systems: Impact of Design and Manufacturing Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; McAdams, Daniel A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When designing vehicle vibration monitoring systems for aerospace devices, it is common to use well-established models of vibration features to determine whether failures or defects exist. Most of the algorithms used for failure detection rely on these models to detect significant changes during a flight environment. In actual practice, however, most vehicle vibration monitoring systems are corrupted by high rates of false alarms and missed detections. Research conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center has determined that a major reason for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections is the numerous sources of statistical variations that are not taken into account in the. modeling assumptions. In this paper, we address one such source of variations, namely, those caused during the design and manufacturing of rotating machinery components that make up aerospace systems. We present a novel way of modeling the vibration response by including design variations via probabilistic methods. The results demonstrate initial feasibility of the method, showing great promise in developing a general methodology for designing more accurate aerospace vehicle vibration monitoring systems.

  11. Development of a pilot-scale manufacturing process for protein-coated microcrystals (PCMC): mixing and precipitation - part I.

    PubMed

    König, Corinna; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Baum, Verena; Schultz-Fademrecht, Torsten; Bassarab, Stefan; Steffens, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    A novel protein-coated microcrystal (PCMC) technology offers the possibility to produce dry protein formulations suitable for inhalation or, after reconstitution, for injection. Micron-sized particles are hereby produced by co-precipitation via a rapid dehydration method. Thus, therapeutic proteins can be stabilised and immobilised on crystalline carrier surfaces. In this study, the development of a continuous manufacturing process is described, which can produce grams to kilograms of PCMC. The process chain comprises three steps: mixing/precipitation, solvent reduction (concentration) and final drying. The process is published in two parts. This part describes the mixing and precipitation performed using continuous impingement jet mixers. Mixing efficiency was improved by dividing the anti-solvent flow into two or four jets, which were combined again inside the mixer to achieve an embracing of the aqueous solution (sandwich effect). The jets provided high energy dissipation rates. The anti-solvent jets (95% of the total volume) efficiently mixed the protein-carrier containing aqueous solution (5% of the total volume), which was demonstrated with computational fluid dynamics and the Villermaux-Dushman reaction. The improved mixing performance of the double jet impingement (DJI) or the quadruple jet impingement (QJI) mixers showed a positive effect on easily crystallising carriers (e.g. dl-valine) at laminar flow rates. The mixer and outlet tube bore size was 2.0-3.2 mm, because smaller sizes showed a high tendency to block the mixer. The mixing effect by impaction was sufficiently high in the flow rate range of 250-2000 mL/min, which corresponds to the transition from laminar to turbulent flow characteristics. At lower flow rates, mixing was enhanced by ultrasound. 50-80L PCMC suspension was readily produced with the QJI mixer. PMID:22137999

  12. Tectonostratigraphy of the Mesozoic complexes of the northwestern part of the Koryak Highland, Ust' Belaya Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palechek, T. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Gul'pa, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    New data on the structure, age, and composition of the tectonostratigraphic complexes of the western part of the Koryak Highland are presented. The conclusions on the sedimentation conditions are drawn and primary relations are interpreted for most complexes. New Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Berriasian assemblages of radiolarians are established. Campanian radiolarians are found for the first time in the region.

  13. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  14. A comparative study of multi-sensor data fusion methods for highly accurate assessment of manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, Ammar; Kohler, Sophie; Lallement, Alex; Hirsch, Ernest

    2015-04-01

    3D modeling of scene contents takes an increasing importance for many computer vision based applications. In particular, industrial applications of computer vision require efficient tools for the computation of this 3D information. Routinely, stereo-vision is a powerful technique to obtain the 3D outline of imaged objects from the corresponding 2D images. As a consequence, this approach provides only a poor and partial description of the scene contents. On another hand, for structured light based reconstruction techniques, 3D surfaces of imaged objects can often be computed with high accuracy. However, the resulting active range data in this case lacks to provide data enabling to characterize the object edges. Thus, in order to benefit from the positive points of various acquisition techniques, we introduce in this paper promising approaches, enabling to compute complete 3D reconstruction based on the cooperation of two complementary acquisition and processing techniques, in our case stereoscopic and structured light based methods, providing two 3D data sets describing respectively the outlines and surfaces of the imaged objects. We present, accordingly, the principles of three fusion techniques and their comparison based on evaluation criterions related to the nature of the workpiece and also the type of the tackled application. The proposed fusion methods are relying on geometric characteristics of the workpiece, which favour the quality of the registration. Further, the results obtained demonstrate that the developed approaches are well adapted for 3D modeling of manufactured parts including free-form surfaces and, consequently quality control applications using these 3D reconstructions.

  15. Radiation decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials as an integral part of the good pharmaceutical manufacturing practice (GPMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, D.; Katušin-Ražem, B.; Starčević, M.; Galeković, B.

    The microbiological quality of many raw materials used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical and adjuvants often fails to meet the standards set by the pharmaceutical industry. Raw materials of biological provenience are particularly susceptible to contamination. This work describes the present situation regarding the microbial load of corn starch. Given the accepted microbiological criteria, irradiation treatment is proposed as integral to Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP). The use of total viable count as a guide for specifying microbial limits for non-sterile materials is supported. Criteria for the choice of dose are discussed.

  16. Why Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing Makes Sense for the Plants and Laboratories of the Nuclear Weapon Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, K W; Howell, L N; Lewis, D G; Neugebauer, C A; O'Brien, D W; Schilling, S A

    2001-05-15

    The purpose of this White Paper is to outline the benefits we expect to receive from Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing (MBE/M) for the design, analysis, fabrication, and assembly of nuclear weapons for upcoming Life Extension Programs (LEPs). Industry experiences with model-based approaches and the NNSA/DP investments and experiences, discussed in this paper, indicate that model-based methods can achieve reliable refurbished weapons for the stockpile with less cost and time. In this the paper, we list both general and specific benefits of MBE/M for the upcoming LEPs and the metrics for determining the success of model-based approaches. We also present some outstanding issues and challenges to deploying and achieving long-term benefit from the MBE/M. In conclusion, we argue that successful completion of the upcoming LEPs--with very aggressive schedule and funding restrictions--will depend on electronic model-based methods. We ask for a strong commitment from LEP managers throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex to support deployment and use of MBE/M systems to meet their program needs.

  17. Retrieval of complex χ(2) parts for quantitative analysis of sum-frequency generation intensity spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Matthias J.; Koelsch, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has become an established technique for in situ surface analysis. While spectral recording procedures and hardware have been optimized, unique data analysis routines have yet to be established. The SFG intensity is related to probing geometries and properties of the system under investigation such as the absolute square of the second-order susceptibility |χ(2)|. A conventional SFG intensity measurement does not grant access to the complex parts of χ(2) unless further assumptions have been made. It is therefore difficult, sometimes impossible, to establish a unique fitting solution for SFG intensity spectra. Recently, interferometric phase-sensitive SFG or heterodyne detection methods have been introduced to measure real and imaginary parts of χ(2) experimentally. Here, we demonstrate that iterative phase-matching between complex spectra retrieved from maximum entropy method analysis and fitting of intensity SFG spectra (iMEMfit) leads to a unique solution for the complex parts of χ(2) and enables quantitative analysis of SFG intensity spectra. A comparison between complex parts retrieved by iMEMfit applied to intensity spectra and phase sensitive experimental data shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected univ...

  19. Instructional Materials in Manufacturing for Junior High School Industrial Arts. Final Report and Parts I-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus.

    This Title XI Institute was designed and conducted to introduce the participants to inquiry and invention taking place in industrial arts curriculum across the United States. The institute participated in the inquiry stage through advanced study of manufacturing technology and industrial arts curriculum, and in the invention stage through the…

  20. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  1. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  2. UTILITY OF BIG AREA ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (BAAM) FOR THE RAPID MANUFACTURE OF CUSTOMIZED ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  3. Additive Manufacturing by selective laser melting the realizer desktop machine and its application for the dental industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Schmidt, Frank-Michael; Hötter, Jan-Steffen; Sokalla, Wolfgang; Sokalla, Patrick

    Additive Manufacturing of metal parts by Selective Laser Melting has become a powerful tool for the direct manufacturing of complex parts mainly for the aerospace and medical industry. With the introduction of its desktop machine, Realizer targeted the dental market. The contribution describes the special features of the machine, discusses details of the process and shows manufacturing results focused on metal dental devices.

  4. Respiratory morbidity due to ammonia exposure among the employees of a urea manufacturing industry located in western part of India

    PubMed Central

    Zala, Naman; Kavishvar, Abhay

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia is produced in the fertilizer industry. The amount of ammonia inhaled by employees of a urea manufacturing industry is very high. It would be interesting to study whether such an amount has any impact on the employees working there for many years. This study explores the magnitude of respiratory morbidity among employees of a urea manufacturing industry and to establish its association with exposure to ammonia. Data was collected related to significant respiratory illnesses of all the employees over a period of 10 years using computer-based medical record system of the industry′s hospital. The results obtained from the data analysis showed that there is no cause and effect relationship between exposure to ammonia and respiratory morbidity. Thus it was advised to the medical authority at industry to go for mass treatment with anthelmintics and that all the employees should be screened for specific allergens and this information should be used while managing respiratory morbidity. PMID:23776325

  5. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure Part I: Combinatorial geometry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John W; Slaba, Tony C; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z≤2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency. PMID:27345203

  6. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure Part I: Combinatorial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency.

  7. Geochemistry of Mesozoic carbonatite complexes in the southwestern part of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is the results of geochemical analysis of carbonatite taken at the kimberlite and carbonatite complexes in Tikilusaag and Qaqarssuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. These complexes have high grade of rare earth elements (REE), gold, olivine and diamond ore deposits. These kimberlite, lamprophyre and carbonatite are originated from complex carbonatitic and silicate magma. This kind of ultramafic alkaline complex is not common compared to other igneous bodies in the crust. Tikilusaag carbonatite complex in contains REE in calcite carbonatite. Carbonatite minerals are strontianite (SrCO3) and ancylite (SrCe(CO3)2(OH)H2O). Strontianite contains Ce and ancylite contains considerable amounts of La, Ce, Nd, respectively. Two minerals are the major components which have LREE in the complexes. Tikilussaaq carbonatite complex contain apatite which has maximum 200 micro meter in size and mostly euhedral. Most apatite crystals show compositional zoning under CL attached to SEM (JEOL, JSM-6610). This zoning reflects physiochemical condition of magma at the time of crystallization and the compositional difference of Ca, P, and F with the consideration of chemical composition of apatite. The apatite contain F instead of Cl, namely fluorine apatite. Compositional zoning reflect the difference of Ca and P according to CL image. Qaqarssuk carbonatite complex is consisted of several minerals containing Ba composition. Ba in calcite which is the major mineral of Ba carbonatite (Barytocalcite, CaBa(CO3)2) coexists with barite and Ba-Sr carbonatite. Fenitization near the complex is common process. Basic rocks formed during carbonatitization contain hornblendite predominantly, and high grade of fenitization produced albite-bearing granitic rocks in the area.

  8. Estrogen action and cytoplasmic signaling cascades. Part I: membrane-associated signaling complexes

    PubMed Central

    Segars, James H.; Driggers, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Remarkable progress in recent years has suggested that estrogen action in vivo is complex and often involves activation of cytoplasmic signaling cascades in addition to genomic actions mediated directly through estrogen receptors α and β. Rather than a linear response mediated solely through estrogen-responsive DNA elements, in vivo estrogen might simultaneously activate distinct signaling cascades that function as networks to coordinate tissue responses to estrogen. This complex signaling system provides for exquisite control and plasticity of response to estrogen at the tissue level, and undoubtedly contributes to the remarkable tissue-specific responses to estrogens. In part I of this series, we summarize cytoplasmic signaling modules involving estrogen or estrogen receptors, with particular focus on recently described membrane-associated signaling complexes. PMID:12217492

  9. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  10. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  11. Selective laser melting additive manufactured Inconel 718 superalloy parts: High-temperature oxidation property and its mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qingbo; Gu, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    This work presented a comprehensive study of high-temperature oxidation behaviors and mechanisms of Selective laser melting (SLM) processed Inconel 718 superalloy parts using different methods including isothermal oxidation testing, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results revealed that the oxidation process of the tested parts processed at a lower volumetric laser energy density experienced the severe spallation. On reasonably increasing the applied volumetric laser energy density, the oxidation kinetics of the as-produced parts obeyed a parabolic law, exhibiting the significantly improved oxidation resistance performance. The constitutional phases within the oxidation film were identified and the corresponding formation mechanisms were elucidated in detail according to the thermodynamic principles. The cross-sectional morphologies of oxidized Inconel 718 parts indicated that the oxidation microstructure mainly consisted of an external oxidation layer and an internal oxidation zone. The oxidation process was controlled by the outward diffusion of oxide forming elements and inward penetration of oxygen, by which the interaction mechanisms between the microstructures and internal oxidation zones were clarified. On the basis of the experimental results and theoretical analyses, the physical oxidation mechanisms were accordingly established to illustrate the oxidation behaviors of SLM-processed Inconel 718 parts at elevated operative temperatures.

  12. Modeling complex force systems, Part 1: The cutting and pad forces in deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, B.J. )

    1993-05-01

    An understanding of the forces generated in machining processes is necessary because they are related to such things as wear, vibrations, accuracy, power, process planning, and computer integrated manufacture. Force magnitudes can be determined by a variety of techniques from empirical laws to theoretical analyses of the mechanics of idealized cutting situations. The force situation becomes significantly more difficult to assess when a complex force system exists in which several different force groupings exist simultaneously which cannot be separated and are therefore indeterminate. One such process is deep drilling in which not only cutting forces occur at a cutting edge, but also friction and burnishing forces exist at two separate locations (i.e., the pads). This work describes an approach to (1) model the forces at each location and (2) to determine the constituent and separate forces at each of the locations. This will be done in a two paper series with the first paper describing the former and the second paper describing the latter.

  13. Method of producing complex aluminum alloy parts of high temper, and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, I. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Fully annealed aluminum sheet is first stretch formed to the complex, doubly compound shape of a previously prepared forming die, e.g., an ejection seat blowout panel of a shuttlecraft. The part is then marked with a series of grid lines for monitoring later elongation. Thereafter it is solution heat treated and refrigerated to retard hardening. While still soft, it is stretched a second time on the same die to induce a modicum of work hardening, after which it is aged to the desired stress corrosion resistant temper, preferably the T8 level, to provide the desired hardness and stress corrosion resistance.

  14. Complex three-dimensional high aspect ratio microfluidic network manufactured in combined PerMX dry-resist and SU-8 technology

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Robert Ch.; Badilita, Vlad; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike; Korvink, Jan G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new fabrication method that combines for the first time popular SU-8 technology and PerMX dry-photoresist lamination for the manufacturing of high aspect ratio three-dimensional multi-level microfluidic networks. The potential of this approach, which further benefits from wafer-level manufacturing and accurate alignment of fluidic levels, is demonstrated by a highly integrated three-level microfluidic chip. The hereby achieved network complexity, including 24 fluidic vias and 16 crossing points of three individual microchannels on less than 13 mm2 chip area, is unique for SU-8 based fluidic networks. We further report on excellent process compatibility between SU-8 and PerMX dry-photoresist which results in high interlayer adhesion strength. The tight pressure sealing of a fluidic channel (0.5 MPa for 1 h) is demonstrated for 150 μm narrow SU-8/PerMX bonding interfaces. PMID:22662038

  15. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B. PMID:27536537

  16. Mechanical behavior of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} MMC manufactured by PM techniques. Part 1: Scheme 1 processing parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mazen, A.A.; Ahmed, A.Y.

    1998-06-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) were manufactured using hot pressing followed by hot extrusion of aluminum (Al) powder reinforced by alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles. Under tensile as well as compressive loads, a strength improvement of 64 to 100% compared to the matrix material strength was obtained. The percent elongation to fracture ranged from 20 to 30%, which indicates good ductility as compared to the ductility of MMC manufactured by other techniques. Optical as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations were used for characterization of the material microstructure and fracture behavior. Porosity retained in the microstructure was very limited in the case of pure aluminum billets. Microstructural examination revealed uniform distribution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in the Al-matrix. Under tensile loads, voids opened by decohesion between the matrix and reinforcement. Such behavior led to a decrease in strength properties of the MMC as a function of reinforcement volume fraction. The fracture surface is dominated by the ductile fracture features, that is, dimples. Voids were found to initiate at retained porosity sites at the Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface or in the matrix close to the interface due to stress concentration. The SEM revealed the formation of a complex fine subgrain structure. Such a polygonized structure is a major source of strengthening.

  17. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  18. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  19. Hybrid manufacturing : integrating direct write and sterolithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Donald W.; Inamdar, Asim; Lopes, Amit; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco; Hennessey, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    A commercial stereolithography (SL) machine was modified to integrate fluid dispensing or direct-write (DW) technology with SL in an integrated manufacturing environment for automated and efficient hybrid manufacturing of complex electrical devices, combining three-dimensional (3D) electrical circuitry with SL-manufactured parts. The modified SL system operates similarly to a commercially available machine, although build interrupts were used to stop and start the SL build while depositing fluid using the DW system. An additional linear encoder was attached to the SL platform z-stage and used to maintain accurate part registration during the SL and DW build processes. Individual STL files were required as part of the manufacturing process plan. The DW system employed a three-axis translation mechanism that was integrated with the commercial SL machine. Registration between the SL part, SL laser and the DW nozzle was maintained through the use of 0.025-inch diameter cylindrical reference holes manufactured in the part during SL. After depositing conductive ink using DW, the SL laser was commanded to trace the profile until the ink was cured. The current system allows for easy exchange between SL and DW in order to manufacture fully functional 3D electrical circuits and structures in a semi-automated environment. To demonstrate the manufacturing capabilities, the hybrid SL/DW setup was used to make a simple multi-layer SL part with embedded circuitry. This hybrid system is not intended to function as a commercial system, it is intended for experimental demonstration only. This hybrid SL/DW system has the potential for manufacturing fully functional electromechanical devices that are more compact, less expensive, and more reliable than their conventional predecessors, and work is ongoing in order to fully automate the current system.

  20. Misho mafic complex - A part of paleotethyan oceanic crust or a magmatism in continental rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Zohreh; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Saccani, Emilio; Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) represents a significant component of the West Cimmerian domain in Paleo-Tethys. The Misho Mafic Complex (MMC) consists of gabbro (mainly) and norıte,olivine gabbro, anorthosite and diorite with the east- west sereight. MMC has ıntrussıved ın Kahar sedımrtery Infta- Cambrıan rocks, crosscut by abundant basaltic dykes and the overlying basaltic sheeted dyke complex. Kahar sedimentary rocks are representing the northern margin of Gondwana. Misho mafic complex are covered by Permian sedimentary rocks. The gabbros and basaltic dykes have MORB affinities. MMC formed as a product of interactions between a depleted MORB-type asthenosphere and plume-type material. Mafic rocks represent an early Carboniferous magmatic event developed during the continental break-up of the northern edge of Gondwanaland that led to the opening of Paleotethys. Alternatively, these magmas may have been emplaced into the continental crust at the continental margin soon after the oceanic crust was formed (that is the oceanic crust was still narrow). There is no data for discriminating between these two hypotheses. In first hypothesis MMC is a part of ophiolites related to paleotethyan oceanic crust and the rocks that were above this crustal level should have necessarily been eroded. In another hypothesis Misho complex represents an aborted rift in a triple junction. Above a mantle plume, the continental crust breaks along three directions at 120 degrees. But, soon after, the extension proceeds along two of these three direction. Between them is formed the oceanic crust. The continental extension along the third direction is aborted. Here no oceanic crust if formed and there is only rifted, thinned continental crust. But, also in the aborted branch MORB magmatism can occur for short time. In this hypothesis, the Misho complex was never associated with oceanic crust, but was anyway associated with the opening of the Paleotethys. This magmatism was originally

  1. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  2. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-01

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with 2B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50 = 0.58 μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  3. Integrated Processing: Quality Assurance Procedure of the Surface Layer of Machine Parts during the Manufacturing Step "Diamond Smoothing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeeba, V. Yu; Ivancivsky, V. V.; Lobanov, D. V.; Zhigulev, A. K.; Skeeba, P. Yu

    2016-04-01

    The present study has found that during the integrated processing after the diamond smoothing, in the surface-hardened sample a cold-worked layer 0.01 ... 0.02 mm in thickness, the microhardness value of which reaches 868 HV, is formed. The intensity of compressive stresses on the part surface increases to στ = -678 MPa. The analysis of the experimental data has shown the relationship between the parameter Ra and the processing modes that can be used during diamond smoothing, based on the high performance and the desired surface roughness. It has been found that the minimum value of roughness Ra = 0.18±0.08 μm is reliably achieved by smoothing processing when the smoothing force Py ranges from 100 N to 150 N.

