Science.gov

Sample records for passage technology saving

  1. Water saving technologies flagship program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Flagship Project on Water Saving Technologies was formed under the protocol between the USDA and Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China. Joint work in this flagship project was reported at the 13th Joint Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology in ...

  2. Hydropower R&D: Recent advances in turbine passage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Rinehart, Ben N.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that are often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  3. Hydropower R&D: Recent Advances in Turbine Passage Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Bennie Nelson; Cada, G. F.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that re often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  4. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  5. Technologies for evaluating fish passage through turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of two types of technologies to observe fish and near neutrally buoyant drogues as they move through hydropower turbines. Existing or reasonably modified light-emitting and ultrasonic technologies were used to observe flow patterns, the response of fish to flow, and interactions between fish and turbine structures with good spatial and temporal accuracy. This information can be used to assess the biological benefits of turbine design features such as reductions in gaps at the tips and hub of turbine runner blades, reshaping wicket gates and stay vanes, modifications to draft tube splitter piers, and design changes that enhance egress through the powerhouse and tailrace.

  6. Weight Saving Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The airplane shown below is the Beech Super King Air, an executive transport built by Beech Aircraft corporation, Wichita, Kansas. Its development was aided by the NASA computer program known as NASTRAN(Registered TradeMark) (NASA Structural Analysis), which electronically analyzes a computerized design and predicts how it will react to many different conditions of stress and strain. In this instance the program was employed in analysis of the airplane's structure and engine mounts. NASTRAN was similarly used in development of other Beech planes, such as the T-34C military trainer and the new single-engine Skipper light-plane, which is making its debut this year. At its Boulder, Colorado facility, Beech has used NASTRAN in analysis of fuel tanks for space vehicles. The company reports it has achieved cost savings and improved its design/analysis capabilities through use of the NASA program. NASTRAN and other government-generated computer programs are made available to industry through NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)(Registered TradeMark) at the University of Georgia.

  7. Saving Time with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine; Zimmerman, Holly

    2013-01-01

    In order to help teachers envision digital products in action in classrooms, the authors look at three examples of how teachers they know enhance learning time by employing technology efficiently. The examples include: (1) a social studies teacher who begins each class period with a three-question formative assessment using the website…

  8. The passage of Florida's Statute on Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    PubMed

    Maun, A R; Williams, R S; Graber, B; Myers, W G

    1994-11-01

    Until 1993, there were no statutes in the United States covering gestational surrogacy contracts, disposition of stored embryos and gametes, parentage of children born from donated gametes and embryos, and the inheritance rights of cryopreserved embryos of deceased donors. In March 1993, the Florida Assisted Reproductive Technology Act was passed to address some of these issues and to minimize the expense and emotional cost of related courtroom proceedings. Authors of the bill believed that motherhood of a newborn in the eyes of the law should be determined by two factors: genetic inheritance and the original intent of the woman to become the parent of record. The bill included the assumption that, in the cases of children born of gestational surrogacy, the commissioning genetic parents would be the "natural parents" of the child. Some of the reasons for legislative success of the statute include: 1) clear need for statutory guidance in cases involving reproductive technology, 2) relevance of the issue to cost containment (ie, judicial costs) in an era of health care reform, 3) careful use of scientific terminology and the support of the medical community, 4) involvement of a skilled legislative team, 5) participation of physician specialists in the development of the bill (ie, practicing gynecologists in assisted reproductive technology programs), 6) participation of the State of Florida legislative staff, and 7) consultation with appropriate lobbying groups (eg, Florida Catholic Conference). The successful legislative process that was followed to achieve passage of this bill can serve as an example for other states to emulate. PMID:7936533

  9. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  10. Innovative technologies for fish passage: Aspects of development and implementation. Summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.J.C.

    1995-06-01

    A number of vendors of innovative systems designed to facilitate fish passage through hydroelectric facilities were interviewed for this study. They identified several significant barriers to the development and commercialization of their technologies. This study examined a number of fish passage technologies that were identified as innovative. These systems encompassed a range of new (or at least relatively untried in the sense of an established setting) and creative ideas that impinge on various points in the process of fish passage downstream. Technologies examined ranged from variations on established technologies (such as screens) to completely new and alternative systems for the generation of electricity from the potential energy of flowing water without the intervention of high head dams.

  11. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  12. E-SMARRT: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) program developed by Advanced Technology Institute (ATI). E-SMARRT is a balanced portfolio of projects to address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry.

  13. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  14. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  15. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This, in

  16. New Energy-Saving Technologies Use Induction Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two energy-saving technologies tested recently at Marshall Space Flight Center use an induction motor operated in reverse (as an induction generator). In the first, energy ordinarily dissipated during load testing of machinery is recovered and returned to powerline. In the second, efficiency of wind-driven induction generator is improved, and useful range of windspeed is broadened. Both technologies take advantage of ac voltage developed across terminals of an induction motor when rotated at higher than-synchronous speed in the direction it normally turns when power is appled.

  17. Wil Wheaton: Life-Saving Technology from NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's commitment to safety in space has been saving lives on Earth for years. Rocket-powered parachutes can save entire airplanes, Apollo-era life rafts have saved hundreds of sailors, and a cardi...

  18. LED traffic lights: New technology signals major energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, D.

    1994-12-31

    Using light-emitting diode technology to replace incandescent lamps in traffic signals promises energy savings upwards of 60 percent for each of the estimated quarter of a million controlled intersections in the United States. LED units use only 9 to 25 watts instead of the 67 to 150 watts used by each incandescent lamp. Though their first cost is relatively high, energy savings result in paybacks of 1 to 5 years. LED retrofit kits are available for red signal disks and arrows, and installations in several states have proven successful, although minor improvements are addressing concerns about varying light output and controller circuitry. Retrofitting green lamps is not yet feasible, because color standards of the Institute of Traffic Engineers cannot be met with existing LED technology. Yellow lamps have such low duty factors (they`re on only 3 percent of the time) that retrofitting with LED signals is not cost-effective. LEDs last much longer than incandescents, allowing municipalities to not only reduce their electricity bills, but to save on maintenance costs as well. As further incentive, some utilities are beginning to implement rebate programs for LED traffic signal retrofits. Full approval of LED units is still awaited from the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE), the standard-setting body for traffic safety devices. Local and state governments ultimately decide what specifications to require for traffic lights, and the growing body of successful field experience with LEDs appears to be raising their comfort level with the technology. The California Department of Transportation is developing an LED traffic light specification, and two California utilities, Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric, have provided rebates for some pilot installations.

  19. Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.J.; Kirk, T.K.; Swaney, R.; Shipley, D.F.

    1997-07-01

    Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale.

  20. Do water-saving technologies improve environmental flows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Charles; Reddy, V. Ratna; Linstead, Conor; Dhar, Murli; Roy, Sumit; May, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Water saving and conservation technologies (WCTs) have been promoted widely in India as a practical means of improving the water use efficiency and freeing up water for other uses (e.g. for maintaining environmental flows in river systems). However, there is increasing evidence that, somewhat paradoxically, WCTs often contribute to intensification of water use by irrigated and rainfed farming systems. This occurs when: (1) Increased crop yields are coupled with increased consumptive water use and/or (2) Improved efficiency, productivity and profitability encourages farmers to increase the area cropped and/or to adopt multiple cropping systems. In both cases, the net effect is an increase in annual evapotranspiration that, particularly in areas of increasing water scarcity, can have the trade-off of reduced environmental flows. Recognition is also increasing that the claimed water savings of many WCTs may have been overstated. The root cause of this problem lies in confusion over what constitutes real water saving at the system or basin scales. The simple fact is that some of the water that is claimed to be ‘saved’ by WCTs would have percolated into the groundwater from where it can be and often is accessed and reused. Similarly, some of the “saved” runoff can be used downstream by, for example, farmers or freshwater ecosystems. This paper concludes that, particularly in areas facing increasing water scarcity, environmental flows will only be restored and maintained if they are given explicit (rather than theoretical or notional) attention. With this in mind, a simple methodology is proposed for deciding when and where WCTs may have detrimental impacts on environmental flows.

  1. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  2. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades. PMID:11460627

  3. 78 FR 18585 - Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Technology Savings LLC's application for...

  4. Science, technique, technology: passages between matter and knowledge in imperial Chinese agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bray, Francesca

    2008-09-01

    Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time. PMID:19244848

  5. An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-12-03

    The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other

  6. Assessment of energy saving technologies with potential for applications in US industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and evaluate information on energy technologies displayed at international trade shows was assessed and evaluated. Technologies that had potential for saving energy in applications in US industries were identified. These technologies are identified and concise summaries on potential energy savings, economics, basic operational considerations, and potential applications are prepared. An objective of this study was to determine whether international trade shows can provide a convenient and useful forum for the identification of energy saving technologies which could have wider applications in US industry. Forty-four technologies were chosen for inclusion which are grouped into the following categories: heat recovery devices, heat exchangers, heat pumps, and various other technologies. Some of the technologies include: a low energy drying system, solid waste in cement manufacturing, boiler fuel optimization system, multifuel boiler plant and coal combustion efficiency improvements.

  7. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  8. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  9. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing

    2004-08-09

    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  10. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  11. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  12. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Littleton, Harry; Griffin, John

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU's/year and 6.46 trillion BTU's/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  13. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods which first emerged in the mid-1970’s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individua...

  14. Savings from energy efficient windows: Current and future savings from new fenestration technologies in the residential market

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.; Arasteh, D.; Eto, J.

    1993-04-01

    Heating and cooling energy lost through windows in the residential sector (estimated at two-thirds of the energy lost through windows in all sectors) currently accounts for 3 percent (or 2.8 quads) of total US energy use, costing over $26 billion annually in energy bills. Installation of energy-efficient windows is acting to reduce the amount of energy lost per unit window area. Installation of more energy efficient windows since 1970 has resulted in an annual savings of approximately 0.6 quads. If all windows utilized existing cost effective energy conserving technologies, then residential window energy losses would amount to less than 0.8 quads, directly saving $18 billion per year in avoided energy costs. The nationwide installation of windows that are now being developed could actually turn this energy loss into a net energy gain. Considering only natural replacement of windows and new construction, appropriate fenestration policies could help realize this potential by reducing annual residential window energy losses to 2.2 quids by the year 2012, despite a growing housing stock.

  15. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

    1994-07-01

    Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

  16. Wireless Sensors: Technology and Cost-Savings for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Brambley, Michael R.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2002-08-30

    Two projects under way for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, aim to adapt, test and demonstrate wireless sensors and data acquisition for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) in commercial buildings. One project focuses on built-up systems in medium to large buildings; the second on applications for rooftop units in small- to medium-size facilities. In this paper, the authors present the technical characteristics and costs of off-the-shelf wireless sensor and data-acquisition systems and describe how they can be adapted to commercial buildings. The first part of the paper discusses the appropriateness of the different wireless protocols and then uses a "low-cost" and "high-cost" scenario later in the paper for comparison to wired systems. The paper provides a brief overview of wireless communication standards and discusses their appropriateness to HVAC control applications. The authors describe two wireless technology demonstration projects and discuss the limitations of today's technology and how wireless technology might be improved to reduce costs. Finally, a cost comparison between wired and wireless control networks for retrofit and new construction is presented to provide insights into the key drivers that determine the cost competitive of wireless technologies for HVAC control applications.

