Sample records for passive nondestructive assay

  1. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of plutonium by passive neutron multiplicity counting

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay of plutonium in forms such as metal, oxide, scrap, residue, or waste using passive neutron multiplicity counting. This test method provides results that are usually more accurate than conventional neutron coincidence counting. The method can be applied to a large variety of plutonium items in various containers including cans, 208-L drums, or 1900-L Standard Waste Boxes. It has been used to assay items whose plutonium content ranges from 1 g to 1000s of g. 1.2 There are several electronics or mathematical approaches available for multiplicity analysis, including the multiplicity shift register, the Euratom Time Correlation Analyzer, and the List Mode Module, as described briefly in Ref. (1). 1.3 This test method is primarily intended to address the assay of 240Pu-effective by moments-based multiplicity analysis using shift register electronics (1, 2, 3) and high efficiency neutron counters specifically designed for multiplicity analysis. 1.4 This tes...

  2. Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.; Pitts, M. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States)] [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States); Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Ave., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Ave., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Grando, C.J. [ELR Consulting, Inc., 15247 Wilbur Rd., La Conner, WA 98257 (United States)] [ELR Consulting, Inc., 15247 Wilbur Rd., La Conner, WA 98257 (United States); Haggard, D.L. [WorleyParsons Polestar, 601 Williams Blvd., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [WorleyParsons Polestar, 601 Williams Blvd., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

  3. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace

  4. Nondestructive assay of curium-contaminated transuranic waste drums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn A. Foster

    1999-01-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste drums containing non-actinide scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities

  5. The passive nondestructive assay of the plutonium content of spent-fuel assemblies from the BN350 fast-breeder reactor in the city of Aqtau, Kazakhstan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Lestone; J. M. Pecos; J. A. Rennie; J. K. Sprinkle; P. Staples; K. N. Grimm; R. N. Hill; I. Cherradi; N. Islam; J. Koulikov; Z. Starovich

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is presently interested in developing equipment and techniques to measure the plutonium content of breeder reactor spent-fuel assemblies located in storage ponds before they are relocated to more secure facilities. We present the first quantitative nondestructive assay of the plutonium content of fast-breeder reactor spent-fuel assemblies while still underwater in their facility storage pond. We

  6. Nondestructive assay confirmatory assessment experiments: mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.

    1980-04-30

    The confirmatory assessment experiments demonstrate traceable nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium in mixed oxide powder using commercially available spontaneous-fission assay systems. The experiments illustrate two major concepts: the production of calibration materials using calorimetric assay, and the use of paired measurements for measurement assurance. Two batches of well-characterized mixed oxide powder were used to establish the random and systematic error components. The major components of an NDA measurement assurance technique to establish and maintain traceability are identified and their functions are demonstrated. 20 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Overview of the latest nondestructive assay technology

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques are an important tool for the safeguarding of nuclear materials. NDA techniques are used by inspectors from both domestic agencies and international agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as site level nuclear material management programs to verify that inventories of nuclear materials. This technology has been in development for over 40 years and significant improvements in detector capabilities, electronics processing and data analysis has lead to new detection capabilities and greatly improved quantification of nuclear materials. Many of the improvements over the last decade have resulted from improved computing power. This has lead to the ability to collect and analyze data in ways not possible only years ago. This poster will present some of the improvements of nondestructive assay technologies over the past several years and the implementation of these technologies in nuclear safeguards programs.