  4. Evidence for a rotating helical filament in L1641, part of the Orion cloud complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Minoshima, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Iwata, T.

    1991-01-01

    The Nagoya 4-m radiotelescope has been used to study L1641, a streamer which is a part of the giant molecular-cloud complex ion Orion, lying south of the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula. The 110-GHz line of (C-=13)O (J = 1-0) has been used to obtain intensity and velocity data. A dense filament with a helical structure, spinning in the same sense as the gas in the Orion KL region, has been found. A model for this structure is proposed in which the streamer, through the action of the interstellar magnetic field, acts as an angular-momentum drain on the Orion KL region, allowing it to collapse. In this model, the approximately 30 pc long streamer is essential to the formation of the cloud, as well as the formation of stars within the dense cloud.

  5. Toward a fundamental theory of optimal feature selection: Part II - Implementation and computational complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Morgera, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Certain algorithms and their computational complexity are examined for use in a VLSI implementation of the real-time pattern classifier described in Part I of this work. The most computationally intensive processing is found in the classifier training mode wherein subsets of the largest and smallest eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors of the input data covariance pair must be computed. It is shown that if the matrix of interest is centrosymmetric and the method for eigensystem decomposition is operator-based, the problem architecture assumes a parallel form. Such a matrix structure is found in a wide variety of pattern recognition and speech and signal processing applications. Each of the parallel channels requires only two specialized matrix-arithmetic modules.

  6. Flexible and Array Eddy Current Probes for Fast Inspection of Complex Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, B.; Decitre, J. M.; Casula, O.

    2010-02-01

    Eddy Current is a powerful mean of detection of detects located in conductive parts. This technique has already proved great performances and brought solutions to different industrial issues in nuclear or aeronautics domains for instance. Probes used in Non Destructive Testing (NDT) are mainly based on winding coils. This technology has shown good efficiency and gave good results in a lot of applications. Nonetheless, it reveals some limits in some cases, when the part has a complex shape for instance or when the defect is deeply buried. Therefore, other technologies have been developed at CEA LIST. An original scheme, optimized using the NDT platform CIVA, led to the development of a 32-elements flexible probe, based on micro-coils. Experimental testing reveals its efficiency in the detection of small surface defects. In other hand, magnetic sensors are very attractive for NDT. Thanks to their small size, a 22-GMRs arrays probe and a 96-AMRs array probes have been achieved. Their high spatial resolution and efficiency in the detection of small defects are demonstrated. The high sensitivity of magnetic sensors at low frequency has been used to design a flexible probe dedicated to the detection of deep defects. Its design and experimental testing are given.

  7. Numerical Prediction Of Elastic Springback In An Automotive Complex Structural Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Livan; Ingarao, Giuseppe; Micari, Fabrizio; Lo Franco, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    The routing and production of 3D complex parts for automotive applications is characterized by springback phenomena affecting the final geometry of the components both after the stamping operations and the trimming ones. FE analyses have to assure effectiveness and consistency in order to be utilized as design tool to be coupled to proper compensating techniques allowing to obtain the desired geometry at the and of the production sequence. In the present paper the full routing of a DP 600 steel automotive structural part is considered and the springback phenomena occurring after forming and trimming are investigated through FE analyses utilizing two different commercial codes. Althought finite element analysis is successful in simulating industrial sheet forming operations, the accurate and reliable applications of this phenomenon and its numerical prediction has not been widely demonstrated. In this paper the influence of the main numerical parameters has been considered i.e. type of the utilized shell element and number of integration points along the thickness, with the aim to improve the effectiveness and reliability of the numerical results. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental evidences derived from CMM acquisitions.

  8. Metrology Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John A.; Garboczi, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes can produce highly complex and customized parts without the need for dedicated tooling and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet several challenges are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Among these challenges are metrology issues associated with the measurement and characterization of the metal powders used for AM systems. This article will describe the technical challenges and needs for characterizing metal AM powders, recent research efforts to address those needs, and current work to standardize characterization methods in ASTM and ISO, such as the recently released ASTM F3049, Standard Guide for Characterizing Properties of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing Processes.

  9. Advancements in asphere manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric optics can pose as a challenge to the manufacturing community due to the surface shape and level of quality required. The aspheric surface may have inflection points that limit the usable tool size during manufacturing, or there may be a stringent tolerance on the slope for mid-spatial frequencies that may be problematic for sub-aperture finishing techniques to achieve. As aspheres become more commonplace in the optics community, requests for more complex aspheres have risen. OptiPro Systems has been developing technologies to create a robust aspheric manufacturing process. Contour deterministic microgrinding is performed on a Pro80 or eSX platform. These platforms utilize software and the latest advancements in machine motion to accurately contour the aspheric shape. Then the optics are finished using UltraForm Finishing (UFF), which is a sub-aperture polishing process. This process has the capability to adjust the diameter and compliance of the polishing lap to allow for finishing over a wide range of shapes and conditions. Finally, the aspheric surfaces are qualified using an OptiTrace contact profilometer, or an UltraSurf non-contact 3D surface scanner. The OptiTrace uses a stylus to scan across the surface of the part, and the UltraSurf utilizes several different optical pens to scan the surface and generate a topographical map of the surface under test. This presentation will focus on the challenges for asphere manufacturing, how OptiPro has implemented its technologies to combat these challenges, and provide surface data for analysis.

  10. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  11. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  12. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  13. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  14. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  15. POD evaluation using simulation: A phased array UT case on a complex geometry part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frederic; Jenson, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    The use of Probability of Detection (POD) for NDT performances demonstration is a key link in products lifecycle management. The POD approach is to apply the given NDT procedure on a series of known flaws to estimate the probability to detect with respect to the flaw size. A POD is relevant if and only if NDT operations are carried out within the range of variability authorized by the procedure. Such experimental campaigns require collection of large enough datasets to cover the range of variability with sufficient occurrences to build a reliable POD statistics, leading to expensive costs to get POD curves. In the last decade research activities have been led in the USA with the MAPOD group and later in Europe with the SISTAE and PICASSO projects based on the idea to use models and simulation tools to feed POD estimations. This paper proposes an example of application of POD using simulation on the inspection procedure of a complex -full 3D- geometry part using phased arrays ultrasonic testing. It illustrates the methodology and the associated tools developed in the CIVA software. The paper finally provides elements of further progress in the domain.

  16. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  17. Investigations on Manufacturability and Process Reliability of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Selective laser melting is a layer-wise manufacturing process that enables the use of complex geometric shapes in part design and production. An infrared laser beam is focused on a thin layer of metallic powder and selectively deflected in order to scan the cross-section of the parts being built. The process quality is dominated by the consolidation of powder particles through laser beam interaction, the part geometry itself and the arrangement of multiple parts. In this paper, the manufacturability is investigated by characterizing single melt tracks and the buildup of thin wall structures consisting of a few aligned scan tracks.

  18. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  19. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  20. WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF CORROSIVE AND HEAVY METAL WASTE MINIMIZATION AT A SPECIALTY STEEL MANUFACTURING COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Was...

  1. Granitoid generation and laxfordian tectonic evolution in the northern part of the lewisian complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, A.; Lopez, S.; Fernandez, C.

    2003-04-01

    Several terranes have been distinguished in the Lewisian complex of Scotland. The contact between the Rhiconich and Assynt terranes, in the northern part of the mainland Lewisian complex, is outlined by a major shear zone, the Laxford front. The tectonic activity in this shear zone took place mainly during the Early Proterozoic (1900 to 1600 Ma), defining a Laxfordian period of deformation and metamorphism. Generalized migmatization of the tonalite-trondhjemite (TT) gneisses developed coeval with the intrusion of abundant Fe-diorite tabular bodies in the Rhiconich terrane. Field structures indicate that both TT gneisses and Fe-diorites coexisted as melts or partially molten systems. The composition of the TT gneisses changes to granodioritic in the vicinity of the diorite intrusions. It is suggested that percolation of alkali-rich fluids released from the crystallising diorite magma through the TT migmatites could explain this compositional change. The presence of granite and pegmatite dikes is characteristic of the Rhiconich terrane. The observed structural relationships indicate that the migmatization of the TT gneisses and the intrusion of basic and granitic rocks are simultaneous processes, and that they developed in association with the Laxfordian deformation. In contrast, the Assynt terrane is almost devoid of basic and granitic intrusions during the Laxfordian period. The main structures developed within the Laxford front are a WNW-ESE oriented foliation, dipping to the north, and a lineation slightly plunging to the ESE. Kinematic criteria include composite planar fabrics, asymmetric porphyroclast systems and sheath folds, and allow us to deducing a dextral-reverse sense of movement. Similarly, the Laxfordian deformation in the Rhiconich terrane gave place to a pervasive foliation and lineation, north-verging folds and dextral-reverse minor shear zones. Accordingly, the Laxfordian period in the northern Lewisian can be wholly described as a dextral

  2. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Dissolving Silos

    ScienceCinema

    Danielson, David; Orr, Lynn; Sarkar, Reuben; Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-24

    DOE?s work is closely tied to manufacturing because manufacturing is an important part of technology innovation and commercialization. Find out how DOE ? through the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative ? is helping America lead the clean energy revolution.

  3. Release of iron-cyanide complexes form contaminated soils - Batch and column experiments on substrates from Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Soils of former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are often contaminated with iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes that originate from gas purification process. Cyanide is a potentially toxic substance and its presence in soil and groundwater may cause risk for human health as well as for the environment. MGPs were commonly built on the city suburban areas, which have spread ever since. Nowadays, these sites are typically located in inner cities, causing environmental thread, due to the leaching of pollutants. More recently, columns and batch experiments have been used to study fate and mobility of contaminants is soil. The release of iron-cyanide complexes under unsaturated flow conditions was evaluated with eight columns of 30 cm length and a diameter of 5,4 cm. Cyanide concentrations in the collected leachates were measured with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). Additionally pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and various ion concentrations were determined. In order to compare the release of Fe-CN complexes in saturated conditions a batch experiment was conducted, where in defined time intervals, 1 ml of the extract water phase was analyzed for CN concentration. Study revealed an analogous trend of cyanide release in both experiments indicating primarily the release of formerly dissolved phase (hexacyanoferrates) followed by continual dissolution of ferric ferrocyanide. We conclude that batch experiments, conducted prior to column analysis, can serve as preliminary prediction of the water soluble cyanide fraction under unsaturated conditions.

  4. Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes from aortas of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Part 1. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, T P; Augustyn, J M; Fritz, K E

    1978-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes were isolated from rabbit aortas exhibiting nearly confluent cholesterol-induced foam cell lesions by extraction with 0.15 M NaCl. Purification and characterization was achieved by gel chromatography, non-ionic differential flotation and by cellulose polyacetate electrophoresis. Analysis showed that these complexes consisted of very low density lipoproteins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-C and hyaluronic acid. The demonstration that rabbit intimal foam cell lesions contain extractable glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes makes this animal model an excellent tool for further studies on the role of these complexes in the atherogenic process. PMID:215171

  5. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  6. Efficacy of viral clearance methods used in the manufacture of activated prothrombin complex concentrates: focus on AUTOPLEX T.

    PubMed

    Horwith, G; Revie, D R

    1999-09-01

    Various methods are described for the elimination of infectious viruses from activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs) and for the analysis of the final products (AUTOPLEX T and FEIBA VH). Viruses of concern in human plasma-derived products are enveloped (hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) and nonenveloped (hepatitis A and parvovirus B19). Donated blood used for AUTOPLEX T is screened for antihepatitis C, HBsAg, anti-HIV types 1 and 2, and p24 antigen. Plasma pools utilized for raw materials are also tested by PCR for HIV and hepatitis C virus. Partial virus inactivation and partitioning are achieved by purification of the aPCC. Further reduction of virus infectivity is accomplished by lyophilization and dry-heat treatment. Each step undergoes virus elimination validation studies in which a relevant sample is 'spiked' with the appropriate virus or model virus. The total reduction in virus from raw material to final product can then be calculated. For AUTOPLEX T the cumulative log10 reduction factors for several viruses vary from 4.2 to 14.3. This ensures an exceptionally high margin of safety. Definitive evidence for product safety was obtained by clinical observation of treated patients. The viral inactivation process of AUTOPLEX T involves a four-tier viral safety program, including Cohn alcohol fractionation and dry-heat treatment, in place of the two-stage vapour-heating process for FEIBA. PMID:10597384

  7. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  8. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  9. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  10. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  11. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  12. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  13. Additive manufacturing: Overview and NDE challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are capable of producing highly complex and customized parts, without the need for dedicated tooling, and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet there are several challenges that are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Traditional Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods could be utilized in both in-process and post-process applications to help overcome these challenges, although currently there are very few examples of in-situ sensors for monitoring AM processes. This paper gives an overview of AM technology, and discusses the potential benefits and challenges of using NDE in AM applications.

  14. Kuranakh complex diabases in the western part of the Aldan-Stanovoi Shield: Age and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. V.; Kotov, A. B.; Salnikova, E. B.; Postnikov, A. A.; Timofeev, V. F.; Berezkin, V. I.; Larin, A. M.; Fedoseenko, A. M.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2012-01-01

    The age of Kuranakh Complex diabases in the western part of the Aldan-Stanovoi Shield determined by the zircon U-Pb method is virtually identical to that of basic rocks in the Chinei stratified pluton and granites in the Kodar Complex. Thus, it is possible to suggest that they form a unified bimodal magmatic association and belong to the South Siberian postcollision magmatic belt, which extends along the southwestern framing of the Siberian Craton for more than 2500 km from the Yenisei mountain range to the Aldan-Stanovoi Shield. The occurrence of the diabase dike swarms in magmatic associations of this belt testifies to formation under lithospheric extension conditions.

  15. Complex home care: Part 2- family annual income, insurance premium, and out-of-pocket expenses.

    PubMed

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Ross, Vicki M; Smith, Carol E; Clements, Faye; Williams, Arthur R

    2010-01-01

    Annual costs paid by families for intravenous infusion of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-payments for health services, and the wide range of out-of-pocket home health care expenses are significant. The costs of managing complex chronic care at home cannot be completely understood until all out-of-pocket costs have been defined, described, and tabulated. Non-reimbursed and out-of-pocket costs paid by families over years for complex chronic care negatively impact the financial stability of families. National health care reform must take into account the long-term financial burdens of families caring for those with complex home care. Any changes that may increase the out-of-pocket costs or health insurance costs to these families can also have a negative long-term impact on society when greater numbers of patients declare bankruptcy or qualify for medical disability. PMID:21158253

  16. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 541: Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Sulfonamides: A New Class of Antiglaucoma Agents

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Jitianu, Andrei

    1997-01-01

    Metal complexes of heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory properties were recently shown to be useful as intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering agents in experimental animals, and might be developed as a novel class of antiglaucoma drugs. Here we report the synthesis of a heterocyclic sulfonamide CA inhibitor and of the metal complexes containing main group metal ions, such as Be(II), Mg(II), Al(III), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) and the new sulfonamide as well as 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide as ligands. The new complexes were characterized by standard physico-chemical procedures, and assayed as inhibitors of three CA isozymes, CA I, II and IV. Some of them (but not the parent sulfonamides) strongly lowered IOP in rabbits when administered as a 2% solution into the eye. PMID:18475811

  17. Izumo is part of a multiprotein family whose members form large complexes on mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    Ellerman, Diego A; Pei, Jimin; Gupta, Surabhi; Snell, William J; Myles, Diana; Primakoff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Izumo, a sperm membrane protein, is essential for gamete fusion in the mouse. It has an Ig (Immunoglobulin) domain and an N-terminal domain for which neither the functions nor homologous sequences are known. In the present work we identified three novel proteins showing an N-terminal domain with significant homology to the N-terminal domain of Izumo. We named this region "Izumo domain", and the novel proteins “Izumo 2”,”Izumo 3” and “Izumo 4”, retaining “Izumo 1” for the first described member of the family. Izumo 1, 2 and 3 are transmembrane proteins expressed specifically in the testis, and Izumo 4 is a soluble protein expressed in the testis and in other tissues. Electrophoresis under mildly denaturing conditions, followed by Western blot analysis, showed that Izumo 1, 3 and 4 formed protein complexes on sperm, Izumo 1 forming several larger complexes and Izumo 3 and 4 forming a single larger complex. Studies using different recombinant Izumo constructs suggested the Izumo domain possesses the ability to form dimers, whereas the transmembrane domain or the cytoplasmic domain or both of Izumo 1 are required for the formation of multimers of higher order. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed the presence of other sperm proteins associated with Izumo-1, suggesting Izumo 1 forms a multi-protein membrane complex. Our results raise the possibility that Izumo 1 might be involved in organizing or stabilizing a multi-protein complex essential for the function of the membrane fusion machinery. PMID:19658160

  18. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  19. Vibration Characteristics of a Large-Capacity Complex Vibration Source Using a Titanium Alloy Complex Transverse Vibration Rod with Two Stepped Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Ueoka, Tetsugi; Kikuchi, Yuya

    2004-05-01

    The configurations of large-capacity 27 kHz ultrasonic complex vibration sources with multiple longitudinal transducers are proposed and studied. Ultrasonic complex vibration systems are effective for various types of metal welding and essential for new applications in various industries. The large-capacity vibration source consists of a complex transverse rod with a welding tip (titanium alloy), a complex vibration rod with a flange and a stepped part for holding the system (stainless-steel), a one-wavelength longitudinal vibration disk (aluminum alloy) and six bolt-clamped Langevin type piezo-electric ceramic (PZT) transducers (BLTs) installed along the circumference of the disk at an angle difference of 60°. The vibration source is driven using three driving systems with three transformers at a phase difference of 120°, and the disk is driven in a circular locus. The transverse vibration rod installed at the center of the disk is driven transversally and the welding tip of the rod vibrates in a circular locus.

  20. Spectral transformation in the SOFI complex for processing photographic images on the ES computer, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debabov, A. S.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of three programs catalogued in the form of object modules in the library of a system for processing photographic images computer. PFT is the subprogram of the multi-dimensional BPF of real-valued information, in the operative computer memory. INRECO is a subprogram-interface between the real and complex formats for representing two-dimensional spectra and images. FFT2 is a subprogram for calculating the correlation functions of the image using the previous subprograms.