  17. Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

  18. Construction Program Saved! Partnership Revitalizes School of Applied Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlaca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The Edison School of Applied Technology, a comprehensive public high school, has long had a reputation for producing top-notch crafts workers, tradespeople, project managers, estimators, and industry leaders. The school's graduates helped build the city and many currently have successful, productive careers in the public and private sectors. But…

  19. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-06-30

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

  20. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  1. Cost savings deliverables and criteria for the OST technology decision process

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, A.

    1997-04-01

    This document has been prepared to assist focus area (FA) technical and management teams in understanding the cost savings deliverables associated with a technology system during its research and development (R and D) phases. It discusses the usefulness of cost analysis in the decision-making process, and asserts that the level of confidence and data quality of a cost analysis is proportional to the maturity of the technology system`s development life cycle. Suggestions of specific investment criteria or cost savings metrics that a FA might levy on individual research projects are made but the final form of these elements should be stipulated by the FA management based on their rationale for a successful technology development project. Also, cost savings deliverables for a single FA will be more detailed than those for management of the Office of Science and Technology (OST). For example, OST management may want an analysis of the overall return on investment for each FA, while the FA program manager may want this analysis and the return on investment metrics for each technology research activity the FA supports.

  2. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  3. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  4. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, Thornton C

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  5. Preliminary Weight Savings Estimate for a Commercial Transport Wing Using Rod-Stiffened Stitched Composite Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    A structural concept called pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure (PRSEUS) was developed by the Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration. While PRSEUS was an enabling technology for the pressurized HWB structure, limited investigation of PRSEUS for other aircraft structures, such as circular fuselages and wings, has been done. Therefore, a study was undertaken to investigate the potential weight savings afforded by using the PRSEUS concept for a commercial transport wing. The study applied PRSEUS to the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program composite semi-span test article, which was sized using three load cases. The initial PRSEUS design was developed by matching cross-sectional stiffnesses for each stringer/skin combination within the wing covers, then the design was modified to ensure that the PRSEUS design satisfied the design criteria. It was found that the PRSEUS wing design exhibited weight savings over the blade-stiffened composite AST Program wing of nearly 9%, and a weight savings of 49% and 29% for the lower and upper covers, respectively, compared to an equivalent metallic wing.

  6. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  7. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Design Support for Tooling Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dongtao

    2011-09-23

    High pressure die casting is an intrinsically efficient net shape process and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. Computer simulation has become widely used within the industry but use is not universal. Further, many key design decisions must be made before the simulation can be run and expense in terms of money and time often limits the number of decision iterations that can be explored. This work continues several years of work creating simple, very fast, design tools that can assist with the early stage design decisions so that the benefits of simulation can be maximized and, more importantly, so that the chances of first shot success are maximized. First shot success and better running processes contributes to less scrap and significantly better energy utilization by the process. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.83 trillion BTUs/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2012, a market penetration of 30% by 2015 is 1.89 trillion BTUs/year by 2022. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2022 is 0.037 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  9. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  10. Crystal growth technology CGT for energy: saving energy and renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Hans J.

    2005-02-01

    The fast-growing worldwide demand for energy, due to population growth and increasing standard of living, is in contrast with the limited fossil energy resources, with the political problems of nuclear fission energy, with the demand to reduce CO 2 production for climate control (Kyoto protocol), and with the slow advances of renewable energy sources. It will be shown how crystal growth technology (including epitaxy technology) can contribute to reduce the energy problem. CGT is the rate-determining factor for progress in energy-saving electrical technologies with high-temperature/high-power electrical technology and illumination from GaN-based devices as examples. Progress in CGT is also essential for the development of renewable energy sources like economic high-efficiency solar cells and in future laser-fusion energy where large laser and nonlinear-optic crystals of high radiation hardness are required. Education of CGT engineers and scientific development of CGT, using normally one optimum technology for industrial fabrication of specific crystals and one technology for specific epitaxial layers "epilayers", are needed.

  11. Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program brochure informs industrial audiences about Save Energy Now, part of ''Easy Ways to Save Energy'', a national campaign to save energy and ensure energy security.

  12. Solar-thermal technology development: estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R and D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R and D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artifically manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R and D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: the Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R and D funding. These mecahnisms can be expected to provide the required incentives to establish a viable self-sustaining private STT industry. Discussions of STT impacts on the environment and oil imports are also included.

  13. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Schartzberg, Mathew

    1993-03-01

    A field study was conducted at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in 1992 to evaluate the feasibility of using time-lapse video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon 0. nerka, and steelhead 0. mykiss using time-lapse video technology. High quality video images were produced with a time-lapse video system operating in 72 h mode from 1 May through 31 December, 1992 and fish were counted from 1 June through 15 December. From the video record we counted 15 sockeye salmon, 3,283 summer chinook salmon, 1,022 fall chinook salmon, and 125,599 steelhead. The composite count of target species generated from the video record was similar (p = 0.617) to the estimate made by on-site counters during identical time periods indicating that the two methods were precise. Comparisons of 24 h video counts and on-site (10 and 16 h) counts showed that a significant (p < 0.001) proportion of target salmonids migrated during the nighttime when on-site counts are not typically made at Lower Granite Dam. The mean sockeye salmon fork length measured from video images was 453 mm. Mean fork-lengths reported for Snake River sockeye salmon between 1953 and 1965 were much greater ({female} = 546 mm {male} = 577 mm). Cost comparisons showed that video costs were less than half those of on-site counting methods. The video method also included the collection of additional data. A computer software demonstration program was developed that graphically illustrated the possibilities of a completely automated, computerized fish counting and identification system.

  14. Office technology energy use and savings potential in New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A., Cramer, M., Eto, J., Koomey, J.

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses energy use by office equipment in New York State and the energy savings potential of energy-efficient equipment. A model containing equipment densities and energy-use characteristics for major categories of office equipment has been developed. The model specifies power requirements and hours of use for three modes of average operation for each device: active, standby, and suspend. The energy-use intensity for each device is expressed as a function of the average device density (number of units/1,000 sq ft), the hours of operation in each mode, and the average power requirements in each mode. Output includes an estimate of total energy use (GWh) for each device by building type. Three scenarios are developed. First is a business-as-usual efficiency baseline. Second is a future with increased use of power-managed devices projected under the current Energy Star Computers program sponsored by the US EPA. Third is a scenario that examines energy savings from greater use of products that go well beyond the standard Energy Star products. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore uncertainties in model inputs. The business-as-usual baseline forecast confirms that office equipment energy use has been rising over the past decade, and may continue to increase for the next decade and beyond. Office equipment currently consumes about 2,900 GWh/year in the State of New York. Under the business-as-usual baseline forecast, this load may increase to 3,300 GWh/year by the year 2000, and approximately double again before 2010. Widespread use of power management technologies adopted with the promotion of the Energy Star program could reduce this load growth by about 30% by the year 2000. Use of more advanced energy-efficient technology could reduce total energy use by office equipment to about 1,900 GWh/year in 2010, which is less than current consumption.

  15. Real-time data collection technologies: Enhanced decision-making and cost savings January, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, T.L.; Vu, H.Q.

    2006-07-01

    Hand-held computers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and wireless communication devices are rapidly replacing traditional methods for field monitoring and data collection. Although pencil and paper remain important means of data transcription, field technicians can now use Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to record their field notes and monitoring data. As data are uploaded wirelessly from the field, decision-makers can view realtime reports and maps that identify sample locations and monitoring results. The combination of PDAs, wireless communications, and web-based GIS provides field personnel and decision-makers many benefits throughout the life cycle of a project, including improved data consistency, real-time transfer of data from field locations to centralized databases, input validation, elimination of transcription errors, and cost savings. Concerns have been expressed however, about investing in hardware, software, and training for a new technology. This paper, based on several years of experience using wireless technologies for dozens of projects, is focused specifically on two case studies. The first case study is a large lead removal site in the Midwest at which real-time data collection technologies were used throughout the project to collect thousands of data points. The second is the Hurricane Katrina/Rita emergency response requiring rapid data collection under extraordinary circumstances. At both sites, the use of real-time data collection technologies significantly improved the data management process which reduced overall costs and increased efficiency. These results could not have been achieved using traditional data collection procedures. The oral presentation will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the real-time data collection technologies, lessons learned, and planning considerations. A live demonstration, following a typical data collection scenario in which data are collected and plotted on a GIS map in near real

  16. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  17. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo; Murugesan, Karthik; Ragab, Adham

    2011-09-13

    provided to NADCA for distribution to the industry. Power law based meta-models for predicting machine tie bar loading and for predicting maximum parting surface separation were successfully developed and tested against simulation results for a wide range of machines and experimental data. The models proved to be remarkably accurate, certainly well within the requirements for practical application. In addition to making die structural modeling more accessible, the work advanced the state-of-the-art by developing improved modeling of cavity pressure effects, which is typically modeled as a hydrostatic boundary condition, and performing a systematic analysis of the influence of ejector die design variables on die deflection and parting plane separation. This cavity pressure modeling objective met with less than complete success due to the limits of current finite element based fluid structure interaction analysis methods, but an improved representation of the casting/die interface was accomplished using a combination of solid and shell elements in the finite element model. This approximation enabled good prediction of final part distortion verified with a comprehensive evaluation of the dimensions of test castings produced with a design experiment. An extra deliverable of the experimental work was development of high temperature mechanical properties for the A380 die casting alloy. The ejector side design objective was met and the results were incorporated into the metamodels described above. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 2.03 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2009, a market penetration of 70% by 2014 is 4.26 trillion BTU's/year by 2019. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring

  18. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  19. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  20. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Development of CCT Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbley, L Scott

    2011-08-20

    One of the most energy intensive industries in the U.S. today is in the melting and casting of steel alloys for use in our advanced technological society. While the majority of steel castings involve low or mild carbon steel for common construction materials, highly-alloyed steels constitute a critical component of many industries due to their excellent properties. However, as the amount of alloying additions increases, the problems associated with casting these materials also increases, resulting in a large waste of energy due to inefficiency and a lack of basic information concerning these often complicated alloy systems. Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma (³) and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. Knowledge of the times and temperatures at which these detrimental phases form is imperative if a company is to efficiently produce castings of high quality in the minimum amount of time, using the lowest amount of energy possible, while producing the least amount of material waste. Anecdotal evidence from company representatives revealed that large castings frequently had to be scrapped due to either lower than expected corrosion resistance or extremely low fracture toughness. It was suspected that these poor corrosion and / or mechanical properties were directly related to the type, amount, and location of various intermetallic phases that formed during either the cooling cycle of the castings or subsequent heat treatments. However, no reliable data existed concerning either the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams or the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of the super-austenitics. The

  1. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  2. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Agricultural Economics. Planning for Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Michael; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on farm management for energy savings was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their…

  3. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  4. RCRA Part B permit modifications for cost savings and increased flexibility at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jierree, C.; Ticknor, K.

    1996-10-01

    With shrinking budgets and downsizing, a need for streamlined compliance initiatives became evident at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Therefore, Rocky Mountain Remediation Services (RMRS) at the RFETS successfully and quickly modified the RFETS RCRA Part B Permit to obtain significant cost savings and increased flexibility. This `was accomplished by requesting operations personnel to suggest changes to the Part B Permit which did not diminish overall compliance and which would be most. cost beneficial. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsequently obtained approval of those changes from the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE).

