Science.gov

Sample records for pashtun islam modernization

  1. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edis, Taner

    2009-06-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing science, or other ways to retain the primacy of faith while continuing efforts to catch up with modern technology. Muslims argue that science and Islam coexist in harmony, but both intellectually and institutionally, the Islamic world harbors many tensions between science and religion.

  2. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I…

  3. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    2009-01-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing…

  4. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures. PMID:23844565

  5. Modernization of Indonesian Islamic Schools' Curricula, 1945-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuhdi, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    As the most populous Muslim country in the world, Indonesia has a unique experience in dealing with Islamic education, a system that was established years before the country's independence. This paper summarizes the development of Indonesian Islamic schools with special reference to their changing curricula. Using the social constructionist…

  6. Where Tradition and "Modern" Knowledge Meet: Exploring Two Islamic Schools in Singapore and Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    Muslims live in a "modern" world where subjects such as the English language, mathematics, sciences, and information and communication technology (ICT) are highly valued and enthusiastically transmitted in schools. How some Islamic schools attempt to equip their students with "modern knowledge" while remaining faithful to their religious…

  7. The Islamic Approach to Modern Forensic and Legal Medicine Issues.

    PubMed

    Bamousa, Manal Saeed; Al-Fehaid, Suha; Al-Madani, Osama; Al Moghannam, Salah; Galeb, Sherien; Youssef, Mohammed; Kharoshah, Magdy A A

    2016-06-01

    This article is a review, from a Saudi Arabian perspective, of selected historical Arabic books and recent medicolegal journal articles on 4 current controversial issues: medical ethics, forensic autopsies, end-of-life decisions, and genetic profiling. This article demonstrates the flexibility of the Islamic medical jurisprudence to accommodate medicolegal issues. PMID:27075593

  8. Islamic View of Nature and Values: Could These Be the Answer to Building Bridges between Modern Science and Islamic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faruqi, Yasmeen Mahnaz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic tenets of Islam and the Islamic view of nature that were influential in the development of science in the so-called "Golden Age of Islam". These findings have been the catalyst for present day Muslim scholars, who have emphasized the importance of Islamic science, as the means of understanding Western science. There…

  9. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  10. Islam, Modernity and Education in the Arab States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlow, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which Arab education systems have responded to the challenges of modernity alongside framing structures of religion. Focusing mainly on the tertiary education sector, it offers a critical overview of the way in which Arab education authorities have sought, collectively and individually, to address both secular and…

  11. Ethnogynaecological Assessment of Medicinal Plants in Pashtun's Tribal Society

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; AbdEIsalam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to document detailed ethnogynaecological knowledge of selected remote regions of Pashtun's tribe in northwest Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were designed to collect ethnogynaecological and ethnographic data. Total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented that were used by the women of studied regions for the treatment of 9 types of gynaecological complaints. Majority of the plants (19) were found used against menses followed by 11 plants each for gonorrhea and pregnancy. Bannu region has high number of gynaecological plants (22) followed by Karak (15). Women of the regions mostly used whole plants (33%) and leaves (31%) for various ethnomedicinal preparation of gynae. Fic results showed that all ailments in different areas scored high consensus ranges between 0.6 and 1.00. Majority of the female respondents (44%) were aged between 61 and 70 years, of which most were illiterate. Women in the remote regions of Pakistan have tremendous traditional knowledge in utilizing medicinal plants for their reproductive health. Plants with high Fic values should be cross-checked for their in vitro and in vivo validation. Young girls should be educated on the importance of ethnogynaecological practices to conserve this valuable knowledge. PMID:25756042

  12. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  13. Brain death and Islam: the interface of religion, culture, history, law, and modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M

    2014-10-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient's religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  14. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, Mara A

    2009-07-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a 'national' Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement. PMID:23833329

  15. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Leichtman, Mara A.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a ‘national’ Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement. PMID:23833329

  16. Islam, Modernity, and the Liminal Space Between: A Vertical Case Study of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development and function of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan. A vertical case study using grounded theory methodology, the research attempts to create a rich and holistic understanding of the Institute. Specific areas of study include the factors involved in the founding…

  17. Eclipses in the Middle East from the Late Medieval Islamic Period to the Early Modern Period. Part 1: The observation of six lunar eclipses from the Late Medieval Islamic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, S. Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of data obtained from observations of two sets of three lunar eclipses in the Late Medieval Islamic Period. The first trio consists of the lunar eclipses of 7 March 1262, 7 April 1270 and 24 January 1274, observed by Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī; from the Maragha Observatory (in north-western Iran), and the second includes those of 2 June and 26 November 1406, and 22 May 1407, observed by Jamshīd Ghiyāth al-Dīn al-Kāshī from Kāshān (in central Iran). The results are that al-Maghribī's values for the magnitudes of these eclipses agree excellently with modern data, and his values for the times when the maximum phases occurred agree to within five minutes with modern values. Al-Kāshī's values for the times of the maximum phases show a rather larger divergence from modern data, varying from about ten minutes to about one hour. The errors in all six values both astronomers computed from their own solar parameters for the longitude of the Sun at the instant of the opposition of the Moon to the Sun in these eclipses remain below ten minutes of arc. The motivation for doing these observations was to measure the lunar epicycle radius r in the Ptolemaic model. Al-Maghribī achieved r = 5;12 and al-Kāshī r ∼ 5;17,1 in terms of the radius of an orbit of R = 60 arbitrary units. It is argued that comparing with modern theory, neither of these two medieval values can be considered an improvement on Ptolemy's value of r = 5;15.

  18. Islamic medical ethics: a primer.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2007-03-01

    Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488

  19. The Islamic Middle East: A Short Annotated Bibliography for High School Teachers and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of 133 books about the Middle East. Categories are reference works; general works; pre-modern history and geography; Islamic religion, law, institutions, and thought; Islamic literature; and Islamic art and archaeology. (AV)

  20. What Makes Islamic Science "Islamic"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muzaffar

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the roots of science in Islam and the fundamental statement, "There is no god but God". Presents Islamic knowledge and concepts and states that "a Muslim is required to seek knowledge". This religious perspective is viewed with regard to the sciences in Islamic civilizations. (Author/YDS)

  1. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world. PMID:25630549

  2. Between Secularism/s: Islam and the Institutionalisation of Modern Higher Education in Mid-Nineteenth Century British India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qadir, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematises clean distinctions between secular and religious by tracing the history of modern higher education of Muslims in British colonial India. Grounded in the interpretive research tradition and with an empirical focus on the formative mid-nineteenth century, the article argues that relational notions between singular secularism…

  3. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  4. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  5. CONSANGUINITY AND INBREEDING COEFFICIENT IN TRIBAL PASHTUNS INHABITING THE TURBULENT AND WAR-AFFECTED TERRITORY OF BAJAUR AGENCY, NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Bashir; Rehman, Atta Ur; Malik, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    The north-western populations of Pakistan in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) adjoining the Pakistan-Afghanistan border are an amalgamation of native and migrated Pashtun tribes. These tribal populations are in transition due to war conditions and geo-political turmoil on both sides of the border since the Soviet invasion in 1979. Bio-demographic and epidemiological data for these tribes are scarce. A prospective cross-sectional sample of 967 males was selected from a representative Pashtun population of Bajaur Agency, and information obtained on bio-demographic variables and marital union types. Analysis of these data revealed that consanguinity was 22.34% and the inbreeding coefficient F was calculated to be 0.0134. The inbreeding coefficient was observed to be higher in subjects who were illiterate, had unskilled jobs and who belonged to younger age categories, extended families and the Tarkalani tribe. Further analyses with respect to temporal variables like subject's age, year of marriage and age at marriage revealed that after a transition in marital union types in the early 80s, there has been a declining trend in the rate of consanguineous unions. Further, consanguineous unions in the parental generation were only 5%, but parental marriage types were predictors of subjects' marital union types. The data further establish that, contrary to a general notion about a high consanguinity rate in Pakistan, consanguineous unions are not common in Bajaur Agency and first cousin marriage is not the preferred type. Furthermore, this research shows that there is a great regional variation in the pattern of consanguinity in Pakistan that needs to be documented in order to draw a more comprehensive picture of the inbreeding coefficient in the country. PMID:26627887

  6. Islamic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    With the advent of Islam in the seventh century, and the swift creation of the largest empire known to medieval man, the civilization that it produced was the expression of the intellectual potential of that sprawling empire which stretched from the Pyrenees in the west to the Central Asian steppes in the east and the Indian subcontinent in the southeast. The very vastness of this empire require...

  7. An Islamic Consideration of Western Moral Education: An Exploration of the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Khuram

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a theoretical comparison of the concept of the individual presumed in modern Islamic educational theory and western moral educational theory, revealing a distinct Islamic point of view on the western educational premise that a moral universe is derived dialectically between individual and society. From an Islamic perspective,…

  8. Islam: Sunnis and Shiites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that Islam is one of the world's fastest growing religions and an increasingly important political force in the world. Provides background information on Sunni and Shiite Islam, highlighting their historical, religious, and ideological differences. (CFR)

  9. Islam as a Civilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The attention in the West, especially in the United States, now accorded Islam and those who conduct themselves according to its precepts betrays woeful ignorance of both. As Graham Fuller has persuasively argued in his recent book, "A World Without Islam", Western culture owes much to Islam as well as to Muslims and would be greatly impoverished…

  10. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  11. Early Islamic physicians and thorax.

    PubMed

    Batirel, H F

    1999-02-01

    Modern anatomic knowledge has developed throughout centuries with transfer of knowledge from generations to generations. Ibn-i Sina (980-1037), Razi (850-923), Davud El-Antaki (?-1008), Ali ibn Abbas (?-982), Ahmed bin Mansur (14th century), Semseddin-i Itaki (1570-1640), and Ibn-i Nafis (1210-1288) were Islamic physicians who all contributed to the understanding of anatomy. They benefited from Greek and Roman pioneers, as well as from each other. To show the situation of thoracic anatomy in early Islamic physicians, we analyzed two original manuscripts in the Süleymaniye Library and some contemporary texts. There were original drawings of the trachea, lung, and vascular system in Semseddin-i Itaki's and Ahmed bin Mansur's anatomy texts. Ibn-i Nafis's writings revealed that he was the first person to describe the pulmonary circulation. Also Ali ibn Abbas wrote that the pulmonary artery wall had two layers and these layers may have a role in constriction and relaxation of this vessel. He also stated that pulmonary veins branched together with the bronchial tree. Ahmed bin Mansur, Ali ibn Abbas, and Ibn-i Nafis each wrote that the heart has two cavities. They also added that the wall of the septum is very thick and there are no passages in between. These show that Islamic physicians had important contributions to thoracic anatomy and physiology. European physicians benefited from these contributions till the end of the 16th century. PMID:10197707

  12. Genetic susceptibility to esophageal cancer due to CYP1A1 gene variant rs4646903 in tobacco addicted patients of Pashtun ethnicity: a case control study in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zakiullah; Saeed, Muhammad; Ali, Sajid; Javed, Nabila; Khisroon, Muhammad; Muhammad, Basir; Khuda, Fazli; Ahmad, Saeed; Ismail, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations of the CYP1A1 gene variant rs4646903 polymorphism with the risk of developing esophageal cancer (EC). A case-control study was carried out in Pashtun population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in which 140 hospital based EC cases and 196 population based healthy controls exposed to similar environmental conditions were included. A specific method based on the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect genotypes in case and control groups and results were then analyzed with SPSS version 20. In our population, individuals with CC and TC genotypes of the CYP1A1 rs4646903 polymorphism had significantly higher risk of EC (adjusted odds (OR): 15.709, 95%CI: 6.065-40.686, OR: 3.256 95%CI: 1.902-5.574 respectively). The 'C' allele was strongly associated with the disease (p< 0.0001). Adjusted OR was higher (1.5 times in C/C) in case of variant alleles that show the contribution of environmental and nutritional factors towards the development of EC. Our findings suggest that presence of the 'C' allele of rs4646903 (T>C) may be one of the risk alleles for EC susceptibility in Pashtun population. PMID:25169514

  13. The "Islamic" in Islamic Education: Assessing the Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjwani, Farid

    2004-01-01

    The paper assesses the dominant discourse on Islam and education that argues for an education derived from an exclusively "Islamic" vision. In addition to exploring the historical roots of this discourse, the paper analyses it with respect to its (i) arguments for an Islamic vision of education, (ii) conception of Islam, and (iii) proposals for…

  14. Teaching Islam with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    We can note a varied use and attitudes to song and music in Islam. In the classroom of Sana--a primary school teacher of Islamic religious education (IRE) in a Muslim school in Sweden--music is an important but not uncontested part of IRE. The music not only supports themes discussed in the classroom but also gives variation to the education. A…

  15. Engaging with Islamic Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Islamic patterns were a regular feature in mathematics classrooms, and probably still feature in many wall displays. However, as part of the learning process, these ancient designs appear to have lost any significant contemporary appeal. Here, the power of software is engaged to bring the construction of Islamic type patterns up to date. Forget…

  16. Science: The Islamic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the first space voyage and in-flight experiments by a Muslim astronaut, this document focuses upon the story of Islamic science through the ages. It is intended to demonstrate the resurgence of scientific research and technological development in the Muslim world. The booklet contains chapters on: (1) science: the Islamic legacy;…

  17. Peoples, Processes and Patterns: Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Joan; And Others

    Designed for use by elementary and secondary teachers but useful to anyone interested in Islamic art, this booklet considers the ways in which design issues have been solved in Islamic cultures, both in the past and the present. The text covers two major areas: aspects of pattern in Islamic weaving and aspects of Islamic tilework. Under weaving…

  18. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  19. The Relationship between Islam and Democracy in Turkey: Employing Political Culture as an Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toros, Emre

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade the agenda of local and global politics is heavily marked by the encounter of two powerful currents, namely democracy and political Islam. On the one hand Islam as a religion itself is facing a cultural dialectic between a modern and an authentic form, producing a synthesis which is only to be criticized again by a new…

  20. Abortion in Islamic countries--legal and religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Asman, Oren

    2004-01-01

    The debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. As one of every four people in the world is of the Muslim religion, it is important to learn more about the Islamic point of view toward this dilemma in medical ethics. The first part of this paper gives a general view of the sources of Islamic law and discusses modern developments in Islamic medical ethics regarding abortion. The second part focuses on the legal aspects of abortion in different Islamic states, dealing with the need to supply solutions to women who for different reasons wish to abort and at the same time enact laws that would not contradict Islamic principles. A study of three Muslim states (Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia) demonstrates three different approaches toward legalizing abortion--a conservative approach, a more lenient approach, and a liberal one--all within Islamic oriented states. This leads to a conclusion that a more liberal attitude regarding abortion is possible in Islamic states, as long as traditional principles are taken into account. PMID:15163077

  1. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  2. Islam Does Not Inhibit Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanavas, T. O.

    1999-01-01

    Compares the science/religion relationship in both Christian and Islamic countries. Presents Muslim scholars' ideas about the presence of humans on earth. Presents ideas on active nature, Noah's curse, and the age of the universe. Refutes the notion that Islam inhibited science and advocates the belief that Islam promoted science. (YDS)

  3. Marketing in the Islamic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashmi, Mahmud S.

    The implications of the Islamic religion and culture for marketing strategies and practices are discussed. An introductory section describes the Islamic population and its segments, and gives some historical background about the religion. A list of the principal tenets and practices of the Islamic faith, and the specific marketing implications of…

  4. Understanding the Art of Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Themina

    2007-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the interest in learning more about Islam, Muslims, and Islamic culture and society has expanded in a variety of ways. The purpose of this brief narrative is to create a sense of curiosity and anticipation to learning more about how Islamic art contributes to the art world. In this article, the author describes a unit…

  5. Islamic Education: History and Tendency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgendorf, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Examines the history and tendency of Islamic education, discussing how, after 1,000 years of intellectual leadership, the Islamic world has not retained its dominance, and examining the educational institutions that both spawned and doomed the Eastern intellectual revolution. The article addresses: the role of knowledge in Islam; emphasis on…

  6. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406

  7. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century.

    PubMed Central

    Rispler-Chaim, V

    1989-01-01

    While the practice of Western medicine is known today to doctors of all ethnic and religious groups, its standards are subject to the availability of resources. The medical ethics guiding each doctor is influenced by his/her religious or cultural background or affiliation, and that is where diversity exists. Much has been written about Jewish and Christian medical ethics. Islamic medical ethics has never been discussed as an independent field of ethics, although several selected topics, especially those concerning sexuality, birth control and abortions, have been more discussed than others. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century will be characterised on the basis of Egyptian fatawa (legal opinions) issued by famous Muslim scholars and several doctors. Some of the issues discussed by Islamic medical ethics are universal: abortions, organ transplants, artificial insemination, cosmetic surgery, doctor-patient relations, etc. Other issues are typically Islamic, such as impediments to fasting in Ramadan, diseases and physical conditions that cause infringement of the state of purity, medicines containing alcohol, etc. Muslims' attitudes to both types of ethical issues often prove that pragmatism prevails and the aim is to seek a compromise between Islamic heritage and the achievements of modern medicine, as long as basic Islamic dogma is not violated. PMID:2614792

  8. Glimpses of Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K

    1997-07-01

    The fall of the Roman Empire during the fifth century A.D. Ushered in the beginning of the Dark Ages. After this, in Europe further progress of Greco-Roman medicine originated from Hippocrates was halted. The ideas about medicine and hygiene were kept alive in monasteries only. The Arabs made advances in medicine at a time when the rest of Europe was in the Dark Ages. Islamic system or the rulers of the day actively encouraged scholarship and growth of knowledge. The Islamic gift of the day to the world of medicine was simply unique. PMID:12572570

  9. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelle, Clemency

    A short survey on Islamic mathematical astronomy practiced during the period running from the eight century until the fifteenth is presented. Various pertinent themes, such as the translation of foreign scientific works and their impact on the tradition; the introduction, assimilation, and critique of the Ptolemaic model; and the role of observations, will be covered. In addition, the zīj, the dominant format for astronomical works, will be briefly explained as well as the legacy of the Islamic tradition of astral sciences to other cultures.

  10. The "Repoliticization" of Islam in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Robert W.; Abell, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalist groups are demanding political power and posing stiff changes to Middle Eastern regimes. The attainment of political independence, modernization, the incorporation of millions of newcomers as active participants in the political process, and the inability to deal effectively with Israel have contributed to conditions…

  11. Islam and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  12. [Islam and caring].

    PubMed

    Nadir, Sihem

    2015-10-01

    There are more and more followers of the Muslim religion in France. All caregivers need to understand the fundamental principles that their Muslim patients hold sacred in the area of health and care. For Muslims, it is of utmost importance to observe the fundamentals of Islam and the values of brotherhood, tolerance, fairness and truth are essential. PMID:26461218

  13. The relation between Greek and Islamic materia medica.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have been made on the exact data of the introduction of Greek sciences to the Arabic culture. During the 8th and 9th centuries A.D. a big progress was done in the Arab-Islamic sciences, when the Caliphs of the Omayad and Abbasid dynasties invited many scientists, researchers and translators for translation of all sciences into Arabic. The Arabs paid special attention to the Greek natural sciences such as botany and pharmacy. Greek materia medica was a major common basis for Arab-Islamic medicine and pharmacy which in turn paved the way to the modern pharmaceutical therapy. PMID:12575695

  14. A Preliminary Insight into an Islamic Mechanism for Neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Azizan; Musa, Mohd Noor; Salleh, Sm Saifuddeen Sm

    2016-01-01

    Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari'ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage - to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide 'different' meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari'ah - in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease. This paper highlights the Islamic mechanism for neuroethics as basis for a holistic ethical framework of neuroscience to cope with its new, modern, and emerging technologies in the globalised world, and how Muslim should response to such changes. PMID:27540319

  15. A Preliminary Insight into an Islamic Mechanism for Neuroethics

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Azizan; Musa, Mohd Noor; Salleh, SM Saifuddeen SM

    2016-01-01

    Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari’ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage – to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide ‘different’ meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari’ah – in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease. This paper highlights the Islamic mechanism for neuroethics as basis for a holistic ethical framework of neuroscience to cope with its new, modern, and emerging technologies in the globalised world, and how Muslim should response to such changes. PMID:27540319

  16. [The art of therapy in Islamic medicine].

    PubMed

    Masić, I

    1997-01-01

    History is a witness of the great importance and influence of islamic science from the period of "Golden Age of Arabic Civilisation". A famous scientist said: "Sciences has no country, it is international; we all share in fruits of investigations of people from different traditions and all ages." Scientists from the early period of islamic era had set fire of a stream of man's thought and progress, observation, experiments and tradition, that have become a weapon of modern science. All of that was based upon Quran and Hadiths, that have been their guidelines when setting free human mind from taboos. Medieval Arabian scientists have followed the words of Holly Prophet Mohammad s.a.v.s., saying that searching for knowledge have had to be the most important task for people, and that ink more saint than blood of the saints. These attitudes of Holly Prophet have awaken desire for studying with muslim scientists. The result of that desire became a key of scientific progress. There are many worldwide famous arabian scientists: El-Kindi, Er-Razi, Ibn Sina, El-Biruni, Ibu Hajsem, Ez-Zahravi, El-Farabi, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Ruzd etc. These names, among several hundreds of arabian physicians, attribute "Golden Age" of islamic science. That period was characterised by movements, reprocessing of ideas. That reprocessing of ideas has gained the great minds together, and that process is continuous. That is why we have to be grateful to them. Famous Muslim physicians defined medicine as skill that dealt in keeping good health, coped with ills and health recovering. They have also modified many Greek writings and established basic principles of the art of medicine. What is significant is that, regardless of historical past and modern technical and technological presence, these principles are still accurate for understanding of medical science. These principles are what the author is discussing in detail in this paper about. PMID:9324575

  17. Islamic bioethics: a general scheme.

    PubMed

    Shomali, Mohamamd Ali

    2008-01-01

    No doubt life in its all forms enjoys a very high status in Islam. Human life is one of the most sacred creatures of God. Therefore, it must be appreciated, respected and protected. In this regard, the paper refers to different parts. The first part studies the value of life in Islam. It helps to understand why life must be appreciated and respected. The second part sheds some light on the nature of the Islamic bioethics. Discussing the sources and authorities in the Islamic bioethics, in this part we will study the way of life protection which is regulated by the Islamic law and bioethics. Part three reflects on some important issues in bioethics from an Islamic perspective. Concerning the Islamic believes, physical health maintenance and disease treatment are two important aspects of the Islamic teachings. In respect to the beginning of human life; firstly, we will see that reproduction must occur in the context of a legitimate and stable family. Secondly, we will study family planning and abortion. With respect to the end of life, issues such as suicide and euthanasia will be studied. Finally organ transplantation will be discussed. PMID:23908711

  18. Islamic Principles and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Karen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Based on interviews with five Islamic respondents, this paper investigates stricter Islamic parents' difficulties with certain assumptions and practices of Australian education, particularly health and physical education. Concerns about modesty and separation of sexes conflict with central aims based on equal educational opportunities and equality…

  19. Components of Religion: The Case of Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Frederick M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history and conceptual, cultic, and communal aspects of the Islamic religion. Explores the duties of Muslims, which are referred to as the "pillars of Islam." Describes Muhammed's place in the Islamic faith as its primary prophet and model of behavior. Identifies an approach to the study of Islam that is equally applicable to other…

  20. Islam, society and development: focus on Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jusuf, M

    1972-01-01

    After a review of the traditional society as found in Indonesia, the role of Islam in this changing, modernizing society, and changes which must be made by religious leaders to cope with development, which is bettering life for the people, are discussed. Centuries of oppressive colonial rule have kept many Indonesian Moslem village-families locked into a passive, subsistence way of life. A fatalistic mentality makes family and children together with performing the religious rituals the chief rewards of earthly life. With modernization many young people have left the villages hoping for economic opportunity. Instead they do not have technical skills and they find themselves without either the material advancements promised by modernization or the traditional dignity and pride which is found in the village family. Through centuries of distortion the position of Islam on the family, which is one of love and justice, became viewed as a system in which the traditional faith no longer meets modern situations and church leaders do not help matters by protesting and exhorting insteading of going back to basic truths and showing the way to a better life. The 1st field which demands attention is the attitude toward human reproduction. Leaders should find verses like Al Baqarah verse 233 and explain in easy language to village families why responsible parents do not have more children than they can care for. The 2nd step is to teach families to take social and family welfare into their own hands and not to submit to fatalism. The 3rd is to establish educational systems which systematically change families' attitudes and awaken them from outmoded practices. It is shown that of 28 million school age children in Indonesia, only 13 million can attend schools. By helping in this educational task, religious leaders will improve the outlook for these children and become a vital force in a changing Indonesia. PMID:12256866

  1. 76 FR 29812 - In the Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al-Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam; as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al- Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam; as a Specially... determine that the organization known as Army of Islam, also known as Jaish al-Islam, also known as Jaysh al-Islam, has committed, or poses a significant risk of committing, acts of terrorism that threaten...

  2. 76 FR 29812 - In the Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al-Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam, as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al- Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam, as a Foreign..., as amended (hereinafter ``INA'') (8 U.S.C. 1189), exist with respect to Army of Islam, also known as Jaish al-Islam, also known as Jaysh al-Islam. Therefore, I hereby designate the...

  3. Islamic reception of Greek astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2011-06-01

    Research in Islamic science over the last half century or so has clearly established that such old myths as Islamic science being a preservation of Greek science, or that science was always in conflict with religion in Islamic civilization as it was in Europe, or that the European scientific Renaissance was independent of outside influences -a European phenomenon par excellence- are now all subjects of great dispute if not altogether dead. In what follows I will illustrate the evidence that has put such myths into question with only few examples, since time and space do not allow me to elaborate more.