  8. Characterization of consistent NDA (nondestructive assay) standards

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Novak, E.F.; Seiler, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    By combining calorimetry and traditional analytical methods five sets of unique NDA standards were characterized for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of E.I. Du Pont de Nemours, Inc. The calorimetry measurements make it possible to nondestructively verify the homogeneity of the plutonia stock and to assure that the analytical aliquots were representative of the parent material. Two assay values were determined by calorimetric assay. When the isotopic composition was determined by mass spectroscopy and alpha pulse height analysis, the agreement between Pu content by calorimetry and controlled potential coulometry was within 0.06% for all five isotopic compositions. When nondestructive, gamma-ray isotopic techniques were used to assay the 1500 gram standards the agreement was within 0.1% for all five materials. The new half-lives and specific power recommended in the latest revision of ANSI N15.22-1987, Calibration Techniques for the Calorimetric Assay of Plutonium Bearing Solids were used for all computations. The standards were certified for plutonium content, isotopic composition, and thermal power. The mass of the standards varied from 20 to 1500 grams with /sup 240/Pu compositions ranging from 3 to 15 percent. 7 tabs.

  9. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

    1984-06-01

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

  10. Parametric effects on nondestructive-assay techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernatowicz, H.; Borgonovi, G.; Epperson, D.; Glancy, J.; Gozani, T.; Hagan, W.; Harlan, R.; Hope, E.; Horton, W.; McDaniel, T.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of parameters on nondestructive techniques used for the assay of nuclear material, firstly by an assessment of the current knowledge of parametric effects, and secondly by carrying out experiments on selected parameters. The techniques examined were passive gamma NDA, passive neutron NDA, active NDA, densitometry, and calorimetry. For each technique, operational, intrinsic, and external parameters were identified in a systematic way, and the need for experiments to provide additional information on the effect of selected parameters was also identified. In the area of passive gamma NDA, experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nonhomogeneity of nuclear material, and a theoretical approach for the description of the effect of nonhomogeneity was developed. The approach can be used as a corrective technique. In the area of passive neutron NDA, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of matrix having different moderating and absorbing characteristics. In the area of active NDA, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of matrix and spatial distribution on coincidence counting in a fission multiplicity detector, and to test methods for minimizing the effects.

  11. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  12. The IAEA Universal Nondestructive Assay Data Acquisition Platform (UNAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Sweet; M. M. Pickrell; M. R. Newell; R. B. Williams; R. B. Merl; C. J. Carrol; D. G. Pelowitz

    2009-01-01

    The Universal NDA Data Acquisition Platform (UNAP) will be the next generation data acquisition system for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) attended and unattended non-destructive assay measurement equipment. The system will also be the principal data acquisition module for the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant (J-MOX) safeguards project. The primary goal of the UNAP development

  13. Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-02

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries have more potential for this application and should be assessed quantitatively. The next set of techniques leverage scintillator detectors that are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation. The first is the BC-523A capture-gated organic liquid scintillator. The detector response from several different neutron energies has been characterized and is included in the study. The BC-523A has not yet been tested with UF{sub 6} cylinders, but the application appears to be well suited for this technology. The second detector type is a relatively new inorganic scintillator called CLYC. CLYC provides a complementary detection approach to the HEVA and PNEM systems that could be used to determine uranium enrichment in UF{sub 6} cylinders. In this section, the conceptual idea for an integrated CLYC-HEVA/PNEM system is explored that could yield more precision and robustness against systemic uncertainties than any one of the systems by itself. This is followed by a feasibility study on using alpha-particle-induced reaction gamma-rays as a way to estimate {sup 234}U abundance in UF{sub 6}. Until now, there has been no readily available estimate of the strength of these reaction gamma-rays. Thick target yields of the chief reaction gammas are computed and show that they are too weak for practical safeguards applications. In special circumstances where long count times are permissible, the 1,275 keV F({alpha},x{gamma}) is observable. Its strength could help verify an operator declaration provided other knowledge is available (especially the age). The other F({alpha},x{gamma}) lines are concealed by the dominant uranium line spectrum and associated continuum. Finally, the last section provides several ideas for electromagnetic and acoustic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. These can be used to measure cylinder wall thickness, which is a source of systematic uncertainty for gamma-ray-based NDA techniques; characterize the UF{sub 6} filling profile inside the cylinder, which is a source of systematic uncertainty for neutron-based NDA techniques; locate hidden objects inside the cylinder; a

  14. Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UFâ in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from ²³⁵U to determine enrichment. More recently,

  15. Nondestructive assay of sphere-pac fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.J.; Angelini, P.; Baker, S.P.; Heck, J.L.; Mack, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) methods were studied for application to sphere-pac fuel with a high gamma ray background. It was decided that the NDA method selected should be capable of measuring total fissile content of each fuel rod as well as determining the axial fissile distribution because assay techniques that employ detection of spontaneous or induced gamma ray emission are not practicable because of the high gamma ray background of candidate fuels. Therefore, methods employing neutron detection were studied for use with sphere-pac fuel rods.