  5. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  6. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  7. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Von L.

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  8. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  9. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  10. Solar thermal technology development: estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume II. Assumptions, methodology, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 SST systems costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R and D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings are projected to range from $0 to 10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R and D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artifically manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R and D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: the Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R and D funding. These mechanisms can be expected to provide the required incentives to establish a viable self-sustaining private STT industry. Discussions of STT impacts on the environment and on oil imports are also included.

  11. Complete Genome Sequences of Low-Passage Virulent and High-Passage Avirulent Variants of Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans Serovar Manilae Strain UP-MMC-NIID, Originally Isolated from a Patient with Severe Leptospirosis, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    PubMed

    Satou, Kazuhito; Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Juan, Ayaka; Ashimine, Noriko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Toma, Claudia; Nohara, Toshitsugu; Shiroma, Akino; Nakano, Kazuma; Teruya, Kuniko; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Ohki, Shun; Koizumi, Nobuo; Okano, Shou; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Hirano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of low-passage virulent and high-passage avirulent variants of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae strain UP-MMC-NIID, a major causative agent of leptospirosis. While there were no major differences between the genome sequences, the levels of base modifications were higher in the avirulent variant. PMID:26272567

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Low-Passage Virulent and High-Passage Avirulent Variants of Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans Serovar Manilae Strain UP-MMC-NIID, Originally Isolated from a Patient with Severe Leptospirosis, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Juan, Ayaka; Ashimine, Noriko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Toma, Claudia; Nohara, Toshitsugu; Shiroma, Akino; Nakano, Kazuma; Teruya, Kuniko; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Ohki, Shun; Koizumi, Nobuo; Okano, Shou; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Hirano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of low-passage virulent and high-passage avirulent variants of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae strain UP-MMC-NIID, a major causative agent of leptospirosis. While there were no major differences between the genome sequences, the levels of base modifications were higher in the avirulent variant. PMID:26272567

  13. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  15. Research on the promotion measures to introduce new energy and energy-saving technologies with a leasing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Effects of introducing the leasing system were studied in order to promote the introduction of photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation and other new energy technologies, and phosphoric acid fuel cell, regional air conditioning and other energy efficiency-heightening technologies. Judging from the result of investigating its needs, the introduction of leasing system is most effective when the technological reliability and safety have been established with a cost differential made small, to a certain extent, from the existing energy. The introduction of leasing system is considered effective not from the point of view that, in order to reduce the initial introduction cost, the leasing system is the best measures of investment in the facilities for the introduction of new energy and energy-saving technologies, but from the point of view that the addition of leasing system as one of the preferential measures widens the user's selectivity among the debt, self-funds and leasing. The following tasks are raised for the introduction of leasing system: Determination of leasing term, Determination of insurance rate, Study of leasing for the household use, Development of leasing system as commodities fulfilling the user's needs.

  16. Auditing for energy savings: Do we really need Star Wars technology and the third decimal place?

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, T.D.

    1997-11-01

    Over the past twenty years the author has had the opportunity to review a number of commercial and industrial audits. Many seem to fall into one of two categories; sufficiently vague or too detailed. In dealing directly with customers he has found that most simply want accurate reproducible results. For a report to be meaningful to a customer and stand any chance of having its recommendations implemented, it must: (1) Reflect results based on the customer`s goals and objectives. If a customer`s reason for having the audit is to minimize energy expenditures, the report must focus on rate-released options, as well as energy improvements. For example, certain load factor or demand based rates with low charges may actually provide a disincentive to saving. Customers have purposely used additional energy or increased their peak demand in order to qualify for a lower rate. While this is not sound energy or environmental reasoning, it does meet the customer`s goal and should be addressed. (2) Reflect results based on the customer`s economic criteria. If a customer has a specific firm payback or ROI limitation, it is fruitless to include high-tech strategies or recommendations that do not conform. However, it is always best to test the firmness of their criteria. Do they really mean two years, or will they consider a three year payback? (3) Provide sufficiently accurate information (but not too detailed) for the customer to make an informed decision and assure them that the projected savings will result. Customers with a sound technical understanding of their facility, or even those with a limited technical background, are often skeptical of reports that predict results too precisely. While this may appear to be a reasonably straightforward simple task, for many it is not. The paper takes a brief look at the two types of reports (the vague and the detailed) and sees how they stack up in overall effectiveness.

  17. Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars: New Cooling Technology Targets Peak Load Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2007-06-01

    This document is about a new evaporative cooling technology that can deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity. The Coolerado Cooler technology can help Federal agencies reach the energy-use reduction goals of EPAct 2005, particularly in the western United States.

  18. Tech Tips for Campus Leaders: How to Save Time and Stay on Top of New Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of an academic dean's job means that time is at a premium. Yet most campus leaders also realize that they need to lead their institutions into the technology-suffused 21st century. In this article, the author offers some technology-related activities that deans can integrate into their busy schedules quickly and fairly easily.

  19. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  20. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  1. Membrane with supported internal passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Salinas, Carlos E. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface comprising permanent tubes preferably placed at the ends of the fluid passages. The invention also provides an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane.

  2. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  3. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  4. A Paper Chase: Technology Helps Library Save Its Collections on Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Will

    1997-01-01

    Bookkeeper, a liquid-based mass deacidification technology, may help the Library of Congress win its war against acid damage in its paper collection. The process impregnates books with magnesium oxide particles that both neutralize the acid in paper and leave an alkaline buffer behind. Describes the problem of acidic degradation and the Bookkeeper…

  5. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  6. Ecologically clean and raw-resources-saving technology using photonic purification of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyshev, Boris E.; Protasova, Valentina A.; Shepelev, Andrey V.; Kalinin, Yuri A.

    1995-04-01

    The elaborated technology of laseral optical pumping is successfully used for the purification of fibers from impurities. This is the novel and effective application of pulsed power. The higher powerful and technological advantages for purification of wool from vegetable impurities are presented in this paper. The aim of using light irradiation is almost complete cleaning of light wool from dark vegetable admixtures, dust and brand at the early steps (carding worsted blends) of technological process of producing fine yarns. Stabilizing all mechanical and chemical-technological processes following light radiation purification and increasing technical-economic parameters of production is achieved in this case as well. The physical essence of light irradiation wool cleaning is based upon different optical and thermal properties of light fibers on the one hand, and of dark admixtures-fractions of vegetable matter and burrs, dust and brand-on the other hand. The difference of coefficients of light irradiation by fibers and impurities is of great importance. The 500-1100 nm spectral range has a selective impact on the fibers and impurities.

  7. Rapid and solvent-saving liquefaction of woody biomass using microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zexiang; Wu, Zhengguo; Fan, Liwei; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Yiqiang; Zheng, Deyong; Wang, Siqun

    2016-01-01

    A novel process to rapidly liquefy sawdust using reduced quantities of solvent, was successfully carried out via microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology (MUAT) in a sulphuric acid/polyethylene glycol 400-glycerol catalytic system. The influences of some key parameters on the liquefaction yield were investigated. The results showed that compared with traditional liquefaction, the introduction of MUAT allowed the solvent dosage to be halved and shortened the liquefaction time from 60 to 20 min. The liquefaction yield reached 91% under the optimal conditions. However, the influence on the yield of some parameters such as catalyst concentration, was similar to that of traditional liquefaction, indicating that the application of MUAT possibly only intensified heat and mass transfer rather than altering either the degradation mechanism or pathway. The introduction of MUAT as a process intensification technology has good industrial application potential for woody biomass liquefaction. PMID:26419964

  8. Engaging science communication that are time-saving for scientists using new online technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2016-04-01

    Science communication is a time consuming and challenging task. Communicating scientific results comes on top of doing science itself and the administrative work the modern day scientists have to cope with. The competition on peoples time and attention is also fierce. In order to get peoples attention and interest, it is today often required that there is a two-way communication. The audience needs and wants to be engaged, even in real-time. The skills and times required to do that is normally not included in the university curricula. In this presentation we will look at new technologies that can help scientists overcome some of those skills and time challenges. The new online technologies that has been tested and developed in other societal areas, can be of great use for research and the important science communication. We will illustrate this through an example from biodiversity, wetlands and these fields use of Earth observations. Both the scientists themselves representing different fields of research and the general public are being engaged effectively and efficiently through specifically designed online events/seminars/workshops. The scientists are able to learn from each other while also engaging in live dialogues with the audience. A cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community, where this example comes from, there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential using new online technologies and it can easily be transferred to other fields of geoscience and science in general.

  9. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  10. Review of Innovative Energy Savings Technology for the Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Baek; Sohn, Il

    2014-09-01

    A review of the energy innovations for the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking route is discussed. Preheating of scrap using vertical and horizontal shafts that have been commercially successful in lowering the energy consumption to as much as 90 kWh/t reaching almost the operational limit to heating input scrap materials into the EAF is discussed. Bucket-type and twin-shell preheaters have also shown to be effective in lowering the overall power consumption by 60 kWh/t, but these have been less effective than the vertical shaft-type preheaters. Beyond the scrap preheating technologies, the utilization of waste heat of the slags from the laboratory scale to the pilot scale has shown possible implementation of a granulation and subsequent heat exchange with forced air for energy recovery from the hot slags. Novel techniques to increase metal recovery have shown that laboratory-scale testing of localized Fe concentration into the primary spinel crystals was possible allowing the separation of an Fe-rich crystal from an Fe-depleted amorphous phase. A possible future process for converting the thermal energy of the CO/CO2 off-gases from the EAF into chemical energy was introduced.

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Fasoyinu, Yemi

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  12. The passage from Rio.

    PubMed

    Strong, M F

    1992-01-01

    The Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Environment and Development notes that after the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro discussions about the environment and development will differ from those prior to the Summit. These discussions must now incorporate problems of developing countries, poverty, inequalities, flow of resources to developing countries, and terms of trade. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development consists of important tenets, but it must evolve into an Earth Charter to be endorsed on the 50th anniversary of the UN in 1965. The Summit's Plan of Action, Agenda 21, must also continue to evolve and, despite its shortcomings, is the most extensive and, if implemented, most effective international action ever approved by the international community. Financing the Agenda 21 initiatives remains to be decided. New possible sources of funding must be based n the polluter pays principle and may include new taxes, user charges, emission permits, and citizen funding. Even though the most serious problem in the 1990s is stabilization of atmospheric gases, the Rio agreement does not include targets or timetables. Governments must take united action immediately to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 60%. 1 nation has not yet approved the convention on biological diversity. Governments also need to move forward on conventions on decertification and deforestation. They need to incorporate the global objectives of Agenda 21 into their own national policies and practices. This must also be done at the global, regional, organizational, local, and individual levels. The global community must also begin technology capacity building. The participatory process should also include nongovernmental organizations. Population growth must also slow dramatically to achieve sustainable development. The various participatory levels must consider elimination of poverty. PMID:12343938

  13. Save Energy: Save Money!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Innovative Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian

    2012-08-15

    Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing has emerged as an attractive method for near-net-shape manufacturing due to the distinct advantages it holds over conventional near-net-shape forming technologies. These advantages include lower cycle time, increased die life, reduced porosity, reduced solidification shrinkage, improved mechanical properties, etc. SSM processing techniques can not only produce the complex dimensional details (e.g. thin-walled sections) associated with conventional high-pressure die castings, but also can produce high integrity castings currently attainable only with squeeze and low-pressure permanent mold casting processes. There are two primary semi-solid processing routes, (a) thixocasting and (b) rheocasting. In the thixocasting route, one starts from a non-dendritic solid precursor material that is specially prepared by a primary aluminum manufacturer, using continuous casting methods. Upon reheating this material into the mushy (a.k.a. "two-phase") zone, a thixotropic slurry is formed, which becomes the feed for the casting operation. In the rheocasting route (a.k.a. "slurry-on-demand" or "SoD"), one starts from the liquid state, and the thixotropic slurry is formed directly from the melt via careful thermal management of the system; the slurry is subsequently fed into the die cavity. Of these two routes, rheocasting is favored in that there is no premium added to the billet cost, and the scrap recycling issues are alleviated. The CRP (Trade Marked) is a process where the molten metal flows through a reactor prior to casting. The role of the reactor is to ensure that copious nucleation takes place and that the nuclei are well distributed throughout the system prior to entering the casting cavity. The CRP (Trade Marked) has been successfully applied in hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 390 alloy) where two liquids of equal or different compositions and temperatures are mixed in the reactor and creating a SSM slurry. The process has been mostly

  15. Compressed Air System Optimization Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Textile Manufacturing Mill (Peerless Division, Thomaston Mills, Inc.): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the textile manufacturing mill project.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  17. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  18. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  19. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  20. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  1. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  2. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  3. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Peter A. Bibb, Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O....