  4. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  5. Teaching Islam to American High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Timothy J., Jr.; Mi, Han-fu

    1988-01-01

    Presents a flexible two-week lesson unit for teaching high school students about Islam. Provides learning objectives and activities, as well as a bibliography of resources. Includes seven study guides which cover such topics as Islamic prophets, the Koran, Islamic morality, and Jihad. (GEA)

  6. Islamic Education and Cosmopolitanism: A Philosophical Interlude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at three conceptions of Islamic education. I argue that conceptions of Islamic education ought to be considered as existing on a minimalist-maximalist continuum, meaning that the concepts associated with Islamic education do not have a single meaning, but that meanings are shaped depending on the minimalist and…

  7. Islam Is Essential for General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The religion of Islam is often portrayed with false and negative stereotypes. If we expect our students to understand and participate in the global world and to be informed and engaged citizens in a democratic America, then it is essential that they develop a basic and sound understanding of Islam. Furthermore, learning about Islam can facilitate…

  8. Bioethics for clinicians: 21. Islamic bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S.; Khitamy, A.

    2001-01-01

    ISLAMIC BIOETHICS DERIVES FROM A COMBINATION OF PRINCIPLES, duties and rights, and, to a certain extent, a call to virtue. In Islam, bioethical decision-making is carried out within a framework of values derived from revelation and tradition. It is intimately linked to the broad ethical teachings of the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, and thus to the interpretation of Islamic law. In this way, Islam has the flexibility to respond to new biomedical technologies. Islamic bioethics emphasizes prevention and teaches that the patient must be treated with respect and compassion and that the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions of the illness experience be taken into account. Because Islam shares many foundational values with Judaism and Christianity, the informed Canadian physician will find Islamic bioethics quite familiar. Canadian Muslims come from varied backgrounds and have varying degrees of religious observance. Physicians need to recognize this diversity and avoid a stereotypical approach to Muslim patients. PMID:11202669

  9. Holy Alliances: Public Subsidies, Islamic High Schools, and Female Schooling in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the experience of incentive-based reforms in the secondary Islamic/madrasa education sector in Bangladesh within the context of the broader debate over modernization of religious school systems in South Asia. Key features of the reform are changes of the curriculum and policy regarding admission of female students. In return…

  10. Influences on the Teaching of Arabic and Islamic Studies in UK Higher Education: Connections and Disconnections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasek, Lisa; Canning, John

    2009-01-01

    Middle Eastern Studies, modern foreign languages and Islamic Studies have been recognized by the UK government as strategically important subjects in higher education. Motivated by government concerns about lack of knowledge about the Middle East and the radicalization of British Muslims, this designation has complex implications for the teaching…

  11. Islam, Islamism, and Democratic Values. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2006 FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about Islam. Speakers were drawn from the disciplines of religious studies, anthropology, political science, history, law, and journalism. The institute, held in Bryn Mawr, Pa., was…

  12. A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, I. A.

    This book is a brief guide to understanding Islam, intended to help individuals better understand Islamic culture, Muslims, and the Holy Quran. It consists of the following three chapters: (1) Some Evidence for the Truth of Islam; (2) Some Benefits of Islam; and (3) General Information on Islam. The book is extensively illustrated with photographs…

  13. Lessons We Have Learned from Iran--Rule by Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, William W.

    1982-01-01

    Presents guidelines for teachers to help students understand a government based on religious tenets, such as the Islamic republic in Iran. Suggests four avenues of study: Islam and government, comparison of Islamic and western legal systems, problems and conflicts in an Islamic republic, and an enlarged perspective of the Islamic republic. (LC)

  14. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  15. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  16. Islamic Universities Spread through Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on new universities for Muslims, many supported by groups in the Middle East, which are spreading through the sub-Saharan region. The Islamic University in Uganda is a prime example of a new kind of institution that has slowly been spreading its way across the continent. Embracing both conservative Muslim values and modern…

  17. Human Genetics and Islam: Scientific and Medical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Bilal A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To relate diverse aspects of genetics and its applications to concepts in the Glorious Qur’an and the ḥadīth. Study Design: The author compared passages from the Glorious Qur’an and ḥadīth with modern concepts in genetics, such as recessive inheritance, genetic counseling, genetic variation, cytoplasmic inheritance, sex chromosomes, genetics-environment interactions, gender determination, and the hypothesis of “pairing in the universe.” Conclusions: A fresh understanding of Islamic scripture reveals references to principles of genetics that predate contemporary discoveries. This highlights the need for further exploration of possible links between science and religion. PMID:23610491

  18. What Islamic School Teachers Want: Towards Developing an Islamic Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Nadeem

    2011-01-01

    In the 70 year history of Islamic schools in North America, there is yet to be an accredited teacher education programme to train and professionally equip Islamic school teachers with an understanding of an Islamic pedagogy. Arguably, there has been an imbalance of energy placed on curriculum development projects over the considerations of teacher…

  19. Islam(s) in Context: Orientalism and the Anthropology of Muslim Societies and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    This article begins to fill a gap in recent discussions of the future of Islamic studies with an account of the nature and significance of Anthropological and Ethnographic contributions to the study of Islam and Muslims. Drawing attention to both the problem of essence in Orientalism and the dissolution of Islam's significance for Muslims in…

  20. Astronomy in the Service of Islam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, David A.

    In their assessment of Islamic astronomy, historians have usually been concerned only with that part of the Muslim scientific heritage that was transmitted to the West in the Middle Ages. Yet most Islamic works on astronomy were not transmitted to the West, and they are known today mainly due to the work of orientalists in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This is the case of Muslim writings on three aspects of mathematical science that were closely linked with religious observance. This is an overview of those "Islamic aspects of Islamic astronomy".

  1. Traditional Arabic & Islamic Medicine: A Conceptual Model for Clinicians and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rawi, Sara; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Eighty percent of the population in the developing world relies on traditional medicine, and 70-80% of the population in developed countries utilizes complementary therapies. Though a vibrant healing tradition pervades modern life in the Arab and Muslim world, no clear definition or model exists to organize it’s multiple and intertwined elements. We define Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM) as a system of healing practiced since antiquity in the Arab world within the context of religious influences of Islam and comprised of medicinal herbs, dietary practices, mind-body therapy, spiritual healing and applied therapy whereby many of these elements reflect an enduring interconnectivity between Islamic medical and prophetic influences as well as regional healing practices emerging from specific geographical and cultural origins. Our definition and conceptual model represents a novel addition to the literature on Arab and Muslim health practices, and presents an opportunity to address a global health concern. PMID:22980243

  2. Pious Science: The Gulen Community and the Making of a Conservative Modernity in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Berna

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the ways in which the Islamic Fethullah Gulen community engages with science as a response to globalization and modernity. Framed with the theoretical discussions on multiple modernities, it investigates how the community contests for hegemony in the field of science against the project of secular modernity, and…

  3. Quasicrystals in Medieval Islamic Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, and drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. I discuss our recent findings that, by 1200 A. D., a conceptual breakthrough occurred in which girih patterns were reconceived as tessellations of a special set of equilateral polygons (girih tiles) decorated with lines. These girih tiles enabled the creation of increasingly complex periodic girih patterns, and by the 15th century, the tessellation approach was combined with self-similar transformations to construct nearly-perfect quasicrystalline patterns. These patterns have remarkable properties; they do not repeat periodically, and have special symmetry---and were not understood in the West until the 1970s. I will discuss some of the properties of Islamic quasicrystalline tilings, and their relation to the Penrose tiling, perhaps the best known quasicrystal pattern.

  4. Interfaith education: An Islamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Yahya Sergio Yahe

    2016-06-01

    According to a teaching of the Prophet Muhammad, "the quest for knowledge is the duty of each Muslim, male or female", where knowledge is meant as the discovery of the real value of things and of oneself in relationship with the world in which God has placed us. This universal dimension of knowledge is in fact a wealth of wisdom of the traditional doctrine naturally linked to the cultural and spiritual heritage of every human being and every believer of every faith. It allows for the respect of internal and external differences as positive elements of the cultural and spiritual heritage of mankind. In this sense, intercultural and interfaith education plays a fundamental role and fits naturally within the Islamic religious education framework. The author of this article is Vice-President and Imam of the Islamic Religious Community in Italy (Comunità Religiosa Islamica [COREIS] Italiana), an organisation which has been providing teachers and students with training on Islam and interfaith dialogue for almost twenty years with the support of the regional and national offices of the Italian Ministry of Public Education. Referring to existing interreligious and intercultural societies such as Azerbaijan, and a number of successful initiatives and projects, several of which COREIS is involved in, he demonstrates how interfaith education can effectively contribute to preventing the diffusion of anti-Semitism, Islamophobia and radicalism.

  5. Interfaith education: An Islamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Yahya Sergio Yahe

    2016-08-01

    According to a teaching of the Prophet Muhammad, "the quest for knowledge is the duty of each Muslim, male or female", where knowledge is meant as the discovery of the real value of things and of oneself in relationship with the world in which God has placed us. This universal dimension of knowledge is in fact a wealth of wisdom of the traditional doctrine naturally linked to the cultural and spiritual heritage of every human being and every believer of every faith. It allows for the respect of internal and external differences as positive elements of the cultural and spiritual heritage of mankind. In this sense, intercultural and interfaith education plays a fundamental role and fits naturally within the Islamic religious education framework. The author of this article is Vice-President and Imam of the Islamic Religious Community in Italy (Comunità Religiosa Islamica [COREIS] Italiana), an organisation which has been providing teachers and students with training on Islam and interfaith dialogue for almost twenty years with the support of the regional and national offices of the Italian Ministry of Public Education. Referring to existing interreligious and intercultural societies such as Azerbaijan, and a number of successful initiatives and projects, several of which COREIS is involved in, he demonstrates how interfaith education can effectively contribute to preventing the diffusion of anti-Semitism, Islamophobia and radicalism.

  6. Devices and desires: population policy and gender roles in the Islamic Republic.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, H

    1994-01-01

    There is a widely held assumption that Islamist ideology is incompatible with modernity and feminism. Active debate in Iran about the dynamics of population policy and women's rights and responsibilities, together with the government's efforts to build public consensus on the need for birth control and family planning, however, suggest that Islam may be flexible and adaptable in response to political and economic realities. Iranian women individually and collectively have questioned the male interpretation of the proper Islamic role of women. They have encouraged the government to introduce reforms in the areas of marriage, divorce, and education, and are agitating for more improvement in women's legal and social position. These activities indicate that reproductive choices and strategies are not decided by Islam, but are the product of the political and economic realities of a given society. The first population policy of the Islamic Republic was formulated in 1989. Since then, the Family Planning Board has regenerated itself well beyond its pre-revolution capacity in terms of research and public services. Population policy before and after the Islamic Revolution, building national consensus on family planning, the family planning network, women's status, contradictory signals, and women's options are discussed. PMID:12179392

  7. To Explain Copernicus: The Islamic Scientific and Religious Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragep, F. Jamil

    No one seriously disputes the novelty of Copernicus's monumental decision to put the Earth in motion or its importance for the development of modern science. But that decision can appear quite different when viewed from the perspective of a modern scientist versus that of a contextualist historian. In his recent book To Explain the World, Prof. Weinberg places great store on what he calls aesthetic criteria for understanding Copernicus's choice. The historical record, however, is rather ambiguous on the matter, and if anything supports the view that Copernicus came to his aesthetic justifications (such as the beautiful ordering of the planets) after first reaching his heliocentric theory. So if not aesthetics, what did lead him to go against a two-millenium tradition that placed the Earth firmly in the center of the Cosmos? There are no doubt many factors; one of the most intriguing suggestions, well-argued by Noel Swerdlow, is that Copernicus was led to heliocentrism by his rather conservative desire to restore uniform, circular motion to the heavens and remove the irregularities of Ptolemaic astronomy. Swerdlow has also asserted that this has much to do with Islamic predecessors who were attempting to do the same thing, only within a geocentric framework. In this presentation, I will briefly summarize this Islamic scientific context and then explore the religious beliefs that led not only to the questioning of Ptolemaic scientific authority, including his alleged lack of observational diligence, but also ancient philosophical authority, the latter opening up possibilities for alternative cosmologies, at least one of which included the Earth's motion. Finally, evidence will be presented that connects these Islamic contexts with Copernicus's theories and justifications.

  8. Memorization and Learning in Islamic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Helen N.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the purpose and methods of Islamic schools have received increased scrutiny from non-Muslim and Muslim leaders as well as the Western media, often leading to negative publicity, criticisms, and statements of official concern. The lack of appreciation of the distinction between radical and ordinary Islamic schools is due to a lack…

  9. Islamic Schools and American Civic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasser, M. Zuhdi

    2011-01-01

    In the nearly ten years since the attacks by Muslim terrorists on 9/11, people have seen an exponential growth in homegrown radical Islam, or Islamism. Insufficiently recognized and acknowledged, this metastasis has produced its natural, deadly effects: jihad against American citizens on their own soil. Some analysts cite "the narrative" as the…

  10. Retesting Fiedler's Contingency Theory in Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodory, George C.; Hadbai, Mafakhir

    1982-01-01

    Examines the validity of Fielder's Style/Situational Control Match Theory as measured by school outcomes in Islamic elementary schools in Lebanon. Findings support Theodory's contention that the theory is not applicable in non-Western societies. Islam appears to deem the presence of relationship-oriented school leadership and task-oriented school…

  11. Islam in Egyptian Education: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Charlotte M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the important role that the religion of Islam plays in the education of Egyptian children. The scrutiny under which the Islamic world finds itself in the after-math of September 11, 2001 has resulted in calls for educational reform, not only from the outside world, but also from the Muslim world itself. The author has a…

  12. Islamization of Disciplines: Towards an Indigenous Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dangor, Suleman

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades has witnessed the mushrooming of Islamic schools in Europe, the United States and South Africa. Initially, these schools were concerned essentially with providing an Islamic ethos for learners. More recently, however, they have begun to focus on the process of Islamization. The Islamization project was initiated in the United…

  13. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable. PMID:17966502

  14. ["Non naturals" in Islamic medicine].

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Naohide

    2010-03-01

    "Non naturals," which appear frequently in the history of Western medicine, means things not controlled by human nature, contrary to natural components of a body. It covers such a wide range of factors as physiological or psychological things, and the external envionment. Generally, these are classified into six categories; ambient air, food and drink, exercise and rest, sleep and wakefulness, excretion and retention, and the passions of soul. In medieval times the knowledge of these "six non naturals" constituted a kind of hygiene or regimen. People cannot avoid the effects of these elements in their lifetime, so physicians were required to learn about them not only to treat diseases but to preserve health and to prevent diseases. This became so common that it was included in the curriculum of medical schools. Although these factors were already known to have an effect on the health of humans in the early stage of Greek medicine, it took a long time to be formed into the theory of "six non naturals." Its origin can be traced back to Galen's "Ars medica," but he does not use the name "non naturals." With the later development of medicine in the Islamic world, which received Greek medicine through translation, the number and the contents of related factors differ from author to author. Moreover, they use different names; few authors use the name "non naturals." It seems that "six non naturals" had not been established as theory until the later stage of the history of medicine in Islam. PMID:20614733

  15. Adapting mudharabah principle in Islamic option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaimi, Siti Noor Aini binti; Salleh, Hassilah binti

    2013-04-01

    Most of the options today use the Black-Scholes model as the basis in valuing their price. This conventional model involves the elements that are strictly prohibited in Islam namely riba, gharar and maisir. Hence, this paper introduces a new mathematical model that has been adapted with mudharabah principle to replace the Black-Scholes model. This new model which is more compatible with Islamic values produces a new Islamic option which avoids any form of oppression and injustice to all parties involved.

  16. Why Cancer Patients Seek Islamic Healing.

    PubMed

    Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2016-10-01

    Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs. PMID:26391242

  17. McDonaldization, Islamic teachings, and funerary practices in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on George Ritzer's sociological concept of McDonaldization, this article explores the transformation of burial practices in Kuwait. It is argued that traditional, religious, and private ways of dealing with death have been modernized using the fast-food model of McDonald's. This article examines Islamic teachings on burial and how that model has been applied to the traditional Muslim funerary services, including cemetery management, grave excavation, funeral prayers, burial, and condolences, to make them more efficient vis-a-vis more profitable. Based on personal observations and random interviews, the study finds that the state bureaucracy in Kuwait has made burial rituals more efficient, standardized, calculable, and controlled. Furthermore, several associated irrationalities are also considered. Findings suggest that some individuals may not be happy with these changes but there is no popular resistance to McDonaldization of the burial practices, probably due to the authoritarian and welfare nature of the State of Kuwait. PMID:21748923

  18. The Traditional World of Islam Film Series: A Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    The guide describes a series of six films examining the influence of Islamic doctrine and traditional practices on human endeavors throughout the Islamic world. The objective of the series is to fill an informational gap concerning the important contributions that Islamic civilization has made to the achievements of man. The films are entitled:…

  19. Islam, Democracy and Education for Non-Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I shall attempt to rebuff the view that there is a necessary connection between a monotheistic religion, like Islam, and violence. Rather, I shall argue that the link between Islam and violence is a contingent one, that is, it is neither necessary nor impossible, depending on the reasons offered by a particular Islamic faith…

  20. Spirituality in Teacher Training at an Islamic College in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdreich, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at an Islamic teacher training college in Israel in an attempt to understand how religious revival shapes women's understandings of being Muslim women professionals in Israel. The college grew out of Islamic revival in Israel; its teacher training program reflects the sensibilities that Islamic revival hopes to foster in women…

  1. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  2. Nearness to God: A Perspective on Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    Islam, as one of the most important religions of the world, has particular and significant educational views. The purpose of this article is to extract and interpret Islam's view of education. Using classic texts and the author's scholarship, Islamic education is defined as a form of religious education drawing humans near to God and God's…

  3. Science Teachers' Interpretations of Islamic Culture Related to Science Education versus the Islamic Epistemology and Ontology of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first and…

  4. Sex reassignment technology: the dilemma of transsexuals in Islam and Christianity.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Mohd Shuhaimi Bin Haji; Haneef, Sayed Sikandar Shah

    2014-04-01

    The birth of people with confused or ambiguous sex makeup as a biological fact since the annals of history has posed the challenge of accommodating them within the binary gender of sociocultural systems. In this process, the role of religion as a defining factor in social engineering has been paramount. Major religions, such as Islam and Christianity, have addressed this issue within the frame of their God-ordained laws by devising a set of moral and legal imperatives specific to the "third gender." Modern developments in medicine and biology, however, have made sex reassignment possible for this category of people, today called transsexuals. The question is: How do Islam and Christianity respond to it. After presenting an analytical view of both Muslim scholars and Christian religious authorities on the legitimacy of sex reassignment for transsexuals, this paper attempts to explore if such a dilemma can be resolved. PMID:23187616

  5. Aesthetic Modernism in the Post-Colony: The Making of a National College of Art in Pakistan (1950-1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarar, Nadeem Omar

    2008-01-01

    With the formation of Pakistan as a modern Islamic republic in 1947, the institutions of art and design education were transformed under the sway of modernization theories of development. A conceptual and physical infrastructure was put in place to modify existing institutions and to create new ones for encouraging modern art and artists in the…

  6. Issues in forensic psychiatry in Islamic jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Chaleby, K S

    1996-01-01

    There are few other specialties in psychiatry where the cultural nature and social norms of a society has more impact than the specialty of forensic psychiatry. In the Muslim and Arab worlds, Islamic principles govern the foundation of thoughts required to make laws. Those necessarily include legal issues in psychiatry. The impact of these matters on individuals as patients and the community at large can not be overestimated. Those issues will include laws of involuntary hospitalization and evaluation of mental competence toward different life functions such as commercial interaction, writing a will, marriage, divorce, and child custody. Islamic law has a definite position on criminal responsibility as well as other vital matters such as compensation of damages, including medical malpractice. This article discusses problems and peculiarities involved in the canonization of these laws in islamic communities, considering different arguments presented from one point of view versus another. PMID:8891327

  7. Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Clyde Ahmad

    1987-06-01

    In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

  8. Western and Islamic bioethics: How close is the gap?

    PubMed Central

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Albar, Mohammed Ali

    2013-01-01

    The relation between Islam and medicine has been described as intimate. Muslims are expected to be moderate and balanced in all matters, including health. Islamic law is based on a complete system of morality that can provide a moral context in medicine from a legal perspective. Islamic teaching is also very flexible and adaptable to many new and novel situations. Islamic Ethics also upholds “the four principles” of biomedical ethics proposed by Beauchamp and Childress. Several authors claim that the roots of these principles are clearly identifiable in Islamic teachings. However, there are some differences in the applications of these principles. This article shed light on the roots of the four principles in Islamic teachings and elaborates on the differences between Islamic and contemporary western bioethics. PMID:23984261

  9. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  10. Design and Implementation of an Interactive System for Teaching the Islamic Prayer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Mohammed; Munro, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Islamic Prayer is central to the Islam religion and is a requirement for all Muslims to learn and perform properly. Teaching the Islamic Prayer had traditionally been through the use of textbooks. Aims: This paper describes the design and implementation of the iIP (interactive Islamic Prayer) system to teach the Islamic prayer…

  11. Human Rights in Iran after the 1978 Islamic Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, Hadi

    2005-03-01

    Iranians have been fighting for their rights since early 1900. The history of this struggle will be reviewed with emphasis on what might be termed the modern era, which began with the return of Ayatollah Khomeini to Iran in February 1979. A brief summary of the modern era Iran Constitution also will be presented. Although Iranians had been promised a democracy within the framework of Islam, in reality Khomeini instituted a theocratic regime dominated by himself as ``Supreme Leader'' with almost unlimited powers. Surprisingly, these powers actually were expanded after Khomeini's passing. For years now, many Iranian intellectuals, as well as a good portion of the nation, religious or not, have been challenging the absolute powers of the Supreme Leader through legal means. Big prices have been paid, but the friction between the so called ``reformists'' and the ``fundamentalists'' are on the rise without a bright future. These frictions, stemming in large part from the conflicts between the ``elected'' and ``non-elected'' bodies in the political system, will be discussed. The roles of political activists, reformists, and the ``so-called'' ``religious nationalists'' -- and the prices they are paying -- will also be discussed.

  12. Human Language Rights: An Islamic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdussalam, Ahmad Shehu

    1998-01-01

    Argues that Islam considers language a human right that must be guaranteed for all people due to language's advantageous effect on sociocultural relations. Denotes "right" as any action whose fulfillment might cause advantage or prevent damage to individuals or societies; and emphasizes that it is natural for individuals to use the language of…

  13. An Islamic Perspective on Environmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi

    2009-01-01

    Man's relationship with the environment is crucial. He can use its natural resources, but not in jest. No damaging or overuse behavior should be the dominant behavior. Religious values and rules play an important role in achieving the balance in the environment. One big goal of Islam is to make the life easy and safe. Moreover, in Islamic…

  14. Citizenship and Human Rights in Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Mike; Trevathan, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The nature of English citizenship, the need for cohesion in society, and the place of faith community schools, particularly Muslim schools, are issues of import in contemporary English society. When these three issues come together, in an examination of the nature of an English Islam, they raise questions that have implications for the nature of…

  15. Islamic Education, Eco-Ethics and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Amid the growing coalescence between the religion and ecology movements, the voice of Muslims who care for the earth and its people is rising. While the Islamic position on the environment is not well-represented in the ecotheology discourse, it advances an environmental imaginary which shows how faith can be harnessed as a vehicle for social…

  16. English and Islam: A Clash of Civilizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd-Asraf, Ratnawati

    2005-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of literature documenting the attitudinal resistance of Muslims towards English and the supposed conflict between English and Islam. This article provides a critical review of the writings and research on the issue and discusses some of the reasons behind this resistance, focusing on Muslims in Malaysia. It argues…

  17. Exploring Islamic Culture with Uncle Sam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Melody Specht

    2005-01-01

    The Iraq war has generated interest combined with apprehension in young minds as to the nature of "the other", in this case Islam and its followers. Attempts by the U.S. Government to allay negative impressions by means of information through specialized web portals are highlighted.

  18. Understanding Islam: Perspectives of a Turkish Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunel, Elvan

    2008-01-01

    Students come from many different family, cultural, and religious backgrounds. Learning about Islam can help U.S. teachers to understand their students and their own society, as well as to more deeply comprehend history and better interpret current events. In this article, the author recommends some websites (and occasionally books) that can…

  19. Research Frontiers in Sino-Islamic Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Defines the topic of Sino-Islamic linguistics, that is, the study of the Arabic and Persian norms of Chinese-speaking Muslims. The diffusion of Arabic and Persian to China, language contact and interference, and dialectology and functional variations of Chinese Arabic and Persian are among the topics covered. (CLK)

  20. Islam and the History of Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippee, Arthur W.

    1990-01-01

    Considers the difficulties presented when studying the Islamic religion through the current approach to history of religions and offers reasons for this phenomena. Examines the academic methodology in studying the history of religion, and traces its evolution. Examines major scholarly figures in the study of religion field. (RW)

  1. Islamic bioethics: between sacred law, lived experiences, and state authority.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2013-04-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the field of "Islamic" bioethics within public and professional circles, and both healthcare practitioners and academic scholars deploy their respective expertise in attempts to cohere a discipline of inquiry that addresses the needs of contemporary bioethics stakeholders while using resources from within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition. This manuscript serves as an introduction to the present thematic issue dedicated to Islamic bioethics. Using the collection of papers as a guide the paper outlines several critical questions that a comprehensive and cohesive Islamic bioethical theory must address: (i) What are the relationships between Islamic law (Sharī'ah), moral theology (uṣūl al-Fiqh), and Islamic bioethics? (ii) What is the relationship between an Islamic bioethics and the lived experiences of Muslims? and (iii) What is the relationship between Islamic bioethics and the state? This manuscript, and the papers in this special collection, provides insight into how Islamic bioethicists and Muslim communities are addressing some of these questions, and aims to spur further dialogue around these overaching questions as Islamic bioethics coalesces into a true field of scholarly and practical inquiry. PMID:23588855

  2. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  3. The Science of Knowing God - Astronomy in the Golden ERA of Islam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Imad A.

    1995-03-01

    Far from being anti-science and anti-reason, Islam in its classical form mandates scientific exploration. Recognizing the accomplishments of Islamic science may dissipate Western prejudices and set the stage for an Islamic Renaissance.

  4. Contributions of Medieval Islamic physicians to the history of tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Golzari, Samad E J; Khan, Zahid Hussain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Aslanabadi, Saeid; Ansarin, Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Tracheostomy was first described by Greco-Roman physicians, including Paulus of Aegina. Medieval Islamic clinicians extended the Greco-Roman ideas with substantial contributions to the field of surgery, including tracheostomy. Although Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE) stated that he had not heard or read of any Islamic physicians having performed tracheostomy, there is evidence that many prominent Islamic surgeons did practice this lifesaving procedure during medieval times. Throughout the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim physicians advanced the practice of tracheostomy with many modifications of the procedure, instrumentation, and adjuvant medicinal prescriptions. PMID:23492962

  5. Photographing human subjects in biomedical disciplines: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Saidun, Salilah

    2013-02-01

    Visual recording of human subjects is commonly used in biomedical disciplines for clinical, research, legal, academic and even personal purposes. Guidelines on practice standards of biomedical recording have been issued by certain health authorities, associations and journals, but none of the literature discusses this from an Islamic perspective. This article begins with a discussion on the general rules associated with visual recording in Islam, followed by modesty issues in biomedical recording and issues of informed consent and confidentiality. In order to be deemed ethical from the Islamic perspective, all the aforementioned criteria must conform to, or not contradict, Islamic teaching. PMID:23038799

  6. Making sense of Islamic creationism in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Salman

    2015-05-01

    Islamic creationism has been noted as a serious concern in Europe. There have been reports of boycotts of university evolution lectures and, in one extreme case, even a threat of violence. While religious objections are indeed at play in some cases, our understanding of the rise of Islamic creationism should also take into account socioeconomic disparities and its impact on education for Muslim minorities in Europe. Furthermore, the broader narrative of rejection of evolution in Europe, for some Muslims, may be bound up in reactions to the secular culture and in the formation of their own minority religious identity. On the other hand, the stories of Muslim rejection of evolution in media end up reinforcing the stereotype of Muslims as "outsiders" and a threat to the European education system. A nuanced understanding of this dynamic may benefit those who support both the propagation of good science and favor cultural pluralism. PMID:25381291

  7. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  8. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  9. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  10. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421

  11. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol, and also provide a

  12. Transplantation ethics from the Islamic point of view.

    PubMed

    Golmakani, Mohammad Mehdi; Niknam, Mohammad Hussein; Hedayat, Kamyar M

    2005-04-01

    Organ transplantation has been transformed from an experimental procedure at Western academic centers to an increasingly common procedure in private and public hospitals throughout the world. Attendant with advancements in organ harvesting, preservation, and transplantation come moral issues. Islam is a holistic religion that takes into account social affairs of man as well as spiritual ones. Islam has a long history of ethics literature including the subgenre of medical ethics. Historical considerations are discussed as to why Muslim thinkers were late to consider contemporary medical issues such as organ donation. Islam respects life and values the needs of the living over the dead, thus allowing organ donation to be considered in certain circumstances. The sources of Islamic law are discussed in brief in order for non-Muslims to appreciate how the parameters of organ transplantation are derived. The Islamic viewpoint, both Shiite and Sunni, is examined in relation to organ donation and its various sources. The advantages and disadvantages of brain dead and cadaveric donation is reviewed with technical and ethical considerations. The Islamic concept of brain death, informed and proxy consent are also discussed. We discuss the concept of rewarded donation as a way to alleviate the current shortage of organs available for transplantation and consider secular and religious support for such a program. Suggestions are made for greater discussion and exchange of ideas between secular and religious thinkers in the Islamic world and between the Islamic world and secular Western countries. PMID:15795706

  13. Islam, Science and Science Education: Conflict or Concord?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Seng Piew

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between science and Islam in the context of science education. Describes Islamic science and whether it is a valid philosophy of science. Discuses islamisation or marginalization of science education. Discusses implications and offers suggestions for science education. (Contains 63 references.) (ASK)

  14. Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

  15. Seek Knowledge throughout the World? Mobility in Islamic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While Southeast Asia as a region is generally poorly represented in scholarship on higher education, this is even more the case when considering Islamic higher education in the region. While patterns of mobility within the Islamic world are ancient, with mediaeval scholarly centres such as Baghdad, Cairo and Alexandria attracting scholars and…

  16. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  17. Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamjoom, Mounira I.