  16. Neutron coincidence imaging for active and passive neutron assays

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R. J. (Robert J.); Brunson, G. S. (Glenn S.); Melton, S. G. (Sheila G.)

    2001-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity assay algorithms for {sup 240}Pu assume a point source of fission neutrons that are detected in a single detector channel. The {sup 240}Pu in real waste, however, is more likely to be distributed throughout the container in some random way. For different reasons, this leads to significant errors when using either multiplicity or simpler coincidence analyses. Reduction of these errors can be achieved using tomographic imaging. In this talk we report on our results from using neutron singles and coincidence data between tagged detector pairs to provide enhanced tomographic imaging capabilities to a crate nondestructive assay system. Only simulated passive coincidence data is examined here, although the higher signal rates from active coincidence counting hold more promise for waste management. The active coincidence approach has significantly better sensitivity than the passive and is not significantly perturbed by (alpha,n) contributions. Our study was based primarily on simulated neutron pulse trains derived from the Los Alamos SIM3D software, which were subjected to analysis using the Los Alamos CTEN-FIT and TGS-FIT software. We found significantly improved imaging capability using the coincidence and singles rate data than could be obtained using the singles rate alone.

  17. Nondestructive assay tests of high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) for waste assay and possible diversion scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, D.R.; Menlove, H.O.; Pecos, J.M.

    1998-05-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter, the high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC), has been used to measure plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The HENC was designed with the {sup 252}Cf add-a-source (AS) feature to improve accuracy over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The current implementation allows for passive neutron coincidence counting, AS analysis, and multiplicity analysis. Passive neutron assay of typical waste containers is intrinsically more accurate than active neutron techniques because of the penetrability of the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from within the waste matrix. In addition, the HENC is designed as a slightly undermoderated detector to be less sensitive to low loading of hydrogen-bearing matrices. The following paper considers the applicability of three different nondestructive assay methods for analysis of waste drums and the flagging of possible diversions in waste drums. The {sup 252}Cf AS method, multiplicity counting, and a bounded-parameter multiplicity analysis are presented with areas of applicability.

  18. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain

    1999-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

  19. Determination of a calibration factor for the nondestructive assay of Guidant 32P brachytherapy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Collé; B. E Zimmerman; C. G Soares; B. M Coursey

    1999-01-01

    A calibration factor (`dial setting') for the nondestructive assay of Guidant TiNi-encapsulated 32P intravascular brachytherapy wire sources has been determined for measurements with the Capintec CRC-12 (sic. `dose calibrator') ionization chamber. The calibration factor was derived from ionization current measurements with the CRC-12 followed by very quantitative, destructive assays of the 32P content in two sources.

  20. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.

    1982-04-01

    This is an interim report of a study concerning the potential application of nondestructive measurements on irradiated light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels at spent-fuel storage facilities. It describes nondestructive measurement techniques and instruments that can provide useful data for more effective in-plant nuclear materials management, better safeguards and criticality safety, and more efficient storage of spent LWR fuel. In particular, several nondestructive measurement devices are already available so that utilities can implement new fuel-management and storage technologies for better use of existing spent-fuel storage capacity. The design of an engineered prototype in-plant spent-fuel measurement system is approx. 80% complete. This system would support improved spent-fuel storage and also efficient fissile recovery if spent-fuel reprocessing becomes a reality.