  4. Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dridi, G.; Guerin, S.; Hakobyan, V.; Jauslin, H. R.; Eleuch, H.

    2009-10-15

    We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on parallel adiabatic passage by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3{pi}, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically picosecond and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.

  5. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  6. Rites of passage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change? PMID:21495289

  7. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  8. Risk Taking and Rites of Passage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott; Martin, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, young people earned adult roles through observing, imitating, and interacting with adults around them. Rituals of initiation such as the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are very important rite of passage ceremonies. Many churches confer baptism, confirmation, or catechism as rites of passage to adulthood. Without such…

  9. Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  10. Comparison of textbook passages, nonfiction trade book passages and fiction trade book passages as instructional tools for learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.

  11. Maternal Mortality from Obstructed Labor: A MANDATE Analysis of the Ability of Technology to Save Lives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Margo S; Griffin, Jennifer B; McClure, Elizabeth M; Jones, Bonnie; Moran, Katelin; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical interventions to significantly reduce maternal mortality from prolonged labor, obstructed labor, and prolonged obstructed labor (PL/OL/POL) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods A mathematical model-Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technology ("MANDATE")-was created for SSA with estimated prevalence for PL/OL/POL and case fatality rates from hemorrhage, infection, and uterine rupture. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, the model was populated with estimated likelihoods of the current healthcare system ability to diagnose, transfer, and treat women with these conditions. Impact on maternal mortality of improved diagnosis, transfer, and delivery to relieve PL/OL/POL was assessed. Results Without current technologies, the model estimated 8,464 maternal deaths annually in SSA from these conditions. Imputing current diagnosis, transfer, and treatment of PL/OL/POL, an estimated 7,033 maternal deaths occur annually from these complications. With improved PL/OL/POL diagnosis and improved transfer, 1,700 and 740 lives could be saved, respectively. Improved diagnosis, transfer, and treatment for PL/OL/POL reduce the mortality rate to 864 maternal deaths annually, saving 6,169 lives. If improved transfusion and antibiotic use were added, only 507 women per year would die from PL/OL/POL in SSA. Conclusion In SSA, increasing diagnostics, transfer to higher care, and operative delivery could substantially reduce maternal mortality from PL/OL/POL. Synopsis A computerized model of obstructed labor in SSA was created to explore the interventions necessary to reduce maternal mortality from this condition. PMID:27031054

  12. Ownership, competition, and the adoption of new technologies and cost-saving practices in a fixed-price environment.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Chernew, M E; Orzol, S M

    2000-01-01

    Advances in medical technology have been implicated as the primary cause of rising health care expenditures. It is not yet known whether the increasing prevalence of managed care mechanisms, particularly capitation, will change substantially incentives for acquiring and using cost-increasing innovations. We examined the decisions of dialysis units (a set of providers that has faced capitation and real decreases in payment for several decades) with respect to use of cost-increasing technologies that enhance quality of care, cost-cutting practices that reduce quality of care, and amenities desired by patients that are unrelated to quality of care. We found that the dialysis payment system does not appear to have blocked access to a number of new, quality-enhancing technologies that were developed in the 1980s. However, facilities made adjustments along other valuable margins to facilitate adoption of these technologies; use of new technologies varied with numerous facility, regulatory, and case-mix characteristics including ownership, chain membership, size, market competition, and certificate of need programs. Interestingly, the trade-offs made by for-profit and nonprofit facilities when faced with fixed prices appeared quite different. For-profits tended to deliver lower technical quality of care but more amenities, while nonprofits favored technical quality of care over amenities. Our findings may have implications for the response of other types of health care providers to capitation and increasing economic constraints. PMID:11111285

  13. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage. PMID:25183288

  14. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    PubMed Central

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir; Goharian, Nazli

    2009-01-01

    We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus. PMID:19344479

  15. Isolation and Adaptation in Passage Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the phenomena of isolation and adaptation in the context of two recognition experiments investigating retroactive interference. Results suggest a framework for predicting errors and accuracies in passage memory based on integrative processing. (DF)

  16. Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

    2005-01-01

    The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. PMID:16985812

  17. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  19. Water-saving impacts of Smart Meter technology: An empirical 5 year, whole-of-community study in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirsten; Doolan, Corinna; van den Honert, Robin; Shi, Rose

    2014-09-01

    In 2009-2010 Sydney Water, the primary water utility in Sydney, conducted a comprehensive Smart Metering trial in residential homes in the suburb of Westleigh, in Sydney's north. The trial involved 1923 participants residing in 630 households. A whole-of-community method of engagement was applied to capture the views of residents from 12 to 70+ years of age. The trial examined the effects of the technology on the water consumption of an intervention group compared with that of a matched control group. After removing properties that had been sold since the beginning of the trial, properties in the study group were matched with a control group property on the basis of the household size, property size and the presence (or otherwise) of a swimming pool. The effects of the technology on consumption were measured and analyzed for the period July 2009 to June 2010, coupled with qualitative information that was collected throughout the duration of the study. A key finding was that households with the in-home display (IHD) installed, reduced their consumption by an average of over 6.8% over the study period when compared to the control group. Since completion of the study the community has not had any further interventions. The trial created an opportunity to examine the longer-term effects of the technology (June 2008 to September 2013). Consumption data collected over the 3 year posttrial period revealed that the participant group consumed 6.4% per month less water when compared to the pretrial period, whilst the matched control group consumed 1.3% per month more water when compared to the pretrial period. The reduced consumption of the participant group was maintained over time, demonstrating the long-term value of this technology.

  20. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school…

  1. The Myth About Saving Money: "IT Investments Will Save The Institution Money"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.; Oblinger, Diana G.

    2005-01-01

    Claims that investing in information technology will save money for a college or university have rarely proven true. In fact, realizing the promised dollar savings is so rare in higher education that the credibility of many IT professionals has been jeopardized by making the claim. Not producing promised savings only exacerbates the sense, among…

  2. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 2: Coolant passages with trips normal and skewed to the flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modem turbine blades. This experimental program is one part of the NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) Initiative, which has as its overall objective the development and verification of improved analysis methods that will form the basis for a design system that will produce turbine components with improved durability. The objective of this program was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. The experimental work was broken down into two phases. Phase 1 consists of experiments conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model. A detailed discussion of these results was presented in volume 1 of a NASA Report. In Phase 2 the large scale model was modified to investigate the effects of skewed and normal passage turbulators. The results of Phase 2 along with comparison to Phase 1 is the subject of this Volume 2 NASA Report.

  3. First passage time distribution in heterogeneity controlled kinetics: going beyond the mean first passage time

    PubMed Central

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The first passage is a generic concept for quantifying when a random quantity such as the position of a diffusing molecule or the value of a stock crosses a preset threshold (target) for the first time. The last decade saw an enlightening series of new results focusing mostly on the so-called mean and global first passage time (MFPT and GFPT, respectively) of such processes. Here we push the understanding of first passage processes one step further. For a simple heterogeneous system we derive rigorously the complete distribution of first passage times (FPTs). Our results demonstrate that the typical FPT significantly differs from the MFPT, which corresponds to the long time behaviour of the FPT distribution. Conversely, the short time behaviour is shown to correspond to trajectories connecting directly from the initial value to the target. Remarkably, we reveal a previously overlooked third characteristic time scale of the first passage dynamics mirroring brief excursion away from the target. PMID:26852802

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Surface/Near Surface Indication - Characterization of Surface Anomalies from Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Indications

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, John

    2014-02-20

    The systematic study and characterization of surface indications has never been conducted. Producers and users of castings do not have any data on which they can reliably communicate the nature of these indications or their effect on the performance of parts. Clearly, the ultimate intent of any work in this area is to eliminate indications that do in fact degrade properties. However, it may be impractical physically and/or financially to eliminate all surface imperfections. This project focused on the ones that actually degrade properties. The initial work was to identify those that degrade properties. Accurate numerical simulations of casting service performance allow designers to use the geometric flexibility of castings and the superior properties of steel to produce lighter weight and more energy efficient components for transportation systems (cars and trucks), construction, and mining. Accurate simulations increase the net melting energy efficiency by improving casting yield and reducing rework and scrap. Conservatively assuming a 10% improvement in yield, approximately 1.33 x 1012 BTU/year can be saved with this technology. In addition, CO2 emissions will be reduced by approximately 117,050 tons per year.

  5. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  6. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  7. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  8. Deep boundary current disintegration in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brearley, J. Alexander; Sheen, Katy L.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Smeed, David A.; Speer, Kevin G.; Thurnherr, Andreas M.; Meredith, Michael P.; Waterman, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The fate of a deep boundary current that originates in the Southeast Pacific and flows southward along the continental slope of South America is elucidated. The current transports poorly ventilated water of low salinity (a type of Pacific Deep Water, PDW), into Drake Passage. East of Drake Passage, the boundary current breaks into fresh anticyclonic eddies, nine examples of which were observed in mooring data from December 2009 to March 2012. The observed eddies appear to originate mainly from a topographic separation point close to 60°W, have typical diameters of 20-60 km and accompanying Rossby numbers of 0.1-0.3. These features are likely to be responsible for transporting PDW meridionally across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, explaining the near homogenization of Circumpolar Deep Water properties downstream of Drake Passage. This mechanism of boundary current breakdown may constitute an important process in the Southern Ocean overturning circulation.