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

  18. Differentiation for the Gifted in American Islamic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Lawati, Fatma A. K.; Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on teacher instructional and curricular practices in gifted students' experiences in Islamic schools in the United States. Surveys were administered at private, full-time Islamic elementary schools to determine the extent to which differentiation practices for meeting the needs of gifted students and the integration of…

  19. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  20. Developing Scientific Thinking Methods and Applications in Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…

  1. Perception and Awareness of Islamic Accounting: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siswantoro, Dodik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception and awareness of Islamic accounting of undergraduate accounting students at Universitas Indonesia. The Indonesian Institute of Accountants has an Islamic Accounting Certification and a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) test, meaning that the course's competency should satisfy both…

  2. Islamic Schools in Three Western Countries: Policy and Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare Islamic schools in three countries: the United States, the Netherlands, and Belgium. In each country, the authors take care to situate Islamic schools within the broader context of educational policy and practice. In particular, the authors examine the mechanisms for funding, choice and control, noting that for…

  3. Islamic Schools in the Netherlands: Expansion or Marginalization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the constitutional freedom of education offers the opportunity for the growing number of Muslims to establish state-funded Islamic schools. At the moment there are 46 Islamic primary schools; a number of schools are in the process of being established and there is still a need for an additional 120 such schools. Right from the…

  4. Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

  5. Islamic Higher Education and Social Cohesion in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraince, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the role of public Islamic higher education in promoting better relations between various religious communities in post-authoritarian Indonesia. Based on field research conducted between December 2005 and March 2006, it documents how progressive Islamic education leaders have advanced a tradition of critical intellectualism in…

  6. Teaching about Islam and Muslims While Countering Cultural Misrepresentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbih, Randa

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…

  7. Islamic Scientific Creationism: A New Challenge in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayin, Umit; Kence, Aykut

    1999-01-01

    Compares "being Muslim" in Turkey with other Islamic countries and describes the regime changes of the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic. Explains evolution in Islamic understanding and discusses creationism's effects and evolution's place in the high school biology curriculum. Defines the Science Research Foundation's (BAV) and Harun Yahya's…

  8. A Non-Muslim Teaching Islam: Pedagogical and Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on the two most significant challenges that I have faced teaching the introductory course in Islam. The first is the challenge of teaching Islam after September 11, 2001, the events of which gave rise to such pedagogical questions as how much and in what ways the course syllabus should change, and in particular how we…

  9. A Mini Teaching Sequence on the Totality of Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Grace; Pellicano, Roy R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a secondary teaching unit on the Islamic religious faith and government. Maintains that students must understand the totality of Islam in order to make sense of recent events in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Nigeria, and the Sudan. Included are complete teaching instructions and necessary handouts. (JDH)

  10. Towards a Non-Essentialist Pedagogy of "Islam"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samman, Khaldoun

    2005-01-01

    Traversing a rock-strewn terrain of essentialist methodologies historically employed for teaching Islam, the author espouses a non-Essentialist pedagogy that combines critical reflection, analysis of historical methods, and development of an appreciation for alternative notions about Islam and global interdependence. In this essay the author…

  11. The Dilemma of Islam as School Knowledge in Muslim Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thobani, Shiraz

    2007-01-01

    In the contemporary period, the persistence of the dual system of state and "madrasa" education in many Muslim countries has raised for policymakers the dilemma of what form Islam ought to assume as a pedagogic category in these contexts. At one extreme, in the syllabi of traditionalist "madrasas", we find Islam being deployed as an overarching…

  12. Islam in the Classroom: What The Textbooks Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2008-01-01

    This review samples ten of the nation's most widely used junior and senior high school history textbooks comparing what respected historians say about Islam in authoritative histories to what is being said in textbooks. It assesses how today's history textbooks characterize Islam's foundations and creeds; changes and additions that have occurred…

  13. Commentary of Senge's Fifth Discipline from Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Aini

    2010-01-01

    The study of Islamic management is still very rare and no study has yet been made on how Islam views the concept of learning organisation. Learning organisation is considered an ideal model of organisation and it is important to view the concept from other cultures and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to explore one of the popular ideas…

  14. Islamic Community Worker Training Program for the Management of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Tina

    2002-01-01

    To prepare Islamic background bilingual community workers to provide culture and gender appropriate support to women with depression, an education program was developed in consultation with Islamic community leaders. Participants indicated that they were able to apply the new knowledge and skills to provide appropriate support to women with…

  15. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  16. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger.

    PubMed

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I

    2010-11-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother's life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of "double effect," while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

  17. Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. PMID:23482830

  18. Islam and the four principles of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Yassar

    2014-07-01

    The principles underpinning Islam's ethical framework applied to routine clinical scenarios remain insufficiently understood by many clinicians, thereby unfortunately permitting the delivery of culturally insensitive healthcare.This paper summarises the foundations of the Islamic ethical theory, elucidating the principles and methodology employed by the Muslim jurist in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics. The four-principles approach, as espoused by Beauchamp and Childress, is also interpreted through the prism of Islamic ethical theory. Each of the four principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence,justice and autonomy) is investigated in turn, looking in particular at the extent to which each is rooted in the Islamic paradigm. This will provide an important insight into Islamic medical ethics, enabling the clinician to have a better informed discussion with the Muslim patient. It will also allow for a higher degree of concordance in consultations and consequently optimise culturally sensitive healthcare delivery. PMID:23975951

  19. Education of Women in Islam: A Critical Islamic Interpretation of the Quran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abukari, Abdulai

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, knowledge, its acquisition and application is a fundamental requirement for all Muslims to enable them to believe, think, and act according to the principles of the religion. However, differences in style of interpretation of the Qur'an have led to text being interpreted against its own fundamental worldview; an example is the…

  20. British Female Converts to Islam: Choosing Islam as a Rejection of Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soutar, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary religious conversion is a topic of great interest and fascination. However, this fascination is increased when the religion is Islam and the convert is female. Through the use of three in-depth interviews, this research hopes to answer the following questions: how much does a dissatisfaction with typical British individualism contribute…

  1. Islamic Studies or the Study of Islam?: From Parker to Rammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dien, Mawil Izzi

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses some of the practical and contextual difficulties facing the teaching of Islamic studies within the British higher education environment. The main problems in the author's view stem from the haziness surrounding the discipline definition and the methodology employed in teaching it. This is particularly observed when…

  2. Religious Education, Conflict and Diversity: An Exploration of Young Children's Perceptions of Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the way pupils in English primary school perceive Islam through discussion of Islam in the media. The research suggests that pupils are aware of Islam as a world religion and of many of the images and popular discourses associated with Islam. The research also suggests that while a minority of pupils expressed explicit racist…

  3. Islamic Reformation: A History of "Madrasa" Reform and Legal Change in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesink, Indira Falk

    2006-01-01

    According to contemporary media opinion, the problem with Islam, and by implication, with Islamic education, is that it never underwent a reformation that freed individual religious inquiry from the control of a religious hierarchy. Thus, it has been assumed that Islam and Islamic education remain bound to rigid seventh-century codes of belief.…

  4. 77 FR 11186 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Jihad Union; AKA Islamic Jihad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Jihad Union; AKA Islamic Jihad Group; AKA Jama'at al-Jihad; AKA The Libyan Society; AKA The Kazakh Jama'at; AKA The Jamaat Mojahedin; AKA Jamiyat;...

  5. Astronomy at the service of the Islamic society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernini, Ilias M.

    2011-06-01

    The Islamic society has great ties to astronomy. Its main religious customs (start of the Islamic month, direction of prayer, and the five daily prayers) are all related to two main celestial objects: the Sun and the Moon. First, the start of any Islamic month is related to the actual seeing of the young crescent after the new Moon. Second, the direction of prayer, i.e., praying towards Mecca, is related to the determination of the zenith point in Mecca. Third, the proper time for the five daily prayers is related to the motion of the Sun. Everyone in the society is directly concerned by these customs. This is to say that the major impetus for the growth of Islamic astronomy came from these three main religious observances which presented an assortment of problems in mathematical astronomy. To observe these three customs, a new set of astronomical observations were needed and this helped the development of the Islamic observatory. There is a claim that it was first in Islam that the astronomical observatory came into real existence. The Islamic observatory was a product of needs and values interwoven into the Islamic society and culture. It is also considered as a true representative and an integral par of the Islamic civilisation. Since astronomy interested not only men of science, but also the rulers of the Islamic empire, several observatories have flourished. The observatories of Baghdad, Cairo, Córdoba, Toledo, Maragha, Samarqand and Istanbul acquired a worldwide reputation throughout the centuries. This paper will discuss the two most important observatories (Maragha and Samarqand) in terms of their instruments and discoveries that contributed to the establishment of these scientific institutions.

  6. The cosmic statements in the Holy Quran as introduction to the public understanding of space science in the Islamic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    The Holy Quran contains more than 800 cosmic statements speak about: sun, moon, planets, stars, Sirius, zodiac, day, night, twilights, position of stars, navigation, blue sky, night sky, dawn, noon, sunrise and sunset, eclipses, lunar months, release to the sky, landing to the earth, and so on. Due to the new discoveries in the 19th and 20th centuries in astronomy and space sciences, some of the Arabian-Islamic scientists and astronomers wished to find the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of these new discoveries. This current started at the end of the 19th century, and was growing through the 20th century. Hundreds of the articles published in the Daily news, and in the Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly, Annually Journals. Also, tens of the books published for different authors, from different Arabian and Islamic countries about the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and Space sciences. Also, Radio and TV play an important role in this field, specially after the releasing of the Human kind to the space in the second half of the 20th century. This activity led to construct the International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, which follow to the Muslim World League in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in Saudi Arabia. Where, there is a Quarterly Journal for this purpose, and periodic International conference for the same purpose, the seventh conference was held in February 2004. This paper speak about the activity of the different Arabian-Islamic Scientists and Astronomers in the field of interpretations of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and space science, and their role of increasing the public understanding of space science in the Arabian and Islamic countries.

  7. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisham, Azie Farhani Badrol; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional. Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks. However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model. Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives.

  8. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  9. [The origins of the Islamic model of hospital].

    PubMed

    Romana Romani, Francesca

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a new perspective is proposed regarding the most relevant factors in the origin and the first developments of the Islamic hospital in Abbasid Baghdad. Notably, the importance of the Persian contribution to the foundation of the first hospitals is questioned and the major focus is put on the role of Eastern Christian assistential institutions. The rise of the Islamic hospital is reconsidered in the frame of the wider process of urbanisation in the first Abbasid century. The Islamic bîmaristan brought about a new concept of assistance by offering a medical cure rather than care. PMID:12747387

  10. Spiritual Health in Nursing From the Viewpoint of Islam

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Context In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients. Evidence Acquisition The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase. In the theoretical phases of the study, the concept of spiritual health was described based on a literature review of publications dealing with the Islamic viewpoint (years: from 2013 to 2014, Databases and search engines: Pubmed, SID, Magiran, Noormax, Google Scholar, Google and IranMex, Languages: English and Persian, Keywords: spiritual health AND (Islam OR Quran), spirituality AND (Islam OR Quran), complete human AND Islam, healthy heart (Galb Salim) AND Islam, healthy life (Hayat tayebeh) AND Islam, calm soul (Nafse motmaeneh) And Islam and healthy wisdom (Aghle Salim) AND Islam). Purposive sampling was conducted and nine participants were selected. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted periodically for data collection after obtaining informed consent. Observational, theoretical, and methodological notes were made. Then, using MAXQUDA 7 software, the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The relevant literature in the theoretical phase uncovered the attributes of the concept of spiritual health, including love of the Creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. These attributes were explored in depth in later stages. Finally, the definition of spiritual health was developed. Conclusions Islam has

  11. Pre-Eminent Curriculum in Islamic Basic School Integrated Comparative Studies in Islamic Basic School Integrated Al-Izzah Serang and Al-Hanif Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauz, Anis; Hasbullah

    2016-01-01

    Compare to General SD (Primary school), the superiority of SD Islam Terpadu (Integrated Islamic Primary School) lies on the development of the curriculum and learning that is more emphasize on integrated curriculum and integrated learning. Curriculum model applied in Sekolah Dasar Islam Terpadu (SDIT) is integrated curriculum. This curriculum is…

  12. Competitiveness of Educational Quality of the State College of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Pontianak after Status Change to the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Pontianak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misdah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) Reality competition education quality of The State college of Islamic studies (STAIN) Pontianak after status change to the state institute of Islamic studies (IAIN) Pontianak, 2) Education quality management strategy of The State college of Islamic studies (STAIN) Pontianak after status change to the…

  13. Surgery for Gynecomastia in the Islamic Golden Age: Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013 AD)

    PubMed Central

    Chavoushi, Seyed Hadi; Ghabili, Kamyar; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Aslanabadi, Arash; Babapour, Sarah; Ahmedli, Rafail; Golzari, Samad E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of European science during the Renaissance is greatly indebted to the flourishing of the sciences during the Islamic Golden Age. However, some believe that medieval Islamic physicians and in particular surgeons had been merely a medium for Greco-Roman ideas. Contrarily, in some medieval Islamic medical books, such as Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), the surgical instructions represent a change in the usual techniques or are accompanied by a case history, implying that the procedure was actually undertaken. Along with the hundreds of chapters on different diseases and related medical and surgical treatments, Al-Tasrif includes a chapter on surgical techniques for gynecomastia. The present paper is a review of the description of the surgical management of gynecomastia by Al-Zahrawi as well as that of the ancient Greek, medieval, and modern medicine. Although Al-Zahrawi seemed to base his descriptions of surgery for gynecomastia upon those of Paulus of Aegina, his modification of the procedure and application of the medicinal substances might be indicative of Al-Zahrawi's own practice of the procedure. Al-Zahrawi's surgical procedures remained unchanged for many centuries thenceforward until the technological evolution in the recent centuries. PMID:23050167

  14. Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine: An ancient comprehensive personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad Masoud; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM) is a novel term used for a medical model in which all diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of a disease are individualized for a patient using specific molecular testing. In Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM) an ancient paradigm for PM has been described which has been introduced in this paper. We reviewed the ancient resources of IITM and many valid recent studies on personalized medicine and described an ancient feature of personalized medicine in comparison with new ones. According to IITM scholars, every person has an individual temperament which is concluded of four basic humors combination. The individual temper is influenced by internal and external factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, season, and environment. This variability leads to different physical and mental behaviors toward a particular condition; so if we could identify the patient's temper, we would predict his/her health-related behaviors rather than predisposition and prognosis to different diseases, and select the best treatment. This holistic viewpoint of IITM to the human health and disease justifies the variable phenotypes among similar illnesses; the fact around which more advanced high-tech researches are being developed to explore all specific molecular pathways. IITM offers an ancient comprehensive PM (APM) which is more available and inexpensive compared to the modern PM (MPM). Moreover, APM focuses more on fitness than illness in comparison to MPM. It seems more attention to APM introduced by IITM could help us to promote health community. Design studies using high-tech MPM techniques would likely lead to clarification of most molecular aspects of APM. PMID:26605230

  15. Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine: An ancient comprehensive personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad Masoud; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM) is a novel term used for a medical model in which all diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of a disease are individualized for a patient using specific molecular testing. In Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM) an ancient paradigm for PM has been described which has been introduced in this paper. We reviewed the ancient resources of IITM and many valid recent studies on personalized medicine and described an ancient feature of personalized medicine in comparison with new ones. According to IITM scholars, every person has an individual temperament which is concluded of four basic humors combination. The individual temper is influenced by internal and external factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, season, and environment. This variability leads to different physical and mental behaviors toward a particular condition; so if we could identify the patient's temper, we would predict his/her health-related behaviors rather than predisposition and prognosis to different diseases, and select the best treatment. This holistic viewpoint of IITM to the human health and disease justifies the variable phenotypes among similar illnesses; the fact around which more advanced high-tech researches are being developed to explore all specific molecular pathways. IITM offers an ancient comprehensive PM (APM) which is more available and inexpensive compared to the modern PM (MPM). Moreover, APM focuses more on fitness than illness in comparison to MPM. It seems more attention to APM introduced by IITM could help us to promote health community. Design studies using high-tech MPM techniques would likely lead to clarification of most molecular aspects of APM. PMID:26605230

  16. Science in the Service of Religion: The Case of Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how scholars of medieval Islam used simple and adequate methods for regulating the calendar and prayer-times and for finding the sacred direction. Other applications of science to daily life are provided. (KR)

  17. The cultural articulation of patriarchy: legal systems, Islam and women.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, F

    1986-01-01

    Patriarchy in Pakistan results in inequalities to women. Issues emphasized include Islamic customary laws, the movement to Islamize penal and social behavioral codes, the mislabeling of Islamic beliefs as "westernization", and the rising women's movement's attempt to oppose present trends. Many practices thought to reflect Muslim culture are really the infliction of Islamic religious principles on pre-existing behavioral codes in Pakistan; thus, such practices are not actually Islamic teachings and are used to control social behavior. It is necessary to separate Islamic institution and actual Pakistanian practices in order to identify Islamic ideology's role in sustaining and vindicating patriachary. 3 roots of shaping jurisprudence are customary law, religious law, and British civil and criminal law. Further investigation of customary and religious laws currently employed indicates acceptance of Muslim practices promoting superiority of men and rejection of Islamic teachings promoting women's rights. Such Islamic teachings include a marriage settlement requiring men to give money to their wives, acknowledgement of marriages as an agreement between consenting adults, and a woman's right to divorce. Customs contradicting Islamic teachings and leading to inequalities for women include denial of a woman's access to economic resources, the annulment of the marriage settlement, and the relative ease of Muslim men to divorce their wives. Some communities practice purdah in which women are secluded from men and excluded in economic and political decisions. Such social restrictions minimize women's involvement in political decision making and in the judiciary. Exercising their right to vote and participating in trade unions, women would influence decision making. Resistance to current practices has been trade unions, women could influence decision making. resistance to current practices has been primarily from upper and middle class women; but to be effective all classes

  18. Bodily Integrity and Male Circumcision: An Islamic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Dekkers, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The notion of bodily integrity forms an important part of the value-structure of many religions and cultures. In this paper, we explore the notion of bodily integrity in Islam using male circumcision as the focus of the discussion. Our aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the Muslim perspective and of the differences and similarities between Western and Islamic ethical structures, in particular, regarding the concept of bodily integrity. PMID:23610746

  19. Investigating the Islamic Perspective on Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Junaid B; Abdul-Latif, Hussein

    2016-07-01

    In his 2006 article in the Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America (JIMA), Dr. Ahmed qualified the predominant psychiatric view on homosexuality by recourse to opinions prevalent within reparative therapy circles. Conservative Muslim thinkers, online counselors, and other professionals continue to hold opinions similar to those delineated by Dr. Ahmed in his journal article. We use his article as a focal point to critique the general opinions upheld by conservative Muslim thinkers by alluding to the harms associated with reparative therapy and by rejecting the unreasonable prescription of permanent celibacy. We critique Dr. Ahmed's association of homosexuality with mental health issues, fatal diseases, alcoholism, and illicit sexual intercourse. Investigating the Muslim tradition, we encourage conservative Muslim leaders to facilitate Muslim gays and lesbians in their legitimate human need for intimacy, affection, and companionship. PMID:26549277

  20. Science teachers' interpretations of Islamic culture related to science education versus the Islamic epistemology and ontology of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-03-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first and science comes next. I will argue that teachers' personal religious beliefs are among the major constructs that drive teachers' ways of thinking and interpretation of scientific issues related with religion. Then, I discuss how teachers' personal religious beliefs have been formed and influenced their pedagogical beliefs related to science and religion issues. Finally, I will argue, how we use the personal religious beliefs model as a framework of teaching/learning scientific issues related with religion within sociocultural (Islamic) context. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

  1. Islam, mental health and being a Muslim in the West.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    The allegation that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' is often made. In view of this, we conducted a small survey (n=75) utilising purposive sampling on Muslims residing in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited in a King's College London Islamic Society event in November 2014 in Guy's Hospital, London. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. 69/75 (94%) of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean Age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). This paper broadly seeks to answer two related questions. Firstly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and the West?' and secondly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and mental health?' In relation to the former, the rise of radicalization over recent years and the Islamophobia that has ensued have brought Islam and Muslims under intense scrutiny. Hence we feel it is both timely and important to offer a brief background of Islam and its relevance to the Western world. In relation to the latter, for many people religion and mental health are deeply and intimately intertwined. For example, religion can enable a person to develop mental health resilience and Islam has been reported to be a protective factor against suicidal behaviour. We conclude our paper by illustrating how the two questions are interrelated. We do so by offering an autobiographical narrative from a Muslim healthcare professional residing in the UK who developed a mental health problem precipitated by war in the country of his origin. His narrative includes descriptions of the role Islam that played in his recovery as well as his attempts to reconcile seemingly disparate aspects of his identity. PMID:26417737

  2. A veil (hijab) as a public symbol of a Muslim woman modern identity.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Tarik

    2006-12-01

    In this article the author explains the social role of Muslim woman in a postmodern society through a public symbol of her identity--the veil. The article's thesis is that the Muslim women's manifestation of their Islamic denomination through veiling and wearing appropriate clothes (in the case of men through growing beards and wearing clothes considered appropriate for them) signifies an expression of a new, Islamic shaped identity. This is a postmodern identity based on modernity rather than a fundamental reaction to modernity. The veil, a public symbol of Muslim identity, is often given a different meaning by its observers than the person actually wearing it. Therefore, the intention of this article is to analyze the elements of a particular, postmodern identity that a Muslim woman's veil, as a public symbol, represents. PMID:17243538

  3. Christianity, Islam, and Political Culture: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Robert A.

    Many theorists have argued that western Christianity and Islam affect political culture in different ways, and that western Christianity is more conducive to the rise of a democratic culture than is Islam. This paper argues that the difference between Christianity and Islam in terms of the type of political culture they encourage, is largely…

  4. Mental Health Counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Marriage of Religion, Science, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priester, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the state of mental health counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Topics that are addressed include training of clinicians, theoretical developments in Islamic-based theories of psychology, and issues related to the practice of counseling. Counseling issues in the Islamic Republic of Iran are influenced by its unique…

  5. Islamic Educational Goals, Methods, and Content, with Emphasis on Shia' Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    As a major world religion representing approximately 20% of the human family, Islam holds particular and significant educational perspectives. The purpose of this article is to identify and interpret the viewpoints of Islam on education (with emphasis on Shia' faith). To accomplish this aim, "educational goals" from the viewpoint of Islam have…

  6. A Jeweler's Eye: Islamic Arts of the Book from the Vever Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    Originally designed for use in combination with a museum visit to the Islamic Arts of the Book from the Vever Collection exhibition at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., the document presents a teaching package about Islamic art during the late 16th-early 17th century. Themes in Islamic art addressed…

  7. Female Leadership in Islamic Schools in the United States of America: Prevalence, Obstacles, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmy, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Islam is the most misunderstood religion in the world, and the status of Muslim women is even more misinterpreted. There have been relatively few studies of Islamic educational leaders and even fewer specifically addressing female Islamic educational leadership. Although women have made tremendous progress in the labor force, the proportion of…

  8. Why Religious Education Matters: The Role of Islam in Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Islam has become an increasingly important topic in American society and education. This article will explore the rationale for teaching about religion in public schools, the role of Islam and Muslims in a multicultural society, and discuss numerous ways in which Islam can be incorporated into multicultural secondary school curricula.

  9. Islamic Education and Indoctrination: The Case in Indonesia. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    Islamic schools, especially "madrasahs", have been viewed as sites of indoctrination for Muslim students and militants. Some educators and parents in the United States have also regarded introductory courses on Islam in some public schools as indoctrinatory. But what do we mean by "indoctrination"? And is Islamic education indoctrinatory? This…

  10. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  11. Culture and the law in Islam.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    Rather than living in a homogeneous world, Muslim women participate in vastly different cultures. The Women Living Under Muslim Law (WLUML) Network was set up to unite women in Muslim countries across the world and to stimulate them to analyze and reconceptualize the nature of their situation in order to formulate strategies for change. In Muslim countries, the law provides a web of rules which shape every aspect of women's lives. Because these laws have been presented as "Islamic," traditional human rights groups have been loathe to criticize them for fear of trampling religious rights. The WLUML started the "Women and the Law" project, therefore, to chart and conduct action-oriented research in law in 26 countries. This project is based on the conviction that the key to women gaining the power to control their destinies will lie in their ability to master the law that shapes their lives. This project should lay the foundation for the vindication of the human rights of Muslim women. PMID:12159820

  12. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother’s Life is in Danger

    PubMed Central

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I.

    2010-01-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother’s life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of “double effect,” while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

  13. The Emergence of the Collegiate System in Classical Islam: 700-1200 A.D. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Charles M.