  1. Generalized model of electromigration with 1:1 (analyte:selector) complexation stoichiometry: part I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Dubský, Pavel; Müllerová, Ludmila; Dvořák, Martin; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2015-03-01

    The model of electromigration of a multivalent weak acidic/basic/amphoteric analyte that undergoes complexation with a mixture of selectors is introduced. The model provides an extension of the series of models starting with the single-selector model without dissociation by Wren and Rowe in 1992, continuing with the monovalent weak analyte/single-selector model by Rawjee, Williams and Vigh in 1993 and that by Lelièvre in 1994, and ending with the multi-selector overall model without dissociation developed by our group in 2008. The new multivalent analyte multi-selector model shows that the effective mobility of the analyte obeys the original Wren and Row's formula. The overall complexation constant, mobility of the free analyte and mobility of complex can be measured and used in a standard way. The mathematical expressions for the overall parameters are provided. We further demonstrate mathematically that the pH dependent parameters for weak analytes can be simply used as an input into the multi-selector overall model and, in reverse, the multi-selector overall parameters can serve as an input into the pH-dependent models for the weak analytes. These findings can greatly simplify the rationale method development in analytical electrophoresis, specifically enantioseparations. PMID:25637010

  2. Microgravity Manufacturing Via Fused Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Griffin, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing polymer hardware during space flight is currently outside the state of the art. A process called fused deposition modeling (FDM) can make this approach a reality by producing net-shaped components of polymer materials directly from a CAE model. FDM is a rapid prototyping process developed by Stratasys, Inc.. which deposits a fine line of semi-molten polymer onto a substrate while moving via computer control to form the cross-sectional shape of the part it is building. The build platen is then lowered and the process is repeated, building a component directly layer by layer. This method enables direct net-shaped production of polymer components directly from a computer file. The layered manufacturing process allows for the manufacture of complex shapes and internal cavities otherwise impossible to machine. This task demonstrated the benefits of the FDM technique to quickly and inexpensively produce replacement components or repair broken hardware in a Space Shuttle or Space Station environment. The intent of the task was to develop and fabricate an FDM system that was lightweight, compact, and required minimum power consumption to fabricate ABS plastic hardware in microgravity. The final product of the shortened task turned out to be a ground-based breadboard device, demonstrating miniaturization capability of the system.

  3. Petrology of the freetown layered complex, Sierra Leone: part II. Magma evolution and crystallisation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalokwu, C. I.

    2001-04-01

    The Freetown Layered Complex, Sierra Leone, is a 65 km long, 14 km wide and 7 km thick tholeiitic intrusion, which had been intruded in the West African Craton during the Jurassic (˜ 190 Ma) opening of the middle Atlantic Ocean. The complex consists of four zones of rhythmically layered sequences of Pl+Ol+Aug±Tmt-Ol+Opx+Pgt+Ol-Pgt. Cumulus inverted pigeonite first appeared at the bottom of Zone 2 before disappearing in the middle of Zone 3 only to reappear at the top of Zone 4 with cumulus titanomagnetite. Calculated emplacement pressures, based on the compositions of coexisting plagioclase-pyroxene and the CaTs reaction, range from 2.8 to 5.1 kbar. Two-pyroxene geothermometer gives crystallisation temperatures of 972-1305 ± 70°C, which compare favourably with temperatures estimated from O isotope thermometers (1040-1290 ± 60°C) and plagioclase-liquid thermometers (1045-1381°C) applied to the Freetown bulk composition and obtained by geochemical summation for each zone. Fe-Ti oxides have all re-equilibrated during subsolidus cooling of the complex, but yield fO 2 between quartz-fayalite-magnetite and wüstite-magnetite buffers at high pressure. Silica activity, based on the En = Fo + SiO 2 equilibrium, has been calculated for the entire stratigraphic section. Instead of a progressive increase from the bottom to the top of the complex, values of silica activity fluctuate within the zones, with major decreases corresponding to levels of new magma additions or the arrival of cumulus titanomagnetite. Stratigraphic summation of whole rock chemical composition of cumulates for zones 2-4, weighted according to the average density of the zones, indicates the zones were produced by multiple injection of high alumina (18.38-20.47 wt%) low Ti (0.46-0.70 wt%) hypersthene-normative tholeiites with moderately high activities of silica. Numerical simulation using the COMAGMAT computer algorithm indicates zone 4 bulk composition, interpreted as approximating the parental

  4. Fabrication of ceramic components using mold shape deposition manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Alexander G.

    Mold Shape Deposition Manufacturing (Mold SDM) is a new process for the fabrication of geometrically complex, structural ceramic components. This thesis describes the development of the Mold SDM process, including process steps, materials selection, planning strategies and automation. Initial characterization results are presented and these are used to compare the process to competing manufacturing processes. A range of current and potential applications for ceramic, as well as metal and polymer parts are discussed. The benefits and limitations of ceramic materials for structural applications are discussed to motivate the need for a manufacturing process capable of rapidly producing high quality, geometrically complex, structural ceramic components. The Mold SDM process was developed to address this need. Mold SDM is based on Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) and uses SDM techniques to build fugitive wax molds which can then be used to build ceramic parts by gelcasting. SDM is an additive-subtractive layered manufacturing process which allows it to build geometrically complex parts. The subtraction step differentiates Mold SDM from other layered manufacturing processes and allows accurate, high quality surfaces to be produced. The performance of the process was increased by identifying the key material properties and then selecting improved materials combinations. Candidate materials were evaluated in terms of machinability, shrinkage, heat resistance and chemical compatibility. A number of preferred materials combinations were developed and used to produce ceramic, metal and polymer parts. A number of new process planning strategies and build techniques were developed. The manufacturability analysis determines whether a part is manufacturable and the orientation selection guidelines help in the selection of optimum build directions. New decomposition techniques take advantage of process capabilities to improve part quality and build rate. Initial process

  5. Immediate single-stage reconstruction of complex frontofaciobasal injuries: part I.

    PubMed

    Awadalla, Akram Mohamed; Ezzeddine, Hichem; Fawzy, Naglaaa; Saeed, Mohammad Al; Ahmad, Mohammad R

    2015-03-01

    Objective To determine if immediate (within 6 hours of adequate resuscitation) single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries could be accomplished with acceptable morbidity and mortality taking into consideration the cosmetic appearance of the patient. Patients and Methods A total of 26 patients (19 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 8 to 58 years with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 5 to 15 all had a combined single-stage repair of their complex craniofacial injuries within 6 hours of their admission. After initial assessment and adequate resuscitation, they were evaluated with three-dimensional computed tomography of the face and head. Coronal skin flap was used for maximum exposure for frontal sinus exenteration as well as dural repair, cortical debridement, calvarial reconstruction, and titanium mesh placement. Results Neurosurgical outcome at both the early and late evaluations was judged as good in 22 of 26 patients (85%), moderate in 3 of 26 (11%), and poor in 1 of the 26 (3.8%). Cosmetic surgical outcome at the early evaluation showed 17 of 26 (65%) to be excellent, 4 of 26 (15.5%) to be good, 4 patients (15.5%) to be fair, and 1 patient (3.8%) to be poor. At the late reevaluation, the fair had improved to good with an additional reconstructive procedure, and the poor had improved to fair with another surgery. There was no calvarial osteomyelitis, graft resorption, or intracranial abscess. Complications included three patients (11%): one (3.8%) had tension pneumocephaly and meningitis, one (3.8%) had delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak with recurrent attacks of meningitis, and one had a maxillary sinus infection (3.8%) secondary to front maxillary fistula. Conclusion The immediate single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries can be performed with acceptable results, a decreased need for reoperation, and improved cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25844296

  6. Immediate Single-Stage Reconstruction of Complex Frontofaciobasal Injuries: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Akram Mohamed; Ezzeddine, Hichem; Fawzy, Naglaaa; Saeed, Mohammad Al; Ahmad, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if immediate (within 6 hours of adequate resuscitation) single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries could be accomplished with acceptable morbidity and mortality taking into consideration the cosmetic appearance of the patient. Patients and Methods A total of 26 patients (19 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 8 to 58 years with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 5 to 15 all had a combined single-stage repair of their complex craniofacial injuries within 6 hours of their admission. After initial assessment and adequate resuscitation, they were evaluated with three-dimensional computed tomography of the face and head. Coronal skin flap was used for maximum exposure for frontal sinus exenteration as well as dural repair, cortical debridement, calvarial reconstruction, and titanium mesh placement. Results Neurosurgical outcome at both the early and late evaluations was judged as good in 22 of 26 patients (85%), moderate in 3 of 26 (11%), and poor in 1 of the 26 (3.8%). Cosmetic surgical outcome at the early evaluation showed 17 of 26 (65%) to be excellent, 4 of 26 (15.5%) to be good, 4 patients (15.5%) to be fair, and 1 patient (3.8%) to be poor. At the late reevaluation, the fair had improved to good with an additional reconstructive procedure, and the poor had improved to fair with another surgery. There was no calvarial osteomyelitis, graft resorption, or intracranial abscess. Complications included three patients (11%): one (3.8%) had tension pneumocephaly and meningitis, one (3.8%) had delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak with recurrent attacks of meningitis, and one had a maxillary sinus infection (3.8%) secondary to front maxillary fistula. Conclusion The immediate single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries can be performed with acceptable results, a decreased need for reoperation, and improved cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25844296

  7. S1 excitation and zero kinetic energy spectra of partly deuterated 1:1 phenol-water complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopfer, Otto; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    1994-11-01

    Two-photon, two-color resonant-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of the S1 state of isotopic 1:1 hydrogen-bonded phenol-water clusters have been recorded. Up to three deuterium atoms are introduced in the phenolic OH group and/or the water molecule. The intermolecular vibrational structure found is in reasonable agreement with previously reported one-color REMPI spectra, however, a partly different interpretation of the spectra is presented here. Zero kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE) spectra have been obtained via different intermediate S1 levels of the various isotopic complexes. The analysis of both the REMPI and the ZEKE spectra supports the new assignment of several vibrational bands observed in the REMPI spectra of the deuterated complexes where one or two hydrogen atoms are substituted by deuterium. For these deuterated complexes, the reassignment given here is based on the assumption that two different nonequivalent isomeric configurations are responsible for the structure observed in the REMPI spectra. This result is in clear contrast to the previously given interpretation where the spectra were analyzed in terms of only one isomer and the occurrence of Fermi resonances. Furthermore, accurate ionization energies are determined for all possible isomers of the various isotopic complexes and propensity rules for these values as a function of site-specific deuteration have been found. In addition, the analysis of the intermolecular vibrational structure of the complex cations confirmed the assignment of the intermolecular stretch vibration.

  8. Taxonomy of 'Euconnus complex'. Part IV. Review of Euconnus subgenus Rhomboconnus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structures of the type species of Euconnus (Rhomboconnus Franz) are described and illustrated, and compared with those of Euconnus s. str. Rhomboconnus, although showing several peculiar character states (e.g., rudimentary or lacking basal elytral foveae) is maintained as a subgenus of Euconnus, and its revised diagnosis is given. Two species currently placed in Rhomboconnus, E. perplexus Franz (Venezuela) and E. trianguliceps Franz (Ecuador) are redescribed. A surprising and striking similarity of the aedeagus of Rhomboconnus to that of Plaumanniola Costa Lima (Plaumanniolini) is discussed as yet another structural evidence supporting a previously postulated close relationship between the enigmatic Plaumanniolini and the 'Euconnus complex'. PMID:26623739

  9. Greater Than the Sum of Parts: Complexity of the Dynamic Epigenome.

    PubMed

    Soshnev, Alexey A; Josefowicz, Steven Z; Allis, C David

    2016-06-01

    Information encoded in DNA is interpreted, modified, and propagated as chromatin. The diversity of inputs encountered by eukaryotic genomes demands a matching capacity for transcriptional outcomes provided by the combinatorial and dynamic nature of epigenetic processes. Advances in genome editing, visualization technology, and genome-wide analyses have revealed unprecedented complexity of chromatin pathways, offering explanations to long-standing questions and presenting new challenges. Here, we review recent findings, exemplified by the emerging understanding of crossregulatory interactions within chromatin, and emphasize the pathologic outcomes of epigenetic misregulation in cancer. PMID:27259201

  10. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  11. [Telephone hotlines as a part of complex services for tobacco dependence treatment].

    PubMed

    Králíková, E; Baska, T; Langrová, K; Vojta, M

    2005-01-01

    Telephone quitlines for smoking cessation should be included into the available tobacco dependence treatment and should be included into smoking cessation guidelines. Telephone quitlines does not mean only the help to the calling smoker, but also can increase the number of quit attempts in the general population. Especially minorities that not so often take part in the classic smoking cessation treatment, use quitlines more often (e.g. pregnant women). Quitlines are economically effective, although the most expensive form - individual counselling - should be reserved for those really willing to stop. Quitlines should be given governmental financial support (compared to other medical interventions, any smoking cessation treatment is economically more cost effective). PMID:16173615

  12. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  13. PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART II, MANUAL OF ACCOUNTING AND RELATED FINANCIAL PROCEDURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIEDMAN, BURTON DEAN; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS THE SECOND PART OF A REPORT, PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART 1, EA 001 170, SUBTITLED "ANALYSIS AND PROPOSALS," CONTAINS AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX WITHIN EACH STATE EDUCATION AGENCY. THIS DOCUMENT IS A MANUAL PRESENTING THE PROPOSED…

  14. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  15. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kortovich, C.

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  16. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review): Part 2. Modification of production technologies for photoelectric converters, development of contact structures, and choice of promising technologies for expansion of FEC production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-12-01

    As the development of the first part of the review of modern industrial technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) of solar power, the present paper considers modifications of technologies for manufacture of PECs, including various thin-film techniques. Main tendencies in the advancement of contact structures of PECs are described. Formulation and substantiation are made for promising, in the authors' opinion, lines of the development of industry of PECs in Russia based on the upcoming implementation of 1.5 GW network photovoltaic power plants to 2020, which are developed with the national support under conditions of the fulfillment of rigid requirements to manufacture localization. As the most prospective technology for development of the competitive manufacture of photoelectric converters subject to the Russian scientific and engineering groundwork, the authors recommend the technology based on single-crystal silicon of the n type with the passivation of the frontal and rear sides and symmetrical contacts ( n-PASHa), which provides the possibility to produce double-faced solar modules also.

  17. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation.

  18. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  19. Localised slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinised dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration of serpentinised ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure; however the extents of strain localisation and unstable frictional sliding are still under debate. Microstructural and mineralogical evidence from dunites of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides demonstrates that prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of large-grained olivine rich in magnetite inclusions. The epitaxial growth of comparatively Fe-poor prograde olivine on Fe-richer relics of primary olivine caused a high variability in Fe-content, even within single crystals. On a larger scale, the average Fe-content of olivine rises towards the vein edges, which reflects a decrease in the degree of initial serpentinisation towards the host rock. The former distribution of serpentine strongly influenced the mechanical response of the rock to the fluid production during deserpentinisation: The faulting caused by the associated dehydration embrittlement occurred along highly localized slip planes in the centres of the meta-serpentinite veins. Around these slip planes, the prograde olivine experienced significant grain size reduction, but very limited shear strain. The strain concentration on narrow faults, also documented by a sharp offset of chromite layers, and the brittle deformation of the surrounding olivine suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. This natural example of deserpentinisation-induced embrittlement illustrates that structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins have first-order controls on strain localisation and frictional sliding. While strain may be distributed during dehydration of a homogeneous serpentinite, as has been observed in recent experimental studies, it may become strongly localised in a heterogeneous rock volume where fluid pressure is locally increased along pre-existing veins. As most of the oceanic lithosphere

  20. Mechanical analysis of lightweight constructions manufactured with fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagsik, A.; Josupeit, S.; Schoeppner, V.; Klemp, E.

    2014-05-01

    Additive production techniques have the advantage of manufacturing parts without needing a forming tool. One of the most used additive manufacturing processes is "Fused Deposition Modeling" (FDM) which allows the production of prototypes and end-use parts. Due to the manufacture layer by layer, also complex part geometries can be created in one working step. Furthermore, lightweight parts with specific inner core structures can be manufactured in order to achieve good weightrelated strength properties. In this paper the mechanical behavior of lightweight parts manufactured with the 3D production system Fortus 400mc from Stratasys and the material Polyetherimide (PEI) with the trade name Ultem*9085 is analyzed. The test specimens were built up with different inner structures and building directions. Therefore, test specimens with known lightweight core geometries (e.g. corrugated and honeycomb cores) were designed. A four-point bending test was conducted to analyze the strength properties as well as the weight-related strength properties. Additionally the influence of the structure width, the structure wall thickness and the top layer thickness was analyzed using a honeycomb structure.

  1. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  2. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  3. Exploring Manufacturing Occupations. Instructor's Guide. The Manufacturing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Rutherford, NJ.

    The major focus of this guide and its accompanying student manual (CE 010 397) is to help the student understand the manufacturing enterprise. (The guide and student manual are part of a manufacturing cluster series which addresses itself to career awareness, orientation, exploration, and preparation.) Seven sections are included. An overview of…

  4. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part V: Electrostatically correlated spin-orbit and electrostatically correlated hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Dembczyński, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The continuation of the previous series of papers related to the construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms is presented. The contributions from the second-order perturbation theory concerning electrostatically correlated spin-orbit interactions (CSO), as well as electrostatically correlated hyperfine interactions (CHFS) to the atomic structure of nlN, nlNn1l1^{N_1} and nlNn1l1^{N_1}n2l2^{N_2} configurations, are considered. This theory assumes that the electron excitation n0l0→ nl affects spin-orbit splitting and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure in the same way which will be discussed below. Part I of the series presented, in general terms, a method allowing the analysis of complex electronic systems. Parts II, III and IV provided a description of an electrostatic interaction up to second-order perturbation theory; they constitute the basis for the design of an efficient computer program package for large-scale calculations of accurate wave functions. Analyses presented in the entire series of our papers clearly demonstrate that obtaining the precise wave functions is impossible without considering the contribution from the second-order effects into fine and hyperfine atomic structure.

  5. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  6. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  7. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  8. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  9. Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

  10. Composite intermediate case manufacturing scale-up for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, Rowena H.

    1992-01-01

    This Manufacturing Technology for Propulsion Program developed a process to produce a composite intermediate case for advanced gas turbine engines. The method selected to manufacture this large, complex part uses hard tooling for surfaces in the airflow path and trapped rubber to force the composite against the mold. Subelements were manufactured and tested to verify the selected design, tools, and processes. The most significant subelement produced was a half-scale version of a composite intermediate case. The half-scale subelement maintained the geometry and key dimensions of the full-scale case, allowing relevant process development and structural verification testing to be performed on the subelement before manufacturing the first full-scale case.

  11. A Bootstrap Approach to Martian Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is an essential element of any affordable strategy for a sustained human presence on Mars. Ideally, Martian habitats would be extremely massive to allow plenty of room to comfortably live and work, as well as to protect the occupants from the environment. Moreover, transportation and power generation systems would also require significant mass if affordable. For our approach to ISRU, we use the industrialization of the U.S. as a metaphor. The 19th century started with small blacksmith shops and ended with massive steel mills primarily accomplished by blacksmiths increasing their production capacity and product size to create larger shops, which produced small mills, which produced the large steel mills that industrialized the country. Most of the mass of a steel mill is comprised of steel in simple shapes, which are produced and repaired with few pieces of equipment also mostly made of steel in basic shapes. Due to this simplicity, we expect that the 19th century manufacturing growth can be repeated on Mars in the 21st century using robots as the primary labor force. We suggest a "bootstrap" approach to manufacturing on Mars that uses a "seed" manufacturing system that uses regolith to create major structural components and spare parts. The regolith would be melted, foamed, and sintered as needed to fabricate parts using casting and solid freeform fabrication techniques. Complex components, such as electronics, would be brought from Earth and integrated as needed. These parts would be assembled to create additional manufacturing systems, which can be both more capable and higher capacity. These subsequent manufacturing systems could refine vast amounts of raw materials to create large components, as well as assemble equipment, habitats, pressure vessels, cranes, pipelines, railways, trains, power generation stations, and other facilities needed to economically maintain a sustained human presence on Mars.