  9. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales

    PubMed Central

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  10. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  11. The Contribution of Passage and Non-Passage Factors to Item Performance on the SAT Reading Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Stuart; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted a regression analysis to assess the contributions of passage and no-passage factors to item variance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test reading comprehension task. Results show that no-passage factors play a larger role than do passage factors, accounting for as much as three-fourths of systematic variance in item difficulty and more than…

  12. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Exciting Week Ahead for Winners of Unique Astronomy Contest Following the very successful events of 1993 and 1994 [1], ESO again opens its doors for an `educational adventure' next week. It takes place within the framework of the `Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture', initiated and supported by the European Commission. On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, about forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers will converge towards Munich from all corners of Europe. They are the happy winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest (`Europe Towards the Stars') that took place during the summer and early autumn. Their prize is a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. During this time they will work with professional astronomers and get a hands-on experience within modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres. In particular, the participants will be exposed to the scientific method by carrying through a research programme of their own, all the way from conception to interpretation of the data. The culmination of the stay will be the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two major telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile, including the very advanced 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). The European Contest This year's EU/ESO programme was devised as a contest between joint teams of secondary school students and their teachers. The teams had to choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work, and all with strong scientific and technological components. One subject was to devise an observational programme with an existing telescope and instrument and to discuss the resulting data in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. This was the preferred subject by many teams. For instance, the winning German team observed the moons of Jupiter and the Danish team studied a star cluster in order to

  13. Smooth Passage For The Jetfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Flying Princess is a Boeing Jetfoil, one of a family of commercial waterjets built by Boeing Marine Systems, a division of The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. The new Jetfoil offers a number of advantages over earlier hydrofoils, a major one being a smooth ride in rough waters. NASA technology contributed to jolt-free passenger comfort. Hydrofoils skim the surface at speeds considerably greater than those of conventional ships because there is little friction between hull and water. Hulls are raised above the water by the lift of the foils, which resemble and function like an airplane wing. The foils are attached to the hull by rigid struts, which ordinarily cause a vessel operating in coastal seas to follow the contour of the waves. In wind-whipped waters, this makes for a rough ride. Seeking to increase passenger acceptance, Boeing Marine System engineers looked for ways to improve rough-water ride quality. Langley Research Center conducts continuing ride quality research. Initially, it was aimed at improving aircraft ride; it was later expanded to include all modes of transportation. Research includes studies of vibration, acceleration, temperature, humidity, passenger seats and posture, and the psychological aspects of passenger reaction to vehicle ride. As part of the program, Langley developed instrumentation, ride quality models and methods of data analysis.

  14. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Exciting Week Ahead for Winners of Unique Astronomy Contest Following the very successful events of 1993 and 1994 [1], ESO again opens its doors for an `educational adventure' next week. It takes place within the framework of the `Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture', initiated and supported by the European Commission. On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, about forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers will converge towards Munich from all corners of Europe. They are the happy winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest (`Europe Towards the Stars') that took place during the summer and early autumn. Their prize is a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. During this time they will work with professional astronomers and get a hands-on experience within modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres. In particular, the participants will be exposed to the scientific method by carrying through a research programme of their own, all the way from conception to interpretation of the data. The culmination of the stay will be the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two major telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile, including the very advanced 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). The European Contest This year's EU/ESO programme was devised as a contest between joint teams of secondary school students and their teachers. The teams had to choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work, and all with strong scientific and technological components. One subject was to devise an observational programme with an existing telescope and instrument and to discuss the resulting data in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. This was the preferred subject by many teams. For instance, the winning German team observed the moons of Jupiter and the Danish team studied a star cluster in order to

  15. Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" as Historiographic Metafiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaden, Barbara Z.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that what makes Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" significant and eminently teachable is that it is an accessible example of "historiographic metafiction"--bestselling postmodern novels set in the past. Notes that students find the novel "easy" and enjoyable and that teaching the novel with some of its intertexts, such as H. Melville's…

  16. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE DURING FILTER PERTURBATION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate and cati...

  17. Passage Recall: Schema Change and Cognitive Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The effects of subsequent related information and cognitive flexibility on prose recall were studied. Subjects read a passage; then were given either consistent or contradictory information. Errors in cued recall, reflecting the subsequent information, were more frequently produced after a three-week delay than after two days. (Author/GDC)

  18. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  20. Visualization techniques to experimentally model flow and heat transfer in turbine and aircraft flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Louis M.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    Increased attention to fuel economy and increased thrust requirements have increased the demand for higher aircraft gas turbine engine efficiency through the use of higher turbine inlet temperatures. These higher temperatures increase the importance of understanding the heat transfer patterns which occur throughout the turbine passages. It is often necessary to use a special coating or some form of cooling to maintain metal temperatures at a level which the metal can withstand for long periods of time. Effective cooling schemes can result in significant fuel savings through higher allowable turbine inlet temperatures and can increase engine life. Before proceeding with the development of any new turbine it is economically desirable to create both mathematical and experimental models to study and predict flow characteristics and temperature distributions. Some of the methods are described used to physically model heat transfer patterns, cooling schemes, and other complex flow patterns associated with turbine and aircraft passages.

  1. Saving Strokes with Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Inventor Dave Pelz developed a space spinoff Teacher Alignment Computer for Sunmark Preceptor Golf Ltd. which helps golfers learn proper putting aim. The light beam, reflected into the computer, measures putter alignment and lights atop the box tell the golfer he is on target or off to either side and how much. A related putting aid idea is to stroke the ball at the putter's "sweet spot," which is bracketed by metal prongs. Regular practice develops solid impacts for better putting.

  2. Pulse sequences in photoassociation via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Dupre, William; Parker, Gregory A.

    2012-07-01

    We perform a detailed study of pulse sequences in a photoassociation via adiabatic passage (PAP) process to transfer population from an ensemble of ultracold atomic clouds to a vibrationally cold molecular state. We show that an appreciable final population of ultracold NaCs molecules can be achieved with optimized pulses in either the ‘counter-intuitive’ (tP > tS) or ‘intuitive’ (tP < tS) PAP pulse sequences, with tP and tS denoting the temporal centers of the pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. By investigating the dependence of the reactive yield on pulse sequences, in a wide range of tP-tS, we show that there is not a fundamental preference to either pulse sequence in a PAP process. We explain this no-sequence-preference phenomenon by analyzing a multi-bound model so that an analogy can be drawn to the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.

  3. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-11-07

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  4. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Higgins, A. W.

    1985-10-01

    The objective is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques, and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  5. 37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE SECOND FLOOR; THE STAIR RISES AT THE EAST WALL OF THE PASSAGE - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  7. 75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in Western Passage, in the vicinity of the City of... consist of: (1) 2 OCGen\\TM\\ hydrokinetic tidal devices each consisting of four 150-kilowatt...

  8. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  9. Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at its center, looking east through the doorway linking the two perpendicular axes. The door at the end of the passage opens onto a passage running under the entrance portico bearing ground floor exterior doors at each end. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…

  11. Shining a Light on Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how schools and universities can save energy and money by evaluating lighting systems and changing behaviors. Retrofitting older buildings with better lighting technology and use of natural light are examined. An example of an energy conservation education program to reduce energy waste is highlighted. (GR)

  12. Energy conservation and savings in the food industry (citations from Food Science and Technology Abstracts). Report for Jan 1972-Nov 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hippler, R.R.

    1980-02-01

    The citations cover world-wide literature on conservation and savings in energy use for the food industry. Industries covered are dairies (including milk, cheese, cream, ice cream), breweries, meat industry, food processing plants, food warehouses, bakeries, and sugar factories. Energy savings aspects are alternate energy forms, solar drying and dehydration (including for grains and fruits), energy recycling (waste energy usage), and use of by-products for energy, such as biogas. The articles cover techniques equipment, and design for energy conservation. (Contains 95 abstracts)

  13. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholods, Jon F.; Brown, Richard S.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  14. Spatial adiabatic passage via interaction-induced band separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benseny, Albert; Gillet, Jérémie; Busch, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The development of advanced quantum technologies and the quest for a deeper understanding of many-particle quantum mechanics requires control over the quantum state of interacting particles to a high degree of fidelity. However, the quickly increasing density of the spectrum, together with the appearance of crossings in time-dependent processes, makes any effort to control the system hard and resource intensive. Here we show that in trapped systems regimes can exist in which isolated energy bands appear that allow one to easily generalize known single-particle techniques. We demonstrate this for the well-known spatial adiabatic passage effect, which can control the center-of-mass state of atoms with high fidelity.

  15. Inverse design of a turbine cascade passage and DNS of a stationary and rotating serpentine passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Gregory Michael

    2005-12-01

    Experimental investigations of the flow physics past a single stationary transonic turbine blade in a cascade are complicated by the periodic nature of the problem. Typically up to seven blades in a cascade are required to guarantee periodicity about the center blade that, in turn, requires large compressors at transonic speeds. One possibility to circumvent the constraint of so many blades, and allow the necessary optical access, is to place a single blade in a passage consisting of two plexiglass walls that are designed to obtain certain representative periodic flowfield characteristics. Using an optimization procedure based on the method of steepest descent and the RANS equations, the walls were designed to ensure that the Surface Isentropic Mach Number (SIMN) distribution on the blade matched the SIMN of the same blade in an infinite cascade. The experimental setup imposed an additional constraint requiring the flow remained attached along both passage walls. A robust and autonomous design method using a weighted composite cost function was developed and successfully applied. Excellent agreement was achieved between CFD of the infinite cascade SIMN, CFD of the designed double passage SIMN, and the experimentally measured SIMN. Serpentine passages are found in a number of engineering applications including turbine blade cooling passages. The serpentine passage is an ideal candidate for conducting a thorough DNS study due to its geometric simplicity but complex flow physics. The serpentine passage geometry investigated has dimensions 12pidelta x 2delta x 3pidelta and radius of curvature delta/r c = 0.5 in the curved section. Simulations of a test matrix consisting of two different Reynolds numbers, Retau = 180 and Retau = 250, subjected to two different orthogonal rotation numbers, Ro tau = 0 and Rotau = 5 was conducted. Whereas the stationary case results in a symmetric flowfield for the two U-bends constituting the passage, the effect of rotation coupled with

  16. Adiabatic passage in the presence of noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, T.; Dietrich, M. R.; Kurz, N.; Shu, G.; Wright, J.; Blinov, B. B.

    2012-02-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) in a trapped barium ion system. RAP is implemented on the transition from the 6S1/2 ground state to the metastable 5D5/2 level by applying a laser at 1.76 μm. We focus on the interplay of laser frequency noise and laser power in shaping the effectiveness of RAP, which is commonly assumed to be a robust tool for high-efficiency population transfer. However, we note that reaching high state transfer fidelity requires a combination of small laser linewidth and large Rabi frequency.

  17. Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.

  18. Turbine engine component with cooling passages

    DOEpatents

    Arrell, Douglas J.; James, Allister W.

    2012-01-17

    A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

  19. Modeling drug passage into human milk.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P O; Sauberan, J B

    2016-07-01

    Breastfeeding has positive health consequences for both the breastfed infant and the nursing mother.(1,2) Although information on drug use during lactation is available through sites such as LactMed,(3) available information is often incomplete. Unlike pregnancy, in which large numbers of pregnant women need to be studied to assure safety, measurement of drug concentrations in breastmilk in a relatively few subjects can provide valuable information to assess drug safety. This article reviews methods of measuring and predicting drug passage into breastmilk. PMID:27060684

  20. Using ITP Decision Tools to Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how the program's software tools and information help manufacturers save energy and money, increase productivity, and improve reliability.

  1. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Enterprises (International English Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This fact sheet provides information about the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now energy audit process, software tools, training, energy management standards, and energy efficient technologies to help U.S. companies identify energy cost savings.