    Formal structures of higher education that evolved in Islamic culture are discussed, along with parallels to the rise of universities in Medieval Europe. Both Islamic communities and Western Christianity founded colleges through endowments. The structural form of higher education in Islamic education in Islamic regions developed from the efforts…

  14. Social and cultural issues in organ transplantation in Islamic countries.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Al-Jondeby, Mohammad; Kurpad, Ramprasad; Al-Khader, Abdullah A

    2004-01-01

    The importance of religion In Islamic countries is undoubted. Fatwas (opinion from religious scholars) have been passed in most Islamic countries approving the concepts of brain death and organ transplantation. There are some specific points that have be considered while talking of organ transplantation in Islamic countries. They include public attitude, taking organ(s) from donors who have committed suicide, the influence of local Imams as well as feeding breast milk, concept of spousal donation, timing of death as well as soul departure and extended families that exist in these countries. Sound knowledge of these factors is mandatory to any transplant coordinator and lack of sensitivity to these issues could be disastrous. PMID:15478904

  15. Experiencing Madness: Mental Patients in Medieval Arabo-Islamic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Koetschet, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the mental patients in Arabo-Islamic Middle Ages. Patients suffering from mental illnesses generated a lot of interest for Arabo-Islamic physicians. The first objective of this study is to identify who were the mentally infirm and to compare the Arab physicians' typologies of mental patients to that of their Greek predecessors. The second part of this paper shifts the focus from theoretical descriptions to case histories and biographical sources, in order to understand how the physicians treated their mental patients, and to find out what was the social impact of this medical approach. Finally, because the special provision for the insane is a distinctive feature of the Islamic hospital, the third part of my paper examines whether the main purpose of these hospitals was the patients' confinement or their treatment. PMID:26946679

  16. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  17. The concept of nature in Islamic science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarman, Wendi

    2016-02-01

    Science teaching is basically value laden activities. One of the values tells that science is not related to any religion. This secular value is reflected to science teaching in many places, including religious country like Indonesia. However, we argue that in Indonesia science teaching should not be secular as in the Western country since one of the basic aim of National Education according to the Indonesian constitution Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, is to inculcate faith and god-fearing to One God Almighty. As we know, Indonesia is a Moslem country and has many Islamic schools in it too. Thus, it is important to design a science teaching framework base on Islamic teaching to fulfill the basic aim of National Education This paper discusses concept of nature, the key term in science, based on Islamic view that may used as a framework to develop Islamic science teaching. In Islam, science has a strong relation to religion since nature reflects the existence of the Creator. This concept is derived from the analysis of several verses from Qur'an as the main source of Islamic teaching. There are several principle can be derived from this analysis. Firstly, visible world is not the only world, but there is also the unseen world. Secondly, the nature is not merely matter that doesn't have any sacred value, but it is the indication or symbol of God existence and His Nature. Thirdly, The Qur'an and the nature are both Books of Allah that contain messages of Him, so they are complementary to each other

  18. Tradition and Modernity: India's Quantum Leap into the 21st Century. Independent Curriculum Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Elise

    This lesson on India is suggested as a culminating activity to bring together previously taught units about infrastructure, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, ancient India, and contemporary India. The lesson's goals are to examine how a country's cultural background can influence change and to study the development of modern infrastructure. The students…

  19. Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism—which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo

  20. Stem cell research and therapy in the Islamic republic of Iran: pioneering in the Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Miremadi, Tahereh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Aghdami, Nasser; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Vasei, Mohammad; Kouhkan, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the Iranian stem cell research and technology had a relatively strong start that benefited from religious blessings, political and public support, as well as scientific endeavors on the part of non-governmental and public research organizations and universities. Later on, it developed a dynamic niche market of public, private start-up, and spin-off companies and organizations that pioneered in the Islamic world in terms of ISI papers, clinical trials, and cell therapy. However, at present, it faces new challenges stemming from the insufficient finance and a comprehensive law and regulation structure to keep its momentum. To remedy this situation, the scientific community and other stakeholders need to have a series of shared long-time goals and try to build consensus on how to achieve them through nationally approved policy documents. PMID:22816315

  1. "A Modern, Integral, and Open Understanding": Sunni Islam and Lebanese Identity in the Makassed Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terc, Mandy

    2006-01-01

    Lebanon's violent past and sectarian strife have made the country's name synonymous with violence and disunity. Yet the discourse of at least one Lebanese religious institution can complicate the simplistic narrative about a country of warring religious groups with no national sentiments. The writings produced by the Makassed Philanthropic Islamic…

  2. Factors Influencing Students' Achievement in Form 5 Islamic Studies Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Che Noh, Mohd Aderi; Omar, Noraini binti; bin Kasan, Hasnan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the factors influencing the achievements of students in the subject of Islamic Studies for Form 5 SPM (KBSM) in schools in the area of Samarahan, Sarawak. The factors analysed is attitude and interest. This is a survey based study and data was compiled from the survey forms which had the topic "Factors…

  3. Roles & Responsibilities of the Women Leading American Islamic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir, Amaarah

    2016-01-01

    Literature of educational leadership often fails to represent the experiences of faith-based school leaders, particularly women. This study seeks to position the experiences of American Islamic school leaders in a larger context of educational leadership roles, responsibilities, and practices. This national, qualitative study utilized an Islamic…

  4. Democratizing Indonesia through Education? Community Participation in Islamic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lyn; Raihani, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, Indonesia embarked on a journey to democracy. This journey involved the decentralization of education from 2002. The new school-based management (SBM) system required greater community and parental participation in schools--thereby, it was hoped, contributing to a deepening of democracy. Islamic schools ("madrasah") also adopted this…

  5. Teaching about Islam and Women: On Pedagogy and the Personal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlas, Asma

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the challenges she faced as a teacher who teaches "Understanding Islam: Religion and Politics." She shares that most of the strains she had experienced began to surface when her class came to the segments on jihad and Muslim women. She also relates that some of the tensions experienced by her students result from…

  6. Western Science and Islamic Learners: When Disciplines and Culture Intersect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian; Norhaidah, Sharifah

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two research projects (one in Malaysia and one in Australia) that studied the experiences of Islamic background learners studying western science. Conceptually, this research program is conducted within a socially constructivist discourse and employs both quantitative and qualitative forms of data collection. The article…

  7. Sustainability in Multi-Religious Societies: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grine, Fadila; Bensaid, Benaouda; Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Ladjal, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The question of sustainability in multi-religious societies underscores interrelating theological, moral and cultural issues affecting the very process of social co-existence, cohesion and development. This article discusses Islam's understanding of the question of sustainability in multi-religious contexts while highlighting the contribution of…

  8. Critical Literacy: Using Nonfiction to Learn about Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Schools have a legitimate and vital role in providing Americans with a better and more accurate understanding of the Muslim world. Given the cultural and ideological issues at play in any understanding of Islam, the theories and practices of critical literacy can provide useful guidance to teachers. The purposes of this article are to counteract…

  9. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah

    2010-01-01

    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  10. Islam, Western Education and the Riddle of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaftan, Nadja; Smith-Doughty, Lexy

    2009-01-01

    Relations between Islam and the West have seldom been easy. Enmities and resentments date back centuries. So do cultural contacts, economic ties and periods of relative cooperation. Today, however, nothing symbolizes that unsteady and often tense relationship more than the events of 11 September, 2001 and the bloodshed that has followed in…

  11. Teachers' Perspectives on Citizenship Education in Islamic Schools in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saada, Najwan L.

    2013-01-01

    This multiple case study examines how 4 social studies teachers in 2 private Islamic schools in Michigan understand the concept of citizenship education and the dilemmas they face in teaching for unity and diversity and in helping their students negotiate their civics identities within the American sociopolitical context. Data were collected…

  12. The Problems in Translating Islamic Expressions in Religious Occasions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khammyseh, Daoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find the problems that face translation students in translating Islamic expressions in religious occasions into English language. The motivations that support the researcher to select this topic are to the causes of these problems and finding some solutions for them. The data were collected from parents, ordinary people…

  13. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  14. Some principles of Islamic ethics as found in Harrisian philosophy.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Sahin

    2010-04-01

    John Harris is one of the prominent philosophers and bioethicists of our time. He has published tens of books and hundreds of papers throughout his professional life. This paper aims to take a 'deep-look' at Harris' works to argue that it is possible to find some principles of Islamic ethics in Harrisian philosophy, namely in his major works, as well as in his personal life. This may be surprising, or thought of as a 'big' and 'groundless' claim, since John Harris has nothing to do with any religion in his intellectual works. The major features of Harrisian philosophy could be defined as consequentialism or utilitarianism with liberal overtones. Despite some significant and fundamental differences in the application of principles (ie, abortion, euthanasia), the similarities between the major principles in Harrisian philosophy and Islamic ethics are greater at some points than the similarities between Islamic ethics and some other religious ethics (ie, Christian, Judaism). In this study I compare Harrisian teachings with major Islamic principles on 'Responsibility', 'Side-effects and Double-effects', 'Equality', 'Vicious choice, guilt and innocence', 'Organ transplantation and property rights' and 'Advance directives'. PMID:20338934

  15. Islamic and Indonesianic Characters Perspective of Higher Education of Muhammadiyah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobroni; Purwojuwono, Ribut

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to describe the educational model of Islamic and Indonesianic character in Muhammadiyah, perspective of phenomenological studies at School of Higher Education Teaching (STKIP) of Muhammadiyah Sorong of Papua Province Indonesia. The study is done by using qualitative approach with phenomenological paradigm. The main data was obtained…

  16. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  17. The Necessity of Theology and Practice in Islamic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandoodewaard, William

    2005-01-01

    In his groundbreaking article "The Theological and Apologetical Dimensions of Muslim Evangelization," Samuel P. Schlorff states that "for far too long evangelical missions have been limping along without an effective apologetic to Islam" (Schlorff, 1980, 335). Since his article was published some work has been done, yet there remains a great need…

  18. Crafting a New Democracy: Civic Education in Indonesian Islamic Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia's post-1998 transition to democracy has presented Muslim educators with the opportunity to take part in shaping the future of Indonesian democracy in ways that are consistent with Muslim social, political, and educational aspirations. One of the key vehicles for doing so is civic education. For Muslim educators in the Islamic higher…

  19. Multimedia Usage among Islamic Education Lecturers at Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Rinaldi; Razak, Khadijah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the level of multimedia usage among Islamic education lecturers at higher education institutions in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The participants were chosen from three types of higher institutions by using stratified random sampling. The data was collected from 250 students using questionnaires. The findings showed that…

  20. Pedagogic Discourses and Imagined Communities: Knowing Islam and Being Muslim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thobani, Shiraz

    2011-01-01

    Academic disciplines in the school curriculum which engage explicitly with cultural identities pose a major dilemma for liberal, pluralist societies seeking to foster the dual imperatives of diversity education and social cohesion. This paper uses the case of Islam as school knowledge to analyse the relations between political stances and symbolic…

  1. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  2. Teaching about Islam in Secondary Schools: Curricular and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Current demographic trends are contributing to a rapid increase in religious, racial, and ethnic diversity in the United States. This article provides a rationale for teaching about religious diversity, particularly Islam, in public schools and the vital role religion has played in American history. The article provides readers with important…

  3. The nursing metaparadigm concept of human being in Islamic thought.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Mohammadi, Esa; Akbarian, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The metaparadigm concept of person as a core emphasis for nursing theorizing has attracted considerable attention in western literature, but has received less attention in the context of eastern philosophical contexts. In this philosophical inquiry, we sought to clarify the concept of what it is to be a human being according to ideas deriving from Islamic tradition, drawing on concept analysis as general approach to advance an understanding of how nursing within an Islamic context might operationalize metaparadigm conceptualization. Specifically, we considered person as human being on the basis of its definition, attributes/characteristics and boundaries to explore the anatomy of the concept in this context. Our analysis revealed that Islamic thought is relevant to two distinct understandings of the holistic concept of human being. Reciprocal interaction worldview organizes the dimensions of being human (cognitive, emotion, social and spiritual) into a whole. Simultaneous action worldview emphasizes that the human is a coherent and unified creature in harmony with the universe. In Islamic thought, these two worldviews are integrated and operate concurrently. Nurse-patient interactions arising from an integrated perspective that aligns both of these worldviews will allow for informed applications of knowledge to practice and enhanced patient care. PMID:23786534

  4. Three Monotheistic Religions: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Slide Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalak, Laurence

    This slide exercise is intended to communicate information about the three major monotheistic religions of the Middle East: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The exercise focuses on beliefs, events, symbols, institutions, and practices important to the three religions, but the main purpose is to impress upon students the many things that these…

  5. Ethics in Islam: Key Concepts and Contemporary Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Ataullah

    1997-01-01

    Begins with an introduction of the terms "ethics" and "morals," and an explanation of the terms used by Islamic scholars to discuss them. Explains the concept of change and focuses on recent attempts by Muslim scholars to address issues faced by Muslims in Europe and other parts of the world. (DSK)

  6. Hydrogeology of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Finn, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogeologic maps were constructed for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The ground-water flow system in the country can best be described as two interconnected regional systems: the porous Continental Terminal coastal system and the interior, fractured sedimentary Taoudeni Basin system. In these systems, ground-water flow occurs in fill deposits and carbonate, clastic, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks. Based on an evaluation of the potentiometric surface, there are three areas of ground-water recharge in the Taoudeni Basin system. One region occurs in the northwest at the edge of the Shield, one occurs to the south overlying the Tillites, and one is centered at the city of Tidjikdja. In contrast to the flow system in the Taoudeni Basin, the potentiometric surfaces reveal two areas of discharge in the Continental Terminal system but no localized recharge areas; the recharge is more likely to be areal. In addition to these recharge and discharge areas, ground water flows across the country's borders. Specifically, ground water from the Atlantic Ocean flows into Mauritania, transporting dissolved sodium from the west as a salt water intrusion, whereas fresh ground water discharges from the east into Mali. To the north, there is a relatively low gradient with inflow of fresh water to Mauritania, whereas ground-water flow discharges to the Senegal River to the south. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to digitize, manage, store, and analyze geologic data used to develop the hydrogeologic map. The data acquired for map development included existing digital GIS files, published maps, tabulated data in reports and public-access files, and the SIPPE2 Access database. Once in digital formats, regional geologic and hydrologic features were converted to a common coordinate system and combined into one map. The 42 regional geologic map units were then reclassified into 13 hydrogeologic units, each having considerable lateral extent and distinct

  7. The state of food and agriculture in Islamic countries.

    PubMed

    Mollett, J A

    1986-11-01

    This review of the state of food and agriculture in Islamic countries underlines the need for much greater public commitment to agricultural development. Within the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), 44 member nations, exibiting immense geographic and economic diversity, have come together recently to begin to cooperate on increasing food production. It is difficult to generalize about food production conditions in Islamic nations, but basically, within the OIC, total arable land increased from 159 to 167 ha in the 1970s, a small amount unevenly distributed over the group. Dry-land farming has not received enough public attention, and the dependence on cereals grown under rainfed conditions leaves the population vulnerable to fluctuation. Many of the poorer nations have not given the priority to land improvement that has been successful in Egypt, Pakistan, and some other countries. The economic burden of food imports has become lighter in some countries, although in all it continues to be serious. Net cereal imports to Islamic countries rose from 21 to 39 million tons from 1975-83. An overall increase in the per capita dietary energy supplies masks broad differences between the wealthier and poorer nations of the OIC, and between more and less priviledged populations within the societies. A small proportion of financial commitments to agriculture (15%) come from Islamic community donors; this is not a leading program priority. Often spending has been for large capital-intensive projects depending on imported skills and inputs. As a group, the OIC must plan to take advantage of their technical and environmental diversity, and work together to avoid inefficient dispersal of personnel and other resources. Tabular data show selected indicators of agricultural development (e.g. % of food imported, food production growth), average annual rate of food production change related to population growth, per capita dietary energy supplies, and external assistance

  8. A re-analysis of Price's "Islam and human rights: a case of deceptive first appearances".

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-12-01

    Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of human rights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (p<.03), despite the low statistical power available in only 23 cases, for an inverted quadratic relationship between Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights. Among the nations scoring low on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation between the two variables is -.01 (ns); among those scoring high on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation shifts to -.78 (p<.02). At lower scores for Islamic Political Culture, there may indeed be little relationship between Political Culture and Human Rights; however, at higher scores there appears to be a significant relationship between increasing Islamic Political Culture and a decline in Human Rights. The data suggest that extreme applications of Sharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for human rights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of human rights. At the same time, support for human rights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law. PMID:14765607

  9. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  10. Are Muslim Women in Need of Islamic Feminism? In Consideration of a Re-Imagined Islamic Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Nuraan

    2015-01-01

    In its remonstrations against male patriarchy, common understandings of Islamic feminism have, on the one hand, claimed attachment to other forms of feminism. On the other hand, because of its location within the structures of Qur'anic exegesis and prophetic traditions, it has claimed a detachment from what has been understood as the largely…

  11. An Exploratory Examination of Islamic Values in Science Education: Islamization of Science Teaching and Learning via Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study outlines the perceptions of four Muslim graduate students regarding Islam and its influence on their approach to the teaching and learning of science. All of the four interviewees were enrolled in science related programmes at a Midwestern US university. The interview responses were evaluated both within the frame of the…

  12. "Fighting a hurricane": tobacco industry efforts to counter the perceived threat of Islam.

    PubMed

    Petticrew, Mark; Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry's response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25880961

  13. “Fighting a Hurricane”: Tobacco Industry Efforts to Counter the Perceived Threat of Islam

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry’s response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25880961

  14. [The main sources of medieval Islamic medicine and the medical books translated into Turkish in the 10th century texts. Muslim scientists produced original medical works].

    PubMed

    Seşen, R

    1993-01-01

    Medieval Islamic medicine in the late Omeyad and early Abbasid periods was based on works translated from the Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Nabatean and Syriac languages, combining their own experiences in medical practice with the knowledge obtained from these. The majority of sources translated were Greek works; among them, those of Hippocrates and Galen were used prominently. From the theoretical standpoint, medieval Islamic medicine was based on the principles determined by Hippocrates. On the other hand, translations in different fields of medicine were done by specialists in those fields, who also authored their own works. Among them are such well-known figures as Abu Bakr el-Razi, Ibn Sina and Ibn el-Nafis. Islamic medicine saw a brilliant development during the Ayyubid period: with the establishment of many hospitals, clinical medicine and practical experience gained importance. these hospitals were at the same time centres of medical education and training. It is also in this period that the first medical school of the Muslim world was set up in Damascus by Mühezzebüddin el-Dahvar (d. 1231). Medical literature in Turkish originated in the framework of Islamic culture, as was in other fields of science. Early medical works in Turkish were translated from Arabic and Persian in the beginning of the 13th century. Original works in Turkish started to be produced from the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. The volume of Turkish medical literature increased considerably throughout the Ottoman period. This experience and the accumulation of references facilitated the acquisition of modern medical knowledge. This paper is an overview of thirteen major works on medicine which were translated into Turkish in the middle of the 15th century. PMID:11624884

  15. Brain death: the challenges of translating medical science into Islamic bioethical discourse.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Basser, Taha A

    2012-09-01

    Islamic ethico-legal assessments of brain death are varied and controversial. Some Islamic ethico-legal bodies have concluded that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death; others regard it as an intermediate state between life and death, and a few opine that it does not meet the standards for legal death according to Islamic law. Yet this translation of the concept of brain death into the Islamic ethico-legal domain has generated multiple ethical complexities that receive insufficient attention within the extant medical and fiqh literature. How do Islamic legists understand brain death as a clinical phenomenon? How does the Islamic ethico-legal system treat medical uncertainty? What Islamic ethico-legal principles should apply to bioethical questions about life and death? In this paper, we analyze the arguments for, and against, the acceptance of brain death within the context of the deliberation of a representative juridical council. In our discussion we focus on areas in which the legists' ethico-legal reasoning hinges upon clinical conceptions of the state of the individual when diagnosed as brain dead. As Islamic ethics continues to engage scientific and technological advancements in these areas, such exploration of internal workings is necessary if we wish to better understand how Islamic ethical principles can contribute to bioethical deliberation. PMID:23248843

  16. The ethics of postmortem examinations in contemporary Islam.

    PubMed Central

    Rispler-Chaim, V

    1993-01-01

    Postmortem examinations have recently become common practice in Western medicine: they are used to verify the cause of death and to obtain additional scientific information on certain diseases, as well as to train medical students. For religious people of the monotheistic faiths postmortems present several ethical questions even though the advantages attributed to postmortems in the West are also acknowledged by Jews, Christians and Muslims. The Islamic way of dealing with such questions will be surveyed via contemporary fatawa (legal opinions) issued primarily by Egyptian scholars; Islamic law, which was formulated in the eighth to ninth centuries, did not speak of postmortems. I will therefore depict the means whereby contemporary scholars approach postmortems in the absence of clear legal reference. The difficulties that postmortems create for Muslims at present will be weighed against some shar i instructions which may help circumvent them. While the ethical and religious debate continues, postmortems seem to be accepted but not, however, without certain reservations. PMID:8230149

  17. The ethics of postmortem examinations in contemporary Islam.

    PubMed

    Rispler-Chaim, V

    1993-09-01

    Postmortem examinations have recently become common practice in Western medicine: they are used to verify the cause of death and to obtain additional scientific information on certain diseases, as well as to train medical students. For religious people of the monotheistic faiths postmortems present several ethical questions even though the advantages attributed to postmortems in the West are also acknowledged by Jews, Christians and Muslims. The Islamic way of dealing with such questions will be surveyed via contemporary fatawa (legal opinions) issued primarily by Egyptian scholars; Islamic law, which was formulated in the eighth to ninth centuries, did not speak of postmortems. I will therefore depict the means whereby contemporary scholars approach postmortems in the absence of clear legal reference. The difficulties that postmortems create for Muslims at present will be weighed against some shar i instructions which may help circumvent them. While the ethical and religious debate continues, postmortems seem to be accepted but not, however, without certain reservations. PMID:8230149

  18. Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

  19. Reflections on Palliative Care from the Jewish and Islamic Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Michael; Baddarni, Kassim; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual care is a vital part of holistic patient care. Awareness of common patient beliefs will facilitate discussions about spirituality. Such conversations are inherently good for the patient, deepen the caring staff-patient-family relationship, and enhance understanding of how beliefs influence care decisions. All healthcare providers are likely to encounter Muslim patients, yet many lack basic knowledge of the Muslim faith and of the applications of Islamic teachings to palliative care. Similarly, some of the concepts underlying positive Jewish approaches to palliative care are not well known. We outline Jewish and Islamic attitudes toward suffering, treatment, and the end of life. We discuss our religions' approaches to treatments deemed unnecessary by medical staff, and consider some of the cultural reasons that patients and family members might object to palliative care, concluding with specific suggestions for the medical team. PMID:22203878

  20. RITUALS OF INFANT DEATH: DEFINING LIFE AND ISLAMIC PERSONHOOD

    PubMed Central

    SHAW, ALISON

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the recognition of personhood when death occurs in early life. Drawing from anthropological perspectives on personhood at the beginnings and ends of life, it examines the implications of competing religious and customary definitions of personhood for a small sample of young British Pakistani Muslim women who experienced miscarriage and stillbirth. It suggests that these women's concerns about the lack of recognition given to the personhood of their fetus or baby constitute a challenge to customary practices surrounding burial as a Muslim. The article suggests that these women's concerns cannot be adequately glossed as a clash of Islamic belief versus Western medicine. Rather, they represent a renegotiation of Islamic opinion and customary practices within the broader context of changes in the medical and social norms surrounding pregnancy loss and infant death in multi-ethnic British society. PMID:23906387

  1. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology. PMID:22865482

  2. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  3. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  4. Bayesian Islamic medication expert system (B-IMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Hanita; Razali, Radzuan; Jung, Low Tan; Zaida, Shahnaz

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses on the development of an expert system (ES) that applies Bayesian Probability concept for Islamic Medication practice that is made available on web platform. This ES allows user to choose sickness such as headache, stomachache, toothache and etc that he/she may have and list of symptoms related to the sickness will appear for the user to choose. Once symptom(s) is/are chosen the diagnosis is being carried out to suggest percentage of possible specific sickness such as classic migraine, common migraine, tension headache and etc if headache was chosen. This diagnosis is being carried out using Bayes' Theorem and the ES will suggest the treatments or therapy that he/she needs to perform in reference to Muslim Holy Quran and Hadith. This ES was developed to preserve Islamic medication and to create awareness among the young generation and make it accessible at anytime and anywhere and to save users time to meet Islamic Medication practitioners who are not easily available in Malaysia and other parts of the world.

  5. Islamic Medicine and Evolutionary Medicine: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings’ susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine. It should be noted that current evolutionary theory was first expounded by various Muslim scientists such as al-Jāḥiẓ, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Ibn Maskawayh centuries before Darwin and Wallace. In this way, evolution should not be viewed as being totally antithetical to Islam. This article provides a comparative overview of Islamic medicine and Evolutionary medicine as well as drawing points of comparison between the two approaches which enables their possible future integration. PMID:23864992

  6. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…

  7. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  8. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  9. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  10. An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşkın, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    This exploratory study outlines the perceptions of four Muslim graduate students regarding Islam and its influence on their approach to the teaching and learning of science. All of the four interviewees were enrolled in science related programmes at a Midwestern US university. The interview responses were evaluated both within the frame of the Islamization of science and Ian Barbour's (When science meets religion: enemies, strangers, or partners?, Harper, San Francisco, 2000) classification, which is based on four categories; conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Interviews were semi-structured and the data analyzed using a framework of typological and interpretive approaches (Hatch in Doing qualitative research in education settings, State University of New York Press, New York, 2002). The interview findings show that Barbour's classification is a useful tool for categorizing perceptions. However, these perceptions may fall into more than one category. A surprising side effect was the misinterpretation and misuse of constructivism as well as the notion of a scientific theory as ways to negate the theory of evolution, and promote the teaching of intelligent design. These misinterpretations and misuses occur because there is the belief that the interaction between science and religion in daily life is considered part of the cultural setting in Islamic countries, which is what students bring to the table, as well as the notion that reality can only be found in the Qur'an.

  11. Exploring "Halaqah" as Research Method: A Tentative Approach to Developing Islamic Research Principles within a Critical "Indigenous" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research…

  12. Lineage and the Rights of Cloned Child in the Islamic Jurisprudence

    PubMed Central

    Moeinifar, Mohaddeseh; Ardebeli, Faezeh Azimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Lineage in the Islamic law is one of the most basic human rights each individual inherits from his family. When modern assisted reproductive technologies appeared in recent decades, the issue of lineage and the child's rights did not encounter serious challenges. But with the advent of these technologies, the issue of the child's lineage resulting from new technologies has become the center of attention. These technologies have a large share in the field of medicine. A new technique known as cloning has entered the realm of science and technology. Considering the possibility of the widespread use of this technique, the subject of cloned child's lineage and his/her rights would be one of the major issues related to this subject. In this paper, the authors have examined the various aspects of the subject and the opinions of theologians in this regard in order to present a best solution to this issue. In fact, the fundamental concern in this paper is to figure out the relationship between the cloned child, the cell donor, the egg donor and the owner of the uterus. In this paper, after considering the concepts of the parentage and identical twins’ relationship would be explored and then a detailed analysis of the parental relationship and the Shiite jurisprudence scholars' opinion on these issues would be presented. Finally, the rights of cloned children would be taken into consideration. PMID:23926545

  13. [Late Ming treatises on Chinese and Islamic calendrical systems as seen in the Seki Teisyo].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Seki Teisyo (see text for symbol), a manuscript compiled by Seki Takakazu (see text for symbol)) in 1686, is known to consist of 15 treatises which Seki extracted from an early Qing astronomical and astrological corpus, the Tianwen Dacheng Guankui Jiyao (see text for symbol). Containing a detailed account of the Shoushi Li (see text for symbol) as well as a comparative study of Chinese and Islamic calendrical systems, these treatises have drawn the attention not only of Seki but of modern historians. In this paper, I show that 14 of the 15 treatises Seki selected had been composed by a late Ming scholar, Zhou Shuxue (see text for symbol), who discussed issues with Tang Shunzhi (see text for symbol). Their time predates the era in which the mathematical basis of the Shoushi Li was scrutinized and a new Chinese calendrical system was invented incorporating Western astronomical knowledge. I also mention some earlier works that Tang and Zhou could have consulted. Although Seki never knew the author of the treatises nor their background, his concern centered on themes that seem to have derived from one of those earlier works: the Liyuan(see text for symbol). PMID:25087449

  14. Islam in Social Studies Education: What We Should Teach Secondary Students and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important and difficult challenges facing social studies educators, particularly world history teachers, concerns the role of Islam--one of the world's fastest growing and most dynamic religions--in historical and contemporary domestic and international affairs. What teachers choose to teach about Islam and how they present it are…

  15. Role of Islamic Science Textbooks and Teaching Methods in Arab Schools and Universities and Ideological Extremism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammad, Hamza Abed Alkarim

    2014-01-01

    The study concludes that most Islamic sciences courses in schools and universities adopt a dogmatic or indoctrinatory approach combined with little room for dialogue and discussion. The study recommends reconsidering Islamic science textbooks through including additional higher-order thinking skills and reconsidering Sharia faculties' syllabi.