  1. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

  2. Passive neutron techniques for the nondestructive assay of nuclear material 

    E-print Network

    Mapili, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    for thorium, uranium, and plutonium is low compared to the decay rate by alpha emission. For californium and heavier elements, the spontaneous fission rate may approach the alpha decay rate. The spontaneous fission yield of Pu, 1020 n/s- g, is the most..., because it would be unaffected by the electrostatic forces Irom the nucleus. In 1939, German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman bombarded solutions of uranium salts with neutrons. They found by chemical analysis that a number of new radioactive...

  3. Passive neutron techniques for the nondestructive assay of nuclear material

    E-print Network

    Mapili, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    investigations found that the lead in one of the drums had not been part of a contaminated area cleanup and should not be radiologically contaminated. This thesis examines the nuclear reactions that produce neutrons, the principles of neutron detectors including...

  4. Guidance on meeting DOE order requirements for traceable nondestructive assay measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Purpose of this guide is to facilitate accuracy and precision of nondestructive assay measurements through improvement of the materials and process of traceability. This document provides DOE and its contractor facilities with guidance to establish traceability to the national measurement base for site-prepared NDA working reference materials.

  5. Selected nondestructive assay instrumentation for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Tape; M. P. Baker; R. Strittmatter; M. Jain; M. L. Evans

    1979-01-01

    A selected set of nondestructive assay instruments for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants is currently under development. These instruments are of three types: in-line enrichment meters for feed, product, and tails streams; area radiation monitors for direct detection of high-enriched uranium production, and an enrichment meter for spent alumina trap material. The current status of the development

  6. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  7. Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-08-01

    The authors describe automated and integrated NDA systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the DOE complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and MOX fuel programs. These systems are typified by the ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) nondestructive assay system which is under construction at Los Alamos to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system.

  8. Considerations for an active and passive scanner to assay nuclear waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Azevedo, S.G.; Roberson, G.P.; Schneberk, D.J.; Koenig, Z.M.; Camp, D.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-06-08

    Radioactive wastes are generated at many DOE laboratories, military facilities, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, hospitals, and university research facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, packaged, categorized, and packed into some sort of container--usually 208-L (55-gal) drums--for shipment to waste-storage sites. Prior to shipment, the containers must be labeled, assayed, and certified; the assay value determines the ultimate disposition of the waste containers. An accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) method would identify all the radioisotopes present and provide a quantitative measurement of their activity in the drum. In this way, waste containers could be routed in the most cost-effective manner and without having to reopen them. Currently, the most common gamma-ray method used to assay nuclear waste drums is segmented gamma-ray scanning (SGS) spectrometer that crudely measures only the amount of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu present in the drum. This method uses a spatially-averaged, integrated, emitted gamma-ray-intensity value. The emitted intensity value is corrected by an assumed constant-attenuation value determined by a spatially-averaged, transmission (or active) measurement. Unfortunately, this typically results in an inaccurate determination of the radioactive activities within a waste drum because this measurement technique is valid only for homogeneous-attenuation or known drum matrices. However, since homogeneous-attenuation matrices are not common and may be unknown, other NDA techniques based on active and Passive CT (A PCT) are under development. The active measurement (ACT) yields a better attenuation matrix for the drum, while the passive measurement (PCT) more accurately determines the identity of the radioisotopes present and their activities. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Development of Gamma-Ray Nondestructive Detection and Assay Systems for Nuclear Safeguards and Security at JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Nondestructive detection and assay of nuclide is one of the promising applications of energy-tunable gamma-rays from laser Compton scattering. In JAEA, we are developing technologies relevant to the gamma-ray non-destructive assay, which include a high-brightness gamma-ray source based on advanced laser and accelerator technologies and gamma-ray measurement techniques optimized for highly radioactive samples. In this paper, the status of the above R&D's is reviewed.

  10. Design of a System for the Nondestructive Assay of {sup 233}U in Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarlo, V.A.