  2. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  3. Transplacental passage of insulin complexed to antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, W A; Yalow, R S

    1981-01-01

    The passage of plasma proteins across the placental barrier in humans is known to be highly selective. Thus, free maternal insulin has been reported not to cross the normal maternofetal barrier, although insulin-binding antibodies have been detected in newborn infants whose diabetic mothers received insulin therapy. In this report we demonstrate, with the use of a human antiserum that permits distinction between human and animal insulins, that insulin in the cord blood of each of two neonates of insulin-treated diabetic mothers was, in part, animal insulin. The higher the antibody titer of the mother the greater was the total insulin in the cord plasma and the greater was the fraction that was animal insulin. In case 1 cord plasma insulin was 0.7 unit/liter, of which 10% was animal insulin; in case 2 cord plasma insulin was 3.5 units/liter, of which 25% was animal insulin. The demonstration that antigen restricted from transplacental passage can be transferred while complexed to antibody raises the question whether such fetal exposure would induce partial or total immunologic unresponsiveness subsequently if the fetus were rechallenged with the same antigen. PMID:7027265

  4. Heat transfer in serpentine flow passages with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, S.; Takamura, J.; Yamawaki, S.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    1992-06-01

    Results are reported of an experimental study tracing heat transfer performance in a rotating serpentine flow passage of a square cross section. The test section is preceded by a hydrodynamic calming region. The test model is a blow-up (by seven times) of actual winding flow passages in rotor blades. It is concluded that the flow in the 180-deg bends exhibits strong 3D structure. The heat transfer coefficient in the bend is substantially higher than in the straight flow passages. The average heat transfer characteristics over the entire flow passage is greatly affected by flow at the 180-deg bends. Due to secondary flow induced by the Coriolis force, the heat transfer coefficient in the radially outward flow passages diminish on the leading surface, but increase on the trailing surface, with an increase in rotational speed. The trend is reversed in the radially inward flow passages.

  5. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  6. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  7. The Eskimos of the Northwest Passage

    PubMed Central

    Davies, L. E. C.; Hanson, S.

    1965-01-01

    In 1959 and 1960, during the annual survey conducted by the Federal Northern Health Services in the area of the Northwest Passage, the diet and living conditions of some 1500 Eskimos who live in this area were studied and blood and urine samples were obtained from 40-50% of this population. Hemoglobin, blood cell morphology, serum protein-bound iodine, serum proteins, serum lipids and serum total cholesterol estimations, urinalyses, and agglutination studies for brucellosis were carried out. Hemoglobin levels were in the normal range; however, increased contact with civilization appeared to be associated with lower hemoglobin levels. Eleven per cent of the Eskimos showed eosinophilia. Serum proteins were normal. Serum lipids and serum cholesterol levels were higher in Eskimo children living in a government residential school than in a comparable group living on the Barren Lands. Serum protein-bound iodine levels were in the upper euthyroid range. Diabetes mellitus occurs among Eskimos. Sporadic cases of brucellosis also occur. PMID:14246293

  8. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-10-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  9. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Flavia; Agliari, Elena

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first-passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter σ . We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes cannot be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for σ such that, when σ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve p -plets (p >2 ) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for σ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size.

  10. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  11. Arbitrary qudit gates by adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseaux, B.; Guérin, S.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2013-03-01

    We derive an adiabatic technique that implements the most general SU(d) transformation in a quantum system of d degenerate states, featuring a qudit. This technique is based on the factorization of the SU(d) transformation into d generalized quantum Householder reflections, each of which is implemented by a two-shot stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with appropriate static phases. The energy of the lasers needed to synthesize a single Householder reflection is shown to be remarkably constant as a function of d. This technique is directly applicable to a linear trapped ion system with d+1 ions. We implement the quantum Fourier transform numerically in a qudit with d=4 (defined as a quartit) as an example.

  12. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  13. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  14. Tectonic reconstructions for paleobathymetry in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    A minimum-complexity tectonic reconstruction, based on published and new basin opening models, depicts how the Scotia Sea grew by Cenozoic plate divergence, dismembering a Jurassic sheared margin of Gondwana. Part of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous ocean that accreted to this margin forms the core of the Central Scotia Plate, the arc plate above a trench at the eastern end of the Scotia Sea, which migrated east away from the Antarctic and South American plates. A sequence of extensional basins opened on the western edge of the Central Scotia Plate at 50-30 Ma, decoupled from the South American Plate to the northwest by slow motion on a long transform fault. Succeeding the basins, seafloor spreading started around 30 Ma on the West Scotia Ridge, which propagated northwards in the 23-17 Ma period and ceased to operate at 6 Ma. The circuits of plate motions inside and outside the Scotia Arc are joined via rotations that describe Antarctic-Central Scotia plate motion in Powell Basin until 20 Ma, and along the South Scotia Ridge thereafter. The modelled relative motion at the northern edge of the Scotia Sea is thus constrained only by the plate circuit, but nonetheless resembles that known coarsely from the geological record of Tierra del Fuego. A paleobathymetric interpretation of nine time slices in the model shows Drake Passage developing as an intermediate-depth oceanographic gateway at 50-30 Ma, with deep flow possible afterwards. Initially, this deep flow would have been made tortuous by numerous intermediate and shallow barriers. A frontal pattern resembling that in the modern Scotia Sea would have awaited the clearance of significant barriers by continuing seafloor spreading in the Scotia Sea at ~ 18.5 Ma, at Shag Rocks Passage, and after 10 Ma southeast of South Georgia.

  15. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  16. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and social service…

  17. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    calculations using these techniques are employed using data from both the sonic and hotwire anemometers, when possible. Unfortunately, direct calculations of {var_epsilon} were not possible during a part of the frontal passage because the high wind speeds concurrent with the frontal passage demand very high frequency resolution, beyond that possible with the hotwire anemometer, for direct {var_epsilon} calculations. The calculations resulting from these three techniques are presented for the cold front as a time series. Quantitative comparisons of the direct and indirect calculation techniques are also given. More detail, as well as a discussion of energy spectra, can be found in Piper & Lundquist(2004).

  18. The Use of Ritual in Rites of Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Humans move through difficult transitions best when guided by ceremony and ritual. The components of traditional rites of passage mirror exactly many of today's most promising psychological theories. Four components of rites of passage that comprise life transitions are discussed: letting go of an old identity, the wandering, the new identity, and…

  19. Bilingual Listeners' Perception of Temporally Manipulated English Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Farooq, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study measured, objectively and subjectively, how changes in speech rate affect recognition of English passages in bilingual listeners. Method: Ten native monolingual, 20 English-dominant bilingual, and 20 non-English-dominant bilingual listeners repeated target words in English passages at five speech rates (unprocessed, two…

  20. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  1. Optimal Number of Gaps in C-Test Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the optimal number of gaps in C-Test passages. An English C-Test battery containing four passages each having 40 blanks was given to 104 undergraduate students of English. The data were entered into SPSS spreadsheet. Out of the complete data with 160 blanks seven additional datasets were constructed. In the first…

  2. 49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passage of internal inspection devices. 192.150... Components § 192.150 Passage of internal inspection devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c... of instrumented internal inspection devices. (b) This section does not apply to: (1) Manifolds;...

  3. 49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passage of internal inspection devices. 192.150... Components § 192.150 Passage of internal inspection devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c... of instrumented internal inspection devices. (b) This section does not apply to: (1) Manifolds;...

  4. Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.

    2006-01-01

    Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…

  5. INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE AND DOOR LETTING ONTO THE SOUTHEAST BED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE AND DOOR LETTING ONTO THE SOUTHEAST BED CHAMBER. THE ANGLED PASSAGE RUNS PARALLEL TO WHAT WAS AN EXTERIOR WALL OF THE THREE-SIDED WINDOW BOW PRESENT IN THE HOUSE’S ORIGINAL CA. 1770 STATE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. INTERIOR VIEW, SECONDSTORY PASSAGE FROM THE EAST CHAMBER OVER THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SECOND-STORY PASSAGE FROM THE EAST CHAMBER OVER THE SALOON. THE STAIRS UP FROM THE MAIN PASSAGE ACCOMMODATE THE ADDED HEIGHT OF THE SALOON’S CEILING. THE ARCHED DOOR OPENING AT CENTER ACCESSES THE SERVICE STAIR - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Rites of Passage in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Young Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2003-01-01

    Explored the role of rites of passage in emerging adulthood among Mormon college students. Found that the majority supported individualistic criteria for adulthood, but most also believed that rites of passage specific to their religion were necessary to become an adult. Determined that emerging adulthood is a distinct period of the life course…

  8. Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…

  9. Alcohol Use and Abuse as a Rite of Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Edward R.

    1998-01-01

    Rites of passage are a normal part of a young person's growth from adolescence to adulthood and many are marked with the use and abuse of alcohol. Describes three phases of the rites of passage (separation, liminal, and reincorporation) that youth undergo. Suggests that educators and advisors help them create meaningful rituals without resorting…

  10. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  11. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  12. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed. PMID:3980281

  13. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children. PMID:25944699

  14. Nonadiabatic Transitions in Adiabatic Rapid Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T.; Miao, X.; Metcalf, H.

    2006-05-01

    Optical forces much larger than the ordinary radiative force can be achieved on a two-level atom by multiple repetitions of adiabatic rapid passage sweeps with counterpropagating light beams. Chirped light pulses drive the atom-laser system up a ladder of dressed state energy sheets on sequential trajectories, thereby decreasing the atomic kinetic energy. Nonadiabatic transitions between the energy sheets must be avoided for this process to be effective. We have calculated the nonadiabatic transition probability for various chirped light pulses numerically. These results were compared to the first Demkov-Kunike model and the well-known Landau-Zener model. In addition, an analytical form of the nonadiabatic transition probability has been found for linearly chirped pulses and an approximate form for generic symmetric finite-time pulses has been found for the entire parameter space using the technique of unitary integration. From this, the asymptotic transition probability in the adiabatic limit was derived. T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys., Rev. A 71 061405(R) (2005). Yu. Demkov and M. Kunike, Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Fis. Khim., 16, 39 (1969); K.-A. Suominen and B. Garraway, Phys. Rev. A45, 374 (1992)

  15. NREL’s Controllable Grid Interface Saves Time and Resources, Improves Reliability of Renewable Energy Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) controllable grid interface (CGI) test system at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is one of two user facilities at NREL capable of testing and analyzing the integration of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. The CGI specializes in testing of multimegawatt-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as energy storage devices, transformers, control and protection equipment at medium-voltage levels, allowing the determination of the grid impacts of the tested technology.

  16. [The impact of nutrient prosperity of the body on the alimentary status of junior high school pupils within the framework of the implementation of health-saving technologies].