  16. Islamic Roots of the Medieval University: A Forgotten Legacy. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Charles M.

    The linkage of the formal structures of higher learning in Islam and the development of higher education in the Medieval West is discussed. Recent findings indicate a transference of instructional methodology and even some organizational forms from Islamdom to the Christian West during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Islamic models of higher…

  17. The Training of Imams and Teachers for Islamic Education in Europe. Wiener Islamstudien. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ednan, Ed.; Windisch, Zsofia, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Following 9/11 and the growth of religiously legitimated violence in Islamic countries, the focus of public discussion moved to imams and teachers of religion as actors supporting Muslim isolation and the lack of willingness to integrate--imams became central figures in the debate on Islam. With great enthusiasm, politicians discovered them to be…

  18. The Sunni and Shia Schism: Religion, Islamic Politics, and Why Americans Need to Know the Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that most American citizens know little about Islam and, specifically, the major differences between Sunni Muslims and Shiite Muslims and why this matters to the United States. Although the two major Islamic factions share many common core beliefs and practices, there are some significant religious and political differences…

  19. Islamic Education, Possibilities, Opportunities and Tensions: Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    If Islam continues to evoke skepticism, as it has done most intensely since 9/11, then it stands to reason that its tenets and education are viewed with equal mistrust, and as will be highlighted in this special issue, equal misunderstanding. The intention of this special edition is neither to counter the accusations Islam stands accused of, nor…

  20. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  1. Islamic Pedagogy and Embodiment: An Anthropological Study of a British Madrasah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This anthropological study of a higher education British Madrasah was undertaken to increase our awareness of the spectrum of sensory experiences that shape Islamic pedagogy. We started our anthropological study from an Islamic premise of the inseparable nature of knowledge and the sacred. Pedagogy is defined as not a matter of simple methods and…

  2. Promoting Learning Environment among the Islamic School Principals in the State of Pahang, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Jamelaa Bibi; Kassim, Jainabee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the learning environment in schools that influence teaching and learning. Design/methodology/approach: A study was conducted using the Instructional Leadership Model to compare principal practices of instructional leaders in the Islamic Religious Secondary Schools and Islamic Religious Schools…

  3. Discourses in Islamic Educational Theory in the Light of Texts and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahmar, Fella

    2011-01-01

    The historical variety, richness and complexity of Islamic educational tradition raise questions concerning the underlying reasons for this diversity. It therefore becomes important to explore the debates that British Islamic schools draw upon to understand their educational aims as well as any future directions that they may take. This paper has…

  4. Adult Learners Understanding in Learning Islam Using the Andragogy Approach in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…

  5. Islamic Fatalism and the Clash of Civilizations: An Appraisal of a Contentious and Dubious Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will address the question of Islamic fatalism. Survey data will be used to assess Samuel P. Huntington's controversial "Clash of Civilizations" thesis and its emphasis on fatalism as an inherent characteristic of Islamic religion. The concept of fatalism is expanded and theorized as a function of both structural and theological…

  6. On the Right Track? Islamic Schools in the Netherlands after an Era of Turmoil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands currently has 43 Islamic primary schools. Each is fully subsidised by the government. Yet since the first school was established in 1988 Islamic schools have been confronted with obstacles by the Ministry of Education, bad press and increasingly strict state supervision. Under pressure to improve their image, since 2008 Dutch…

  7. Reading Trends and Perceptions Towards Islamic English Websites as Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairuddin, Zurina; Shukry, Azimah Shurfa Mohammed; Sani, Nurshafawati Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a study of the reading trends and perceptions of Muslim Malaysian undergraduate students towards Islamic English websites as pedagogical materials in English language classrooms. Data was collected through a set of questionnaires to 180 students from the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) and Universiti Sultan…

  8. Conceptions of Islamic Education: Pedagogical Framings. Global Studies in Education. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2011-01-01

    "Conceptions of Islamic Education: Pedagogical Framings" argues that "madaris" (Muslim schools) cannot exclusively be held responsible for the cultivation of extremism. Islamic education can most appropriately be framed according to three interrelated concepts: "tarbiyyah" (rearing or nurturing), "ta'lim" (learning/ instruction), and "ta'dib"…

  9. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  10. English as an Islamic Language: A Case Study of Pakistani English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahboob, Ahmar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will explore the nature of English as it is used in one Muslim country and argue that, far from being a colonizing language, English used in Pakistan reflects Islamic values and embodies South Asian Islamic sensitivities. Through analysis of the current discourses on the politics of the English language and a study of Pakistani…

  11. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  12. The Influence of Islam on AIDS Prevention among Senegalese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sarah S.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants'…

  13. Educating about Islam and Learning about Self: An Approach for Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that the emergence of the era of terrorism, fuelled in part by a form of Wahhabist Islam, impels a religious education imperative of improving understanding about Islam, both in terms of the historical roots with Judaism and Christianity, as well as ongoing conflict between the three traditions. On this basis, this article…

  14. Islam and Muslims in U.S. Public Schools since September 11, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz

    2011-01-01

    While much research has considered the way Muslims are represented in the mass media in recent years, there has been little exploration of the way Muslims and Islam are discussed in U.S. public schools. This article considers how Muslims and Islam are represented in educational standards, textbooks, and supplementary resources, with an eye to the…

  15. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including a list of...

  16. Islamic Education and Civil Society: Reflections on the "Pesantren" Tradition in Contemporary Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Since the events of September 11, 2001, Islamic institutions of learning have received much attention. Indonesia's "pesantren" (Islamic boarding schools) have been increasingly described as fostering radicalism and violent militancy, particularly in light of purported links between a few of the country's "pesantren" and some of the perpetrators of…

  17. Understanding Islam in the U.S. Classroom: A Guide for Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Kazi I.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides strategies that are recommended to elementary school teachers to help students in the U.S. understand Islam and its followers. It discusses the importance of cultural and historical studies in making students aware of the value of Islam to its followers. Three strategies described herein are: the concept of similarities, the…

  18. Moving toward culturally competent practice with Muslims: modifying cognitive therapy with Islamic tenets.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Nadir, Aneesah

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little information exists on the provision of culturally competent services to Muslims, in spite of the growing presence of this population in the United States. Consequently, the authors discuss a number of therapeutic approaches in light of their level of congruence with common Islamic values. Psychodynamic approaches, for example, may not be as congruent as cognitive approaches. Although cognitive therapy may be relatively consistent with Islamic values, the self-statements that are central to this modality are often packaged in secular terminology that is inconsistent with Islamic norms. To provide culturally relevant services, practitioners must unwrap the secular terminology used to express the underlying therapeutic precepts and then repackage the precepts in terminology that reflects Islamic teaching. The authors conclude by offering a number of examples to illustrate the construction of statements that reflect Islamic values. PMID:18610819

  19. RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE ON NON-USE OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN IN NIGERIA: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 1990 AND 2008 NDHS.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2015-09-01

    The role of religion in contraceptive use is an issue of significant debate. This study employed the 1990 and 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to examine differences and similarities in the influence of religious affiliation on non-use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria over the last two decades. The results suggest that a significant increase has occurred in the level of awareness of modern contraceptives in Nigeria over the last two decades, but that non-use remains very high. Religion could not independently predict non-use of modern contraceptives in 1990. Women of Islam and Traditional religions were more likely to have never used or not to be using modern contraceptives compared with Catholics and Protestants in 2008 (p<0.05). This can be explained by their poorer socioeconomic status relative to Catholics and Protestants. Therefore, improving women's socioeconomic status is an imperative in the promotion of modern contraception in Nigeria. Education and employment are critical in this regard and adherents of Islam and Traditional religions require special attention. PMID:25167334

  20. Facility Modernization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  1. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  2. On the Compatibility of Islam and Gender Equality: Effects of Modernization, State Islamization, and Democracy on Women's Labor Market Participation in 45 Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spierings, Niels; Smits, Jeroen; Verloo, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Although the Muslim world is sometimes depicted as a homogeneous civilization lacking democracy and gender equality, Muslim countries show tremendous economic, political and cultural variation. In this paper, this variation is used to gain insight into the determinants of women's labor market participation (LMP) in the Muslim world. We use data on…

  3. Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized from the Eyes.

    PubMed

    Kret, Mariska Esther; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses vs. a cap or a scarf. Our results indicate that fear is still well recognized from a briefly flashed (100 ms) image of a women wearing a burqa with less than 20% transparency of the eye region. Moreover, the type of headdress influences how emotions are recognized. In a group of participants from non-Islamic background, fear was recognized better from women wearing a niqāb than from women wearing a cap and a shawl, whereas the opposite was observed for happy and sad expressions. The response patterns showed that fearful and anger labels were more often attributed to women with a niqāb vs. a cap and a shawl and again, an opposite pattern was observed for the happy response. However, there was no general response bias: both correct and incorrect responses were influenced by the facial expression as well. Anxiety levels and/or explicit negative associations with the Islam as measured via questionnaires did not mediate the effects. Consistent with the face literature, we conclude that the recognition of emotions from the eyes is also influenced by context. PMID:22557983

  4. Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized from the Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska Esther; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses vs. a cap or a scarf. Our results indicate that fear is still well recognized from a briefly flashed (100 ms) image of a women wearing a burqa with less than 20% transparency of the eye region. Moreover, the type of headdress influences how emotions are recognized. In a group of participants from non-Islamic background, fear was recognized better from women wearing a niqāb than from women wearing a cap and a shawl, whereas the opposite was observed for happy and sad expressions. The response patterns showed that fearful and anger labels were more often attributed to women with a niqāb vs. a cap and a shawl and again, an opposite pattern was observed for the happy response. However, there was no general response bias: both correct and incorrect responses were influenced by the facial expression as well. Anxiety levels and/or explicit negative associations with the Islam as measured via questionnaires did not mediate the effects. Consistent with the face literature, we conclude that the recognition of emotions from the eyes is also influenced by context. PMID:22557983

  5. Curve fitting for RHB Islamic Bank annual net profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajan, Dineswary; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd

    2015-05-01

    The RHB Islamic Bank net profit data are obtained from 2004 to 2012. Curve fitting is done by assuming the data are exact or experimental due to smoothing process. Higher order Lagrange polynomial and cubic spline with curve fitting procedure are constructed using Maple software. Normality test is performed to check the data adequacy. Regression analysis with curve estimation is conducted in SPSS environment. All the eleven models are found to be acceptable at 10% significant level of ANOVA. Residual error and absolute relative true error are calculated and compared. The optimal model based on the minimum average error is proposed.

  6. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into how to use

  7. Women in Islam: Qur'anic ideals versus Muslim realities.

    PubMed

    Hassan, R

    1995-01-01

    The tragic irony of Islam is that its sacred text, the Qur'an, is particularly solicitous of women's well-being and development, yet Islamic traditions discriminate against girls from the moment of their lamented births. Islam is proud to have abolished female infanticide, yet one of the most common crimes in many Muslim countries is the "honor killing" of women by male relatives. The Qur'anic description of marriage suggests closeness, mutuality, and equality, but tradition defines a husband as his wife's god in earthly form (despite the Qur'an prohibition against human deification as the one unpardonable sin), her gateway to heaven, and the arbiter of her final destiny. The Qur'an permits divorce without fault, but Muslim societies have made divorce both legally and socially very difficult for women. The Qur'an stipulates that both parents must concur on the raising of children and not use the children against each other, but in many Muslim countries divorced women automatically lose custody of their children when the boys turn 7 and the girls 12. Muslim traditions have misinterpreted the Qur'an's spirit and intentions in the matters of polygamy, inheritance rights, purdah (keeping women isolated and at home), and veiling. These customs were originally intended to protect women and even guarantee women autonomy; they have become instead instruments of oppression. The Qur'an does not prohibit family planning, a review of the literature suggests ample religious and ethical support for family planning, but there is the mistaken impression that family planning is anti-Islam. The challenge for all women, and especially Muslim women, is to move from a reactive mind set, in which women must assert their autonomy over patriarchal opposition, to a proactive mind set, in which they can speak of themselves as full and independent human beings with minds and spirits as well as bodies. Muslim women must work in full partnership with Muslim men, rejecting Western models of

  8. Anesthesia and Pain Relief in the History of Islamic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alembizar, Faranak; Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since diseases and surgeries could be very painful, the annihilation of pain has been the most important goal of physicians. The history of Iranian-Islamic medicine includes distinguished physicians that attempted to find different methods of anesthesia. This research aims at reviewing approaches for anesthesia throughout the history of the Iranian-Islamic medicine, in order to identify a variety of drugs used during that period. Methods: In this research, the information was mainly collected from medical history, traditional literature and various search engines (e.g. Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Scopus, SIDS and NoorMags). The search keywords were Anesthetic, Tbnj (sedation), Tnvym (sedative), and Hypnotic. Finally, a detailed analytical study was performed on all notes and the results were presented. Results: Mohammad Ibn-Zakaria Al-Razi (known to the Western world as Razes) in the 10th century was the first physician who used general inhalation for anesthesia in surgeries. Drugs used to relieve pain and anesthesia can be divided into two categories: (i) single drug and (ii) compound drugs. Usually, these are consumed by eating, drinking, inhalation, or as topical. Drugs such as Hemlock, Mandrake, Henbane, Hyocyamus, Mandragora, Loiseuria, Opium Poppy, and Black Nightshade were used. Beyond these herbs, Aghili (18th century) in his book “Makhzan al-adviyah” also explained the topical application of ice for pain management. The choice for the type of medication and its form of consumption is commensurate to pain and the speed by which the drug has an effect. Anesthesia was usually done in two ways: (i) using a substance called “Mokhader” which was consumed via the mouth or nose, and (ii) “Tnvym” which means putting a patient to sleep to block the sensation of pain. Typically, anesthesia methods and drug recipes were kept as secret to prevent misuse and abuse by unauthorized people. Conclusion: Based on our study, Islamic physicians

  9. Principles of nutrition in Islamic and traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zare, Manijhe

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition has a crucial role in maintaining body health. Eating and drinking has a special place in Islamic doctrine and traditional Persian medicine. Traditional Persian medicine is a holistic medicine and provides great attention to the spiritual aspects of life as well as somatic aspects to maintain human health. In this view, people are not going to eat and drink for pleasure but to maintain a good life and physical health, due to daily tasks, as well as observing moral aspects of a human life and spiritual satisfaction. PMID:25027179

  10. Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

  11. Research Performances of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Members

    PubMed Central

    Khoubnasabjafari, Maryam; Sadeghifar, Eliza; Khalili, Majid; Ansarin, Khalil; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Scientometric analysis of academic institutions provides useful information for policy makers, international and national organizations to invest in the research fields of the institutions to gain more outputs with less cost. The objectives of this work were to report a scientometric analysis of Islamic states considering a number of indicators. Methods The number of articles and patents published by members of organization of Islamic conference were extracted from ScopusTM along with the top journals, authors, document type, universities, language of the publications and subjects. Results The analyses of data revealed that Turkey is the leading country followed by Iran, Egypt, Malaysia and Nigeria when total numbers of indexed articles in ScopusTM are considered. When the articles of 2006-2010 are considered the ranks are Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, Egypt and Pakistan. Conclusion the increased pattern was observed for scientific performances of OIC members however, more investments are required to fill the gap between OIC members and the leading countries. PMID:23678449

  12. Reproductive choice in Islam: gender and state in Iran and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, C M

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the extent to which reproductive choice is compatible with Islamic principles. It presents the argument that the impact of Islam on reproductive choice is largely a function of the political context in which gender issues are defined. Indicators of reproductive health in countries of the Middle East are reviewed and the way these relate to constraints on reproductive choice is assessed. The examples of Tunisia and Iran are used to illustrate the way in which Islam is invoked to legitimate conflicting positions concerning women and their reproductive options. PMID:8209394

  13. Expanding the modern synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2010-10-01

    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis formalizes the role of variation, heredity, differential reproduction and mutation in population genetics. Here we explore a mathematical structure, based on the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory, that instantiates the punctuated dynamic relations of organisms with their embedding environments, including the possibility of the transfer of heritage information between different classes of organism. The approach applies a standard coevolutionary argument to genes, environment, and gene expression reconfigured as interacting information sources. In essence, we provide something of a formal roadmap for the modernization of the Modern Synthesis, making applications to both relatively rapid evolutionary punctuated equilibrium and to the conservation of ecological interactions across deep evolutionary time. PMID:20965439

  14. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  15. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  16. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  17. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  18. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  19. Modern splinting bandages.

    PubMed

    Wytch, R; Ashcroft, G P; Ledingham, W M; Wardlaw, D; Ritchie, I K

    1991-01-01

    We have assessed the current range of synthetic splinting bandages, using physical and mechanical tests and the subjective opinions of patients, volunteers and orthopaedic staff. Modern bandages have some better properties than standard plaster bandage but do not conform as well, are more expensive, and potentially more hazardous. PMID:1991785

  20. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  1. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  2. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  3. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  4. [Modern wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

  5. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  6. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  7. Biocentrism as an Approach to Environmental Ethics: An Islamic Determiner for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbarini, Mohammad S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the concept of biocentrism, the Islamic approach to environmental ethics comprising the relationships between humans and their natural environment. Supports the concept with examples from the Koran and presents implications for environmental education. (MDH)

  8. The Significance of Islam's Scientific Heritage of the Moslem World Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anawati, Georges C.

    1976-01-01

    Described are Moslem influences in the development of medicine, mathematics, physics, astronomy, and geography since the founding of Islam. Also considered is the decline of the influence of Arab culture. (SL)

  9. Scrupulosity and obsessive compulsive disorder: the cognitive perspective in Islamic sources.

    PubMed

    Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Karaca, Sitki; Keskin, Ibrahim

    2014-02-01

    A moral/religious subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder has been termed as scrupulosity by mental health professionals. Since ultimate feared consequence in scrupulous individuals is religious or moral in nature, it also presents interesting and difficult issue for religious authorities. This article focuses on various aspects of scrupulosity that have until now been poorly conceptualized in Islamic world and provides a conceptual cognitive framework and analysis of scrupulosity according to Islamic sources. PMID:22395755

  10. Ethics of Surrogacy: A Comparative Study of Western Secular and Islamic Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994

  11. Computer Crime and the Law from an Islamic Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-A`Ali, Mansoor

    Information technology is facing waves of laws guarding the interest of people using the Web technology. These laws were derived from the common laws and legislations applied in general crimes. One of these laws is the law of the state is Texas in the United States in 1985. In a world which has more than one billion Muslims, it is time to consider proposing a law that is in line with their teachings. Several calls were also raised in the Islamic countries to establish a law suitable to handle computer crimes which matches the Islamic Shar'iah law. The main question to ask here is how can the Islamic law which was established in the seventh century handle crimes resulting from the use or abuse of the new technology and provide suitable laws for the protection of its computer users. To answer this question our research has analyzed the Adellah () (Shar'iah Evidences of Quraan, Hadith and Imams sayings) that match Texas computer crime law items to verify the outlook of Islam in computer crime. We set out to prove that computer crime with its high technology is not entirely a new type of crime that needs a new Islamic theory and thus is already covered by the general Islamic Shar'iah laws. Based on the available computer crime laws and our understanding of the Quranic verses, we propose to tackle this very difficult area by proposing a computer crime law from an Islamic point of view. We believe this research is the first of its kind and will open the discussion in this important area with the exception of one study which addresses the e-commerce from an Islamic view point.

  12. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994

  13. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Walaa M.; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment. PMID:23858256

  14. Oil, turmoil, and Islam in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The turmoil and strife of the Middle East raises serious questions about the security of the world's oil supply. The author argues that OPEC and OAPEC can no longer afford to impose indiscriminate price increases on the marketplace because they hurt not only themselves but oil poor Third World nations as well. The author analyzes the importance of Middle Eastern oil in world politics. He emphasizes that any consideration of the forces influencing development in the Middle East should take Islamic tradition into account. Each chapter is organized around a current Middle Eastern problem: oil politics in relation to international energy needs; the ramifications of the new oil wealth and power of the Middle East; The Iran-Iraq War; Muslim insurgency in Afghanistan; The Arab-Israel conflict; turmoil in Lebanon; Palestinian nationalism; and the Middle East as a superpower.

  15. A Response to the Legitimacy of Brain Death in Islam.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Brain death is a novel construct of death for the procurement of transplantable organs. Many authoritative Islamic organizations and governments have endorsed brain death as true death for organ donation. Many commentators have reiterated the misconception that the Quranic text does not define death. We respond by clarifying: (1) the Quran does define death as biologic disintegration and clearly distinguishes it from the dying process, (2) brain death belongs scientifically within the spectrum of neurologic disorders of consciousness and should not be confused with death, and (3) religious and legal discord about brain death has grown in jurisdictions worldwide. We urge for public transparency and truthfulness about brain death and the accommodation and respect of religious objection to the determination of death by neurologic criteria. PMID:27010462

  16. Pre-Islamic Religious Monuments in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, César

    I review data on the orientations of pre-Islamic religious monuments in North Africa dating from the 5th century BC to the 7th century AD and covering most of the present-day Maghreb, from Western Libya to Morocco. A sample of more than 100 Roman temples shows a rather random orientation pattern except for those dedicated to Saturn, which follow a clear relation to the rising sun or moon. This group of temples were built over previous sanctuaries dedicated to the Punic god Baal Hammon. In fact, a sample of genuine Punic sanctuaries presents a similar orientation pattern. I also discuss evidence of remarkable astronomical markers found in several of the temples. Christian churches of this area, among the earliest ones erected in the Mediterranean, also show a clear lunisolar orientation pattern.

  17. The politics of engagement between Islam and the secular state: ambivalences of 'civil society'.

    PubMed

    Turam, Berna

    2004-06-01

    The paper reveals contemporary transformations of the interaction between Islam and secular states from opposition to engagement. In-depth ethnographic evidence challenges the predominant juxtaposition of Islam against the secular state. Following micro-sites of interaction between the Gülen movement and the state from Turkey to Kazakhstan, my fieldwork revealed a continuum of engagements between them. The paper analyses the engagements ranging from contestation and negotiation to co-operation. The case illustrates the extent to which scholarly interest in opposition and clash has left a wide-ranging variety of state-Islam interaction understudied with regard to civil society. It also reveals the conditions under which effective Islamic horizontal organizations have provided the platforms of vertical engagements with the secular states. The major argument of the paper is that both civil and uncivil outcomes in the Muslim world are primarily shaped by the nature of state-Islam interaction. The evidence suggests that the key to understanding the relationship between Islam and civil society is the state. PMID:15233633

  18. Nursing in Islamic thought: Reflection on application nursing metaparadigm concept: A philosophical inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Fariba; Alimohammadi, Nasroolah; Mohammadi, Esa; Akbarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metaparadigm of nursing is one of the nursing discipline challenges of the present century, which should take into consideration the diversity of different cultures and viewpoints. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study is to evolve the concept of “nursing” (one of the concepts in nursing metaparadigm) on the basis of the Islamic scholars’ view. In this philosophical inquiry, we sought to clarify the concept of nursing according to the ideas derived from the Islamic scholars’ view. To achieve the research objectives, Islamic texts were studied and analyzed based on the criteria of concept anatomy (definition, attributes/characteristics, and boundaries). Results: Based on Morse's criteria, with regard to Islamic thought, the concept of nursing in scientific literature is an immature concept. In Islamic viewpoint, human is a unique and integrated reality that implies a holistic paradigm in nursing theories. Since in Islamic thought human is described precisely and delicately, nursing concept can be delineated more clearly and can be helpful in enhancing and producing nursing clinical knowledge, nursing care, and nursing philosophy, specially clarifying holistic nursing. Conclusion: According to the criteria of concept anatomy, nursing is caring for and fulfilling the needs of patients, and it believes that nursing has a holistic paradigm and includes all of the dimensions and aspects of human beings. PMID:24403921

  19. Marriage in Islam by Begum Habibullah (1883-1975).

    PubMed

    Deutsch, K A

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some of India's key legislative acts, reform measures, and Islamic laws on marriage in India and reports a speech in support of the Sarda Act that was passed in 1929. The speech was delivered by Begum Habibullah at the annual meeting of the Oudh Women's Social and Educational Conference. She was married to a landed family, and her husband was educated in England and a member of the civil service. She founded a school for Muslim girls and was elected in 1937 to the provincial legislative assembly. Social reforms were promulgated during 1920-47 among the legislatures of India. Many reforms changed Hindu laws, and some targeted women of all communities. Many reforms addressed child marriage and women's rights with regard to marriage, divorce, and inheritance. The impact of these reforms manifested itself in the stimulation of discussion of gender issues. The Age of Consent Committee in 1928 included mostly Indians and two women. The Committee collected evidence across the country of the prevalence and effects of child marriage. The Committee report concluded that child marriage in India affected about 40% of girls. Child marriage at ages under 15 years was most prevalent in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa states, followed by the Central provinces and Berar and Bombay. Child marriage was more prevalent among Hindus than Muslims. Liberals tended to oppose child marriage, while religious Hindus and Muslims and conservatives tended to oppose restrictions to child marriage. The bill to regulate marriage age was introduced in 1929. The Sarda Act made it illegal to marry under the age of 14 years for girls and 18 years for boys. The Act was supported by women's groups. Begum's views were indicative of views of the time regarding the concern for women. She stressed the Act's complementarity to Islamic law. PMID:12321348

  20. Gastroenterology and Hepatology Training in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saberifiroozi, M; Abedian, S; Pourshams, A; Mohamadnejad, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Training in internal medicine has significantly evolved alongside the development of science, technology and new facilities during the past fifty years. After the specialty of internal medicine, there are multiple subspecialty training programs which have started since 1985 in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In this manuscript we want to define the characteristics of the gastroenterology subspecialty training program in our country. METHODS The characteristics of approved gastroenterology training centers were gathered through a questionnaire. The questionnaire was consisted; the establishment date, the number and academic rank of trainers, the number of trainees, hospital beds, the number and types of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in a year, the characteristics of training programs and their curriculum composition. The collected data was discussed and revised in a focused group of gastroenterologists from training centers and the board members of Iranian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (IAGH). RESULTS There are 11 training centers with 94 trainers and 65 trainees, with a ratio of trainers to trainees of 1.36. Fifty four percent of trainers are assistant professor. Yearly, 36 new fellows are admitted. Four centers have adequate facilities for training in advanced gastroenterology, and in three centers there are facilities for liver transplantation. The duration of training in internal medicine is four years, whereas in gastroenterology it is two years. The admission for this subspecialty is not university based and with other subspecialty programs, there is a national entrance examination. CONCLUSION There are adequate well known training centers with a suitable ratio of trainer to trainee in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The duration of the GI fellowship is short and implementation of post subspecialty programs for completing the required capabilities of fellows is necessary. The capacity of fellowship admission should be revised

  1. History of teaching anatomy in India: from ancient to modern times.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Tony George

    2013-01-01

    Safe clinical practice is based on a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the human body. Thus, knowledge of anatomy has been an essential tool in the practice of healthcare throughout the ages. The history of anatomy in India traces from the Paleolithic Age to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Times, the Islamic Dynasties, the modern Colonial Period, and finally to Independent India. The course of the study of anatomy, despite accompanying controversies and periods of latencies, has been fascinating. This review takes the reader through various periods of Indian medicine and the role of anatomy in the field of medical practice. It also provides a peek into the modern system of pedagogy in anatomical sciences in India. PMID:23495119

  2. Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-01-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

  3. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today. PMID:17397761

  4. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  5. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  6. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  7. A Walking Tour of Islamic Cairo: An Interactive Slide Lecture. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanik, Joseph T.