  12. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  13. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-31

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  14. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Optimizing Clinical Operations as part of a Global Emergency Medicine Initiative in Kumasi, Ghana: Application of Lean Manufacturing Principals to Low Resource Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Desmond, Jeffery S.; Akanbobnaab, Christopher; Oteng, Rockefeller A.; Rominski, Sarah; Barsan, William G.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background Although many global health programs focus on providing clinical care or medical education, improving clinical operations can have a significant effect on patient care delivery, especially in developing health systems without high-level operations management. Lean manufacturing techniques have been effective in decreasing emergency department (ED) length of stay, patient waiting times, numbers of patients leaving without being seen, and door-to-balloon times for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in developed health systems; but use of Lean in low to middle income countries with developing emergency medicine systems has not been well characterized. Objectives To describe the application of Lean manufacturing techniques to improve clinical operations at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana and to identify key lessons learned to aid future global EM initiatives. Methods A three-week Lean improvement program focused on the hospital admissions process at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital was completed by a 14-person team in six stages: problem definition, scope of project planning, value stream mapping, root cause analysis, future state planning, and implementation planning. Results The authors identified eight lessons learned during our use of Lean to optimize the operations of an ED in a global health setting: 1) the Lean process aided in building a partnership with Ghanaian colleagues; 2) obtaining and maintaining senior institutional support is necessary and challenging; 3) addressing power differences among the team to obtain feedback from all team members is critical to successful Lean analysis; 4) choosing a manageable initial project is critical to influence long-term Lean use in a new environment; 5) data intensive Lean tools can be adapted and are effective in a less resourced health system; 6) several Lean tools focused on team problem solving techniques worked well in a low resource system without modification; 7) using Lean highlighted that

  16. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  17. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  18. Modeling of optical spectra of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part II.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ximao; Kell, Adam; Pieper, Jörg; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, it was believed that the CP29 protein from higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 8 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Ahn et al. Science 2008, 320, 794-797; Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056-10061) in contrast to the 13 Chl's revealed by the recent X-ray structure (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309-315). This disagreement presents a constraint on the interpretation of the underlying electronic structure of this complex. To shed more light on the interpretation of various experimental optical spectra discussed in the accompanying paper (part I, DOI 10.1021/jp4004328 ), we report here calculated low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, hole-burned (HB), and 300 K circular dichroism (CD) spectra for CP29 complexes with a different number of pigments. We focus on excitonic structure and the nature of the low-energy state using modeling based on the X-ray structure of CP29 and Redfield theory. We show that the lowest energy state is mostly contributed to by a612, a611, and a615 Chl's. We suggest that in the previously studied CP29 complexes from spinach (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574-589) two Chl's could have been lost during the preparation/purification procedure, but it is unlikely that the spinach CP29 protein contains only eight Chl's, as suggested by the sequence homology-based study (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1999, 96, 10056-10061). The likely Chl's missing in wild-type (WT) CP29 complexes studied previously (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000, 71, 574-589) include a615 and b607. This is why the nonresonant HB spectra shown in that reference were ~1 nm blue-shifted with the low-energy state mostly localized on about one Chl a (i.e., a612) molecule. Pigment composition of CP29 is discussed in the context of light-harvesting and excitation energy transfer. PMID:23662835

  19. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  20. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-03-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  1. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  2. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants. First draft of final report of part one and quarterly report of part two, January 3, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1994-11-01

    Included in this report is a compiled partial list of presently used processing materials in the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry and the manufacturers, intended uses, and applications of each. Also listed are the processing materials that have received final acceptance for this contracted study. An analytical methodology discussion is presented, including the final decision and the limitations of said methodology, as well as how to establish a level of confidence in observed immiscible material components in two 32 ISO VG polyolesters: (1) Mobil EAL Arctic 32; and (2) ICI Emkarate RL32H; both with HFC 134a refrigerant solutions.

  3. Manufacturing scale-up of composite fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Gessel, M.; Grant, Carroll G.; Brown, T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Boeing effort under the NASA ACT program is to reduce manufacturing costs of composite fuselage structure. Materials, fabrication of complex subcomponents and assembly issues are expected to drive the costs of composite fuselage structure. Several manufacturing concepts for the crown section of the fuselage were evaluated through the efforts of a Design Build Team (DBT). A skin-stringer-frame intricate bond design that required no fasteners for the panel assembly was selected for further manufacturing demonstrations. The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) for multiple skin fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM) of fuselage frames, innovative cure tooling, and utilization of low-cost material forms. Optimization of these processes for final design/manufacturing configuration was evaluated through the fabrication of several intricate bond panels. Panels up to 7 ft. by 10 ft. in size were fabricated to simulate half scale production parts. The qualitative and quantitative results of these manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness for production.

  4. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  5. Mineralized and unmineralized calderas in Spain; Part II, evolution of the Rodalquilar caldera complex and associated gold-alunite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.; Arribas, A., Jr.; Cunningham, C.G.; McKee, E.H.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Smith, James G.; Kelly, W.C.; Arribas, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Rodalquilar caldera complex is located in the western part of the Cabo de Gata volcanic field in southeastern Spain and is the first documented example of epithermal gold-alunite mineralization within a caldera in Europe. The Rodalquilar caldera is an oval collapse structure having a maximum diameter of 8 km and formed at 11 Ma from eruption of the Cinto ash-flow tuff. The oval Lomilla caldera, with a diameter of 2 km, is nested within the central resurgent dome of the older Rodalquilar caldera. The Lomilla caldera resulted from the eruption of the Lazaras ash-flow tuff which was ponded within the moat of the Rodalquilar caldera. The last phase of volcanic activity in the caldera complex was the emplacement of hornblende andesite flows and intrusions. This magmatic event resulted in structural doming of the caldera, opening of fractures and faults, and provided the heat source for the large hydrothermal systems which deposited quartz-alunite type gold deposits and base metal vein systems. The gold-alunite deposits are enclosed in areas of intense acid sulfate alteration and localized in ring and radial faults and fractures present in the east wall of the Lomilla caldera. Like other acid-sulfate type deposits, the Rodalquilar gold-alunite deposits are closely related in time and space to porphyritic, intermediate composition magma emplaced along caldera structures but unrelated to the caldera forming magmatic system. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  7. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  8. A complex investigation of the extent of pollution in sediments of the Sava River. Part 1: selected elements.

    PubMed

    Milacic, Radmila; Scancar, Janez; Murko, Simona; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena

    2010-04-01

    The Sava River is the biggest tributary to the Danube River. As a part of the 6th FW EU project, Sava River Basin: Sustainable Use, Management and Protection of Resources (SARIB), ecological status of sediments was investigated. In order to assess the geographical distribution in sediment contamination of the Sava River, inorganic and persistent organic pollutants were analyzed in sediments at 20 selected sampling sites along the Sava River from its spring to its outfall into the Danube River. For comparability of data to other river basins the sediment fraction below 63 microm was studied. Due to complexity of the work performed, the results are published separately ("Part I: Selected elements" and "Part II: Persistent organic pollutants"). In the present study, the extent of pollution was estimated by determination of the total element concentrations and by the identification of the most hazardous highly mobile element fractions and anthropogenic inputs of elements to sediments. To assess the mobile metal fraction extraction in 0.11 mol L(-1), acetic acid was performed (first step of the Community Bureau of Reference extraction procedure), while anthropogenic inputs of elements were estimated on the basis of normalization to aluminum (Al) concentration. According to the Water Framework Directive, the following elements were investigated in sediments: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and mercury (Hg). Furthermore, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and phosphorous (P) were determined. The analyses of sediments demonstrated slightly elevated values for Hg, Cr, and Ni in industrially exposed sites (concentrations up to 0.6, 380, and 210 mg kg(-1), respectively). However, the latter two elements exist in sparingly soluble forms and therefore do not represent an environmental burden. P concentrations were found in elevated concentrations at agricultural areas and big cities (up to 1,000 mg kg(-1)). PMID:19266293

  9. 49 CFR 567.5 - Requirements for manufacturers of vehicles manufactured in two or more stages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 567.4(c) are not practicable, the label may be provided as part of the IVD package so... a final-stage manufacturer under 49 CFR 567.5(d)(2)(v), each manufacturer of an incomplete vehicle... manufacturers' IVD or any addendum furnished pursuant to 49 CFR part 568, as to the Federal motor vehicle...

  10. 49 CFR 567.5 - Requirements for manufacturers of vehicles manufactured in two or more stages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 567.4(c) are not practicable, the label may be provided as part of the IVD package so... a final-stage manufacturer under 49 CFR 567.5(d)(2)(v), each manufacturer of an incomplete vehicle... manufacturers' IVD or any addendum furnished pursuant to 49 CFR part 568, as to the Federal motor vehicle...

  11. 49 CFR 567.5 - Requirements for manufacturers of vehicles manufactured in two or more stages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 567.4(c) are not practicable, the label may be provided as part of the IVD package so... a final-stage manufacturer under 49 CFR 567.5(d)(2)(v), each manufacturer of an incomplete vehicle... manufacturers' IVD or any addendum furnished pursuant to 49 CFR part 568, as to the Federal motor vehicle...

  12. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  13. Technology for Manufacturing Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) was developed by Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center and divisions of the Lockheed Company to maintain the scheduling for preparing a Space Shuttle Orbiter for a mission. Red Pepper Software Company, now part of PeopleSoft, Inc., commercialized the software as their ResponseAgent product line. The software enables users to monitor manufacturing variables, report issues and develop solutions to existing problems.

  14. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  15. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 1—Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Skou Cordua, Knud; Caroline Looms, Majken; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    From a probabilistic point-of-view, the solution to an inverse problem can be seen as a combination of independent states of information quantified by probability density functions. Typically, these states of information are provided by a set of observed data and some a priori information on the solution. The combined states of information (i.e. the solution to the inverse problem) is a probability density function typically referred to as the a posteriori probability density function. We present a generic toolbox for Matlab and Gnu Octave called SIPPI that implements a number of methods for solving such probabilistically formulated inverse problems by sampling the a posteriori probability density function. In order to describe the a priori probability density function, we consider both simple Gaussian models and more complex (and realistic) a priori models based on higher order statistics. These a priori models can be used with both linear and non-linear inverse problems. For linear inverse Gaussian problems we make use of least-squares and kriging-based methods to describe the a posteriori probability density function directly. For general non-linear (i.e. non-Gaussian) inverse problems, we make use of the extended Metropolis algorithm to sample the a posteriori probability density function. Together with the extended Metropolis algorithm, we use sequential Gibbs sampling that allow computationally efficient sampling of complex a priori models. The toolbox can be applied to any inverse problem as long as a way of solving the forward problem is provided. Here we demonstrate the methods and algorithms available in SIPPI. An application of SIPPI, to a tomographic cross borehole inverse problems, is presented in a second part of this paper.

  16. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial‐scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state‐of‐art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular‐based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot‐melt processing and printing‐based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3612–3638, 2015 PMID:26280993

  17. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  18. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  19. 3D Geometrical Inspection of Complex Geometry Parts Using a Novel Laser Triangulation Sensor and a Robot

    PubMed Central

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly “coupled” as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a “zero” or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  20. MEGARA optical manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Electroresponsive Materials with Applications In: Part I. Second Harmonic Generation. Part II. Organic-Lanthanide Ion Complexes for Electroluminescence and Optical Amplifiers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claude, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Materials for optical waveguides were developed from two different approaches, inorganic-organic composites and soft gel polymers. Inorganic-organic composites were developed from alkoxysilane and organically modified silanes based on nonlinear optical chromophores. Organically modified silanes based on N-((3^' -trialkoxysilyl)propyl)-4-nitroaniline were synthesized and sol-gelled with trimethoxysilane. After a densification process at 190^circC with a corona discharge, the second harmonic of the film was measured with a Nd:YAG laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, d_{33} = 13pm/V. The decay of the second harmonic was expressed by a stretched bi-exponential equation. The decay time (tau _2) was equal to 3374 hours, and was comparable to nonlinear optical systems based on epoxy/Disperse Orange 1. The processing temperature of the organically modified silane was limited to 200^circC due to the decomposition of the organic chromophore. Soft gel polymers were synthesized and characterized for the development of optical waveguides with dc-electrical field assisted phase-matching. Polymers based on 4-nitroaniline terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) were shown to exhibit second harmonic generation that were optically phase-matched in an electrical field. The optical signals were stable and reproducible. Siloxane polymers modified with 1-mercapto-4-nitrobenzene and 1-mercapto-4-methylsulfonylstilbene nonlinear optical chromophores were synthesized. The physical and the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the polymers were characterized. Waveguides were developed from the polymers which were optically phase -matched and had an efficiency of 8.1%. The siloxane polymers exhibited optical phase-matching in an applied electrical field and can be used with a semiconductor laser. Organic lanthanide ion complexes for electroluminescence and optical amplifiers were synthesized and characterized. The complexes were characterized for their thermal and

  2. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets with Face Mating Gears. Part 2: Review of Practical Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid1 and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion has threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three type transmissions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three type trans- missions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in Part 1: Basic theoretical and CAD experience of this study. The second part of this article is a brief overview of the innovations and inventions created in this field at the Institute of Mechanics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in the last three decades. This study is also dedicated on elaboration of the specialized face gear sets for implementation into bio-robot hand. It is based on the application of 3D software technology, using 3D print for the realization of the physical models of the gear drives.

  3. Minimum Chemical Requirements for Adhesin Activity of the Acid-Stable Part of Candida albicans Cell Wall Phosphomannoprotein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Toshio; Cutler, Jim E.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to define adhesive characteristics of the acid-stable moiety of the Candida albicans phosphomannoprotein complex (PMPC) on adherence of this fungus to marginal zone macrophages of the mouse spleen. Complete digestion of the acid-stable moiety (Fr.IIS) of the C. albicans PMPC with an α-mannosidase or hydrolysis with 0.6 N sulfuric acid destroyed adhesin activity, as determined by the inability of the soluble digests to inhibit yeast cell adherence to the splenic marginal zone. Fr.IIS adhesin activity was decreased following digestion with an α-1,2-specific mannosidase. Oligomannosyls consisting of one to six mannose units, which were isolated from the acid-stable part of the PMPC, did not inhibit yeast cell binding and thus do not function alone as adhesin sites in the PMPC. To gain more insight into the minimum requirements for adhesin activity, PMPCs were isolated from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type strain and from mutant strains mnn1, mnn2, and mnn4; the PMPCs were designated scwt/Fr.II, scmn1/Fr.II, scmn2/Fr.II, and scmn4/Fr.II, respectively. S. cerevisiae scmn2/Fr.II lacks oligomannosyl side chain branches from the outer core mannan, and scmn2/Fr.II was the only PMPC without adhesin activity. S. cerevisiae scwt/Fr.II, scmn1/Fr.II, and scmn4/Fr.II showed adhesin activities less than that of C. albicans Fr.II. These three S. cerevisiae PMPCs are generally similar to Fr.IIS, except that the S. cerevisiae structure has fewer and shorter side chains. Immunofluorescence microscopy show that the acid-stable part of the PMPC is displayed homogeneously on the C. albicans yeast cell surface, which would be expected for a surface adhesin. Our results indicate that both the mannan core and the oligomannosyl side chains are responsible for the adhesin activity of the acid-stable part of the PMPC. PMID:9826359

  4. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  5. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  6. Metabolic fingerprinting of rat urine by LC/MS Part 2. Data pretreatment methods for handling of complex data.

    PubMed

    Idborg, Helena; Zamani, Leila; Edlund, Per-Olof; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Jacobsson, Sven P

    2005-12-15

    Metabolic fingerprinting of biofluids like urine is a useful technique for detecting differences between individuals. With this approach, it might be possible to classify samples according to their biological relevance. In Part 1 of this work a method for the comprehensive screening of metabolites was described, using two different liquid chromatography (LC) column set-ups and detection by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Data pretreatment of the resulting data described in is needed to reduce the complexity of the data and to obtain useful metabolic fingerprints. Three different approaches, i.e., reduced dimensionality (RD), MarkerLynx, and MS Resolver, were compared for the extraction of information. The pretreated data were then subjected to multivariate data analysis by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification. By combining two different chromatographic procedures and data analysis, the detection of metabolites was enhanced as well as the finding of metabolic fingerprints that govern classification. Additional potential biomarkers or xenobiotic metabolites were detected in the fraction containing highly polar compounds that are normally discarded when using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. PMID:16198158

  7. Gas migration pathways in a complex faulted hangingwall in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritzen, Emil K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2013-04-01

    The studied fault is positioned in the westernmost Danish part of the Norwegian Danish Basin at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin. The dominating fault is the so called D-1 fault, which is part of a fault trend which follows the southern pinch-out line of the Zechstein salt and detach along the top Zechstein evaporites. Just north of the D-1 fault is the only Danish commercial HC producing area outside the Mesozoic Central Graben -the Siri Canyon- located The presence of gas within the Neogene sediments at the hanging-wall of the D-1 fault was reported in the D-1 well and the D-1 fault was analyzed in detail using 2-D seismic data in the early 90-ies. Due to the open seismic grid used then it was not possible to link the presence of possible gas occurrences and the faults as well as linking the small faults associated to the hanging-wall deformation. The area was subject to renewed interest due to the HC discoveries in the Siri Valley and industrial 3-D seismic data was acquired covering the D-1 fault.The 3D seismic data has enabled a very detailed mapping of the entire D-1 fault complex as well as seismic attribute analysis (courtesy OpendTect). The D-1 fault is in map-view characterized by segments approximately 10 km long striking E-W and NE-SW respectively. In the Cretaceous and Cenozoic part is the main fault coherent whereas the antithetic and secondary synthetic faults in the hanging-wall are smaller (both with respect to offset and length). The character of the internal hanging-wall faults varies along strike of the main fault. In areas adjacent to NE-SW striking segments is the number of faults much higher and they strike both parallel to the main fault and at an angle to it; whereas the faults are longer, less numerous and dominantly parallel to the main fault in the E-W striking central parts. Gas occurrences are observed as bright-spots associated to small faults in the hanging-wall next to the NE-SW striking segments, whereas

  8. Ultrasonic online monitoring of additive manufacturing processes based on selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Hans; Dillhöfer, Alexander; Spies, Martin; Bamberg, Joachim; Hess, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing processes have become commercially available and are particularly interesting for the production of free-formed parts. Selective laser melting allows to manufacture components by localized melting of successive layers of metal powder. In order to be able to describe and to understand the complex dynamics of selective laser melting processes more accurately, online measurements using ultrasound have been performed for the first time. In this contribution, we report on the integration of the measurement technique into the manufacturing facility and on a variety of promising monitoring results.

  9. Forest Fires, Oil Spills, and Fractal Geometry: An Investigation in Two Parts. Part 2: Using Fractal Complexity to Analyze Mathematical Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehl, L. Charles

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that utilizes the mathematical models of forest fires and oil spills that were generated (in the first part of this activity, published in the November 1998 issue) by students using probability and cellular automata. (ASK)

  10. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  11. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  12. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  13. The vibrational spectra of the boron halides and their molecular complexes. Part 10. The complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its methyl derivatives. An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffoor, Fatima; Ford, Thomas A.