    PubMed

    Setko, A G; Trishina, S P; Timoshenko, E P

    2014-01-01

    In the work there was performed the assessment of the actual nutrition of high school pupils, its impact on the nutritional status and efficiency of the implementation in the modern educational process certified vitamin-mineral complexes as a health-saving component of the optimization of rations. The introduction of additional vitamin-mineral complexes into the food of high school pupils was established to lead to the optimization of nutrition content by most of macro- and micronutrients, which in turn contributed to the increase in the number of children with an adequate supply of the body with vitamins and also contributed to the increase of students with a satisfactory adaptation by 44.3%, cases having sufficient performance reserves by 48.4% and the decrease of the number of children with sharply reduced functional reserves by 4 times. PMID:25950063

  17. Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

  18. Retirement plans, personal saving, and saving adequacy.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, P

    2000-03-01

    This Issue Brief addresses three questions raised by recent trends in personal saving: How are national savings measured and what is the meaning of the trends in measured personal saving rates, given what is included and what is not included in those measures? What is the effect of retirement saving programs--in particular, 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs)--on personal saving levels? What are the implications of existing saving behavior for the retirement income security of today's workers? The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), the most commonly referenced gauge of personal saving, is a widely misunderstood measure. One could argue that a complete measure of saving would include increases in wealth through capital gains, but NIPA does not factor accrued and realized capital gains on stocks and other assets into the saving rate. By one measure, accounting for capital gains results in an aggregate personal saving rate of 33 percent--more than double the rate of four decades ago. A major policy question is the impact of tax-qualified retirement saving plans (i.e., IRAs and 401(k) plans) on personal saving rates. Empirical analysis of this issue is extremely challenging and findings have been contradictory. These programs now represent an enormous store of retirement-earmarked wealth in tax-deferred vehicles: Combined, such tax-deferred retirement accounts currently have assets of about $4 trillion. Ninety percent of IRA contributions are now the result of "rollovers" as employees leave employer plans, like 401(k) plans. While leakage from the system remains a challenge, the majority of the assets in the system can be expected to be available to fund workers' retirements. One could argue that, from a retirement income security perspective, workers in general are better off because IRA and 401(k) programs exist. Surely, many of the dollars in these programs would have been saved even without the programs; but they would not necessarily

  19. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  20. The passage of fast electrons through matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorini, Adam P.

    This work regards the passage of fast electrons through matter, and in particular how electrons scatter and lose energy within a solid. The basic quantum theory of these scattering processes was first considered in the early- to mid-20th century by Bohr, Bethe, Fermi, and others. This work extends our understanding of how a relativistic electron scatters off, and loses energy to, a complex many-body system. The main idea of this work is that it is now possible to calculate, from first-principles, the inelastic losses of relativistic electrons in condensed matter. We present ab initio calculations based on a real-space Green's function approach, implemented in the FEFF8 computer program[1]. Our work focuses on three topics: Relativistic stopping power and associated loss parameters, electron energy loss spectroscopy in high energy transmission electron microscopes, and the inelastic electron scattering mixed dynamic form factor. We calculate, for the first time, ab initio stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths in real materials. The stopping powers are calculated over a broad energy range, from ten eV to above ten MeV. We also present the first ab initio calculations of the "mean excitation energy". We develop a relativistic theory of inelastic electron scattering, based on ab initio calculations of dielectric response, and the generalized Lorenz gauge. Using our relativistic dielectric theory, we calculate the EELS magic angle ratio for boron nitride and for graphite. In these anisotropic materials we find large relativistic corrections to the magic angle for high energy electron microscopes. We also predict and calculate large deviations in the EELS magic angle from the relativistic vacuum predictions in the low energy-loss regime. Finally, we present calculations of mixed dynamic form factor.

  1. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  2. Tick Passage Results in Enhanced Attenuation of Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    McElwain, Terry F.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Scoles, Glen A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Lau, Audrey O. T.

    2014-01-01

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, but when retained, attenuated B. bovis can revert to virulence following tick passage. This study provides data showing that tick passage of the partially attenuated B. bovis T2Bo derivative strain further decreased virulence compared with intravenous inoculation of the same strain in infected animals. Ticks that acquired virulent or attenuated parasites by feeding on infected cattle were transmission fed on naive, splenectomized animals. While there was no significant difference between groups in the number of parasites in the midgut, hemolymph, or eggs of replete female ticks after acquisition feeding, animals infected with the attenuated parasites after tick transmission showed no clinical signs of babesiosis, unlike those receiving intravenous challenge with the same attenuated strain prior to tick passage. Additionally, there were significantly fewer parasites in blood and tissues of animals infected with tick-passaged attenuated parasites. Sequencing analysis of select B. bovis genes before and after tick passage showed significant differences in parasite genotypes in both peripheral blood and cerebral samples. These results provide evidence that not only is tick transmissibility retained by the attenuated T2Bo strain, but also it results in enhanced attenuation and is accompanied by expansion of parasite subpopulations during tick passage that may be associated with the change in disease phenotype. PMID:25114111

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R. ); Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, J; Escher, Charles; Skalski, John R.

    2003-08-15

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2002. The ERDC contracted with MEVATEC Corporation to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians to help conduct the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. In this report, we present results of two studies of juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam that we carried out in the 2002 downstream passage season April 20 through July 15, 2002. The first study of Project-wide FPE provides hourly estimates of fish passage and associated variances for all operating turbine units, spill bays, and the two sluiceway entrances at Powerhouse 1 (B1), as well as estimates of a variety of fish-passage efficiency and effectiveness measures. This was the third consecutive year of full-project hydroacoustic sampling and passage estimation. The second study was more narrowly focused on B2 turbines and had two components: (1) to sample the FGE at two modified turbine intakes and compare them with efficiencies of other B2 units that were sampled in the first study, and (2) to evaluate proportions of fish passing up into gatewell slots versus through screen gaps at a few B2 turbine intakes.

  4. Forecasting survival and passage of migratory juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Steinhorst, R. Kirk; Burge, Howard L.

    2000-01-01

    We developed methods to forecast survival and cumulative percent passage for subyearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at a dam to help managers effectively time the release of reservoir water to mitigate for passage delays and reduced survival. We tagged Snake River subyearling chinook salmon upstream of a dam from 1993 to 1998 and determined when a subsample of the tagged fish passed the dam. We randomly selected data (1993, 1994, 1996, and 1998) to develop a quadratic discriminant function for predicting which fish would survive to the dam and to develop a multiple-regression equation to predict the date survivors would pass the dam. We used the predicted passage dates within a year to calculate a daily cumulative percent passage forecast and then calculated a 90% forecast interval that varied by year, depending on the number of predicted survivors. We validated the forecast method using data for 1995 and 1997. The 1995 forecasted passage curve differed from the observed passage curve for 25 d of the 168-d emigration season. The 1997 forecasted and observed passage curves were similar for the entire 168-d emigration season. The 90% forecast interval was ±18.8% in 1995 and ±22.4% in 1997. We conclude that our method is a valid tool for in-season water management but acknowledge the potential for interannual variability in forecast performance.

  5. The mean shape of transition and first-passage paths.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Kyu; Netz, Roland R

    2015-12-14

    Based on the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation in an arbitrary free energy landscape including a general inhomogeneous diffusivity profile, we analytically calculate the mean shape of transition paths and first-passage paths, where the shape of a path is defined as the kinetic profile in the plane spanned by the mean time and the position. The transition path ensemble is the collection of all paths that do not revisit the start position x(A) and that terminate when first reaching the final position x(B). In contrast, a first-passage path can revisit its start position x(A) before it terminates at x(B). Our theoretical framework employs the forward and backward Fokker-Planck equations as well as first-passage, passage, last-passage, and transition-path time distributions, for which we derive the defining integral equations. We show that the mean shape of transition paths, in other words the mean time at which the transition path ensemble visits an intermediate position x, is equivalent to the mean first-passage time of reaching the position x(A) when starting from x without ever visiting x(B). The mean shape of first-passage paths is related to the mean shape of transition paths by a constant time shift. Since for a large barrier height U, the mean first-passage time scales exponentially in U, while the mean transition path time scales linearly inversely in U, the time shift between first-passage and transition path shapes is substantial. We present explicit examples of transition path shapes for linear and harmonic potentials and illustrate our findings by trajectories obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26671359

  6. The mean shape of transition and first-passage paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won Kyu; Netz, Roland R.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation in an arbitrary free energy landscape including a general inhomogeneous diffusivity profile, we analytically calculate the mean shape of transition paths and first-passage paths, where the shape of a path is defined as the kinetic profile in the plane spanned by the mean time and the position. The transition path ensemble is the collection of all paths that do not revisit the start position xA and that terminate when first reaching the final position xB. In contrast, a first-passage path can revisit its start position xA before it terminates at xB. Our theoretical framework employs the forward and backward Fokker-Planck equations as well as first-passage, passage, last-passage, and transition-path time distributions, for which we derive the defining integral equations. We show that the mean shape of transition paths, in other words the mean time at which the transition path ensemble visits an intermediate position x, is equivalent to the mean first-passage time of reaching the position xA when starting from x without ever visiting xB. The mean shape of first-passage paths is related to the mean shape of transition paths by a constant time shift. Since for a large barrier height U, the mean first-passage time scales exponentially in U, while the mean transition path time scales linearly inversely in U, the time shift between first-passage and transition path shapes is substantial. We present explicit examples of transition path shapes for linear and harmonic potentials and illustrate our findings by trajectories obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations.

  7. Fiber-optic system for checking the acoustical parameters of gas-turbine engine flow-through passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Vasiliy Y.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Kuznetzov, Artem A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we consider the integrated approach to development of the aero-acoustical methods for diagnostics of aircraft gas-turbine engine flow-through passages by using as the base the passive fiber-optic and location technologies.

  8. Heat transfer in serpentine passages with turbulence promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Local heat transfer rates and overall pressure losses were determined for serpentine passages of square cross section. The flow entered an inlet leg, turned 180 deg and then passed through an outlet leg. Results were obtained for a passage with smooth walls for three different bend geometries and the effect of turbulence promoters was investigated. Turbulence promoters between 0.6 and 15% of the passage height were tested. Local heat transfer rates are determined from thermocouple measurements on a thin electrically heated Inconel foil and pressure drop is measured along the flow path.

  9. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fasoyinu, Yemi; Griffin, John A.

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  10. Quantum state transfer between atomic ensembles trapped in separate cavities via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Chen, Mei-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new approach for quantum state transfer (QST) between atomic ensembles separately trapped in two distant cavities connected by an optical fiber via adiabatic passage. The three-level Λ-type atoms in each ensemble dispersively interact with the nonresonant classical field and cavity mode. By choosing appropriate parameters of the system, the effective Hamiltonian describes two atomic ensembles interacting with “the same cavity mode” and has a dark state. Consequently, the QST between atomic ensembles can be implemented via adiabatic passage. Numerical calculations show that the scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. In addition, the effect of decoherence can be suppressed effectively. The idea provides a scalable way to an atomic-ensemble-based quantum network, which may be reachable with currently available technology. Project supported by the Funding (type B) from the Fujian Education Department, China (Grant No. JB13261).

  11. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins by sediment passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzmacher, G.; Boettcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cyanbacterial toxins ("Cyanotoxins") comprise a wide range of toxic substances produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Cyanobacteria occur in surface water word wide and can be found in high concentrations during so-called algal blooms when conditions are favourable (e.g. high nutrient levels, high temperatures). Some cyanobacteria produce hepato- or neurotoxins, of which the hepatotoxic microcystins are the most common in Germany. The WHO guideline value for drinking water was set at 1 μg/L. However, maximum concentrations in surface water can reach 25 mg/L, so that a secure method for toxin elimination has to be found when this water is used as source water for drinking water production. In order to assess if cyanotoxins can be removed by sediment passage the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) conducted laboratory- and field scale experiments as well as observations on bank filtration field sites. Laboratory experiments (batch- and column experiments for adsorption and degradation parameters) were conducted in order to vary a multitude of experimental conditions. These experiments were followed by field scale experiments on the UBA's experimental field in Berlin. This plant offers the unique possibility to conduct experiments on the behaviour of various agents - such as harmful substances - during infiltration and bank filtration under well-defined conditions on a field scale, and without releasing these substances to the environment. Finally the development of microcystin concentrations was observed between infiltrating surface water and a drinking water well along a transsecte of observation wells. The results obtained show that infiltration and bank filtration normally seem to be secure treatment methods for source water contaminated by microcystins. However, elimination was shown to be difficult under the following circumstances: - dying cyanobacterial population due to insufficient light and / or nutrients, low temperatures or application of

  12. Flow-test device fits into restricted access passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. J.; Oberschmidt, M.; Rosenbaum, B. J.