    This curriculum project, a lesson on Islamic Cairo, could be used in a unit on Islamic civilization in an advanced placement high school world history or world civilization course, or it could be used in a college level Middle Eastern history or Islamic civilization course. Upon completion of the lesson, students will be able to describe in…

  8. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Other Forms of Euthanasia in Islamic Spiritual Care.

    PubMed

    Isgandarova, Nazila

    2015-12-01

    The muteness in the Qur'an about suicide due to intolerable pain and a firm opposition to suicide in the hadith literature formed a strong opinion among Muslims that neither repentance nor the suffering of the person can remove the sin of suicide or mercy 'killing' (al-qatl al-rahim), even if these acts are committed with the purpose of relieving suffering and pain. Some interpretations of the Islamic sources even give advantage to murderers as opposed to people who commit suicide because the murderers, at least, may have opportunity to repent for their sin. However, people who commit suicide are 'labeled' for losing faith in the afterlife without a chance to repent for their act. This paper claims that Islamic spiritual care can help people make decisions that may impact patients, family members, health care givers and the whole community by responding to questions such as 'What is the Islamic view on death?', 'What is the Islamic response to physician-assisted suicide and other forms of euthanasia?', 'What are the religious and moral underpinnings of these responses in Islam?' PMID:26631521

  9. Medical care of children during the golden age of Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Modanlou, Houchang D

    2015-04-01

    During the Sassanid Empire in Persia (226-652 AD), there was a renaissance of humanistic sciences, including medicine, in the city of Gondi-Shapur. When the Islamic center of power moved to Baghdad in about 750 AD, physicians of Gondi-Shapur, including the dean of the medical school (a Nestorian Christian), gradually moved to Baghdad constructing hospitals and medical schools. Aided by the Persian and Nestorian Christians, the Islamic civilization ushered in what is considered to be the Golden Age of Islam from the 8th to 13th century AD. During this period, there were remarkable achievements in humanistic sciences including medicine by many physicians/authors whose medical textbooks were used for centuries in burgeoning medical schools in Europe. The medical texts written during the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine contain sections and chapters about the clinical conditions, diseases and medical care of children. It was during this era that the first treatise was written on the diseases of children and their care. This essay will describe, in brief, the writings about the conditions and diseases of children and their medical care, by three prominent Persian physicians of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine: 1) Abubakr Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Razi, Rhazes (865-925 AD); 2) Ali ibn-al-Abbas al-Majusi or Haly Abbas (949-994 AD); and 3)  Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina or Avicenna (980-1037 AD). PMID:25841951

  10. Concept of Collaboration from the Islamic Perspective: The View Points for Health Providers.

    PubMed

    Irajpour, Alireza; Ghaljaei, Fereshteh; Alavi, Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Collaboration involves direct and open communication and respect for different perspectives. In particular, religious literature has many references to collaboration. This study is a report of knowledge synthesis based on qualitative systematic review by content analysis. The study surveys the concept of collaboration from the Islamic point of view and intends to answer the question, 'Does the Quran deal with the use of collaboration in human activities?' This study was conducted using electronic documents from websites related to Islamic and Quran sciences, such as Howzah.net, Nashriat.ir, Tebyan.net and Google Scholar from 1950 until 2013 by focusing on the keywords, collaboration and Islam, and then retrieving the Islamic document (Quran and Hadith). The language in which the search was conducted was English and Persian. Nearly, 28 articles and 72 books related to this topic were found and after applying the search criteria, only 13% of the references were found to be applicable. In the Quran, collaboration is equivalent to Taavon, and Muslims are requested to collaborate in their affairs and never collaborate with each other for illegal affairs. Islam asserts that everyone requires social relationship in their life. God has enacted mutual rights for people and meeting these requirements is only possible through collaboration and respecting mutual rights. PMID:25248980

  11. The Essence of Education in a Secular Islamic Land: One Is as Free as He Is Responsible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duruhan, Kemal; Sad, Suleyman Nihat

    2006-01-01

    With Christianity and the Jewish religion, Islam has been the leading divine religion, accepted and obeyed by millions over a large geography since its declaration in the early 7th century. In this article, the authors shed light on some milestones in Islamic civilization, such as the golden age, the Abbasids, the Ottomans, and the rise of Western…

  12. Social Work and the House of Islam: Orienting Practitioners to the Beliefs and Values of Muslims in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the…

  13. 75 FR 63532 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated Aliases as Foreign... for the 2003 re-designation of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) as foreign terrorist organization...

  14. 78 FR 32000 - In the Matter of the Designation of the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group aka Groupe Islamique...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group aka Groupe Islamique Combattant... conclude that the circumstances that were the basis for the designation of Moroccan Islamic Combatant...

  15. "Yes, but Suppose Everyone Turned Gay?": The Structure of Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Rights among Islamic Youth in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Dejaeghere, Yves; Claes, Ellen; Quintelier, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Various quantitative studies have suggested the occurrence of hostile feelings toward LGBT rights among Islamic communities in Western societies. We know less, however, about the structure of these attitudes among Belgian Islamic youth. Based on focus groups and in-depth interviews, we try to disentangle these elements. The interviews suggest that…

  16. Islam in the Classroom: Teachers and Parents Alike Are Unsure about the Topic, but It's Never Been More Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barack, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Between recent threats by a Florida pastor to burn the Quran, the nation's ongoing presence in Afghanistan, and protests at the planned site for Park 51, an Islamic community center and mosque set to be built two blocks from the World Trade Center site, the topic of Islam is a tricky one, especially in K-12 schools, say many educators. For…

  17. 76 FR 18771 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Islamic Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... the Federal Register, (70 FR 22668), announcing that it had determined that ports in the Islamic... announces that it is removing the conditions of entry on vessels arriving from the country of Islamic... are not maintaining effective anti-terrorism measures. It also requires public notice ] of...

  18. "We Had To Hide We're Muslim": Ambient Fear, Islamic Schools and the Geographies of Race and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been virulent urban politics surrounding the provision of government-funded Islamic K-12 schooling in suburban south-western Sydney, Australia. In this paper, drawing on examples of local government opposition to Islamic schools, we argue that race and religion constitute contestations of urban space around the…

  19. Islamic Republic of Iran. "Balance" a daunting challenge.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    At the fiftieth session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the representative from the Islamic Republic of Iran expressed concern about continuing rapid population growth in developing countries. Overall growth in absolute terms between 1992 and 2025 will result in a population increase 16 times greater in developing countries than in developed countries. The requirements for food, housing, employment, health care, education, and energy of a population this size in relation to availability would contribute to the decline of the environment. The success of Iran's First Development Plan, which is based on the recommendations of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development, is indicated by a decreased population growth rate (from more than 3% to 2.5%) and by an increased life expectancy (from 58 years in 1976 to 67 years in 1992). Policies that have been implemented include 1) increasing literacy and general knowledge in the population, particularly by increasing the level of school attendance of girls; 2) improving the status of women through an extension of education and by increasing their participation in management of the family and society; 3) improving health conditions and decreasing maternal and infant mortality; 4) repealing all regulations that encourage population growth and adopting measures in conformity with national birth control policies; and 5) increasing rural per capita income through diversification of job opportunities and creation of income from nonagricultural sources in rural areas. PMID:12288616

  20. Islamic Republic of Iran population growth rate declines.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In April 1996, at the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the delegate from the Islamic Republic of Iran announced that social indicators indicate acceptable improvement. The average population growth rate fell from 3.9% (1981-1991) to less than 2% (1995). High birth rates and an influx of refugees during 1981-1991 accounted for the high population growth rate. The marked decline in the birth rate, brought about mainly by effective family planning and health programs, has contributed greatly to the reduced population growth rate. The government has focused on rural areas. 86% of rural households now have access to piped water. More than 60% have electricity. The overall literacy rate in Iran has reached 79%. The entire population has access to free or subsidized primary health care services. The Second Development Plan of Iran centers on the significance of the role that mothers have in shaping society and individuals by their child raising abilities, particularly in the early years. The Iranian delegate endorsed the secretariat's plan for helping members and associate members to reach their development goals and objectives. PMID:12291139

  1. Islam, religiosity, and immigrant political action in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Just, Aida; Sandovici, Maria Elena; Listhaug, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The issues of migration and immigrant political integration in western democracies have become increasingly intertwined with debates on religion, particularly Islam. To date, however, we have surprisingly little systematic research on how religious beliefs are related to immigrants' political engagement. In this study, we argue that religion has a capacity to mobilize immigrants politically but the strength of this relationship depends on immigrant generation, religiosity, and the type of religion. Using survey data collected as part of the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2010 in 18 West European democracies, our analyses reveal that religion is indeed linked to political engagement of immigrants in a complex way: while belonging to a religion is generally associated with less political participation, exposure to religious institutions appears to have the opposite effect. Moreover, we find that, compared to foreign-born Muslims, second-generation Muslim immigrants are not only more religious and more politically dissatisfied with their host countries, but also that religiosity is more strongly linked to their political engagement. This relationship, however, is limited to uninstitutionalized political action. PMID:24267757

  2. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  3. Similitude in modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z

    1999-07-01

    The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the human body using pharmacological compendia and recent scientific works, confirming the mechanism of the homeopathic medicines' action through the verification of the primary action of the drugs and the consequent secondary reaction of the organism in hundreds of pharmaceutical agents. Treatment exploiting the "rebound" effect (curative vital reaction) may also be observed. This work suggests a research methodology to scientifically base the therapeutic principle of similitude. PMID:10449051

  4. Modern carbonate environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

  5. [Modernization of ophthalmoscopic techniques].

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, O; Vallat, M

    1987-01-01

    The great principles of ophthalmoscopy have been known for many decades. This paper intends show the new possibilities allowed by modern technology, especially in two fields. First of all, it is possible, even in keeping basic principles, to improve previous machines with, for example, better magnification, new ophthalmoscopic lens, or to create new materials as telescopes for clinical practice or intra-ocular surgery, wide angle or high magnification fundus cameras for posterior pole examination. Secondary, by revolutionary principles, it is possible to introduce laser in the ophthalmoscopic field and to imagine new ophthalmoscopes: SLO i.e. Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope or SLM i.e. Scanning Laser Microscope, which opens a window on the future. PMID:3598060

  6. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  7. Breazeale Reactor Modernization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, C. C.

    2003-04-16

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor is the longest operating licensed research reactor in the nation. The facility has played a key role in educating scientists, engineers and in providing facilities and services to researchers in many different disciplines. In order to remain a viable and effective research and educational institution, a multi-phase modernization project was proposed. Phase I was the replacement of the 25-year old reactor control and safety system along with associated wiring and hardware. This phase was fully funded by non-federal funds. Tasks identified in Phases II-V expand upon and complement the work done in Phase I to strategically implement state-of-the-art technologies focusing on identified national needs and priorities of the future.

  8. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  9. Modern operative hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Centini, Gabriele; Troia, Libera; Lazzeri, Lucia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is an endoscopic surgical procedure that has become an important tool to evaluate intrauterine pathology. It offers a direct visualization of the entire uterine cavity and provides the possibility of performing biopsy of suspected lesions that can be missed by dilatation and curettage (D&C). In most cases, the intrauterine pathologies can be diagnosed and treated at the same setting as office hysteroscopy ("see and treat approach"). For example, endometrial polyps can be diagnosed and removed; similarly, intrauterine adhesions can be liberated in the outpatient setting without the need for an operating theatre. Today, many hysteroscopic procedures can be performed in the office or outpatient setting. This is due to the feasibility of operative hysteroscopy using saline as a distending medium, the vaginoscopic approach of hysteroscopy and the availability of mini-hysteroscopic endoscopes. There is good evidence to suggest that hysteroscopy in an ambulatory setting is preferable for the patient, and that it avoids complications, allows a quicker recovery time and lowers cost. Advances in technology have led to miniaturization of high-definition hysteroscopes without compromising optical performance, thereby making hysteroscopy a simple, safe and well-tolerated office procedure. The new surgical technology such as bipolar electrosurgery, endometrial ablation devices, hysteroscopic sterilization, and morcellators has revolutionized this surgical modality. The modern development of hysteroscopy completely transformed the approach to the uterine intracavitary pathologies moving from a blind procedure under general anesthesia to an outpatient procedure performed under direct visualization, offering therapeutic and irreplaceable possibilities of treatment that should belong to every modern gynecologist. PMID:26930389

  10. Dissolving the engineering moral dilemmas within the Islamic ethico-legal praxes.

    PubMed

    Solihu, Abdul Kabir Hussain; Ambali, Abdul Rauf

    2011-03-01

    The goal of responsible engineers is the creation of useful and safe technological products and commitment to public health, while respecting the autonomy of the clients and the public. Because engineers often face moral dilemma to resolve such issues, different engineers have chosen different course of actions depending on their respective moral value orientations. Islam provides a value-based mechanism rooted in the Maqasid al-Shari'ah (the objectives of Islamic law). This mechanism prioritizes some values over others and could help resolve the moral dilemmas faced in engineering. This paper introduces the Islamic interpretive-evaluative maxims to two core issues in engineering ethics: genetically modified foods and whistleblowing. The study aims primarily to provide problem-solving maxims within the Maqasid al-Shari'ah matrix through which such moral dilemmas in science and engineering could be studied and resolved. PMID:19937149

  11. Reproductive strategies and Islamic discourse: Malian migrants negotiate everyday life in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Carolyn F

    2006-03-01

    Approximately 37 thousand Malians currently reside in France as part of the West African diaspora. Primarily Muslim, both women and men confront challenges to their understandings of Islamic prohibitions and expectations, especially those addressing conjugal relations and reproduction. Biomedical policies generate marital conflicts and pose health dilemmas for women who face family and community pressures to reproduce but biomedical encouragement to limit childbearing. For many women, contraception represents a reprieve from repeated pregnancies and fatigue in spite of resistance from those who contest women's reproductive decisions as antithetical to Islam. French social workers play a particularly controversial role by introducing women to a discourse of women's rights that questions the authority of husbands and of religious doctrine. Women and men frame decisions and debate in diverse interpretations of Islam as they seek to manage the contradictions of everyday life and assert individual agency in the context of immigration and health politics. PMID:16612992

  12. An analysis of stock market efficiency: Developed vs Islamic stock markets using MF-DFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Bacha, Obiyathulla I.; Masih, Mansur

    An efficient market has been theoretically proven to be a key component for effective and efficient resource allocation in an economy. This paper incorporates econophysics with Efficient Market Hypothesis to undertake a comparative analysis of Islamic and developed countries’ markets by extending the understanding of their multifractal nature. By applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) we calculated the generalized Hurst exponents, multifractal scaling exponents and generalized multifractal dimensions for 22 broad market indices. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the markets in Islamic countries, where they have traces of highly efficient performance particularly in crisis periods. A key finding is the empirical evidence of the impact of the ‘stage of market development’ on the efficiency of the market. If Islamic countries aim to improve the efficiency of resource allocation, an important area to address is to focus, among others, on enhancing the stage of market development.

  13. Teaching Modern Literature: Poetry and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damashek, Richard

    This monograph, part of a series for language arts teachers, discusses the essential components for teaching modern poetry and modern fiction. The section on modern poetry considers traditional versus modern poetry, modernism in poetry, imagism, the function of poetry in modern times, social change in poetry, and offers a brief list of recommended…

  14. 'Every disease has its cure': faith and HIV therapies in Islamic northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Jack Ume

    2010-12-01

    Northern Nigeria has one of the highest levels of HIV prevalence among societies that are predominantly Muslim. In the last decade the region has experienced marked expansion of religiously-oriented healing practices following the formal adoption of Islamic sharia law. Since 2005, international funding has also made antiretroviral therapy (ART) more widely available throughout Nigeria. This study uses ethnographic data collected in Kano, northern Nigeria's largest city, to examine Muslims' perspectives on HIV treatment in the context of popular health beliefs and expanding therapeutic options. The research found that passages from classical Islamic texts are regularly cited by both HIV/AIDS practitioners and patients, especially when talking about the supposition that Allah sends a cure to humankind for every disease. Some religious scholar-practitioners (malamai) working in the Islamic traditions of prophetic medicine insist that HIV can be completely cured given sufficient faith in the supernatural power of the Quran; others claim that the natural ingredients prescribed in Islamic texts can cure HIV. Such assertions contradict the mainstream biomedical position that, with the proper therapeutic regimen, infection with HIV can be managed as a chronic illness, although not cured. Thus, these assertions constitute a challenge to the increasing therapeutic hegemony of antiretroviralbased care in Nigeria. Without falsifying the proposition that a divine cure for HIV exists, many Muslim patients on ART, and the predominantly Muslim biomedical staff who treat them, express scepticism about whether the cure has yet to be revealed to humans. These findings suggest that despite recent efforts in Nigeria to assert a unified Islamic perspective on HIV and AIDS, substantive disagreements persist over the causes, treatments and curability of the disease. The healing systems in which practitioners and patients operate influence how they interpret Islamic texts concerning the

  15. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  16. Islamic Sunni Mainstream Opinions on Compensation to Unrelated Live Organ Donors

    PubMed Central

    Natour, Ahmad; Fishman, Shammai

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on contemporary Islamic attitudes towards the question of compensation to a non-relative live organ donor. This article presents the history of the debate on organ transplantation in Islam since the 1950s and the key ethical questions. It continues by presenting the opinions of the mainstream ulema such as Tantawi and Qaradawi. The article ends with a conclusion that there must be no compensation made to a non-related live organ donor, not even a symbolic gift of honor (ikramiyya). PMID:23908804

  17. Towards an Archaeology of Early Islamic Ports on the Western Red Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Against a background of developing research on Red Sea ports, a hypothetical model of the morphology of port towns during the early Islamic period is presented here. These places went through constant cycles of change as economic and political frameworks fluctuated. While their physical shape and form was strongly influenced by architectural features of the Islamic world their functionality was more aligned to commercial interaction. These were dynamic spaces where the daily life of their inhabitants was guided by trade, religion, weather and politics. The ports were intrinsically tied to the trade networks that connected Africa with Arabia and the broader Indian Ocean world.

  18. Islamic sunni mainstream opinions on compensation to unrelated live organ donors.

    PubMed

    Natour, Ahmad; Fishman, Shammai

    2011-04-01

    This article focuses on contemporary Islamic attitudes towards the question of compensation to a non-relative live organ donor. This article presents the history of the debate on organ transplantation in Islam since the 1950s and the key ethical questions. It continues by presenting the opinions of the mainstream ulema such as Tantawi and Qaradawi. The article ends with a conclusion that there must be no compensation made to a non-related live organ donor, not even a symbolic gift of honor (ikramiyya). PMID:23908804

  19. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  20. IGISOL control system modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  1. Modern Written Arabic, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.

    This second volume of Modern Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the modern Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…

  2. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  3. When and What to Modernize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D. Dana

    After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

  4. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital. PMID:15805027

  5. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results. PMID:26907868

  6. Teaching about Women and Islam in North Africa: Integrating Postcolonial Feminist Theory in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayzafoon, Lamia Ben Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Using postcolonial feminist theory, the researcher attempts in this article to redefine the interpretive framework through which courses on Islam and North African women are being taught in American undergraduate classes. Several conceptual limitations have been identified: inadequate knowledge of the geography and history of North Africa; the…

  7. Global Questions in the Classroom: The Formulation of Islamic Religious Education at Muslim Schools in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    My paper focuses on the formulation of Islamic Religious Education (IRE) at two Swedish Muslim schools where fieldwork was conducted in 2005-2008. Its aim is to contribute knowledge to ways in which IRE is formed as a confessional school subject within the framework and under the jurisdiction of the Swedish school system. Even though the general…

  8. Education Policy Racialisations: Afrocentric Schools, Islamic Schools, and the New Enunciations of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on ideas of assemblage to examine the contingency and (in)coherence of education policy. The paper is a conceptual and thematic attempt to understand the policy terrain, broadly conceived, pertaining to opposition to the establishment of private Islamic schools in Australia and public Afrocentric schools in Canada. This opposition…

  9. An Insight into Islamic Pedagogy at the University of University of al-Qarawiyyin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, A'ishah Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into teaching practice of the University of al-Qarawiyyin, Morocco, with a particular focus on Islamic pedagogy. Design/methodology/approach: The authors conducted daily participant observations of "teaching circles" over a seven-month period. The participant observation was achieved from…

  10. The Education of an Industrial Middle Class in Arab-Islamic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeh, Ibrahim Assad

    1993-01-01

    Suggests a model of industrial education for the Arab world to help create an industrial middle class. Reviews existing Eurocentric industrial training models and proposes a synthesis of these models with Arab-Islamic culture in a kind of "industrial university," the Djamiat Al-Sinah. Illustrates the proposed curriculum with a year-by-year chart…

  11. Islamic Education in a Multicultural Society: The Case of a Muslim School in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Faisal Mohamed; Bagley, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The case study explores the ways in which a prominent, private Canadian Muslim school provides an Islamic education while negotiating its place in an integrated, socially cohesive, multicultural society. The data are derived from an in-depth qualitative investigation utilizing documentary analysis, participant observation, and interviews (N = 22).…

  12. Islamic Education and the UK Muslims: Options and Expectations in a Context of Multi-Locationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss Islamic philosophy of education to explain the role and aims of education for the Muslim "Ummah" (Community). It will then debate the needs of the UK Muslims with regard to the education of their children in the context of multi-locationality, and associated challenges of bringing up children while living between…

  13. Envisioning Multicultural Education Development in U.S. Islamic Schools in Light of Reviewed Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Atwani, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is first to provide a literature review that informs the race, class, and ethnic diversity among Muslims in the United States; then to show how this literature review may acknowledge developing multicultural education in Islamic schools in the United States. In the direction of these aims, the author reviews the…

  14. Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Hoodbhoy, P. )

    1993-06-01

    The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

  15. Anti-Racist Teaching, Student Ethnography and the Multiracial Model of Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    My Ethnography of the University (EUI) course "Muslims in America" introduces undergraduate students to the racialisation of Islam and Muslims in the U.S. at large, and in the University in particular. In this article, I describe how an anti-racist pedagogy coupled with student ethnographic research can yield a rich learning process.…

  16. Exploratory Analysis of the Comprehensive Application of the Islamic Concept of Zuhd in the Contemporary World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olohunfunmi, Ismail Abdul Fatai

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to present a clear frame work of how to practically apply the concept "Zuhd" to individual Muslim life. It is an empirical research on the Islamic concept of "Zuhd." The method that is employed in the study is qualitative approach, whereby interviews were staged, recorded and transcribed.…

  17. Re-envisioning the Future: Democratic Citizenship Education and Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Smeyers, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of why democratic citizenship education should be incorporated more meaningfully into Islamic education discourses in formal institutions in the Arab and Muslim world. In the Arab and Muslim world civic and national education seem to be the dominant discourses. We argue that the latter discourses are inadequate…

  18. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Shia Ismaili Muslim Girls Negotiate Islam in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Natasha Hakimali

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigates the experiences of Shia Ismaili Muslim girls as they encounter themselves as subjects of social studies curriculums on Islam. A postcolonial lens is used to examine differently empowered subjectivities and curricular epistimes within the high school world history context. In an effort to understand their experiences,…

  19. Islamic Teachers' Perceptions of Improving Critical Thinking Skills in Saudi Arabian Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadai, Mesfer Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this explanatory sequential mixed-method study is to examine Islamic teachers' thoughts on improving critical thinking skills in elementary schools in the Southwestern province of Saudi Arabia. This study involves the collection of quantitative data and an explanation of the quantitative results with qualitative data. In the first…

  20. Levels of Conformity to Islamic Values and the Process of Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassir, Balkis

    This study was conducted to measure the conformity levels and the identification process among university women students in an Islamic culture. Identity/conformity tests and costume identity tests were administered to 129 undergraduate female students at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. The Photographic Costume Identity Test and the…

  1. Moving toward Culturally Competent Practice with Muslims: Modifying Cognitive Therapy with Islamic Tenets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Nadir, Aneesah

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little information exists on the provision of culturally competent services to Muslims, in spite of the growing presence of this population in the United States. Consequently, the authors discuss a number of therapeutic approaches in light of their level of congruence with common Islamic values. Psychodynamic approaches, for example,…

  2. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  3. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

  4. The Importance of Positive Self-Concept for Islamic Education Teachers as a Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Nurul Asiah Fasehah; Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Tamuri, Ab. Halim; Ja'afar, Noornajihan; Ghazali, Norzulaili Mohd; Amat, Robiatul Adawiyah Mohd; Raus, Norakyairee Mohd; Hassan, Syed Najihuddin Syed

    2013-01-01

    This study embarks from the great and huge responsibility of teachers nowadays especially the IRT (Islamic religious teachers). As the role model of students, they play an important task especially in producing the good Muslim character. Therefore, their job not only focuses on the content of subject but becomes wider in scope, more than other…

  5. Graeco-Roman case histories and their influence on Medieval Islamic clinical accounts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Millan, C

    1999-04-01

    The medieval Islamic medical tradition was the direct heir of Classical and Hellenistic medicine thanks to an unprecedented movement of translation into Arabic, commentaries and systematizations of Greek scientific texts. In the process of assimilation, not only theoretical principles, but also literary models of presenting medical knowledge were adopted, amongst them the case history. Since the clinical account can be used as a tool for medical instruction as well as an instrument for professional self-promotion, this study seeks to investigate which purpose most motivated Islamic physicians, and to demonstrate the extent to which they were influenced by the stylistic patterns which served them as a model. This article comprises an analysis of the context, literary devices and purpose of case histories of the Epidemics, Rufus of Ephesos and Galen, and compares them with those by the tenth-century Islamic physician Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi. Author of the largest number of case histories preserved within the medieval Islamic medical literature, al-Razi's clinical records constitute an instrument with which to study and expand medical knowledge as well as providing useful material for students' medical training. Although al-Razi fused elements from the sources which served him as a model, he did not emulate Galen's use of the clinical history to assert himself in order to gain authority and prestige, but remained faithful to the Hippocratic essence. PMID:11623808

  6. Islam and the Textbooks. A Report of the American Textbook Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    How widely adopted world history textbooks cover Islam and the history of the Middle East is a timely and important subject to explore. In 2001 the American Textbook Council began a comprehensive review of middle school and high school world history textbooks. The Council relied on respected historians and standard sources, influential articles…

  7. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali

    2008-01-01

    In the Islamic Republic of Iran, considerable stigma is attached to the presence of a family member with intellectual disabilities, and even in Iran's new constitution, a word with traditional, negative connotation has been retained to refer to persons with intellectual disabilities. While two government organizations have recently become involved…

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Implementation of Computer Technology in an American Islamic Private School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Mohammed M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study of the implementation of computer technology in an American Islamic private school leveraged the case study methodology and ethnographic methods informed by symbolic interactionism and the framework of the Muslim Diaspora. The study focused on describing the implementation of computer technology and identifying the…

  9. Sunni Islam: What Students Need to Know. Footnotes. Volume 15, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2010-01-01

    It is the mark of a great world religion to accommodate different outlooks and sensibilities. Quite often, these differences are manifested in terms of formal divisions within the faith. In Islam, the major split is between Sunni and the various forms of Shiism, though other divisions also exist. This essay, excerpted from the book "Divisions…

  10. Arabic Language Teachers and Islamic Education Teachers' Awareness of Authentic Assessment in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Basheer, Akram; Ashraah, Mamdouh; Alsmadi, Rana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating Islamic Education teachers' and Arabic Language teachers' perceptions of authentic assessment in Jordan, and exploring the effects of factors related to teachers' specialization, gender and years of experience on their understanding of the implications of this kind of assessment. In this mixed-method research, a…

  11. Difficulties Students Face in Understanding Drama in English Literature at the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakfa, Mahmoud Dawoud Ali

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores the problems of English Language and Literature junior and senior majors, who are enrolled in a drama course at the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG). The course emphasizes the significance of drama. Morgan (1987: 7) defines drama as an "art of communication," which is essential in teaching literature. A survey…

  12. Response to the American Textbook Council Report, "Islam and the Textbooks."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Susan

    The Council on Islamic Education (CIE) is a nonprofit resource organization comprised of a diverse body of scholars of history, education, religion, and related disciplines. CIE strives to improve the U.S. K-12 education system by fostering the cultivation of knowledge, critical thinking, and global awareness among the nation's young citizens. CIE…

  13. Sacralized Citizenship: Women Making Known Selves in an Islamic Teachers' College in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdreich, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in an Islamic teachers' college in Israel and interviews with women lecturers, this article explores how the women combine education and religion to create a revitalized self and sense of belonging despite lived experiences of structural racial, national, and gender inequalities. The women's experience is…

  14. Risks for Religiously Infused Violence in Muslim Youth and Successful Antidotes through Correct Islamic Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harun, Sahmuddeen Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to change corrupt mindsets in my community. Working on this project has enhanced my ability to lead my community by example, to employ a pragmatic approach, to demonstrate my teaching skills, and to assert my commitment to pedagogy. This project introduces correct Islamic teachings that can deal with religiously infused violence.…

  15. Art Activities about Mesopotamia, Egypt and Islam. Hands-On Ancient People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Yvonne Y.