    2001-05-18

    A system for the nondestructive assay of waste drums containing {sup 233}U has been installed in Bldg. 3019. This system employs two 3 x 3 in. NaI scintillation detectors, and standard counting techniques and analyses of the 2.6-MeV gamma radiation emitted by {sup 208}Tl. Thallium-208 is a product of the decay of {sup 232}U, which is usually present as an impurity in {sup 233}U. Results show that the system is capable of determining gram quantities of {sup 233}U in a 55-gal rotating drum. Standard deviations of the results are also reported.

  11. The Role of Mathematical Methods in Efficiency Calibration and Uncertainty Estimation in Gamma Based Non-Destructive Assay - 12311

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, R.; Nakazawa, D. [Canberra Industries, 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mathematical methods are being increasingly employed in the efficiency calibration of gamma based systems for non-destructive assay (NDA) of radioactive waste and for the estimation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU). Recently, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) released a standard guide for use of modeling passive gamma measurements. This is a testimony to the common use and increasing acceptance of mathematical techniques in the calibration and characterization of NDA systems. Mathematical methods offer flexibility and cost savings in terms of rapidly incorporating calibrations for multiple container types, geometries, and matrix types in a new waste assay system or a system that may already be operational. Mathematical methods are also useful in modeling heterogeneous matrices and non-uniform activity distributions. In compliance with good practice, if a computational method is used in waste assay (or in any other radiological application), it must be validated or benchmarked using representative measurements. In this paper, applications involving mathematical methods in gamma based NDA systems are discussed with several examples. The application examples are from NDA systems that were recently calibrated and performance tested. Measurement based verification results are presented. Mathematical methods play an important role in the efficiency calibration of gamma based NDA systems. This is especially true when the measurement program involves a wide variety of complex item geometries and matrix combinations for which the development of physical standards may be impractical. Mathematical methods offer a cost effective means to perform TMU campaigns. Good practice demands that all mathematical estimates be benchmarked and validated using representative sets of measurements. (authors)

  12. Non-destructive Assay Measurements Using the RPI Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Bjorn; Weltz, Adam; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Thompson, J. T.; Thompson, N.; Danon, Yaron

    2013-10-01

    The use of a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) is consid- ered as a possible option for non-destructive assay of fissile material of used nuclear fuel. The primary objective is to quantify the 239Pu and 235U fissile content via a direct measurement, distinguishing them through their characteristic fission spectra in the LSDS. In this pa- per, we present several assay measurements performed at the Rensse- laer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to demonstrate the feasibility of such a method and to provide benchmark experiments for Monte Carlo cal- culations of the assay system. A fresh UOX fuel rod from the RPI Criticality Research Facility, a 239PuBe source and several highly en- riched 235U discs were assayed in the LSDS. The characteristic fission spectra were measured with 238U and 232Th threshold fission cham- bers, which are only sensitive to fission neutron with energy above the threshold. Despite the constant neutron and gamma background from the PuBe source and the intense interrogation neutron flux, the LSDS system was able to measure the characteristic 235U and 239Pu responses. All measurements were compared to Monte Carlo simula- tions. It was shown that the available simulation tools and models are well suited to simulate the assay, and that it is possible to calculate the absolute count rate in all investigated cases.

  13. Preliminary neutronics investigation of the delayed neutron nondestructive assay of an integral fast reactor waste canister

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.W.; Henderson, D.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics); Bennett, E.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1994-11-01

    An innovative liquid-metal reactor, the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. One characteristic of the IFR is the fuel cycle closure. Fissile material bred and fissionable material produced in the reactor are recycled back into the reactor. Waste generated during fuel reprocessing will be packaged into special waste canisters and will be shipped to a repository for final disposal. Prior to its removal from the facility, a measurements of the fissile content will be necessary as a part of an overall fissile material inventory accountability system. A particular form of nondestructive assay called delayed neutron nondestructive assay (DNNDA) is being developed to assist in the establishment of an accountability system. A preliminary neutronics investigation for the current DNNDA has been made to assist and verify the characteristics of the design from a neutronic aspect. A 10[sup 11] n/s, 14-MeV neutron source would provide adequate counting statistics for fissile material at the milligram to gram level.