    2008-11-01

    Ab initio calculations, at the level of second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and using a triple-zeta Gaussian basis set with polarization and diffuse functions on all atoms, have been carried out on the donor-acceptor complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its mono-, di- and trimethyl derivatives. The structures, interaction energies and vibrational spectra of the complexes have been determined. An eclipsed and a staggered conformer have been examined for each complex, and the preferred conformer was found to be the staggered species in each case. The computed data have been compared with those for some similar complexes containing boron trifluoride and a series of oxygen and sulphur electron donors (water, hydrogen sulphide, methanol, methanethiol, dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulphide) and the effect of successive methyl substitution in all three series has been investigated.

  14. "Why Not Stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry—Why Not?" Part III: Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Toporek, Marcin; Asuero, Agustin G

    2015-01-01

    In the third part of a series of articles issued under a common title, some examples of complex dynamic redox systems are presented and considered from analytical and physico-chemical viewpoints; the analysis is a leitmotiv for detailed, physico-chemical considerations. All attainable physico-chemical knowledge is involved in algorithms applied for resolution of the systems, realized with use of iterative computer programs. The first redox system (System I) is related to titration of FeSO4 + H2C2O4 with KMnO4 solution in acidic (H2SO4) medium, where simultaneous determination of both analytes from a single curve of potentiometric titration is possible. The possibility of the formation of precipitates (FeC2O4 and/or MnC2O4) in this system is taken into considerations. The second system (System II) relates to the complete analytical procedure involved in the iodometric determination of Cu; four consecutive steps of this analysis are considered. As a reasonable tool for explanation of processes occurring during simulated redox titration, speciation diagrams are suggested. This explanation is based on graphical presentation of results obtained from the calculations. The calculations made for this purpose are performed in accordance with principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) with generalized electron balance (GEB) or GATES/GEB and realized with use of iterative computer programs offered by MATLAB. The reactions proceeding in this system can be formulated, together with their efficiencies, at any stage of the titration. Stoichiometry is considered as the derivative concept when put in context with GATES/GEB. The article illustrates the enormous possibilities and advantages offered by GATES/GEB. PMID:25830547

  15. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  16. Computers in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-02-01

    CAD/CAM advances and applications for enhancing productivity in industry are explored. Wide-spread use of CAD/CAM devices are projected to occur by the time period 1992-1997, resulting in a higher percentage of technicians in the manufacturing process, while the cost of computers and software will continue to fall and become more widely available. Computer aided design is becoming a commercially viable system for design and geometric modeling, engineering analysis, kinematics, and drafting, and efforts to bridge the gap between CAD and CAM are indicated, with particular attention given to layering, wherein individual monitoring of different parts of the manufacturing process can be effected without crossover of unnecessary information. The potentials and barriers to the use of robotics are described, with the added optimism that displaced workers to date have moved up to jobs of higher skill and interest.

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  19. Joint Stability Characteristics of the Ankle Complex in Female Athletes With Histories of Lateral Ankle Sprain, Part II: Clinical Experience Using Arthrometric Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleski, John E.; Heitman, Robert J.; Gurchiek, Larry R.; Hollis, J. M.; Liu, Wei; IV, Albert W. Pearsall

    2014-01-01

    Context: This is part II of a 2-part series discussing stability characteristics of the ankle complex. In part I, we used a cadaver model to examine the effects of sectioning the lateral ankle ligaments on anterior and inversion motion and stiffness of the ankle complex. In part II, we wanted to build on and apply these findings to the clinical assessment of ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with a history of unilateral ankle sprain. Objective: To examine ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with reported history of lateral ankle sprain. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five female college athletes (age = 19.4 ± 1.4 years, height = 170.2 ± 7.4 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 10.0 kg) with histories of unilateral ankle sprain. Intervention(s): All ankles underwent loading with an ankle arthrometer. Ankles were tested bilaterally. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were anterior displacement, anterior end-range stiffness, inversion rotation, and inversion end-range stiffness. Results: Anterior displacement of the ankle complex did not differ between the uninjured and sprained ankles (P = .37), whereas ankle-complex rotation was greater for the sprained ankles (P = .03). The sprained ankles had less anterior and inversion end-range stiffness than the uninjured ankles (P < .01). Conclusions: Changes in ankle-complex laxity and end-range stiffness were detected in ankles with histories of sprain. These results indicate the presence of altered mechanical characteristics in the soft tissues of the sprained ankles. PMID:24568223

  20. Polysaccharide/polynucleotide complexes. Part 6: complementary-strand-induced release of single-stranded DNA bound in the schizophyllan complex.

    PubMed

    Koumoto, Kazuya; Mizu, Masami; Sakurai, Kazuo; Kunitake, Toyoki; Shinkai, Seiji

    2004-03-01

    Spectroscopic properties of single-stranded DNA/schizophyllan ternary complexes (ss-DNA2s-SPG), induced by addition of either complementary or noncomplementary strands, have been investigated. The addition of the complementary strands to ss-DNA2s-SPG induced the quick release of the bound ss-DNA to the complementary strands (both DNA and RNA), whereas the ternary complex was unaffected upon addition of noncomplementary strands. Our experiments imply that SPG has complexation properties indispensable to the gene carriers. As far as we know, there is no report on exploitation of such nonviral gene carriers that can accomplish an intelligent release of the bound ss-DNA toward the complementary strands. We believe, therefore, that SPG, a natural and neutral polysaccharide, has a great potential to become a new ss-DNA carrier. PMID:17191866

  1. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  2. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to...

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  5. 10 CFR 51.54 - Environmental report-manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental report-manufacturing license. 51.54 Section... report—manufacturing license. (a) Each applicant for a manufacturing license under subpart F of part 52... Environmental Report—Manufacturing License.” The environmental report must address the costs and benefits...

  6. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  7. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  8. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  9. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  10. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  11. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  12. Microlabels For Auto Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed method of unique labeling and identification of automotive parts greatly simplifies recall campaigns and reduces effort and expense associated. Compressed symbols fully characterize each part by type and manufacturing history. Manufacturers notify only those owners whose cars need repairs or modifications. Similar compressed symbology developed for possible use on spacecraft.

  13. Resonance assignment of DVU2108 that is part of the Orange Protein complex in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Neca, António J; Soares, Rui; Carepo, Marta S P; Pauleta, Sofia R

    2016-04-01

    We report the 94 % assignment of DVU2108, a protein belonging to the Orange Protein family, that in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms a protein complex named the Orange Protein complex. This complex has been shown to be implicated in the cell division of this organism. DVU2108 is a conserved protein in anaerobic microorganisms and in Desulfovibrio gigas the homologous protein was isolated with a novel Mo-Cu cluster non-covalently attached to the polypeptide chain. However, the heterologously produced DVU2108 did not contain any bound metal. These assignments provide the means to characterize the interaction of DVU2108 with the proteins that form the Orange Protein complex using NMR methods. PMID:26373427

  14. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade - Part 1: Experimental Measurements. Part 1; Experimental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Wetzel, Todd G.; Rigby, David L.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a complex blade trailing edge passage. The experimental measurements are made using a steady liquid crystal thermography technique applied to one major side of the passage. The geometry of the trailing edge passage is that of a two-pass serpentine circuit with a sharp 180-degree turning region at the tip. The upflow channel is split by interrupted ribs into two major subchannels, one of which is turbulated. This channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1. The spanwise extent of the channel geometry includes both area convergence from root to tip, as well as taper towards the trailing edge apex. The average section Reynolds numbers tested in this upflow channel range from 55,000 to 98,000. The tip section contains a turning vane near the extreme comer. The downflow channel has an aspect ratio of about 5:1, and also includes convergence and taper. Turbulators of varying sizes are included in this channel also. Both detailed heat transfer and pressure distribution measurements are presented. The pressure measurements are incorporated into a flow network model illustrating the major loss contributors.

  15. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Keyhole Phenomena during Single Layer Fabrication in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology that enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured parts. In the LAM process, parts are manufactured by melting metallic powder layer-by-layer with a laser beam. This manufacturing technology is nowadays called powder bed fusion (PBF) according to the ASTM F2792-12a standard. This strategy involves several different independent and dependent thermal cycles, all of which have an influence on the final properties of the manufactured part. The quality of PBF parts depends strongly on the characteristics of each single laser-melted track and each single layer. This study consequently concentrates on investigating the effects of process parameters such as laser power on single track and layer formation and laser-material interaction phenomena occurring during the PBF process. Experimental tests were done with two different machines: a modified research machine based on an EOS EOSINT M-series system and an EOS EOSINT M280 system. The material used was EOS stainless steel 17-4 PH. Process monitoring was done with an active illuminated high speed camera system. After microscopy analysis, it was concluded that a keyhole can form during laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. It was noted that heat input has an important effect on the likelihood of keyhole formation. The threshold intensity value for keyhole formation of 106 W/cm2 was exceeded in all manufactured single tracks. Laser interaction time was found to have an effect on penetration depth and keyhole formation, since the penetration depth increased with increased laser interaction time. It was also concluded that active illuminated high speed camera systems are suitable for monitoring of the manufacturing process and facilitate process control.

  17. The mechanics of manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.; Stori, J.; King, C.

    1996-10-01

    Economic pressures, particularly related to the quality of manufactured goods and `time-to-market` are forcing designers to think not only in terms of product design but also in terms of integrated product and process design, and finally in terms of deterministic manufacturing planning and control. As a result of these three high level needs, there is now an even greater need for comprehensive simulations that predict material behavior during a manufacturing process, the stresses and/or temperatures on associated tooling, and the final-product integrity. The phrase `manufacturing processes` of course covers a broad scope; it includes semiconductor manufacturing, injection molding of polymers, metal machining and precision lapping, wood and textile production, and the final assembly of piece-parts into a consumer product. It can be seen from this partial listing that the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, dynamics and tribology can all play a role. The introduction to the paper will contain a review of manufacturing processes and describe where simulations have been successfully applied, and where simulations are still lacking. The best of the simulations are those where the models accurately fit the physical phenomena, where accurate constitutive equations are available, and where boundary conditions are realistic. Thus, the body of the paper will focus on the results from one of these more successful simulations. It has been used to predict the deflections of tooling and the most appropriate operating conditions for the manufacturing process under study. A new method for manufacturing planning is described. In this method, closed form, somewhat simplified, analytical models are used to determine manufacturing planning parameters and then the results from these simpler models are refined by the fuller simulations. A case study in machining parameter selection for peripheral finish milling operations is developed.

  18. Simulating The Technological Movements Of The Equipment Used For Manufacturing Prosthetic Devices Using 3D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicea, Anca-Lucia

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the process of building geometric and kinematic models of a technological equipment used in the process of manufacturing devices. First, the process of building the model for a six axes industrial robot is presented. In the second part of the paper, the process of building the model for a five-axis CNC milling machining center is also shown. Both models can be used for accurate cutting processes simulation of complex parts, such as prosthetic devices.

  19. Using microwave Doppler radar in automated manufacturing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory C.

    Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, manufacturers worldwide have used automation to improve productivity, gain market share, and meet growing or changing consumer demand for manufactured products. To stimulate further industrial productivity, manufacturers need more advanced automation technologies: "smart" part handling systems, automated assembly machines, CNC machine tools, and industrial robots that use new sensor technologies, advanced control systems, and intelligent decision-making algorithms to "see," "hear," "feel," and "think" at the levels needed to handle complex manufacturing tasks without human intervention. The investigator's dissertation offers three methods that could help make "smart" CNC machine tools and industrial robots possible: (1) A method for detecting acoustic emission using a microwave Doppler radar detector, (2) A method for detecting tool wear on a CNC lathe using a Doppler radar detector, and (3) An online non-contact method for detecting industrial robot position errors using a microwave Doppler radar motion detector. The dissertation studies indicate that microwave Doppler radar could be quite useful in automated manufacturing applications. In particular, the methods developed may help solve two difficult problems that hinder further progress in automating manufacturing processes: (1) Automating metal-cutting operations on CNC machine tools by providing a reliable non-contact method for detecting tool wear, and (2) Fully automating robotic manufacturing tasks by providing a reliable low-cost non-contact method for detecting on-line position errors. In addition, the studies offer a general non-contact method for detecting acoustic emission that may be useful in many other manufacturing and non-manufacturing areas, as well (e.g., monitoring and nondestructively testing structures, materials, manufacturing processes, and devices). By advancing the state of the art in manufacturing automation, the studies may help

  20. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  1. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  2. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  3. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructure and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.

  4. [Specific aspects of vaccine manufacturing].

    PubMed

    Speck, D

    2009-05-01

    The industrial development of vaccine manufacturing expanded during the second half of the 20th century. Vaccines are medicines which target healthy people. The active principles of vaccines arise from live organisms and can be distinguished from standard pharmaceutical compounds by their extreme complexity. The properties of vaccines depend mainly of the manufacturing process and it common to state that "the process makes the product". The manufacturing is done in confined rooms because of the pathogenic characters of the organisms involved. Raw materials are subjected to rigorous controls to guarantee the integrity of products towards non-conventional agents like prion. The vaccine industry is characterized by the length of the manufacturing cycle. The complexity of the products implies heavy quality controls, which represent 75% of the total duration of the manufacture cycle. As a key element of public health, the vaccine production can be subjected to variations and adaptations, in particular in the context of outbreaks or bioterrorism. The vaccine industry must integrate the regulatory requirements, which are more and more pressing. The spectacular development of the quality assurance and quality control departments these last 15 years testifies to this evolution. PMID:19446672

  5. Motorcycle Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  6. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  7. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  8. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grant Origination § 3560.70 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. (a) Design requirements. Manufactured housing must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A applicable to manufactured..., as applicable, must provide a warranty in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 1924,...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grant Origination § 3560.70 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. (a) Design requirements. Manufactured housing must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A applicable to manufactured..., as applicable, must provide a warranty in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 1924,...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grant Origination § 3560.70 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. (a) Design requirements. Manufactured housing must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A applicable to manufactured..., as applicable, must provide a warranty in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 1924,...

  11. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    PubMed

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system. PMID:11603399

  12. The importance of integration and top-down salience when listening to complex multi-part musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T; Keller, Peter E

    2013-08-15

    In listening to multi-part music, auditory streams can be attended to either selectively or globally. More specifically, musicians rely on prioritized integrative attention which incorporates both stream segregation and integration to assess the relationship between concurrent parts. In this fMRI study, we used a piano duet to investigate which factors of a leader-follower relationship between parts grab the listener's attention and influence the perception of multi-part music. The factors considered included the structural relationship between melody and accompaniment as well as the temporal relationship (asynchronies) between parts. The structural relationship was manipulated by cueing subjects to the part of the duet that had to be prioritized. The temporal relationship was investigated by synthetically shifting the onset times of melody and accompaniment to either a consistent melody or accompaniment lead. The relative importance of these relationship factors for segregation and integration as attentional mechanisms was of interest. Participants were required to listen to the cued part and then globally assess if the prioritized stream was leading or following compared to the second stream. Results show that the melody is judged as more leading when it is globally temporally ahead whereas the accompaniment is not judged as leading when it is ahead. This bias may be a result of the interaction of salience of both leader-follower relationship factors. Interestingly, the corresponding interaction effect in the fMRI-data yields an inverse bias for melody in a fronto-parietal attention network. Corresponding parameter estimates within the dlPFC and right IPS show higher neural activity for attending to melody when listening to a performance without a temporal leader, pointing to an interaction of salience of both factors in listening to music. Both frontal and parietal activation implicate segregation and integration mechanisms and a top-down influence of salience

  13. Technology: Manufacturing, Transportation, Construction, Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The technology-based student activities in this curriculum resource book are intended to be incorporated into any industrial arts/technology education program. The activities are classified according to one of four technological systems--construction, communications, manufacturing, and transportation. Within the four parts of the guide, individual…

  14. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  15. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  16. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-01

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. PMID:26898467

  17. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  18. Exploring Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John; And Others

    These teacher's materials for an eight-unit course were developed to help students develop technological literacy, career exploration, and problem-solving skills relative to the manufacturing industries. The eight units include an overview of manufacturing, manufacturing enterprises and systems, manufacturing materials and selection, manufacturing…

  19. The Viral Chemokine MCK-2 of Murine Cytomegalovirus Promotes Infection as Part of a gH/gL/MCK-2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Adrian; Trsan, Tihana; Arapovic, Maja; Lemmermann, Niels A. W.; Podlech, Jürgen; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Lemnitzer, Frederic; Bosse, Jens Bernhard; Gimpfl, Martina; Marcinowski, Lisa; MacDonald, Margaret; Adler, Heiko; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Adler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) forms two gH/gL glycoprotein complexes, gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/pUL(128,130,131A), which determine the tropism, the entry pathways and the mode of spread of the virus. For murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), which serves as a model for HCMV, a gH/gL/gO complex functionally homologous to the HCMV gH/gL/gO complex has been described. Knock-out of MCMV gO does impair, but not abolish, virus spread indicating that also MCMV might form an alternative gH/gL complex. Here, we show that the MCMV CC chemokine MCK-2 forms a complex with the glycoprotein gH, a complex which is incorporated into the virion. We could additionally show that mutants lacking both, gO and MCK-2 are not able to produce infectious virus. Trans-complementation of these double mutants with either gO or MCK-2 showed that both proteins can promote infection of host cells, although through different entry pathways. MCK-2 has been extensively studied in vivo by others. It has been shown to be involved in attracting cells for virus dissemination and in regulating antiviral host responses. We now show that MCK-2, by forming a complex with gH, strongly promotes infection of macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MCK-2 may play a dual role in MCMV infection, as a chemokine regulating the host response and attracting specific target cells and as part of a glycoprotein complex promoting entry into cells crucial for virus dissemination. PMID:23935483

  20. 5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, part of tail race also visible. - Falls of the Neuse Manufacturing Plant, West bank of Neuse River at State Route 2000, Falls, Wake County, NC

  1. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  2. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  3. Melanin and humic acid-like polymer complex from olive mill waste waters. Part I. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Khemakhem, Maissa; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Arbez-Gindre, Cécile; Bouzouita, Nabiha; Sotiroudis, Theodore G

    2016-07-15

    A water soluble humic acid and melanin-like polymer complex (OMWW-ASP) was isolated from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) by ammonium sulfate fractionation to be used as natural additive in food preparations. The dark polymer complex was further characterized by a variety of biochemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. OMWW-ASP is composed mainly of proteins associated with polyphenols and carbohydrates and the distribution of its relative molecular size was determined between about 5 and 190 kDa. SDS-PAGE shows the presence of a well separated protein band of 21.3 kDa and a low molecular weight peptide. The OMWW-ASP complex exhibits a monotonically increasing UV-Vis absorption spectrum and it contains stable radicals. Antioxidant activity measurements reveal the ability of the OMWW protein fraction to scavenge both the cationic 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical, as well as the stable nitroxide free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL). PMID:26948649

  4. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  5. Polyolefin catalyst manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Inkrott, K.E.; Scinta, J.; Smith, P.D. )

    1989-10-16

    Statistical process control (SPC) procedures are absolutely essential for making new-generation polyolefin catalysts with the consistent high quality required by modern polyolefin processes. Stringent quality assurance is critical to the production of today's high-performance catalysts. Research and development efforts during the last 20 years have led to major technological improvements in the polyolefin industry. New generation catalysts, which once were laboratory curiosities, must now be produced commercially on a regular and consistent basis to meet the increasing requirements of the plastics manufacturing industry. To illustrate the more stringent requirements for producing the new generation polyolefin catalysts, the authors compare the relatively simple, first-generation polypropylene catalyst production requirements with some of the basic requirements of manufacturing a more complex new-generation catalyst, such as Catalyst Resources Inc.'s LYNX 900. The principles which hold true for the new-generation catalysts such as LYNX 900 are shown to apply equally to the scale-up of other advanced technology polyolefin catalysts.