    1967-01-01

    Test device using a mandrel with a collapsible linkage assembly enables a fluid flow sensor to be properly positioned in a restricted passage by external manipulation. This device is applicable to the combustion chamber of a rocket motor.

  13. Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. AIRFLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN A BABOON NASAL PASSAGE CAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airflow patterns in the nasal Passages influence the distribution of air-pollutant-induced lesions in the airway mucosa. ittle is known about airflow characteristics or the complex nasopharyngeal airway of man and experimental animals. irflow characteristics in the nasopharyngeal...

  15. View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron gate to the northwest of the house (duplicate of HABS No. SC-115-14) - William Washington House, 8 South Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  16. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  17. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  19. 4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 KING STREET SHOWING MASONRY ARCHED CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTING UPPER STORIES - King Street, 200 Block, 216 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. 11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to southwest chamber (door blocked off on far side) on left; closet on right. - Conner Homestead, House, Epping Road (State Route 101), Exeter, Rockingham County, NH

  1. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH END OF POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. INTERIOR VIEW, SECONDSTORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SECOND-STORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE PANELED OPENING IN THE FOREGROUND MARKS THE ORIGINAL WEST WALL - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage to the lobby vestibule - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS AND ASBESTOS CEILING - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO POST OFFICE BUILDING, VIEW TO WEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  7. Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.

  8. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  9. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  10. Incentives for Tuition Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott E.

    The role of the federal government in authorizing tuition savings plans and the relationship of these incentives to more traditional student aid programs are examined. Most of the recent proposals to provide incentives for families to save for their children's education would allow tax breaks. For example, the Reagan administration proposal would…

  11. Flow in serpentine coolant passages with trip strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G.-N.

    1995-01-01

    Under the subject contract, an effort is being conducted at Scientific Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) to obtain flow field measurements in the coolant passage of a rotating turbine blade with ribbed walls, both in the stationary and rotating frames. The data obtained will be used for validation of computational tools and assessment of turbine blade cooling strategies. The configuration of the turbine blade passage model is given, and the measuring plane locations are given. The model has a four-pass passage with three 180 turns. This geometry was chosen to allow analyses of the velocity measurements corresponding to the heat transfer results obtained by Wagner. Two passes of the passage have a rectangular cross-section of 1.0 in x 0.5 in. Another two passes have a square cross-section of 0.5 in x 0.5 in. Trips with a streamwise pitch to trip height (P/e) = 5 and trip height to coolant passage width (e/Z) = 0.1, were machined along the leading and trailing walls. These dimensions are typical of those used in turbine blade coolant passages. The trips on these walls are staggered by the half-pitch. The trips are skewed at +/- 45 deg, and this allows the effect of trip orientation to be examined. Experiments will be conducted with flow entering the model through the 1.0 in x 0.5 in rectangular passage (Configuration C) and the 0.5 in x 0. 5 in square passage (Configuration D) to examine the effect of passage aspect ratio. Velocity measurements were obtained with a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000, based on the hydraulic diameter of and bulk mean velocity in the half inch square passage. The coordinate system used in presenting the results for configurations C and D, respectively, is shown. The first, second and third passes of the passage will be referred to as the first, second and third passages, respectively, in later discussion. Streamwise distance (x) from the entrance is normalized by the hydraulic diameter (D). Vertical (y) and tangential (z) distances are

  12. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205 Energy-savings... savings that result. (2) Except as provided in 10 CFR 436.34, ESPC's are subject to subpart 17.1. (c)...

  13. Save Energy, Save Dollars. Information Bulletin 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    This cooperative extension publication from Cornell University is a guide for energy conservation in homes, apartments, and transportation. Written in non-technical language, this guide provides the layperson with information about weatherization, home appliance use, recreation and transportation practices to conserve energy and, thus, save money.…

  14. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  15. Safety Passage in the Flying Canoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Jungle Aviation and Radio Service (JAARS) delivers missionaries to remote outposts under sometimes hazardous flying conditions. A serious accident led JAARS' to initiate a crash survivability research program based on NASA technology. In 1978, JAARS sought help from Langley Research Center and was invited to participate in Langley's crashworthiness program. With assistance from Langley, JAARS developed an impact absorbing aircraft seat designed to minimize crash injury. The seat design is available to all missionary aircraft and JAARS is offering it for commercial manufacture.

  16. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  17. Remanufacturing and energy savings.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Boustani, Avid; Graves, Stephen C

    2011-05-15

    Remanufactured products that can substitute for new products are generally claimed to save energy. These claims are made from studies that look mainly at the differences in materials production and manufacturing. However, when the use phase is included, the situation can change radically. In this Article, 25 case studies for eight different product categories were studied, including: (1) furniture, (2) clothing, (3) computers, (4) electric motors, (5) tires, (6) appliances, (7) engines, and (8) toner cartridges. For most of these products, the use phase energy dominates that for materials production and manufacturing combined. As a result, small changes in use phase efficiency can overwhelm the claimed savings from materials production and manufacturing. These use phase energy changes are primarily due to efficiency improvements in new products, and efficiency degradation in remanufactured products. For those products with no, or an unchanging, use phase energy requirement, remanufacturing can save energy. For the 25 cases, we found that 8 cases clearly saved energy, 6 did not, and 11 were too close to call. In some cases, we could examine how the energy savings potential of remanufacturing has changed over time. Specifically, during times of significant improvements in energy efficiency, remanufacturing would often not save energy. A general design trend seems to be to add power to a previously unpowered product, and then to improve on the energy efficiency of the product over time. These trends tend to undermine the energy savings potential of remanufacturing. PMID:21513286

  18. Simplification and Saving.

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2013-11-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  19. Qualified Tuition Savings Programs: The Impact on Household Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Julia Lynn; McIntosh, Susan Hume

    This study analyzed the impact tuition savings plans are likely to have on household savings. State-sponsored college savings programs rely mainly on tax incentives to motivate parents to save for their children's education in earmarked accounts. The first such programs were prepaid tuition plans, and other types of qualified tuition savings…

  20. Automated passage control for security, cost efficiency, and convenience

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new methods of passage control through automatic computer processes and electromechanical identity and surveillance devices. It is now possible for a person to be identified with objective certainty by computer without interaction of a guard or duty officer. In addition, the presence of just one person is also confirmed automatically BEFORE passage is allowed into a secured area. There can be no tailgating of intruders during a valid, authorized entry process. The advantage to the facility using this new equipment is improved security through elimination of the subjective decision process of guards who may be right on or who may be off that day. The objective decisions of the automated passage control computers determine a positive identity and passage authority, or else interdicts the passage attempt. There can be no indecision, argument, or waffling about authorization to enter. Each person's Logical Presence is known at all times, and a permanent audit trail is maintained. There is an almost immediate return on investment through the furloughing of expensive guards and inspectors at entry points.

  1. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  2. Energy saving in industry: Italian methods and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.

    The usefulness and characteristics of the energy audits practiced by a research and technology transfer center (CISE) in industry are described. Italian public financial incentives to energy saving are discussed. The qualification of CISE in energy auditing is commented on.

  3. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  4. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  5. Thermostatistics: Proven Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasnoski, John

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus simulating residential thermostat control was developed to test claim that lowering house thermostats saves energy and to give students a better understanding of how thermostats work. The apparatus (includes diagram of same) and student activity are described. (JN)

  6. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements Inside the Human Nasal Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James; Hopkins, Lisa; Sreenivas, K. R.; Wexler, Anthony; Prasad, Ajay

    1998-11-01

    In some applications (such as biological flows) the flow passage exhibits a highly complex geometry. A method is described by which such a flow passage is rendered as a three-dimensional model. A computer model of an adult human nasal cavity was generated from digitized computed tomography (CT) scan images, using the I-DEAS modeling package, and was converted to a stereolithographic file for rapid prototyping. Rapid prototyping yielded a water soluble negative of the airway. Silicone elastomer was poured over the negative, which was washed out after the silicone hardened. This technique can be used to obtain an accurate, transparent, silicone, replicate model of any arbitrary geometry. If the working fluid is refractive-index matched to the silicone, it is possible to obtain PIV measurements in any cross-section. We demonstrate the technique by creating a double-scale model of the human nasal passage, and obtaining PIV measurements.

  7. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-10-01

    In the following discussion I suggest that the reason there is no consensus on whether the passage of time is physical is that our current best theory of spacetime, general relativity, lacks such a concept. This means that the sense-experience of passage, appealed to by those who claim it is physical, cannot be properly expressed: it is not even a fact. I draw attention to work in the literature on a model of a growing, granular spacetime--arising within a proposed theory of quantum spacetime called causal set theory--that does contain the concept of passage as the coming into being or birth of atoms of spacetime. I present an example from the history of science of a sense-experience that cannot be understood within one theory but is revealed to be an important fact within a better successor theory. PMID:25257658

  8. Do not disturb the animals! or, how Con Edison saved $300,000 using a trenchless technology to renew 3,000 feet of leaking gas main at the Bronx Zoo

    SciTech Connect

    Bufe, M.

    1995-07-01

    Every leaking gas main presents a challenge. But when that leaking main follows a series of sweeping bends on its route through North America`s largest urban wildlife park, it presents a special challenge. That was the situation Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc. recently faced when numerous leaks were discovered along 3,000 feet of a 95-year-old, 12-inch cast-iron main that winds through New York City`s Bronx Zoo. Con Edison knew it needed a long-term solution to this increasingly common problem. Thanks to the cooperative efforts of the utility`s operations and research departments and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Con Edison also knew about a trenchless technology that could renew the pipe with minimal impact to the environment--while saving the utility a substantial sum of money in the process. In the Paltem system, a woven polyester hose is injected with an epoxy resin and then inverted (turned inside out) into a pipe at an access pit. The liner then bonds to the inside wall of the pipe, forming a smooth, flexible and pressure-resistant lining. The process is environmentally safe, requires very little excavation and can be installed in days, rather than the weeks or months it can take to dig up and replace existing pipe.

  9. The effect of cell passage number on osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics of D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kwist, K; Bridges, W C; Burg, K J L

    2016-08-01

    Cell line passage number is an important consideration when designing an experiment. At higher passages, it is generally understood that cell health begins to decline and, when this occurs, the result can be variable data. However, there are no specific guidelines regarding optimal passage range, and this information is dependent on cell type. To explore these variabilities, low passage D1 cells were thawed (passage 3) and passaged serially until a much higher number (passage 34). Samples were taken every five passages and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and triglyceride; also, the gene expression of both adipogenic and osteogenic markers was tested. The results indicate that the growth rate of these cells did slow down after passage 30. However, expression of the osteogenic characteristics seemed to cycle, with the highest levels seen at passage 4 and 24. The adipocyte expression levels remained the same throughout the study. PMID:26208915

  10. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.