    This book features objects of the Mesopotamian, the Egyptian, and Islamic cultures. In exploring important contributions in ancient art, the book presents visuals that are interpretations of authentic artifacts, usually in museum collections, or illustrations from archaeological publications and articles. Historical items (n=55+) have been adapted…

  16. Articulating the Boundary between Secularism and Islamism: The Imam-Hatip Schools of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Soon-Yong

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic analysis of an Imam-Hatip vocational religious secondary school in Turkey, I examine teachers' and parents' expectations and the process of students' identity formation. Although the students attending the Imam-Hatip school were expected to accept a reality infused with an Islamic worldview, their schooling…

  17. How Teachers Values Affect Their Evaluation of Children of Immigrants: Findings from Islamic and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Mir, Madeeha

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the implications of how teachers' views of immigrant parents predict their ratings of first-grade students' academic competence and behavioral problems. Teachers rated 191 first-grade immigrant students attending Islamic and public schools in the Northeast United States. The results showed that when teachers perceived parents…

  18. "Doing and Undoing Gender": Female Higher Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Golnar

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic, female higher education has been characterised by a paradoxical combination of discrimination and exclusion, on the one hand, and increasing equality and empowerment, on the other. This study focuses on the triangle of education, equality and empowerment, using Sara Longwe's women's empowerment…

  19. Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies: Arabic with English Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Religious Freedom, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This appendix is a companion document to "Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies." The appendix includes selected excerpts in Arabic with English translations for currently-used textbooks in grades 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. These excerpts support the report…

  20. Developments in stem cell research and therapeutic cloning: Islamic ethical positions, a review.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hossam E

    2012-03-01

    Stem cell research is very promising. The use of human embryos has been confronted with objections based on ethical and religious positions. The recent production of reprogrammed adult (induced pluripotent) cells does not - in the opinion of scientists - reduce the need to continue human embryonic stem cell research. So the debate continues. Islam always encouraged scientific research, particularly research directed toward finding cures for human disease. Based on the expectation of potential benefits, Islamic teachings permit and support human embryonic stem cell research. The majority of Muslim scholars also support therapeutic cloning. This permissibility is conditional on the use of supernumerary early pre-embryos which are obtained during infertility treatment in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. The early pre-embryos are considered in Islamic jurisprudence as worthy of respect but do not have the full sanctity offered to the embryo after implantation in the uterus and especially after ensoulment. In this paper the Islamic positions regarding human embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning are reviewed in some detail, whereas positions in other religious traditions are mentioned only briefly. The status of human embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in different countries, including the USA and especially in Muslim countries, is discussed. PMID:21039687

  1. Assessment by Employers of Newly Graduated Civil Engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enshassi, Adnan; Hassouna, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation process is very important to identify and recognize the strengths and the weaknesses of graduated students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the newly graduated civil engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza in Palestine. The methodology was based on questionnaires and informal interview. The…

  2. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  3. Assessing efficiency and effectiveness of Malaysian Islamic banks: A two stage DEA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Norbaizura; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Mohd, Muhammad Azri

    2014-06-01

    Islamic banks in Malaysia are indispensable players in the financial industry with the growing needs for syariah compliance system. In the banking industry, most recent studies concerned only on operational efficiency. However rarely on the operational effectiveness. Since the production process of banking industry can be described as a two-stage process, two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) can be applied to measure the bank performance. This study was designed to measure the overall performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of Islamic banks in Malaysia using Two-Stage DEA approach. This paper presents analysis of a DEA model which split the efficiency and effectiveness in order to evaluate the performance of ten selected Islamic Banks in Malaysia for the financial year period ended 2011. The analysis shows average efficient score is more than average effectiveness score thus we can say that Malaysian Islamic banks were more efficient rather than effective. Furthermore, none of the bank exhibit best practice in both stages as we can say that a bank with better efficiency does not always mean having better effectiveness at the same time.

  4. Privatization of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran: One Step Forward, One Step Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arani, Abbas Madandar; Kakia, Lida; Taghavi, Tandis

    2015-01-01

    During the last three decades in Iran, the government has had different policies on the privatization of education. After victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the new government closed all private schools for nearly a decade. Establishing and reopening Non-Governmental Schools (NGS) was the first action toward the privatization of education…

  5. Critical Development Exploration Based on the Islamic Education in Iranian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yousefy, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to do a critical development exploration based on the Islamic education in Iranian higher education. In this paper, logical analysis qualitative method was used. Through library studies, information was collected and analysis of the results was done. The information collecting tool was note taking and information was…

  6. Science Teachers' Views of Science and Religion vs. the Islamic Perspective: Conflicting or Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study that explores Egyptian science teachers' views on religion and science within the context of Islam. It also highlights an ontological and epistemological consideration of these views, particularly the ways through which Egyptian Muslim teachers understand such a relationship with reference to the Qur'anic/Islamic…

  7. Muslim American University Students' Perceptions of Islam and Democracy: Deconstructing the Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…

  8. Using Narrative Case Studies in an Online World Religions Course to Stimulate Deep Learning about Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Sherman Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to examine how a narrative case study in an online asynchronous world religions course affected learners' understandings, appreciation, and respect for the beliefs and values of others. The world religions course examined a variety of religions including Islam. Ten participants received information about the…

  9. Displaced Islamic Identities: Language, Time and Space in Post 9/11 America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadlbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how women in the Muslim Student Association (MSA) at the University of Colorado at Boulder respond to the negative stereotypes of Islam and Muslims that have proliferated since 9/11. The media's positioning of Muslim women as "backwards" and "un-American" compels MSA women to construct an…

  10. The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makdisi, George

    The typology of institutions of learning in Islam is examined with concentration on a particular institution of learning, the Muslim college, especially in its madrasa form, and on the scholastic method that was its product. Chapter 1, "Institutions," examines the rise of the schools of law, typology of learning and the law of waqf as it pertains…

  11. Religion and Social Hidden Curriculum--The Educative Influences of Christianity and Islam in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorent-Bedmar, Vincente; Llorent, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam, on the social functions of women based on the sacred texts of both, references to a hidden social curriculum in the history. Faced with the growing religious pluralism in contemporary societies, we believe that the debate on how the two main religions in…

  12. Science, Religion, and the Quest for Knowledge and Truth: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    2010-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In…

  13. Learning to Teach Islam as a Non-Muslim in the Twin Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Elizabeth G.

    2005-01-01

    In this essay I reflect on my experience thus far of teaching Islam as a non-Muslim at Metropolitan State University and at the University of St. Thomas in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. I begin by narrating a conversation about conversation that I had with one of my Muslim students. Then I introduce the theme of multiplicity as a way of…

  14. The Moral and Ethical Orientations of Islam and Other Revealed Religions: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedin, Saleha M.

    Islam is the dominant religion in some parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, and in all of North Africa and the Middle East. Muslim minority communities are found in almost all countries in the world. In social sciences, religion is defined as a system of ideas and institutions that have emerged in response to man's search for meaning, purpose, and…

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  16. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful. PMID:24790391

  17. [The Justinian plague (part two). Influence of the epidemic on the rise of the Islamic Empire].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Manfredi, Roberto; Fiorino, Sirio

    2012-09-01

    The Islamic Empire started its tumultuous and rapid expansion from the year 622 A.D. (the year of Mohammed's Egira). This rapid growth coincided with the epidemic spread of the bubonic plague in the Middle East. Although a first epidemic event had been documented in the year 570 A.D. (pre-Islamic phase), in the Arabic peninsula, classically according to M.W. Dols five severe episodes of plague sub-epidemics are considered in the middle-eastern geographic area: the first occurred in 627 and 628 A.D., the fifth in 716 A.D.. Anyway, we may state that at the onset of Islam the geographic region including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran was involved by endemic plague. In their work, on the ground of a literature review, the Authors describe the characteristics of the epidemic phenomenon, and analyze the how the plague affected the interpretation of Prophet's Koran and Hadits. The passive attitude demonstrated by many Muslims during early Islam was not shared by all believers, since others moved towards a more soft approach, which included the behaviour of the so called moving aside , when the contagion was of concern. The epidemic plague significantly contributed to the weakening of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the rapid decline of the Persian Empire, while during the early expansion phases of Islam, it indirectly favoured the nomadic Arab tribes which, moving on desert or semi-desert territories, succeeded in escaping the contagion more easily. Subsequently, when the Arab population became sedentary, after occupying the conquered cities, this initial advantage was significantly reduced. PMID:22992565

  18. The response of Islamic jurisprudence to ectopic pregnancies, frozen embryo implantation and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, I

    1987-07-01

    The opinions of the Jurisconsult of Egypt on Islamic law regarding test tube fertilization, embryo transfer and abortion are explained. Test tube babies, if not derived from the husband's sperm, are by definition, "zina" or the result of illicit sexual intercourse. This type of quasi-adultery is punishable by mere disgracing, rather than lapidation, or stoning to death. Such children cannot inherit even from the mother. Possibly, a female child may marry the husband, to be legitimized in terms of inheritance. Under Islamic law, embryo transfer is illegal insofar as it involves artificial insemination of the donor by the husband; temporary maternity by the donor is a jural concept that has no place in Islamic family law. The egg of the donor, not the surrogate mother, places the issue in the thorny area of multiple suckling. There have been no pronouncements by Islamic legal experts on euthanasia or pregnancy by in vitro fertilization of orphaned embryos. Abortion law "ijhad" in Kuwait was amended in 1982 to permit abortion where either grievous bodily harm to the mother is imminent or it is proved that the baby will suffer incurable brain damage or severe mental retardation. The decision must be approved unanimously by 3 Muslim consultant physicians presided over by an obstetrician or gynecologist, parental consent is required, and the hospital must have an obstetric-gynecological wing. There is precedent in Islamic law for saving the life of the mother where there is a clear choice of allowing either the fetus or the mother to survive. Similarly in case of miscarriage or attempted miscarriage, damages for a fetus or stillborn are less than those paid for a live birth. Penalties for therapeutic abortion, for example after exposure to German measles, have been viewed as less serious before 120 days of gestation, when the Prophet indicated that the embryo is given a soul. These ethical interpretations are worth considering for Western jurists as a source of ideas

  19. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  20. On Heidegger, medicine, and the modernity of modern medical technology.

    PubMed

    Brassington, Iain

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines medicine's use of technology in a manner from a standpoint inspired by Heidegger's thinking on technology. In the first part of the paper, I shall suggest an interpretation of Heidegger's thinking on the topic, and attempt to show why he associates modern technology with danger. However, I shall also claim that there is little evidence that medicine's appropriation of modern technology is dangerous in Heidegger's sense, although there is no prima facie reason why it mightn't be. The explanation for this, I claim, is ethical. There is an initial attraction to the thought that Heidegger's thought echoes Kantian moral thinking, but I shall dismiss this. Instead, I shall suggest that the considerations that make modern technology dangerous for Heidegger are simply not in the character - the ethos - of medicine properly understood. This is because there is a distinction to be drawn between chronological and historical modernity, and that even up-to-date medicine, empowered by technology, retains in its ethos crucial aspects of a historically pre-modern understanding of technology. A large part of the latter half of the paper will be concerned with explaining the difference. PMID:17077993

  1. Reasons on the similarity of objections with regards to gambling and speculation in Islamic finance and conventional finance.

    PubMed

    Kunhibava, Sherin

    2011-03-01

    Gambling and speculation which leads to zero-sum outcomes are prohibited in Islamic finance and condemned in conventional finance. This article explores the reasons for the similarity of objections towards gambling and speculation. Three probable reasons are explored namely the concept of stewardship in conventional thought and the concept of khalifa in Islam, Christianity and morality's influence on conventional law and finance and the concept of ethics of sacrifice and ethics of tolerance. PMID:20514512

  2. Achieving a Spiritual Therapy Standard for Drug Dependency in Malaysia, from an Islamic Perspective: Brief Review Article.

    PubMed

    Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain; Hatim, Ahmad; Rashid, Rusdi; Ardakan, Abolfazl; Esmaeili Motlaq, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Religion is one of the protective factors that facilities positive outcomes by preventing individuals from engaging in addictive substance. A recent study has confirmed that religion inhibits drug addiction. The concept of psychospiritual therapy was to introduce drug addiction. Therefore, of the various methods of psychotherapy, the usage of Taqwa (piety) emerged as an applicable method of Islamic spiritual therapy. This study was conducted in Malaysia as a Muslim country and focuses on Islamic recommendations and its relation to spiritual therapy. PMID:26060772

  3. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  4. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    PubMed

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`). PMID:23665956

  5. Chapter 6: after Galen Late Antiquity and the Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gül A

    2010-01-01

    It is usually assumed that after Galen there was nothing new until the Renaissance. Contrary to this view, there were significant modifications of the inherited legacy in Late Antiquity, followed by fundamental changes within the Arabic/Islamic world. Their formative influence extends from the medieval period of transmission to the Renaissance and the 17th century. The increasing emphasis on the primacy of the brain initiated the beginnings of ventricular localization of function in Late Antiquity, which was subsequently developed into a theory and transmitted to the West via Arabic. Following the unprecedented translation movement in 9th-century Baghdad, the cumulative Greek and Hellenistic knowledge of the brain, nerves, and the senses from diverse sources were brought together in the systematic, logically unified Arabic medical compendia of encyclopedic proportions, which embody divergence from accepted views and new diagnostic observations. Their Latin versions became standard texts in medical schools. The oldest extant schematic diagrams relevant to neurology (the eye, the ventricles, the visual system, and the nerves) date from this period, and served as models for the medieval Latin West. The development of coherent descriptions of the motor and sensory systems, and related clinical disorders, by analogy with the mechanisms of hydraulic automata, foreshadows some of the explanatory methods associated with the 17th century. Furthermore, an entirely new approach resulted in a paradigm shift in theory and methodology through the experimental studies on the physics of light and vision of Ibn al-Haytham (d. 1040), who showed that what is sensed is not the object itself, but a punctate optical "image" due to light reflected from its surface to the eye. This revolutionary approach to vision destroyed the viability of the Greek tradition of holistic forms and tactile sensory impressions. Ibn al-Haytham's theory of point-to-point correspondence formed the basis of

  6. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

  7. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

  8. Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1991 (Bibliography of Modern Language Instruction, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on the teaching of modern languages is a quarterly product of a German information dissemination system (IFS) similar to ERIC. Citations are compiled in conjunction with the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics and a number of other institutions around the world. Entries include mostly German, French,…

  9. INDUCED ABORTION FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: IS IT CRIMINAL OR JUST ELECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Albar, Mohammed A.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Induced Abortion for social reasons is spreading all over the world. It is estimated that globally 50 million unborn babies are killed annually, resulting in the deaths of 200,000 pregnant women and the suffering of millions. The complications of illegal abortion are very serious. Abortion is still used in many countries as a means of family planning. The medical reasons for abortion are limited and con-sti-tute a small proportion of all abortion cases. This paper discusses the different views on abortion, its history, its evolution over time, and the present legal circumstances. The emphasis is on the situation in Islamic countries and the effect of Islamic Fatwas on abortion. PMID:23008648

  10. Both Islam and Christianity Invite to Tolerance: A Commentary on Dirk Baier.

    PubMed

    Salamati, Payman; Naji, Zohrehsadat; Koutlaki, Sofia A; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-12-01

    Baier recently published an interesting original article in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. He compared violent behavior (VB) between Christians and Muslims and concluded that religiosity was not a protecting factor against violence and that Muslim religiosity associated positively with increased VB. We appreciate the author's enormous efforts on researching such an issue of relevance to today's world. However, in our view, the article has methodological weaknesses in terms of participants, instruments, and statistical analyses, which we examine in detail. Therefore, Baier's results should be interpreted more cautiously. Although interpersonal violence may sometimes be observable among Muslims, we do not attribute these to Islam's teachings. In our opinion, both Islam and Christianity invite to tolerance, peace, and friendship. So, the comparison of such differences and the drawing of conclusions that may reflect negatively on specific religious groups need better defined research, taking into consideration other basic variables in different communities. PMID:25524264

  11. Islam, sexuality, and the marginal positioning of Pengkids and their girlfriends in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuenmei

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the lived experiences of the Pengkids and their girlfriends in the deprived district of the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, this article examines transgender practices and women's same-sex desires within the local contexts of urbanization and political Islam. This article questions the assumed marginal positions of transgender practices and same-sex desires in society, and provides a nuanced understanding of the politics of identity, gender, sexuality and religion involved in a Muslim country. While the Muslim-Malay sexual minorities are increasingly subjected to the threats of moral policing in Malaysia, Pengkid has become a new identity marker for the marginalized sexual subject framed by the Islamic discourse of this country. PMID:22978284

  12. Ethical issues on preventions and management of blood genetics disorders--Islamic views.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues are of concern to all members of the health team and the community at large, particularly in relation to chronic and genetic diseases. The fear from the negative social impact, including stigmatization of the carriers of a genetic disease and the affected individual is of a particular concern to the individual and his family. Members of the health team should protect the individual autonomy, observe the ethical principles including beneficence, nonmaleficent, justice, and confidentiality, and maintain high level of professional competence. In addition, Islamic/Arab costumes and traditional issues need to be respected in these communities. This article will outline the prevention and management of common blood genetic disorders in the high of Islamic ethical teachings, where the individuals benefit is paramount. PMID:20001612

  13. Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC): Evaluating Scholary Journals Based on Citation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrad, Jaffar; Arastoopoor, Sholeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Citation analysis is currently one of the most widely used metrics for analyzing the scientific contribution in different fields. The Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC) aims at promoting technical cooperation among Muslim scientists and their respected centers based on these theories. It also facilitates the accessibility of knowledge and research contribution among them. This paper aims at revealing some of the outmost features of ISC databases, in order to give a fairly clear view of what it is and what are its products. The paper consists of three major parts. After an introduction about the Islamic World Science Citation Center, the paper deals with major tools and products of ISC. In the third part ISCs’ journal Submission system is presented as an automatic means, by which users can upload journals’ papers into the respected databases. Conclusion: Some complementary remarks have been made regarding the current state of ISC and its future plans. PMID:23322953

  14. Playing God and the ethics of divine names: an Islamic paradigm for biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaiser

    2007-10-01

    The notion of 'playing God' frequently comes to fore in discussions of bioethics, especially in religious contexts. The phrase has always been analyzed and discussed from Christian and secular standpoints. Two interpretations exist in the literature. The first one takes 'God' seriously and playing 'playfully'. It argues that this concept does state a principle but invokes a perspective on the world. The second takes both terms playfully. In the Islamic Intellectual tradition, the Sufi concept of 'adopting divine character traits' provides a legitimate paradigm for 'playing God'. This paradigm is interesting because here we take both terms 'God' and 'playing' seriously. It is significant for the development of biomedical ethics in contemporary Islamic societies as it can open new vistas for viewing biotechnological developments. PMID:17845447

  15. Creating Neoliberal Citizens in Morocco: Reproductive Health, Development Policy, and Popular Islamic Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Hughes Rinker, Cortney

    2015-01-01

    Self-governance and responsibility are two traits associated with neoliberal citizenship in scholarly and popular discourses, but little of the literature on this topic focuses on North Africa. My goal, in this article, is not only to fill this void but also to complicate understandings of neoliberalism through an examination of the relationship between reproductive health care, development policy, and popular Islamic beliefs in Morocco. My discussion is based on fieldwork in Rabat, Morocco, which included observations in health clinics, interviews with patients and staff, and visits to patients' homes. By analyzing the childbearing and childrearing practices of Moroccan women who visited the clinics, I pose that neoliberal logic cannot be predefined or understood as a monolithic concept. I demonstrate that women were active in their own governance and accountable for their reproductive behaviors, but they did so because of their understandings of what Islam says about fertility and motherhood. PMID:24892231

  16. Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module

  17. Objections to Greek Astronomy in Islamic Times and Their Relationship to the Work of Copernicus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2000-04-01

    This illustrated talk details the long history of the successive objections to Greek Ptolemaic astronomy that were voiced by astronomers working in the Islamic civilization before the time of Copernicus. It also illustrates the alternative astronomies that were suggested, the mathematical theorems that were proposed for that purpose and the deployment of the same theorems and the same techniques later on by Copernicus himself in his own astronomy.

  18. Science, religion, and the quest for knowledge and truth: an Islamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    2010-03-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In responding to Staver's thesis, I rely strongly on my scientific education and habit of mind; I also partly found my views on my Islamic background, though I enlarge my scope to consider western philosophical perspectives as well. I differ with Staver in his definition of the nature, scope, and goals of religion (concisely, "explaining the world and how it works"), and I think this is the crux of the matter in attempting to resolve the perceived "discord" between science and religion. The heart of the problem is in the definition of the domains of action of science and religion, and I address this issue at some length, both generically and using Islamic principles, which are found to be very widely applicable. The concept of "reality," so important to Staver's thesis, is also critically reviewed. The philosophy of knowledge (and of science) in Islam is briefly reviewed in the aim of showing the great potential for harmony between the two "institutions" (religion and science), on the basis of the following philosophy: science describes nature, whereas religion gives us not only a philosophy of existence but also an interpretative cloak for the discoveries of science and for the meaning of the cosmos and nature. I conclude by insisting that though science and religion can be considered as two worldviews that propose to describe "reality" and to explain our existence and that of the world; they may come to compete for humans' minds and appear to enter into a conflicting position, but only if and when we confuse their domains and modes of action. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see

  19. When the spirit leaves: Childhood death, grieving, and bereavement in Islam.

    PubMed

    Hedayat, Kamyar

    2006-12-01

    The death of a child has a profound and often long-lasting impact on families. The parent's relationship and their ability to bond with and take care of surviving children may be affected. It is important for healthcare workers to understand the dynamics associated with bereavement, especially when the family comes from a non-Western culture. Islam is one of the three most populous religions along with Christianity and Hinduism and the fastest growing religion in the United States but remains largely misunderstood. This paper seeks to explain what Islam is, who is a Muslim, where they live, and what they believe and practice. It also explains how Islamic beliefs contextualize the meaning of life and death for Muslims and how they are exhorted to grieve upon a child's death. Reading this paper will enable those who care for Muslim families to better attend to the social and emotional needs of Muslim parents and siblings after such a tragic event. PMID:17187536

  20. Controversies and considerations regarding the termination of pregnancy for Foetal Anomalies in Islam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately one-fourth of all the inhabitants on earth are Muslims. Due to unprecedented migration, physicians are often confronted with cultures other than their own that adhere to different pdigms. Discussion In Islam, and most religions, abortion is forbidden. Islam is considerably liberal concerning abortion, which is dependent on (i) the threat of harm to mothers, (ii) the status of the pregnancy before or after ensoulment (on the 120th day of gestation), and (iii) the presence of foetal anomalies that are incompatible with life. Considerable variation in religious edicts exists, but most Islamic scholars agree that the termination of a pregnancy for foetal anomalies is allowed before ensoulment, after which abortion becomes totally forbidden, even in the presence of foetal abnormalities; the exception being a risk to the mother’s life or confirmed intrauterine death. Summary The authors urge Muslim law makers to also consider abortion post ensoulment if it is certain that the malformed foetus will decease soon after birth or will be severely malformed and physically and mentally incapacitated after birth to avoid substantial hardship that may continue for years for mothers and family members. The authors recommend that an institutional committee governed and monitored by a national committee make decisions pertaining to abortion to ensure that ethics are preserved and mistakes are prevented. Anomalous foetuses must be detected at the earliest possible time to enable an appropriate medical intervention prior to the 120th day. PMID:24499356

  1. Modeling and forecasting the volatility of Islamic unit trust in Malaysia using GARCH model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nuraini; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2015-10-01

    Due to the tremendous growth of Islamic unit trust in Malaysia since it was first introduced on 12th of January 1993 through the fund named Tabung Ittikal managed by Arab-Malaysian Securities, vast studies have been done to evaluate the performance of Islamic unit trust offered in Malaysia's capital market. Most of the studies found that one of the factors that affect the performance of the fund is the volatility level. Higher volatility produces better performance of the fund. Thus, we believe that a strategy must be set up by the fund managers in order for the fund to perform better. By using a series of net asset value (NAV) data of three different types of fund namely CIMB-IDEGF, CIMB-IBGF and CIMB-ISF from a fund management company named CIMB Principal Asset Management Berhad over a six years period from 1st January 2008 until 31st December 2013, we model and forecast the volatility of these Islamic unit trusts. The study found that the best fitting models for CIMB-IDEGF, CIMB-IBGF and CIMB-ISF are ARCH(4), GARCH(3,3) and GARCH(3,1) respectively. Meanwhile, the fund that is expected to be the least volatile is CIMB-IDEGF and the fund that is expected to be the most volatile is CIMB-IBGF.