  6. FMS: The New Wave of Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are described as a marriage of all of the latest technologies--robotics, numerical control, CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing), etc.--into a cost-efficient, optimized production process yielding the greatest flexibility in making various parts. A typical curriculum to teach FMS…

  7. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.650 Tire manufacturers. This section describes how the requirements of this part apply with respect to tire...

  8. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.650 Tire manufacturers. This section describes how the requirements of this part apply with respect to tire...

  9. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.650 Tire manufacturers. This section describes how the requirements of this part apply with respect to tire...

  10. Development of flexible array eddy current probes for complex geometries and inspection of magnetic parts using magnetic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, B.; Decitre, J.-M.; Sergeeva-Chollet, N.; Skarlatos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Eddy Current Technique is a powerful method of inspection of metal parts. When size of flaws decreases, inspection areas become hardly accessible or material is magnetic, traditional winding coil probes are less efficient. Thanks to new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized advanced EC probes: flexible EC probe based on micro-coil arrays and EC probe with magnetic sensors, including specific electronics.

  11. General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) computer code documentation (version 3), volume 3, part 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, D. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1983-09-01

    GEMACS, the General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex systems, solves electromagnetic radiation and scattering problems. The Method of Moments (MOM) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) are used. MOM is formalized with the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) for wires and the Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE) for patches. The code employs both full matrix decomposition and Banded Matrix Iteration (BMI) solution techniques. The MOM, GTD and hybrid MOM/GTD techniques in the code are used to solve electrically small object problems, electrically large object problems and combination sized object problems. A computer code documentation manual is given. The manual contains extensive software information of the code.

  12. General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) computer code documentation (version 3), volume 3, part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, D. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1983-09-01

    GEMACS, the General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems solves electromagnetic radiation and scattering problem. The Method of Moments (MOM) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) are used. MOM is formalized with the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) for wires and the Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE) for patches. The code employ both full matrix decomposition and Banded Matrix Iteration (BMI) solution techniques. The MOM, GTD and hybrid MOM/GTD techniques in the code are used to solve electrically small object problems, electrically large object problems and combination sized object problems. The computer code documentation is given.

  13. Magnet cable manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Royet, J.

    1990-10-01

    The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

  14. The feminization of the female oedipal complex, Part I: a reconsideration of the significance of separation issues.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, D; Kulish, N

    2000-01-01

    Freud's insights about the oedipus complex have been universalized to include the psychology of the girl. The authors argue that this crucial developmental phase for girls has uniquely feminine characteristics that have not been fully recognized or cohesively incorporated into psychoanalytic theories. This paper addresses these differences, which are based on characteristic patterns of object relationships, typical defenses, and social considerations. The authors argue that "female oedipal" is an oxymoron, and propose that this constellation be named "the Persephone complex" after the Greek myth of Persephone, which seems to capture better the typical situation of the little girl. They focus on the issue of separation and its complicated and necessary role in the triangular situation of females. Using illustrations from clinical material, the authors argue that the frequent appearance of separation material linked to triangular heterosexual competitive fantasies can and should be differentiated from material in which ideas about separation stem from dyadic and earlier issues. Misunderstanding how these separation conflicts tie into triangular "oedipal" relationships can lead to a "preoedipalization" of the dynamics of girls and women. PMID:11212195

  15. Mitochondrial Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) Is Part of an Outer Membrane Fatty Acid Transfer Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangwon; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    CPT1a (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a) in the liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) catalyzes the primary regulated step in overall mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It has been suggested that the fundamental unit of CPT1a exists as a trimer, which, under native conditions, could form a dimer of the trimers, creating a hexamer channel for acylcarnitine translocation. To examine the state of CPT1a in the MOM, we employed a combined approach of sizing by mass and isolation using an immunological method. Blue native electrophoresis followed by detection with immunoblotting and mass spectrometry identified large molecular mass complexes that contained not only CPT1a but also long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). Immunoprecipitation with antisera against the proteins revealed a strong interaction between the three proteins. Immobilized CPT1a-specific antibodies immunocaptured not only CPT1a but also ACSL and VDAC, further strengthening findings with blue native electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. This study shows strong protein-protein interaction between CPT1a, ACSL, and VDAC. We propose that this complex transfers activated fatty acids through the MOM. PMID:21622568

  16. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) is part of an outer membrane fatty acid transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangwon; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L

    2011-07-22

    CPT1a (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a) in the liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) catalyzes the primary regulated step in overall mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It has been suggested that the fundamental unit of CPT1a exists as a trimer, which, under native conditions, could form a dimer of the trimers, creating a hexamer channel for acylcarnitine translocation. To examine the state of CPT1a in the MOM, we employed a combined approach of sizing by mass and isolation using an immunological method. Blue native electrophoresis followed by detection with immunoblotting and mass spectrometry identified large molecular mass complexes that contained not only CPT1a but also long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). Immunoprecipitation with antisera against the proteins revealed a strong interaction between the three proteins. Immobilized CPT1a-specific antibodies immunocaptured not only CPT1a but also ACSL and VDAC, further strengthening findings with blue native electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. This study shows strong protein-protein interaction between CPT1a, ACSL, and VDAC. We propose that this complex transfers activated fatty acids through the MOM. PMID:21622568

  17. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. Part II: Transport and Diffusion of Tracer under Stable Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, Lisa S.; Allwine, K Jerry; Banta, Robert M.

    2006-05-01

    Differences in nighttime transport and diffusion of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer in an urban complex-terrain setting (Salt Lake City, Utah) are investigated using surface and Dopplerlidar wind data, and large-scale surface pressure differences. Interacting scales of motion, as studied through the URBAN 2000 field program combined with the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX), explained the differences in the tracer behavior during three separate Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). With an emphasis on nighttime stable boundary layer conditions, these field programs were designed to study flow features responsible for the nighttime transport of airborne substances. This transport has implications for air quality, homeland security, and emergency response issues if the airborne substances are hazardous. The important flow features investigated included thermally forced canyon and slope flows and a low-level jet (LLJ) that dominated the basin-scale winds when the surface pressure gradient was weak. The presence of thermally forced flows contributed to the complexity and hindered the predictability of the tracer motion within and beyond the city. When organized thermally forced flows were present, the tracer tended to stay closer to the city for longer periods of time, even though a strong basin-scale LLJ did develop. When thermally forced flows were short-lived or absent, the basin-scale low-level jet dominated the wind field and enhanced the transport of tracer material out of the city.

  18. Blade Manufacturing Improvement: Remote Blade Manufacturing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate manufacturing improvements for wind turbine blades. The program included a series of test activities to evaluate the strength, deflection, performance, and loading characteristics of the prototype blades. The original contract was extended in order to continue development of several key blade technologies identified in the project. The objective of the remote build task was to demonstrate the concept of manufacturing wind turbine blades at a temporary manufacturing facility in a rural environment. TPI Composites successfully completed a remote manufacturing demonstration in which four blades were fabricated. The remote demonstration used a manufacturing approach which relied upon material ''kits'' that were organized in the factory and shipped to the site. Manufacturing blades at the wind plant site presents serious logistics difficulties and does not appear to be the best approach. A better method appears to be regional manufacturing facilities, which will eliminate most of the transportation cost, without incurring the logistical problems associated with fabrication directly onsite. With this approach the remote facilities would use commonly available industrial infrastructure such as enclosed workbays, overhead cranes, and paved staging areas. Additional fatigue testing of the M20 root stud design was completed with good results. This design provides adhesive bond strength under fatigue loading that exceeds that of the fastener. A new thru-stud bonding concept was developed for the M30 stud design. This approach offers several manufacturing advantages; however, the test results were inconclusive.

  19. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  20. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry.

    PubMed

    Slaba, Tony C; Wilson, John W; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency. PMID:27345204

  1. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.

  2. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART I: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS ON RESPIRATORY COMPLEX SUBUNITS OR ASSEMBLY FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Torraco, Alessandra; Peralta, Susana; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are the most common inborn errors of metabolism affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Because the poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, a cure for these disorders is still unavailable and all the treatments currently in use are supportive more than curative. Therefore, in the past decade a great variety of mouse models have been developed to assess the in vivo function of several mitochondrial proteins involved in human diseases. Due to the genetic and physiological similarity to humans, mice represent reliable models to study the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and are precious to test new therapeutic approaches. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to defects in subunits of the OXPHOS complexes or in assembly factors. We discuss how these models recapitulate many human conditions and how they have contributed to the understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease. PMID:25660179

  3. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2004-06-18

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction all waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis [9, 16] have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub int} = 75) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents {gamma}, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions from shock polar analysis. In all cases considered, excellent agreement between the simulation results and the analytical predictions was found. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method is a very useful numerical method for the simulation and modeling of complex hydrodynamic flows.

  4. The grand tour of the Ruby-East Humboldt metamorphic core complex, northeastern Nevada: Part 1 - Introduction & road log

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snoke, A.W.; Howard, K.A.; McGrew, A.J.; Burton, B.R.; Barnes, C.G.; Peters, M.T.; Wright, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this geological excursion is to provide an overview of the multiphase developmental history of the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, northeastern Nevada. Although these mountain ranges are commonly cited as a classic example of a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex developed through large-magnitude, mid-Tertiary crustal extension, a preceding polyphase Mesozoic contractional history is also well preserved in the ranges. An early phase of this history involved Late Jurassic two-mica granitic magmatism, high-temperature but relatively low-pressure metamorphism, and polyphase deformation in the central Ruby Mountains. In the northern Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, a Late Cretaceous history of crustal shortening, metamorphism, and magmatism is manifested by fold-nappes (involving Archean basement rocks in the northern East Humboldt Range), widespread migmatization, injection of monzogranitic and leucogranitic magmas, all coupled with sillimanite-grade metamorphism. Following Late Cretaceous contraction, a protracted extensional deformation partially overprinted these areas during the Cenozoic. This extensional history may have begun as early as the Late Cretaceous or as late as the mid-Eocene. Late Eocene and Oligocene magmatism occurred at various levels in the crust yielding mafic to felsic orthogneisses in the deep crust, a composite granitic pluton in the upper crust, and volcanic rocks at the surface. Movement along a west-rooted, extensional shear zone in the Oligocene and early Miocene led to core-complex exhumation. The shear zone produced mylonitic rocks about 1 km thick at deep crustal levels, and an overprint of brittle detachment faulting at shallower levels as unroofing proceeded. Megabreccias and other synextensional sedimentary deposits are locally preserved in a tilted, upper Eocene through Miocene stratigraphic sequence. Neogene magmatism included the emplacement of basalt dikes and eruption of rhyolitic rocks. Subsequent

  5. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  6. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  7. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part II: Application to Partial Differential Equations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.; Owen, Steven J.; Siefert, Christopher M.; Staten, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    A template-based generic programming approach was presented in Part I of this series of papers [Sci. Program. 20 (2012), 197–219] that separates the development effort of programming a physical model from that of computing additional quantities, such as derivatives, needed for embedded analysis algorithms. In this paper, we describe the implementation details for using the template-based generic programming approach for simulation and analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs). We detail several of the hurdles that we have encountered, and some of the software infrastructure developed to overcome them. We end with a demonstration where we present shape optimization and uncertaintymore » quantification results for a 3D PDE application.« less

  8. A complex investigation of the extent of pollution in sediments of the Sava River: part 2: persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Heath, Ester; Scancar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Milacic, Radmila

    2010-04-01

    Sediment pollution of the biggest Danube tributary, the Sava River, was investigated within the sixth framework European Union project "Sava River Basin: Sustainable Use, Management and Protection of Resources" (SARIB). The extent of pollution was estimated by determining the amount of inorganic and persistent organic pollutants in sediment samples at 20 selected sampling sites along the Sava River. For the purpose of clarity, the findings are presented and published separately (part I: selected elements and part II: persistent organic pollutants). This study presents an investigation into the presence of organic pollutants in the Sava River sediment. According to the Water Framework Directive, the following persistent organic pollutants were investigated: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), selected chlorinated pesticides and organotin compounds. The results reveal that PAHs were present in moderate concentrations (sum of 16 PAHs: up to 4,000 ng g(-1)) and their concentrations increased downstream. Concentrations of PCB were low (sum of seven indicator PCBs: below 4 ng g(-1)) and among the pesticides analyzed only p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was found in moderate concentrations at two sampling sites in Croatia (up to 3 ng g(-1)) and hexachlorobenzene was found in a high concentration in the city of Belgrade (91 ng g(-1)), although the use of these persistent pesticides has been banned for decades. Repeated sampling at the same location revealed point pollution near Belgrade. Among the organic pollutants surveyed, organotin compounds were not detected. Overall results reveal the presence of persistent organic pollutants in 20 of the Sava River sediments tested that is, in general, comparable or lower than the levels in the Danube River and other moderately polluted European rivers. PMID:19259775

  9. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-01-31

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction, all of the waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The algorithms used in the HOPE code are described in detail, together with its current capabilities. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub interface} = 75{sup o}) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light gas configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions obtained from shock polar analysis. In all of the cases considered, excellent agreement is found between the simulation results and the analytical predictions. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method

  10. VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE FACILITY WAS DESCRIBED AS THE MOST MODERN NON-NUCLEAR MANUFACTURING BUILDING IN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPLEX, WITH MANY PRECISION INSTRUMENTS. (9/21/83) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Modulation of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression as part of the complex response of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Moravcová, Martina; Libra, Antonín; Dvořáková, Jana; Víšková, Alena; Muthný, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light evokes a complex stress response in keratinocytes. Keratin filament organization provides structural stability and mechanical integrity of keratinocytes. Involucrin is a transglutaminase substrate protein contributing to the formation of insoluble cornified envelopes. However, a more complex role for keratins and involucrin has been proposed, including the regulation of cell stress response. The aim was to evaluate modulations of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression in HaCaT in the light of the complex response of these cells to UV-B radiation, including effects on c-Jun and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) gene expression and production of interleukin (IL) 6 and 8. A UV-B (300±5 nm) dose of 10 mJ/cm2 was selected since this dose resulted in a partial decrease in cell viability in contrast to higher UV-B doses, which induced complete cell death 48 h after treatment. The UV-B radiation induced significant expression of keratin 1 and 10 and decreased expression of involucrin. This was accompanied by increased expression of c-Jun and MMP-1 and IL-6 and IL-8 production. The data suggest that the expression of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin is modulated in HaCaT keratinocytes as a part of the complex stress response to UV radiation. PMID:24678259

  12. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  13. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  14. Characterizing synthetic gypsum for wallboard manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Henkels, P.J.; Gynor, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    United States Gypsum Company (USGC) has developed specifications and guidelines covering the chemical and physical aspects of synthetic gypsum to help predict end use acceptability in wallboard manufacture. These guidelines are based in part on past experiences with natural and synthetic gypsum. Similarly, most wallboard manufacturers in North America have developed their own guidelines based in part on its unique history and particular experiences with synthetic gypsum. While there are similarities between manufacturers` guidelines, differences do exist. This paper discusses the importance of selected parameters contained in the FGD gypsum guidelines. In most cases, the parameters are equally relevant to other synthetic gypsums and the naturally occurring gypsum mineral as well.

  15. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part II: measurements on a resonant network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Howling, A. A.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements and analysis of a radio-frequency planar antenna are presented for applications in inductively-coupled plasma processing. The network of inductive and capacitive elements exhibits high currents under resonance which are efficient for plasma generation. Mode frequencies and impedances are accurately calculated by accounting for the mutual partial inductances using the impedance matrix. The effect of plasma inductive coupling on mode frequency shift and mode impedance is estimated using the complex image method, giving good agreement with experiment. It is proposed that the complex image method combined with the partial inductance concept (see the accompanying paper, Part I (Howling et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065014)) offers a general way to calculate the impedance characteristics of inductively-coupled plasma sources in planar geometry.

  16. Human autonomy and the frontal lobes. Part II: Patient behavior in complex and social situations: the "environmental dependency syndrome".

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, F

    1986-04-01

    Imitation and utilization behavior have previously been described in terms of a simple interaction between an examiner and a patient, and were interpreted as an excessive dependence on environmental cues. In this study, patient dependence was observed in complex situations of everyday life. Two patients with focal unilateral frontal lobe lesions were observed while in a doctor's office, a lecture room, a car, and a garden, while visiting an apartment where various activities were possible, and while in a gift shop. The patients' behavior was striking, as though implicit in the environment was an order to respond to the situation in which they found themselves. The term environmental dependency syndrome is proposed for this condition. It implies a disorder in personal autonomy. Individual psychological traits influenced the way in which loss of autonomy was manifested. This study does not offer a physiological model of autonomy, but it does provide clinical and behavioral observations on the loss of autonomy secondary to unilateral lesions of the frontal lobe. PMID:3707085

  17. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade. Part 2:; Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Bunker, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer distribution in a complex blade trailing edge passage was conducted. The geometry consists of a two pass serpentine passage with taper toward the trailing edge, as well as from hub to tip. The upflow channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1, while the exit passage aspect ratio is about 5:1. The upflow channel is split in an interrupted way and is smooth on the trailing edge side of the split and turbulated on the other side. A turning vane is placed near the tip of the upflow channel. Reynolds numbers in the range of 31,000 to 61,000, based on inlet conditions, were simulated numerically. The simulation was performed using the Glenn-HT code, a full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. A structured multi-block grid is used with approximately 4.5 million cells and average y+ values on the order of unity. Pressure and heat transfer distributions are presented with comparison to the experimental data. While there are some regions with discrepancies, in general the agreement is very good for both pressure and heat transfer.

  18. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part B--structuromics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidisová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking developments in Omics and bioinformatics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of (radio)biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and dozens of proteins interact in the frame of complex signaling and repair pathways (or, rather, networks) to preserve the integrity of the genome has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone; it requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. In the first part of this review, the article "Giving Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part A--Radiomics," we showed the development of different Omics solutions and how they are contributing to a better understanding of cellular radiation response. In this Part B we show how high-resolution confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place Omics data in the context of space and time. The dynamics of double-strand breaks during repair processes and chromosomal rearrangements at the microscale correlated to aberration induction are explained. For the first time we visualize pan-nuclear nucleosomal rearrangements and clustering at the nanoscale during repair processes. Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting based on a computer database search of uniquely binding oligonucleotide combinations (COMBO-FISH). With these challenging techniques on hand, we speculate future perspectives that may combine specific COMBO-FISH nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to

  19. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  20. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(3)-2 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Further manufacture included. 48.6416(b)(3)-2... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(b)(3)-2 Further manufacture... overpayment by reason of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured...

  1. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(3)-2 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Further manufacture included. 48.6416(b)(3)-2... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(b)(3)-2 Further manufacture... overpayment by reason of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured...

  2. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(3)-2 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Further manufacture included. 48.6416(b)(3)-2... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(b)(3)-2 Further manufacture... overpayment by reason of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured...

  3. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(3)-2 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Further manufacture included. 48.6416(b)(3)-2... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(b)(3)-2 Further manufacture... overpayment by reason of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured...

  4. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  5. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  6. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity. PMID:26508401

  7. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is required under this...

  8. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is required under this...

  9. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is required under this...

  10. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is required under this...

  11. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is required under this...

  12. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David.

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components` heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  13. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components' heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  14. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Naoya . E-mail: nakai@hss.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-05-19

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 ({alpha}2{beta}2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1{alpha} subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex.