  2. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate. PMID:26371707

  3. Comparison of Body Dissatisfaction and Cosmetic Rhinoplasty with levels of Veil Practicing in Islamic Women

    PubMed Central

    Rastmanesh, Reza; Gluck, Marci E; Shadman, Zhaleh

    2009-01-01

    Objective The relationship between Islamic veiling, body dissatisfaction and desire for cosmetic rhinoplasty (CR) has not been studied. We therefore compared body dissatisfaction (BD), depression, self-esteem, and prevalence and desire to have CR in 1771 Iranian females. Method A battery of questionnaires was administered and participants were categorized into three groups of Islamic veil practicing: voluntarily and ideologically (IVP), non-complete (NCIVP) and Inconsiderate (IIVP). Results Despite a similar BMI, the IVP group scored significantly lower on BD, prevalence of dieting and exercising in order to be sexually appealing, and depression, higher on self-esteem, and had a lower desire for a CR than the two other groups. Prevalence of CR was significantly higher in the IIVP group than the other groups. Conclusions Women who practiced more strict Islamic veiling techniques had increased body satisfaction and self esteem, and decreased depression scores and desire for CR. Consistent with other studies, our findings show that observance of a strict religious practice has a protective effect on psychological health. PMID:19115373

  4. Retraining the Modern Civil Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priscoli, Jerome Delli

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why modern engineering requires social science and the nature of planning. After these conceptional discussions, 12 practical tools which social science brings to engineering are reviewed. A tested approach to training engineers in these tools is then described. Tools include institutional analysis, policy profiling, and other impact…

  5. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  6. Lead Safety and School Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Robin; Harrington, David

    This factsheet is for anyone responsible for modernization projects in California's public schools where materials containing lead may be disturbed or where lead abatement is planned. It explains the state requirements for properly dealing with lead hazards so that children and workers are protected. Its sections address why to be concerned about…

  7. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  8. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 14-18 for the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content concentrates on the background needed to understand the periodic table; names of inorganic compounds; structures, names and classes of common organic material; chemistry and…

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  12. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  13. Modern midwifery: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1985-01-01

    To gain more understanding of the practices of modern midwives, 2 births occurring in a Botswanan District Hospital Maternity Ward were observed by a research assistant. Naturalistic observation was considered more reliable than interviews with either patients or modern midwives to assess the biosocial aspects of birth in the modern sector. At admission to the labor room, these 2 midwives checked the patient's blood pressure, performed a vaginal examination, checked the fetal heart, palpated the uterus, shaved the public hair, and administered an enema. Both midwives did not communicate with their patients during these procedures or offer information on the results. The patients were told not to push; 1 midwife commented, "In the hospital, nobody delivers by herself." Rather, patients were instructed to do their "breathing exercises," a term with which they were not familiar and was not explained. In the 1st case, an episiotomy was performed. Both births were uneventful in terms of complications, but marked by a lack of attention to the psychological needs of the patient or sufficient explanations as to the progress of the delivery. Overall, all communications between the modern midwives observed and their patients were impersonal, with an emphasis on technical procedures. PMID:12282440

  14. PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

    PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

  15. Post-Modern Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  16. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  17. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

  18. The Herschels and Modern Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerke, Agnes Mary

    2010-05-01

    Preface; 1. Early life of William Herschel; 2. The King's astronomer; 3. The explorer of the heavens; 4. Herschel's special investigations; 5. The influence of Herschel's career on modern astronomy; 6. Caroline Herschel; 7. Sir John Herschel at Cambridge and Slough; 8. Expedition to the Cape; 9. Life at Collingwood; 10. Writings and experimental investigations; Index.

  19. Multi-tiered S-SOA, Parameter-Driven New Islamic Syariah Products of Holistic Islamic Banking System (HiCORE): Virtual Banking Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimah, B. Z.; Azlina, A.; Sembok, T. M.; Sufian, I.; Sharul Azman, M. N.; Azuraliza, A. B.; Zulaiha, A. O.; Nazlia, O.; Salwani, A.; Sanep, A.; Hailani, M. T.; Zaher, M. Z.; Azizah, J.; Nor Faezah, M. Y.; Choo, W. O.; Abdullah, Chew; Sopian, B.

    The Holistic Islamic Banking System (HiCORE), a banking system suitable for virtual banking environment, created based on universityindustry collaboration initiative between Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Fuziq Software Sdn Bhd. HiCORE was modeled on a multitiered Simple - Services Oriented Architecture (S-SOA), using the parameterbased semantic approach. HiCORE's existence is timely as the financial world is looking for a new approach to creating banking and financial products that are interest free or based on the Islamic Syariah principles and jurisprudence. An interest free banking system has currently caught the interest of bankers and financiers all over the world. HiCORE's Parameter-based module houses the Customer-information file (CIF), Deposit and Financing components. The Parameter based module represents the third tier of the multi-tiered Simple SOA approach. This paper highlights the multi-tiered parameter- driven approach to the creation of new Islamiic products based on the 'dalil' (Quran), 'syarat' (rules) and 'rukun' (procedures) as required by the syariah principles and jurisprudence reflected by the semantic ontology embedded in the parameter module of the system.

  20. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  1. Did Indians of the Americas Preserve Linguistic Place-names Like Willimantic, CT, Indicating Some Islamic Interactions and Applied Physics Use, Before Columbus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crory, Erica; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Modern Peruvians document: ``Ñari Huallac is the name of the town in the north of Peru (Piura) where our families come from. The words Ñari Huallac mean Serpent God, [editorial emphasis by underlining script is added], and are some of the few words which remain from the ancient Tallan civilization.'' Tallan seems related to The God, Allah, of Islam, as are Alaska, Allagash, Illinois, Willimantic, CT, and, in Maine, Metallak, Mollocket and Millinocket, Allahpatah, of Florida, and Allegheny of Pennsylvania. With this significance lies the partially concealed evidence that all three monotheistic faiths, during the times indicated by the language, understood there was a fundamental connection between The God, and what we would call today the electromagnetic field, EMF, of Mother Earth. Metallak: Doctor (at) The God (Spirit-signal, EMF), an ecclesiastical title, like Willimantic, The God Spirit-signal (where there is a) doctor. Alaska: The God Jesus Christ Spirit-signal (EMF). Millinocket: Adherent of The God monk Cathar, provides a reference date of about 1250 A.D. Illinois: The God Spirit-signal (EMF-detecting) monk. Mollocket asserted ownership of western Maine, until 1816. What did she know of importance from her war-hostage days in Boston?

  2. Advances in optics in the medieval Islamic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge in the field of optics, mainly in catoptrics and dioptrics, before the birth of modern science and the well-documented contributions of men such as Kepler and Newton. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of the subject such as one might find in history of science journals; instead, it is aimed at the curious physicist who has probably been taught that nothing much of note was understood about the behaviour of light, beyond outdated philosophical musings, prior to the seventeenth century. The paper will focus on advances during the medieval period between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, in both the east and the west, when the theories of the Ancient Greeks were tested, advanced, corrected and mathematised. In particular, it concentrates on a multivolume treatise on optics written one thousand years ago by the Arab scholar, Ibn al-Haytham, and examines how it influenced our understanding of the nature of reflection and refraction of light. Even the well-informed physicist should find a few surprises here, which will alter his or her view of the debt we owe to these forgotten scholars.

  3. Social and religious dimensions of unwanted pregnancy: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kasule, O H

    2003-03-01

    The concept of 'unwanted pregnancy' is a recent in human history and is associated with social stresses of modern life. The purposes of the law, maqasid al shari'at, and its principles, qawa'id a shari'at, focus on preventing 'unwanted pregnancy', protecting the rights of the fetus and infant, and mitigating the adverse effects of 'unwanted pregnancy' by social measures. 'Unwanted pregnancy' is associated with general social determinants (hedonistic life styles, sexual transgression, addiction to drugs, fear of poverty, and low female status) and specific antecedent causes (sexual crimes, egoistic greed, maternal/fetal disease, and gender discrimination). It is prevented by sexual hygiene, marriage, contraception, deterring sexual crimes, and raising the status of women. The adverse sequelae of 'unwanted pregnancy' (feticide, infanticide, or child abuse and neglect) can be prevented by defending the basic human right of the fetus and infant to life, promoting social institutions for child welfare (nuclear family, extended family, foster care, and open adoption). Closed adoption is forbidden by Law but care in a foster home is allowed and is encouraged if the nuclear and extended families are unwilling or are unable to care for children. Abortion at any stage of pregnancy is a crime against humanity. It is not a solution to the problem but is part of the problem. It will encourage more 'unwanted pregnancies'. PMID:14556350

  4. Nutritional Guidelines for School Lunch Programs: A Survey of Islamic Schools and Recommendations for Creating a Culture of Healthful Eating

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumiya; Saeed, Ziena; Diwan, Hanifa Hameed; Hussain, Iqra; Amer, Sarah; Haq, Mohamed M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the status of lunch programs in Islamic schools in the United States and develop recommendations for improving them. Study Design: The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) conducted a survey of lunch programs by mailing questionnaires to 100 Islamic schools in the United States. Muslims in Dietetics and Nutrition (MIDAN) developed lunch menus using American and ethnic foods conforming to nationally recommended guidelines. Results: Forty-eight Islamic schools responded to the survey, revealing that 20 schools follow guidelines and only six have dietitians advising on menu planning. Based on this survey, IMANA, with the assistance of MIDAN, has developed a summary of guidelines that schools can follow. These guidelines include sample menus of American and ethnic foods, recommendations for creating a n environment for healthful eating, and sources for funding school lunch programs. Conclusions: IMANA and MIDAN, recognizing the scientific significance and religious relevance of a nutritious diet, have developed these recommendations. This information is provided to aid Islamic schools in implementing guidelines for nutritionally balanced school lunch menus and in creating a culture that fosters a healthful lifestyle. PMID:23610485

  5. From Religious to Social Conversion: How Muslim Scholars Conceived of the "Rites de Passage" from Hinduism to Islam in Seventeenth-Century South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalfaoui, Mouez

    2011-01-01

    The common understanding of Islam tends to consider religious conversion as a matter of individual and rational belief and consisting, first and foremost, of attesting to the oneness of God ("shahada"). In this paper I argue that divergences exist among schools of Islamic Law concerning the modes and types of conversion. Contrary to Muslim jurists…

  6. Towards a Common Ground: Arab versus Western Views about Challenges of Islamic Religious Education Curriculum of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashed, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    The Islamic religious education curriculum of the twenty-first century is a cornerstone in a hot debate about necessary educational reforms in the Islamic World. This study aimed at investigating the depth of agreement/disagreement between Arab and Western educational views about challenges of this curriculum through reviewing academic…

  7. Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PMID:22800179

  8. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness. PMID:20695408

  9. Modern Detectors for Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, Oscar

    2005-10-12

    This paper focus on the necessary requirements for a modern astroparticle physics detector based either on stratospheric balloons, either on satellite. The main technical solutions used to build a reliable detector are described. Finally, the most relevant experiments that have been developed with the INFN contribution and that will be ready in the near future (both for {gamma} and charged cosmic rays detection) are described.

  10. Modern Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Knuppel, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical chorioamnionitis continues to contribute to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have been made in the last 20 years in understanding the pathophysiologic processes leading to chorioamnionitis. This review addresses the history, incidence, pathophysiology, host defenses, risk factors, diagnosis, and maternal and neonatal management of clinically evident chorioamnionitis. After a detailed review of the physiologic processes leading to clinical chorioamnionitis and sepsis, we present a modern management scheme designed to optimize perinatal outcome for both mother and fetus. PMID:18476034

  11. Ancestors of modern plant crops.

    PubMed

    Salse, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Recent accumulation of plant genomic resources offers the opportunity to compare modern genomes and model their evolutionary history from their reconstructed Most Recent Common Ancestors (MRCAs) that can be used as a guide to unveil the forces driving the evolutionary success of angiosperms and ultimately to perform applied translational research from models to crops. This article reviews the current state of art of recent structural comparative genomics studies through ancestral genome reconstruction, that is, the field of in silico paleogenomics. PMID:26985732

  12. The origins of modern divorce.

    PubMed

    Coontz, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    High rates of marital dissolution and easy access to divorce are not unprecedented, historically or cross-culturally. But contemporary divorce in North America and Western Europe has different origins and features than divorce in previous cultures. The origins of modern divorce patterns date back more than 200 years, to the invention of the historically unprecedented idea that marriage should be based on love and mutual affection. Ironically, then, the fragility of modern marriage stems from the same values that have elevated the marital relationship above all other personal and familial commitments: the concentration of emotion, passion, personal identity, and self-validation in the couple relationship and the attenuation of emotional attachments and obligations beyond the conjugal unit. The immediate causes of divorce may range from factors as diverse as the personal psychological characteristics of one or both spouses to the stresses of economic hardship and community disintegration. But in a larger perspective, the role of divorce in modern societies and its relatively high occurrence both flow from the same complex of factors that have made good marriages so much more central to people's happiness than through most of the past, and deterioration of a marital relationship so much more traumatic. PMID:17375725

  13. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  14. From anesthetic sponge to nonsinking skull perforator, unitary work neurosurgery in the ancient Arabic and Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Jalal

    2010-05-01

    During the Middle Ages, the work of Middle Eastern physicians such as Avicenna, Albucasis, and Rhazes was of paramount importance in guarding the knowledge that had been accumulated throughout history, particularly the contributions of Greek and Roman scholars, and it is well known that the Arabic versions of all of the works by Hippocrates and Galen by Islamic and Arabic scholars are the only copies that have survived until now. In addition to preserving this wealth of knowledge, these Middle Eastern scholars made significant contributions of their own to both medicine and neurosurgery. Many points regarding ancient Arabic and Islamic science need to be discussed and clarified, such as cadaver dissections, anatomic studies, neurosurgical practice and instruments, Arabic translations of Hippocratic and other works, and the influence of the Islamic civilization on Western civilization, especially the Renaissance. PMID:20920948

  15. Protecting the mother's and child's health. Indonesia. Moslems and Islamic organizations participate in the family planning movement.

    PubMed

    Yapie, K H

    1996-01-01

    The lack of united legal opinion has become a characteristic of Islam. The Islamic community's views on family planning are therefore diverse, ranging from those who strongly resist it to those who enthusiastically support and promote it. However, in order to smoothly introduce family planning into Indonesia, religious legal support was and remains crucial. Religion, especially Islam, is very important in the lives of Indonesian people. The need for religious support was stated explicitly in the guidelines of the First Five-Year Development Plan, as one of the considerations in carrying out the National Family Planning Program. That program, the first of its kind, was provided by the Legal Affairs Committee of Muhammadiyah in 1968. The major characteristics of the four formal religious decisions on family planning are described, followed by discussion of the current views of some ulama. PMID:12347301

  16. Rousseau and the Image of "Modern Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelkers, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    The concept of "modern education" is directly connected with Rousseau's theory of education. It is often said that Rousseau "founded" modern education, or at least was its most influential predecessor. The paper argues that "modern learning" or "experimental education" was discussed within the late-17th century "quarrel of the ancients and…

  17. Teaching Modern Dance: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghauser, Rebecca Gose

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual approach to teaching modern dance can broaden the awareness and deepen the understanding of modern dance in the educational arena in general, and in dance education specifically. This article describes a unique program that dance teachers can use to introduce modern dance to novice dancers, as well as more experienced dancers,…

  18. African Cultural Traditions and Modernization: A Reaffirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Felix A.

    1978-01-01

    The viability of African cultural traditions and their role in modernization and nation-building in Africa are examined. Social and political organization and formal education are discussed in relation to the process of modernization. Although Africa may utilize Western models of development, Westernization and modernization are not synonymous.…

  19. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  20. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  1. Achieving a Spiritual Therapy Standard for Drug Dependency in Malaysia, from an Islamic Perspective: Brief Review Article

    PubMed Central

    SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; HABIL, Hussain; HATIM, Ahmad; RASHID, Rusdi; ARDAKAN, Abolfazl; ESMAEILI MOTLAQ, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Religion is one of the protective factors that facilities positive outcomes by preventing individuals from engaging in addictive substance. A recent study has confirmed that religion inhibits drug addiction. The concept of psychospiritual therapy was to introduce drug addiction. Therefore, of the various methods of psychotherapy, the usage of Taqwa (piety) emerged as an applicable method of Islamic spiritual therapy. This study was conducted in Malaysia as a Muslim country and focuses on Islamic recommendations and its relation to spiritual therapy. PMID:26060772

  2. Views on ocular cancer in Arabo-Islamic medicine and the leading influence of the ancient Greek medicine.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Nikolopoulos, Thomas; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George

    2016-01-01

    In the ophthalmological treatises of the medieval Arabo-Islamic physicians such as al-Mawsili (9th-10th century), al-Kahhal (ca. 940-1010), Haly Abbas (10th century) and al Sadili (14th century) we may find references about ocular cancer, focusing on eyelid tumors and cancerous ulcers of the cornea. These references are similar to the analogous ones of ancient Greek physicians as these are preserved in the medical texts of the most famous Byzantine doctors, indicating the influence of ancient Greek medicine in the Arabo-Islamic one. PMID:27061559

  3. Does Islamic spiritual program lead to successful aging? A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moeini, Mahin; Sharifi, Somaye; Zandiyeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Context: Successful aging is a pattern of aging that has gained much attention during recent years. One factor that has a negative impact on successful aging variables is hypertension. The phenomenon of aging when accompanied with hypertension promotes spiritual needs. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Islamic spiritual program on successful aging in elderly patients with hypertension who were referred to health centers of Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. Settings and Design: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: The participants (52 elderly patients with hypertension) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. While the control group received training related to health promotion, the Islamic spiritual program was implemented in the experimental group for eight sessions in two health centers of Isfahan. The data collection tools consisted of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire developed by Goldberg and the satisfaction with life scale developed by Diener. The questionnaires were completed in three steps; pretest, posttest, and follow-up (1-month). Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 20 and Chi-square, independent t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Statistical tests showed that the mean score of general health and life satisfaction of the experiment group had a meaningful difference from that of the control group in the posttest stage (P < 0.001). This difference was also meaningful in the follow-up stage (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the study indicated the effectiveness of an Islamic spiritual program on successful aging variables. PMID:27512694

  4. Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: a case study of a new terrorist organization in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Z

    2003-10-01

    The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was designated a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, the United States, and the United Nations in 2002. However, no systematic studies have been published on the new terrorist organization in Xinjiang, China. Using a case-study approach and interviews, this article attempts to provide information in terms of its historical evaluation, related religious and ethnic issues, organizational agenda, activities, and role in the current international terrorist network. This article argues that better international cooperation and the improvement of social and religious policies will help curtail activities of the ETIM. PMID:14526597

  5. Ictal movements mimicking Islamic praying rituals: localizing value in a series of 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Vural, Gonul; Irsel Tezer, F; Saygi, Serap

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the lateralizing value of the ictal praying gesture and of ictal religious speech in patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery. We retrospectively searched video/EEG data of 1430 patients who were evaluated at an epilepsy center from 1999 to 2014. Twelve patients were found to have demonstrated ictal praying during their complex partial seizures. Among all patients, the ictal focus was in the right temporal region. Ictal behavior simulating prayer, which includes both hands as in the Islamic ritual tradition is a rare automatism that lateralizes the ictal focus. PMID:26520882

  6. Looking Islam in the Teeth: The Social Life of a Somali Toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Laird, Lance D; Barnes, Linda L; Hunter-Adams, Jo; Cochran, Jennifer; Geltman, Paul L

    2015-09-01

    The Arabic miswak (Somali, adayge) is a tooth-cleaning stick from the Salvadora persica plant. In this article, we trace the social life of a "thing," examining meanings inscribed in the stick brush, drawing on interviews with 82 Somali refugees in Massachusetts and an analysis of local and transnational science and marketing. The miswak toothbrush symbolizes relationships to nature, homeland culture, global Islam, globalizing dental medicine, and the divine as it intersects with the lives of producers, marketers, distributors, and users, creating hybrid cultural forms in new contexts. PMID:25684459

  7. Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries.

    PubMed

    Duza, M B

    1987-01-01

    "The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed. PMID:12315536

  8. Looking Islam in the Teeth: The Social Life of a Somali Toothbrush

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Lance D.; Barnes, Linda L.; Hunter-Adams, Jo; Cochran, Jennifer; Geltman, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabic miswak (Somali, adayge) is a tooth-cleaning stick from the Salvadora persica plant. In this article, we trace the social life of a “thing,” examining meanings inscribed in the stick brush, drawing on interviews with 82 Somali refugees in Massachusetts and an analysis of local and transnational science and marketing. The miswak toothbrush symbolizes relationships to nature, homeland culture, global Islam, globalizing dental medicine, and the divine as it intersects with the lives of producers, marketers, distributors, and users, creating hybrid cultural forms in new contexts. PMID:25684459

  9. Mirror therapy for facial paralysis in traditional South Asian Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Mirror therapy has stimulated a dynamic clinical and research agenda for the treatment of poststroke hemiparesis and phantom pain. The origins of mirror therapy are thought to lie with the end of the twentieth century. This article translates key sections on the use of mirror therapy for facial paralysis from Muhammad Akbar Arzānī, an influential practitioner of South Asian Islamic medicine. Given that his text appeared over a quarter millennium before Western accounts of mirror therapy, this article calls for an amendment to the historical record so that Arzānī is recognized. PMID:23323527

  10. Philosophical aspects of modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Cosmology is the attempt to understand in scientific terms the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This ambition has been with us since the ancient Greeks, even if the developments in modern cosmology have provided a picture of the universe dramatically different from that of Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle. The cosmological thinking of these figures, e.g. the belief in uniform circular motion of the heavens, was closely related to their philosophical ideas, and it shaped the field of cosmology at least up to the times of Copernicus and Kepler.

  11. Modern concepts in diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Danielle; Winter, Des C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a striking shift in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathology, and management of diverticular disease. Indeed, many of the guidelines published in the late nineties and early 2000s are now redundant. High-fiber diets, avoidance of nuts and seeds, antibiotic treatment for mild diverticulitis, elective resection after 2 attacks of diverticulitis, Hartmann's procedure (HP), and aggressive management of young patients are all open to question. The more we challenge our understanding of diverticulitis it becomes apparent how little we know about this disease entity. This review aims update the reader on current hypotheses and evidencebased modern management strategies in diverticular disease. PMID:25811113

  12. The naturalistic fallacy is modern.

    PubMed

    Daston, Lorraine

    2014-09-01

    The naturalistic fallacy appears to be ubiquitous and irresistible. The avant-garde and the rearguard, the devout and the secular, the learned elite and the lay public all seem to want to enlist nature on their side, everywhere and always. Yet a closer look at the history of the term "naturalistic fallacy" and its associated arguments suggests that this way of understanding (and criticizing) appeals to nature's authority in human affairs is of relatively modern origin. To apply this category cross-historically masks considerable variability and naturalizes our own assumptions about the natural and the human. PMID:25816480

  13. Trends in Modern Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Eder, Jörg; Herrling, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Drugs discovered by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 100 years have dramatically changed the practice of medicine and impacted on many aspects of our culture. For many years, drug discovery was a target- and mechanism-agnostic approach that was based on ethnobotanical knowledge often fueled by serendipity. With the advent of modern molecular biology methods and based on knowledge of the human genome, drug discovery has now largely changed into a hypothesis-driven target-based approach, a development which was paralleled by significant environmental changes in the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratories became increasingly computerized and automated, and geographically dispersed research sites are now more and more clustered into large centers to capture technological and biological synergies. Today, academia, the regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry all contribute to drug discovery, and, in order to translate the basic science into new medical treatments for unmet medical needs, pharmaceutical companies have to have a critical mass of excellent scientists working in many therapeutic fields, disciplines, and technologies. The imperative for the pharmaceutical industry to discover breakthrough medicines is matched by the increasing numbers of first-in-class drugs approved in recent years and reflects the impact of modern drug discovery approaches, technologies, and genomics. PMID:26330257

  14. The microscopist of modern life.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, J Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This is an essay in the history of observation of the natural and social worlds. It explores how nineteenth-century Paris became a field and object of scientific observation and how the everyday lives, and even the health, of scientists living in the city and leaving the city for the "country" modeled observations and theoretical interpretation. The story concerns the first important work in the research school of Louis Pasteur to focus on a human and urban disease, diphtheria, rather than animal and rural ones. An urban field practice emerged from characteristically Parisian forms and literary fictions of street life and public space, leisure, spectacle, and crowds. Some of these, such as transcience, were (and still are) viewed as not only characteristic of "modern life," but also the source of new practices and sensibilities in painting and literature. Microbiological studies elsewhere --such as in New York and Hamburg--were based on very different urban structures, patterns of everyday life, national cultures, and aspects of modernity. PMID:12964593

  15. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  16. Teaching Technique of Islamic Studies in Higher Learning Institutions for Non-Arabic Speakers: Experience of Faculty of Quranic and Sunnah Studies and Tamhidi Centre, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Azniwati Abdul; Ibrahim, Mohamed Akhiruddin; Shaker, Mohammad Hikmat; Nor, Azlina Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Globalization causes educational institutions to encounter various challenges and demand, in which they need to play their roles in improving competitiveness and world-class quality education. Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) as a university that integrates "Naqli" and "Aqli" knowledge has taken the globalization…

  17. Cosmopolitan communication online: YouTube responses to the anti-Islam film Fitna.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, Sabina; van Zoonen, Liesbet; Vis, Farida

    2011-12-01

    In 2008, a Dutch member of parliament released a short anti-Islamic film entitled Fitna, which stirred a huge public controversy and provoked public condemnations around the world. In response to the film, hundreds of videos were uploaded on YouTube, mostly with the aim to provide a more positive representation of Islam, express support for the author and his views, or defend his freedom of speech. Drawing on interviews with YouTube users who posted the videos, this paper reflects on the capacity of the Internet to sustain cosmopolitan communication and examines how cosmopolitan attitudes and practices on-line differ depending on the participants' cultural and social background, especially their religious affiliations. Particular attention is paid to how the opportunities for cosmopolitan communication are shaped by the unequal distribution of cosmopolitan attitudes and practices among groups, and by global inequalities of power. In addressing these issues, the paper also engages with broader debates about cosmopolitanism, and argues for an understanding of cosmopolitanism as a quest for universalism, which remains anchored in the particular, but involves communication across difference, and requires openness to the possibility that the other is right. PMID:22150378

  18. Therapeutic abortion in Islam: contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, K M; Shooshtarizadeh, P; Raza, M

    2006-01-01

    Abortion is forbidden under normal circumstances by nearly all the major world religions. Traditionally, abortion was not deemed permissible by Muslim scholars. Shiite scholars considered it forbidden after implantation of the fertilised ovum. However, Sunni scholars have held various opinions on the matter, but all agreed that after 4 months gestation abortion was not permitted. In addition, classical Islamic scholarship had only considered threats to maternal health as a reason for therapeutic abortion. Recently, scholars have begun to consider the effect of severe fetal deformities on the mother, the families and society. This has led some scholars to reconsider the prohibition on abortion in limited circumstances. This article reviews the Islamic basis for the prohibition of abortion and the reasons for its justification. Contemporary rulings from leading Shiite scholars and from the Sunni school of thought are presented and reviewed. The status of abortion in Muslim countries is reviewed, with special emphasis on the therapeutic abortion law passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2003. This law approved therapeutic abortion before 16 weeks of gestation under limited circumstances, including medical conditions related to fetal and maternal health. Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. PMID:17074823

  19. Complex network analysis of conventional and Islamic stock market in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadhani, Andri; Purqon, Acep; Kim, Sehyun; Kim, Soo Yong

    2015-09-01

    The rising popularity of Islamic financial products in Indonesia has become a new interesting topic to be analyzed recently. We introduce a complex network analysis to compare conventional and Islamic stock market in Indonesia. Additionally, Random Matrix Theory (RMT) has been added as a part of reference to expand the analysis of the result. Both of them are based on the cross correlation matrix of logarithmic price returns. Closing price data, which is taken from June 2011 to July 2012, is used to construct logarithmic price returns. We also introduce the threshold value using winner-take-all approach to obtain scale-free property of the network. This means that the nodes of the network that has a cross correlation coefficient below the threshold value should not be connected with an edge. As a result, we obtain 0.5 as the threshold value for all of the stock market. From the RMT analysis, we found that there is only market wide effect on both stock market and no clustering effect has been found yet. From the network analysis, both of stock market networks are dominated by the mining sector. The length of time series of closing price data must be expanded to get more valuable results, even different behaviors of the system.

  20. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868