  15. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  16. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  17. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  18. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  19. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  20. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  1. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  2. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  3. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  4. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  5. 27 CFR 53.114 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use in further manufacture... further manufacture. For purposes of section 4218 and § 53.111, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is...

  6. 27 CFR 53.114 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use in further manufacture... further manufacture. For purposes of section 4218 and § 53.111, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is...

  7. 27 CFR 53.114 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Use in further manufacture... further manufacture. For purposes of section 4218 and § 53.111, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is...

  8. 27 CFR 53.114 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use in further manufacture... further manufacture. For purposes of section 4218 and § 53.111, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is...

  9. 27 CFR 53.114 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use in further manufacture... further manufacture. For purposes of section 4218 and § 53.111, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is...

  10. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two main subdivisions of layered rocks are recognized in the southern Arabian Shield south of lat 22? N. These are an older ensimatic-arc complex, which formed 1100-800 m.y. ago, and a younger marginal-arc complex, which formed 800-690 m.y. ago. The older ensimatic-arc complex, located in the southwestern part of the Shield, includes graywacke and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the essentially contemporaneous Baish, Bahah, and Jiddah groups. Although the younger arc complex is also dominantly ensimatic in character, it is also partly superimposed over the older ensimaticarc complex. The superimposed portions of the younger arc complex are represented by the Ablah, Samran, and possibly the Ararat groups. The ensimatic portion of the younger arc group is represented by the Halaban group, which was deposited to the east and northeast of the older ensimatic-arc complex. The Halaban group includes andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks and associated clastic sedimentary rocks. The layered rocks of both arc complexes are intruded by dioritic (quartz diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) plutonic rocks. The southern Shield is also subdivided into a number of structurally bounded, north-trending tectonic belts. Within the older ensimatic complex, three belts are recognized. From west to east, these are the Lith, Bidah, and Tayyah belts. Within these three belts, progressive facies changes indicate a gradation from deep-water facies in the south to shallow-water or-terrestrial facies in the north. The distribution of dioritic batholiths, as well as the distribution of layered-rock facies, suggests a northwest-trending axis for the older ensimatic-arc complex. The younger arc complex is present within six belts, the Makkah source papers. In Fleck and others (1980), the term 'quartz diorite' includes both tonalite and quartz diorite as defined in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) system of plutonic rock classification (Streckeisen, 1973). Initial 87Sr/86

  11. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  12. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  13. Electrical properties and fusion dynamics of in vitro membrane vesicles derived from separate parts of the contractile vacuole complex of Paramecium multimicronucleatum.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Kazuyuki; Tominaga, Takashi; Allen, Richard D; Naitoh, Yutaka

    2005-10-01

    The contractile vacuole complex of Paramecium multimicronucleatum transforms into membrane-bound vesicles on excision from the cell. The I-V relationship was linear in a voltage range of -80 to +80 mV in all vesicles, despite being derived from different parts of the contractile vacuole complex. No voltage-gated unit currents were observed in membrane patches from the vesicles. Vesicles derived from the radial arm showed a membrane potential of >10 mV, positive with reference to the cytosol, while those derived from the contractile vacuole showed a residual (<5 mV) membrane potential. The electrogenic V-ATPases in the decorated spongiome are responsible for the positive potential, and Cl- leakage channels are responsible for the residual potential. The specific resistance of the vesicle membrane (approximately 6 kOmega cm2) increased, while the membrane potential shifted in a negative direction when the vesicle rounded. An increase in the membrane tension (to approximately 5 x 10(-3) N m(-1)) is assumed to reduce the Cl- leakage conductance. It is concluded that neither voltage- nor mechano-sensitive ion channels are involved in the control of the fluid segregation and membrane dynamics that govern fluid discharge cycles in the contractile vacuole complex. The membrane vesicles shrank when the external osmolarity was increased, and swelled when the osmolarity was decreased, implying that the contractile vacuole complex membrane is water permeable. The water permeability of the membrane was 4-20 x 10(-7) microm s(-1) Pa(-1). The vesicles containing radial arm membrane swelled after initially shrinking when exposed to higher external osmolarity, implying that the V-ATPases energize osmolyte transport mechanisms that remain functional in the vesicle membrane. The vesicles showed an abrupt (<30 ms), slight, slackening after rounding to the maximum extent. Similar slackening was also observed in the contractile vacuoles in situ before the opening of the contractile

  14. Automated generation of uniform Group Technology part codes from solid model data

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Group Technology is a manufacturing theory based on the identification of similar parts and the subsequent grouping of these parts to enhance the manufacturing process. Part classification and coding systems group parts into families based on design and manufacturing attributes. Traditionally, humans code parts by examining a blueprint of the part to find important features as defined in a set of part classification rules. This process can be difficult and time consuming due to the complexity of the classification system. Coding specifications can require considerable interpretation, making consistency a problem for organizations employing many (human) part coders. A solution to these problems is to automate the part coding process in software, using a CAD database as input. It is straightforward to translate the part classification rules into a rule based expert system. A more difficult task is the recognition of part coding features from a CAD database. Previous research in feature recognition has concentrated on material removal features (depressions such as holes, pockets and slots). Part classification requires the ability to recognize such features, plus other features such as hole patterns, symmetries and overall part shape. This paper extends feature recognition to include part classification and coding features and describes an expert system for automated part classification and coding being developed. This system accepts boundary-representation solid model data and generates a part code. Specific feature recognition problems (such as intersecting features) and the methods developed to solve these problems are presented.

  15. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian; Lloyd, Peter D; Lindahl, John; Lind, Randall F; Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  16. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  18. An analytic framework for developing inherently-manufacturable pop-up laminate devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukes, Daniel M.; Goldberg, Benjamin; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Spurred by advances in manufacturing technologies developed around layered manufacturing technologies such as PC-MEMS, SCM, and printable robotics, we propose a new analytic framework for capturing the geometry of folded composite laminate devices and the mechanical processes used to manufacture them. These processes can be represented by combining a small set of geometric operations which are general enough to encompass many different manufacturing paradigms. Furthermore, such a formulation permits one to construct a variety of geometric tools which can be used to analyze common manufacturability concepts, such as tool access, part removability, and device support. In order to increase the speed of development, reduce the occurrence of manufacturing problems inherent with current design methods, and reduce the level of expertise required to develop new devices, the framework has been implemented in a new design tool called popupCAD, which is suited for the design and development of complex folded laminate devices. We conclude with a demonstration of utility of the tools by creating a folded leg mechanism.

  19. New demands on manufacturing of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, J.A.E.

    1994-12-31

    Traditionally the field of advanced composites has been dominated by the needs of the aerospace industry. This has strongly influenced the materials and processes developed. However, during the last few years, a shift of emphasis into other engineering areas has been obvious. Branches such as the mechanical industry, ground transportation, the building industry and the leisure industry are today defining many of the new areas of application for these materials. In these applications fiber-reinforced composites are not just used in large structures but also in crucial small complex-shaped elements of larger machinery in order to improve overall performance. To satisfy these new demands, it is essential to develop innovative material systems and processing techniques which enable the production of composite parts with complex geometries at reasonable cost and with high precision. Most likely the solution to this task lies in the closely integrated development of the material system and the manufacturing method. Several different approaches are today taken in order to reach this goal for composite materials. Furthermore, it is nowadays important that the introduction of any new material or application, especially for high volume production, be accompanied by a thorough life-cycle and environmental plan.

  20. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  1. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  2. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, L. M.; Hauser, S. G.; Clyne, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative energy source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar-induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar-based manufacturing, and solar-pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offers even greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation-abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  3. Invited Paper Laser Systems To Solve Manufacturing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belforte, David A.

    1987-09-01

    Twenty years ago the first laser system was installed to solve a manufacturing problem, the drilling of precise holes in diamonds to produce a wire drawing die. The early system installations either for laser technology or end use reasons, were categorized as specials, that is units which differed in specification and performance from previous units. During the first ten years it was quite common for industrial applications to be processed by a customized unit. As the number of common applications grew, and as the specific application needs began to dictate a uniform approach to successful resolution, the number of customized systems began to decline. Coupled with this was the system suppliers' efforts to standardize product design to reduce manufacturing complexity and cost. Today the users of industrial laser systems have a choice when considering the laser in a manufacturing operation. within certain categories such as sheet metal cutting, turbine blade drilling, and ceramic scribing users can choose from a representative number of stan-dard systems. For other applications such as marking, hermetic sealing, and transmission component welding suppliers can provide variations of designs which are known as semi-standards. The third and last category, specials, makes up a reasonable share of the units currently being installed in production applications. These specials are the subject of this paper. Identification of a specific manufacturing problem and exploration of the reasons why a laser could be cost effective are presented. Illustrations of a number of these manufac-turing problems will show how a custom laser design provided a practical, satisfactory, solution. The novel system concepts employed to effect the solution will be discussed. Applications selected include: oven liner cutting, transmission gear welding, exhaust pipe cutting, and aircraft engine part processing.

  4. Large volume manufacture of dymalloy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-22

    The purpose of this research was to test the commercial viability and feasibility of Dymalloy, a composite material to measure thermal conductivity. Dymalloy was developed as part of a CRADA with Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems was a potential end user of Dymalloy as a substrate for MCMS. Sun had no desire to be involved in the manufacture of this material. The goal of this small business CRADA with Spectra Mat was to establish the high volume commercial manufacturing industry source for Dymalloy required by an end-user such as Sun Microsystems. The difference between the fabrication technique developed during the CRADA and this proposed work related to the mechanical technique of coating the diamond powder. Mechanical parts for the high-volume diamond powder coating process existed; however, they needed to be installed in an existing coating system for evaluation. Sputtering systems similar to the one required for this project were available at LLNL. Once the diamond powder was coated, both LLNL and Spectra Mat could make and test the Dymalloy composites. Spectra Mat manufactured Dymalloy composites in order to evaluate and establish a reasonable cost estimate on their existing processing capabilities. This information was used by Spectra Mat to define the market and cost-competitive products that could be commercialized from this new substrate material.

  5. Generalized model of electromigration with 1:1 (analyte:selector) complexation stoichiometry: part II. Application to dual systems and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Ludmila; Dubský, Pavel; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2015-03-01

    Interactions among analyte forms that undergo simultaneous dissociation/protonation and complexation with multiple selectors take the shape of a highly interconnected multi-equilibrium scheme. This makes it difficult to express the effective mobility of the analyte in these systems, which are often encountered in electrophoretical separations, unless a generalized model is introduced. In the first part of this series, we presented the theory of electromigration of a multivalent weakly acidic/basic/amphoteric analyte undergoing complexation with a mixture of an arbitrary number of selectors. In this work we demonstrate the validity of this concept experimentally. The theory leads to three useful perspectives, each of which is closely related to the one originally formulated for simpler systems. If pH, IS and the selector mixture composition are all kept constant, the system is treated as if only a single analyte form interacted with a single selector. If the pH changes at constant IS and mixture composition, the already well-established models of a weakly acidic/basic analyte interacting with a single selector can be employed. Varying the mixture composition at constant IS and pH leads to a situation where virtually a single analyte form interacts with a mixture of selectors. We show how to switch between the three perspectives in practice and confirm that they can be employed interchangeably according to the specific needs by measurements performed in single- and dual-selector systems at a pH where the analyte is fully dissociated, partly dissociated or fully protonated. Weak monoprotic analyte (R-flurbiprofen) and two selectors (native β-cyclodextrin and monovalent positively charged 6-monodeoxy-6-monoamino-β-cyclodextrin) serve as a model system. PMID:25666498

  6. Manufacturing control: A basis for analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, N.

    1989-11-01

    The application of elementary control theory to manufacturing systems demonstrating how the organization of basic shop-floor logistics can be optimized prior to the introduction of computer technology is explored. A control structure is introduced and applied to manufacturing systems, breaking the problem into its constituent parts in such a way that the advantages of improved control technology become more apparent and more readily implementable.

  7. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  8. Efficient manufacturing technology of metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lingjie; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-10-01

    The efficient manufacturing technologies greatly accelerate the development and production process. Optical components have higher precision requirements than mechanical parts. This provides great challenge for rapid manufacturing. Metallic optical system is featured high resolution, wide spectral range, light weight, compact design, low cost and short manufacturing period. Reflective mirrors and supporting structures can be made from the same material to improve athermal performance of the system. Common materials for metal mirrors in optical applications include aluminum, copper, beryllium, aluminum beryllium alloy and so on. Their physical characteristics and relative advantages are presented. Most kinds of metals have good machinability and can be manufactured by many kinds of producing methods. This makes metallic optical system saving 30%~60% cost and time than others. The manufacturing process of metal mirror is different due to its working spectral. The metal mirror can be directly manufactured by single point diamond turning. This is an outstanding technique in point of ultra-precision as well as economical manufacture of mirrors. The roughness values and form accuracy of optical surfaces after diamond turning can satisfy the quality level for applications in the near infrared and infrared range. And for visible light spectral the turning structures must be removed with a smoothing procedure in order to minimize the scatter losses. Some smoothing methods to obtain visible quality metal mirrors are given in this paper. Some new manufacturing technology, such as 3D printing, can be used for metallic optical system and several promising techniques are presented.

  9. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital. PMID:15805027

  10. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part A--radiomics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidesová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent ground-breaking developments in Omics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and proteins interact in the frame of complex networks to preserve genome integrity has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Nuclear architecture and nuclear processes, including DNA damage responses, are precisely organized in space and time. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone, but requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. Based on the results obtained from studying the relationship between higher-order chromatin structure, DNA double-strand break induction and repair, and the formation of chromosomal translocations, we show the development of Omics solutions especially for radiation research (radiomics) (discussed in this article) and how confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place the Omics data in the context of space and time (discussed in our other article in this issue, "Determining Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part B--Structuromics"). Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting and speculate future perspectives, which may combine nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to observe structure-function correlations in living cells in real time. Thus, the Omics networks obtained from function analyses may be enriched by real-time visualization of Structuromics. PMID:25072147

  11. Lessons Learned During the Manufacture of the NCSX Modular Coils

    SciTech Connect

    James H. Chrzanowski,Thomas G. Meighan, Steven Raftopoulos and Lawrence Dudek and Paul J. Fogarty

    2009-09-15

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment's (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and high current density requirements due to space constraints. Being the first of their kind, these coils required the implementation of many new manufacturing and measuring techniques and procedures. This was the first time that these manufacturing techniques and methods were applied in the production of coils at the laboratory. This resulted in a steep learning curve for the first several coils. Through the effective use of procedures, tooling modifications, involvement and ownership by the manufacturing workforce, and an emphasis on safety, the assembly team was able to reduce the manufacturing times and improve upon the manufacturing methods. This paper will discuss the learning curve and steps that were taken to improve the manufacturing efficiency and reduce the manufacturing times for the modular coils without forfeiting quality.

  12. Molecular components of the B cell antigen receptor complex of class IgD differ partly from those of IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Wienands, J; Hombach, J; Radbruch, A; Riesterer, C; Reth, M

    1990-01-01

    Two classes of immunoglobulin, IgM and IgD, are present as antigen receptors on the surface of mature B lymphocytes. We show here that IgD molecules are noncovalently associated in the B cell membrane with a heterodimer consisting of two proteins of 35 kd (IgD-alpha) and 39 kd (Ig-beta), respectively. The two novel proteins are not found in the IgD-expressing myeloma J558L delta m, which fails to bring IgD antigen receptor onto the cell surface. In a surface IgD positive variant line of this myeloma, however, membrane-bound IgD molecules are associated with the heterodimer, suggesting that the formation of an antigen receptor complex is required for surface IgD expression. We further demonstrate that the IgD-associated heterodimer differs partly from that of the IgM antigen receptor and that its binding to the heavy chain only requires the presence of the last constant domain and the transmembrane part of the delta m chain. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2303036

  13. Mg-K mafic magmatism and catastrophic melting of the Variscan crust in the southern part of the Velay complex (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzinié, Simon; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Marignac, Christian; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Scarrow, Jane

    2013-04-01

    The Late Carboniferous Velay complex is a large migmatite dome extending over the central-eastern part of the French Massif Central. Two stages of migmatization were recognized in the southern edge of the complex : (1) "Pre-Velay" anatexis under biotite stable and water saturated conditions. (2) "Velay" water-absent melting synchronous with emplacement of the peraluminous S-type Velay granite cutting across the Early Carboniferous nappe stack. Field study of the southern part of the dome shows that Mg-K-rich micaceous diorites of mantle origin, locally called vaugnerites, outcrop as intrusive bodies in three main settings : (1) Meter-sized stocks are intimately associated with several granite plutons, the comagmatic ascent and crystallization of mafic and felsic melts being evidenced by lobate contacts and intricate shapes. (2) Decameter-sized medium to coarse-grained massifs and sills emplaced in unmolten to metatexitic paragneisses. (3) Fine-grained decimeter-sized concordant lenses are found as clusters in metatexitic to diatexitic orthogneisses. Seven vaugnerites were dated either directly or indirectly through their co-magmatic host granite. In situ (LA-ICP-MS) zircon and monazite U-Pb ages are indistinguishable within analytical uncertainties, spanning from 303.7 ± 3.1 to 307.4 ± 1.8 Ma except for one slightly younger (294.4 ± 3.9 Ma) sample . Granites and vaugnerites of the study area emplaced mainly during a short period of time at ca. 305 Ma. Assuming vaugnerite intrusions are coeval implies that their varied shapes are a consequence of contrasting behavior of the mafic magma depending on the host. Granites from the southern Velay are exactly of the same age, ca. 305 Ma, although several generations can be clearly identified based on field relationships. They display complex zircon inheritance patterns involving Proterozoic to Cambro-Ordovician components; in details, the inheritance pattern varies between (or even within) plutons, pointing to the

  14. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  15. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  16. Metallic parts fabrication using the SIS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojdeh, Mehdi

    Since early 1980s, quite a few techniques of Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Layered Manufacturing, have been developed. By building three-dimensional parts in a layer-by-layer additive manner, these techniques allow freeform fabrication of parts of complex geometry. Despite recent advances in fabrication of polymer parts, most of the existing rapid prototyping processes are still not capable of fabrication of accurate metallic parts with acceptable mechanical properties. Insufficient dimensional accuracy, limited number of materials, proper mechanical properties, required post machining and lack of repeatability between builds have greatly limited the market penetration of these techniques. This dissertation presents an innovative layered manufacturing technique for fabrication of dense metallic parts called Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS), developed at the University of Southern California. The SIS-Metal technology adapts RP capabilities and extends them to the field of fabrication of metallic parts for a variety of applications such as tooling and low volume production. Using this process, a metallic part, with varying 3 dimensional geometries, can be automatically constructed from a wide range of materials. SIS-Metal is the only RP process which is suitable for fabrication of dense, complex shaped, accurate objects using a variety of materials. In the SIS-Metal process a metallic part is built layer by layer by deposition for each layer of an inhibitor material which defines the corresponding layer boundary and then filling the voids of the created geometry with metal powder; and compacting the layer formed to reach a high powder density. The resulting green part is then sintered in a furnace to yield the final functional part. In this research different inhibition techniques were explored and a series of single and multi layer parts was fabricated using the most promising inhibition technique, namely, macro-mechanical inhibition. Dimensional

  17. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  18. Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umstattd, William D.

    The Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project's feasibility study concerned with industrial arts curriculum development in manufacturing for the senior high school level is described. The need for an industrial arts curriculum which meets and reflects present and future trends is discussed in the introduction, followed by a review of the…

  19. Manufacturing research strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This plan provides an overall strategic roadmap for the DOE-defense programs advanced manufacturing research program which supports the national science based stockpile stewardship program. This plan represents a vision required to develop the knowledge base needed to ensure an enduring national capability to rapidly and effectively manufacture nuclear weapons.

  20. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  1. The estimation technique of the airframe design for manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorkov, A.; Zhilyaev, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the method of quantitative estimation of a design for manufacturability of the parts of the airframe. The method is based on the interaction of individual indicators considering the weighting factor. The authors of the paper introduce the algorithm of the design for manufacturability of parts based on its 3D model

  2. Laser assisted direct manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2007-06-01

    Direct Laser Manufacturing (DLM) with coaxial powder injection (TRUMPF DMD 505 installation) was applied for fabrication of 3D objects from metallic and ceramic powder. One of the advantages of DLM is the possibility to build functionally graded objects in one-step manufacturing cycle by application of a 2-channel powder feeder. Several models with different types of material gradients (smooth, sharp, periodic) and multi-layered structures were manufactured from SS, stellite (Cobalt alloy), Cu and W alloys. Technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was applied for manufacturing of net shaped objects from different powders (PHENIX PM-100 machine) : Inox 904L, Ni625, Cu/Sn, W and Zr02-Y2O3. Performance and limitations of SLM technology for fabrication of elements for chemical and mechanical industries are analysed. Two-component objects (Stainless steel /Cu - H13/CuNi) were fabricated in a two-step manufacturing cycle.

  3. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  4. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  5. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  6. Composites in manufacturing - Case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, A.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume focus on 19 cases of applied technology in composites design and manufacturing, all of them dealing with specific products. Topics covered include design using composite in aerospace, innovative materials and processing, tooling, fasteners and adhesives, finishing, repair, specialty applications of composites, and applications in the automotive industry. Papers are presented on the filament winding of isogrid fuselage structures; design and use of aramid fiber in aircraft structures; resin transfer molding of a complex composite aircraft structure; and field repair of an advanced helicopter vertical fin structure.

  7. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  8. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  9. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  10. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  11. Role of surface-inoculated Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains in dried fermented sausage manufacture. Part 2: Evaluation of their effects on sensory quality and biogenic amine content.

    PubMed

    Iucci, Luciana; Patrignani, Francesca; Belletti, Nicoletta; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Elisabetta Guerzoni, M; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2007-04-01

    The aim was to study the effects of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains, used with lactic acid starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum), in the manufacture of dried fermented sausages in order to understand their effects on volatile profile, biogenic amine content and sensory properties. The experimental data showed that every yeast strain produced a specific profile of volatile metabolic products. The yeasts also gave sausages with distinctive sensory properties. The degree of mincing also influenced these properties, but none of these factors had significant influence upon the accumulation of biogenic amines. PMID:22064032

  12. Quality cell therapy manufacturing by design.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Yonatan Y; Timmins, Nicholas E; Zandstra, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Transplantation of live cells as therapeutic agents is poised to offer new treatment options for a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, the biological complexity of cells has hampered the translation of laboratory-scale experiments into industrial processes for reliable, cost-effective manufacturing of cell-based therapies. We argue here that a solution to this challenge is to design cell manufacturing processes according to quality-by-design (QbD) principles. QbD integrates scientific knowledge and risk analysis into manufacturing process development and is already being adopted by the biopharmaceutical industry. Many opportunities to incorporate QbD into cell therapy manufacturing exist, although further technology development is required for full implementation. Linking measurable molecular and cellular characteristics of a cell population to final product quality through QbD is a crucial step in realizing the potential for cell therapies to transform healthcare. PMID:27054995

  13. Manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals-recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    Trends in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing have been influenced by the demands of the regulatory agencies, the demands of the customers, and the ever-increasing complexity of new products. Process improvements resulting from automation in the production of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging products, {sup 99m}/Tc generators, {sup 67}Ga, and {sup 201}Tl have been introduced to enhance compliance with current good manufacturing practices and to improve worker safety, both by reducing dose in accord with as low as reasonably achievable levels of radiation and by providing an ergonomically sound environment. Tighter process control has resulted in less lot-to-lot variability and ensures reliability of supply. Reduced manufacturing lapse time for {sup 99m}Tc generators minimizes decay and conserves the supply of {sup 99}Mo. Automation has resulted in an even greater degree of remote operation and has led to reductions in dose, improved process control, and faster throughput in the manufacture of radionuclides.

  14. NASA Game Changing Development Program Manufacturing Innovation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol; Vickers, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation examines the new NASA Manufacturing Innovation Project. The project is a part of the Game Changing Development Program which is one element of the Space Technology Programs Managed by Office of the Chief Technologist. The project includes innovative technologies in model-based manufacturing, digital additive manufacturing, and other next generation manufacturing tools. The project is also coupled with the larger federal initiatives in this area including the National Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Initiative and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. In addition to NASA, other interagency partners include the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, NIST, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The development of game-changing manufacturing technologies are critical for NASA s mission of exploration, strengthening America s manufacturing competitiveness, and are highly related to current challenges in defense manufacturing activities. There is strong consensus across industry, academia, and government that the future competitiveness of U.S. industry will be determined, in large part, by a technologically advanced manufacturing sector. This presentation highlights the prospectus of next generation manufacturing technologies to the challenges faced NASA and by the Department of Defense. The project focuses on maturing innovative/high payoff model-based manufacturing technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for a broad array of future NASA missions and solutions to significant national needs. Digital manufacturing and computer-integrated manufacturing "virtually" guarantee advantages in quality, speed, and cost and offer many long-term benefits across the entire product lifecycle. This paper addresses key enablers and emerging strategies in areas such as: Current government initiatives, Model-based manufacturing, and Additive manufacturing.

  15. 75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... of Trade Policy Analysis, 202-482-2831. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ITA's Manufacturing and Services... 18, 2009. Matthew Howard, Office of Trade Policy Analysis. BILLING CODE 3510-DR-P ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update...

  16. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: What's in It for the Manufacturer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, A. R.; Peckman, Donald C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors define the Flexible Manufacturing System and outline its history. They describe what the processing time includes and provide advantages and disadvantages of Flexible Manufacturing Systems compared to conventional manufacturing. (CH)

  17. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  18. The relevance of Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin and metronidazole during complex maxillary rehabilitations using bone allograft. Part II: implant surgery, prosthodontics, and survival.

    PubMed

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2009-06-01

    Extensive bone grafting remains a delicate procedure, due to the slow and difficult integration of the grafted material into the physiological architecture. The recent use of platelet concentrates aims to improve this process of integration by accelerating bone and mucosal healing. Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a healing biomaterial that concentrates in a single autologous fibrin membrane, most platelets, leukocytes, and cytokines from a 10-mL blood harvest, without artificial biochemical modification (no anticoagulant, no bovine thrombin). In this second part, we describe the implant and prosthetic phases of a complex maxillary rehabilitation, after preimplant bone grafting using allograft, Choukroun's PRF membranes, and metronidazole. Twenty patients were treated using this new technique and followed up during 2.1 years (1-5 years). Finally, 184 dental implants were placed, including 54 classical screw implants (3I, Palm Beach Gardens, FL) and 130 implants with microthreaded collar (46 from AstraTech, Mölndal, Sweden; 84 from Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL). No implant or graft was lost in this case series, confirming the validity of this reconstructive protocol. However, the number of implants used per maxillary rehabilitation was always higher with simple screw implants than with microthreaded implants, the latter presenting a stronger initial implant stability. Finally, during complex implant rehabilitations, PRF membranes are particularly helpful for periosteum healing and maturation. The thick peri-implant gingiva is related to several healing phases on a PRF membrane layer and could explain the low marginal bone loss observed in this series. Microthreaded collar and platform-switching concept even improved this result. Multiple healing on PRF membranes seems a new opportunity to improve the final esthetic result. PMID:19509532

  19. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  20. Archean crustal evolution of the Suomussalmi district as part of the Kianta Complex, Karelia: Constraints from geochemistry and isotopes of granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkola, Perttu; Huhma, Hannu; Heilimo, Esa; Whitehouse, Martin

    2011-07-01

    This study presents new geochemical and isotopic data from granitoids belonging to the Kianta Complex of the Western Karelian terrane, collected from the Suomussalmi district in eastern Finland. Geochemically the Archean granitoids can be divided into five groups: TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite, sensu stricto), transitional TTGs, sanukitoids (high-Mg granitoids), quartz diorites and anatectic leucogranitoids. This study includes chemical data for the first four and isotopic data for all the suites. The majority (78 out of 80 samples) of TTGs sensu stricto (K2O/Na2O < 0.5) belongs to the low-HREE type (YbN < 4) with highly variable (La/Yb)N (7-161) ratios and are interpreted as partial melts of garnet amphibolites. TTGs have low Mg numbers (average 38) and 90% of the samples have Cr and Ni contents below detection limits (30 and 20 ppm respectively). This suggests absence of or limited interaction with mantle. Transitional TTGs (K2O/Na2O > 0.5) display higher LILE concentrations, but otherwise closely resemble the TTGs sensu stricto. Sanukitoids and quartz diorites have moderate (La/Yb)N (6-50) and higher HREE, Cr and Ni than the TTGs. Sanukitoids can be differentiated from quartz diorites based on higher Ba (averages 1453 vs. 626 ppm), K2O (averages 3.02 vs. 1.94%) and LREE (LaN averages 141 vs. 92) contents, although overlap between these two suites exists. TTG magmatism in Suomussalmi and the surrounding parts of Kianta Complex can be divided into three major phases: ca 2.95 Ga, 2.83-2.78 Ga and 2.76-2.74 Ga. Sanukitoid magmatism (2.73-2.71 Ga) partly overlaps in error limits with quartz diorites aged 2.70 Ga and is coeval with one transitional TTG sample (2.72 Ga). Migmatization of older rocks and intrusion of leucogranitoids took place at 2.70-2.69 Ga. Geochemistry, inherited zircons (< 3.44 Ga) and the negative initial εNd values of most rocks indicate varying involvement of older crust in their genesis, but δ18O values of zircons show that source

  1. Polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex (Leaota Massif, South Carpathians) constrained by petrological data and monazite ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    The Leaota Massif in Romania consists of a flat-lying sequence of five structurally concordant units displaying mutual and partly internal lithologic and metamorphic contrasts. The lower part of the lithologic sequence is the Iezer Complex, a medium-grade psammopelitic unit with a structurally concordant thin granite sill located at its upper part. The lower limit of the granite is marked discontinuously by hornfels, also present as enclaves, which experienced intense strain and a subsequent low-pressure thermal overprint. Both granite and hornfels were affected by a medium-temperature, medium- to high-pressure event (Săbău, 2000). This event was also identified in gneisses below the hornfels. These rocks contain the assemblage garnet-phengite-chloritoid-kyanite which had overprinted an older garnet-kyanite-staurolite-biotite-muscovite assemblage. Available U-Th zircon ages indicate 472.7 ± 7.3 Ma (Balintoni et al. 2009) for the granite. Monazite geochronology (Săbău & Negulescu, 2013) reveals for the associated hornfels (1) inherited ages of 528 ± 17.86 Ma overprinted by pervasive Ordovician contact metamorphism (462 ± 4.54 Ma), slightly postdating the age of magmatic zircon in the granite, (2) Silurian to Early Devonian recrystallization episodes, and (3) a Variscan medium- to high-pressure metamorphic overprint responsible for the garnet-phengite-kyanite assemblage. New petrological and geochronological data constraining the polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex were acquired from kyanite-garnet mylonitic gneisses made up of large garnet porphyroclasts embedded in a strongly deformed matrix. Large garnets are rich in quartz, phengite, epidote, kyanite, rutile, and ilmenite inclusions. Biotite, chlorite, apatite, monazite, and Al-cerite inclusions are also present. Garnet porphyroclasts are wrapped by laminae of small garnet - white mica - biotite - quartz or zoisite - kyanite - plagioclase alternating with bands made up of fine

  2. Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Killpatrick, D.H.; Thresh, H.R.

    1980-06-24

    A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is described comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core of a first metal, a tubular sleeve of a second metal, and an outer sheath of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MHD channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core and the second metal of the sleeve strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

  3. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  4. Crossword Puzzle Makes It Fun: Introduce Green Manufacturing in Wood Technology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John L.; Hague, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable, or "green," manufacturing and its practices are becoming more and more a part of today's industry, including wood product manufacturing. This article provides introductory information on green manufacturing in wood technology and a crossword puzzle based on green manufacturing terms. The authors use the puzzle at the college level to…

  5. 27 CFR 53.111 - Tax on use by manufacturer, producer, or importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes Use by Manufacturer Or Importer..., or importer of the articles uses it as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a... manufacturer or production of, or as a component part of, another article taxable under chapter 32 of the...

  6. 27 CFR 53.111 - Tax on use by manufacturer, producer, or importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes Use by Manufacturer Or Importer..., or importer of the articles uses it as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a... manufacturer or production of, or as a component part of, another article taxable under chapter 32 of the...

  7. 27 CFR 53.111 - Tax on use by manufacturer, producer, or importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes Use by Manufacturer Or Importer..., or importer of the articles uses it as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a... manufacturer or production of, or as a component part of, another article taxable under chapter 32 of the...

  8. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  9. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  10. The Manufacturing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Margaret

    1972-01-01

    Article describes management training through playing a game which involves the creation and operation of a business organization devoted to manufacturing and sales. Precise details on setting up the game are given. (Author/PD)

  11. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  12. Agile manufacturing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  13. Manufacturer evaluations of endograft modifications.

    PubMed

    Waninger, Matthew S; Whirley, Robert G; Smith, Louis J; Wolf, Ben S

    2013-03-01

    The motivation to modify the design of a vascular device can arise from a number of sources. Clinical experience with the unmodified device could suggest new design modifications to improve device performance or clinical outcomes. Similarly, clinical success with a device often suggests modifications that could broaden the applicability of the device to enable treatment of different or more advanced disease states. As a specific example, both of these scenarios have arisen during the last decade in the evolution of endovascular grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, with modifications enabling the treatment of patients with shorter infrarenal necks, more angulated anatomy, and smaller access vessels. These modifications have been made by manufacturers and additionally by physicians who create branched and fenestrated devices. The experience to date with the use of fenestrated devices and the development of chimney, snorkel, and periscope techniques suggests that modifications to off-the-shelf devices may provide some clinical benefit. This experience provides additional motivation for manufacturers to develop devices to address the clinical needs not met with their current product lines. For manufacturers, the device development process includes an assessment of the new device design to determine the appropriate evaluation strategy to support the safety and effectiveness of the modified device. This report provides a high-level overview of the process generally followed by device manufacturers to evaluate a proposed device modification before market release, in accordance with local country regulations and recognized international standards such as the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standards for endovascular grafts (ISO 25539 Part 1). PMID:23446123

  14. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  15. Simulation Environment Synchronizing Real Equipment for Manufacturing Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inukai, Toshihiro; Hibino, Hironori; Fukuda, Yoshiro

    Recently, manufacturing industries face various problems such as shorter product life cycle, more diversified customer needs. In this situation, it is very important to reduce lead-time of manufacturing system constructions. At the manufacturing system implementation stage, it is important to make and evaluate facility control programs for a manufacturing cell, such as ladder programs for programmable logical controllers (PLCs) rapidly. However, before the manufacturing systems are implemented, methods to evaluate the facility control programs for the equipment while mixing and synchronizing real equipment and virtual factory models on the computers have not been developed. This difficulty is caused by the complexity of the manufacturing system composed of a great variety of equipment, and stopped precise and rapid support of a manufacturing engineering process. In this paper, a manufacturing engineering environment (MEE) to support manufacturing engineering processes using simulation technologies is proposed. MEE consists of a manufacturing cell simulation environment (MCSE) and a distributed simulation environment (DSE). MCSE, which consists of a manufacturing cell simulator and a soft-wiring system, is emphatically proposed in detail. MCSE realizes making and evaluating facility control programs by using virtual factory models on computers before manufacturing systems are implemented.

  16. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  17. Holonic Manufacturing Paint Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Morten; Roulet-Dubonnet, Olivier; Nyen, Per Åge; Gellein, Lars Tore; Lien, Terje; Skavhaug, Amund

    In pursuit of flexibility and agility within discrete manufacturing, the surrounding logistics and handling processes of a paint shop is under construction as a laboratory prototype application. Holonic Manufacturing seems to be a promising strategic paradigm and architecture to use for a system characterised by production logistics and control. This paper describes the physical devices to be used; the desired functionality; and the basic logic control designed. Additionally, the ideas for holonification based on the already designed logic control is presented.

  18. The Sun, Its Extended Corona, the Interplanetary Space, the Earth's Magnetosphere, Ionosphere, Middle and Low Atmosphere, are All Parts of a Complex System - the Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Various manifestations of solar activity cause disturbances known as space weather effects in the interplanetary space, near-Earth environment, and all the Earth's "spheres. Longterm variations in the frequency, intensity and relative importance of the manifestations of solar activity are due to the slow changes in the output of the solar dynamo, and they define space climate. Space climate governs long-term variations in geomagnetic activity and is the primary natural driver of terrestrial climate. To understand how the variable solar activity affects the Earth's environment, geomagnetic activity and climate on both short and long time scales, we need to understand the origins of solar activity itself and its different manifestations, as well as the sequence of coupling processes linking various parts of the system. This session provides a forum to discuss the chain of processes and relations from the Sun to the Earth's surface: the origin and long-term and short-term evolution of solar activity, initiation and temporal variations in solar flares, CMEs, coronal holes, the solar wind and its interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere, the ionosphere and its connection to the neutral dominated regions below and the plasma dominated regions above, the stratosphere, its variations due to the changing solar activity and its interactions with the underlying troposphere, and the mechanisms of solar influences on the lower atmosphere on different time-scales. Particularly welcome are papers highlighting the coupling processes between the different domains in this complex system.

  19. Solving the Big Data (BD) Problem in Advanced Manufacturing (Subcategory for work done at Georgia Tech. Study Process and Design Factors for Additive Manufacturing Improvement)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brett W.; Diaz, Kimberly A.; Ochiobi, Chinaza Darlene; Paynabar, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    3D printing originally known as additive manufacturing is a process of making 3 dimensional solid objects from a CAD file. This ground breaking technology is widely used for industrial and biomedical purposes such as building objects, tools, body parts and cosmetics. An important benefit of 3D printing is the cost reduction and manufacturing flexibility; complex parts are built at the fraction of the price. However, layer by layer printing of complex shapes adds error due to the surface roughness. Any such error results in poor quality products with inaccurate dimensions. The main purpose of this research is to measure the amount of printing errors for parts with different geometric shapes and to analyze them for finding optimal printing settings to minimize the error. We use a Design of Experiments framework, and focus on studying parts with cone and ellipsoid shapes. We found that the orientation and the shape of geometric shapes have significant effect on the printing error. From our analysis, we also determined the optimal orientation that gives the least printing error.

  20. Role of surface-inoculated Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains in dried fermented sausage manufacture. Part 1: Evaluation of their effects on microbial evolution, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Francesca; Iucci, Luciana; Vallicelli, Melania; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains, used with lactic acid starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum), on the manufacture of dried fermented sausages to understand their role on sausage microbial evolution, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns. The inoculation of the yeast strains did not markedly affect the sausage's microbial flora. The sausages with the yeast strains showed more marked and earlier water activity (a(w)) reductions. Moreover, the surface inoculation of the yeast strains resulted, at the end of ripening, in more pronounced proteolysis and lipolysis. The lipolytic patterns of the products were affected not only by the yeast strain but also by the level of mincing of the meat mixture used. PMID:22064033