  14. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-05-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage.

  15. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for process areas in a MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been designed and installed in the process area of an automated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. These instruments employ neutron coincidence counting methods to measure the spontaneous-fission rate of plutonium in the powders, pellets, and fuel pins in the process area. The spontaneous fission rate and the plutonium isotopic ratios determine the mass of plutonium in the sample. Measurements can be either attended or unattended. The fuel-pin assay system (FPAS) resides above the robotic conveyor system and measures the plutonium content in fuel-pin trays containing up to 24 pins (/approximately/1 kg of plutonium). The material accountancy glove-box (MAGB) counters consist of two slab detectors mounted on the sides of the glove box to measure samples of powder or pellets as they are brought to the load cell. Samples measured by the MAGB counters may contain up to 18 kg of MOX. This paper describes the design and performance of four systems: the fuel-pin assay system and three separate MAGB systems. The paper also discusses the role of Monte Carlo transport techniques in the detector design and subsequent instrument calibration. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  17. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  18. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards.

  19. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving & Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Word Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOE/WIPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed.

  20. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.; WILLS, C.E.

    2000-03-24

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOEMPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed.

  1. Experimental verification of modeling results for a PGNAA system for nondestructive assay of RCRA metals in drums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R Dulloo; F. H Ruddy; T. V Congedo; J. G Seidel; M. E McIlwain

    2000-01-01

    The use of pulsed gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive assay of mercury, cadmium and lead in a concrete matrix has been demonstrated. Calculations have also been performed to study interference with PGNAA detection sensitivity resulting from the presence of 238U, 235U, and 239Pu at levels expected in mixed waste. Analyses based on transport calculations examined the effects

  2. Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-02

    The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

  3. Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

    2011-08-07

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and provide an overview of the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) approach.

  4. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-07-06

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required.

  5. Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

    1991-09-01

    Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-10-20

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  7. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-05-22

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  8. APNEA/WIT system nondestructive assay capability evaluation plan for select accessibly stored INEL RWMC waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1997-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research Inc. (BIR) and Lockheed Martin Speciality Components (LMSC) are engaged in a Program Research and Development Agreement and a Rapid Commercialization Initiative with the Department of Energy, EM-50. The agreement required BIR and LMSC to develop a data interpretation method that merges nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination (NDA/NDE) data and information sufficient to establish compliance with applicable National TRU Program (Program) waste characterization requirements and associated quality assurance performance criteria. This effort required an objective demonstration of the BIR and LMSC waste characterization systems in their standalone and integrated configurations. The goal of the test plan is to provide a mechanism from which evidence can be derived to substantiate nondestructive assay capability and utility statement for the BIT and LMSC systems. The plan must provide for the acquisition, compilation, and reporting of performance data thereby allowing external independent agencies a basis for an objective evaluation of the standalone BIR and LMSC measurement systems, WIT and APNEA respectively, as well as an expected performance resulting from appropriate integration of the two systems. The evaluation is to be structured such that a statement regarding select INEL RWMC waste forms can be made in terms of compliance with applicable Program requirements and criteria.

  9. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The nuclear material type, mass and associated alpha activity of the NDA PDP radioactive standard sets have been specified and fabricated to allow assembly of PDP samples that simulate TRU alpha activity concentrations, radionuclidic/isotopic distributions and physical forms typical of the DOE TRU waste inventory. The PDP matrix drum waste matrix types were derived from an evaluation of information contained in the Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) to ensure representation of prevalent waste types and their associated matrix characteristics in NDA PDP testing. NDA drum analyses required by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) may only be performed by measurement facilities that comply with the performance criteria as set forth in the NDA PDP Plan. In this document, these analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the wastes on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP wastes.

  11. Radiometric measurements on the fabrication of non-destructive assay standards for WIPP-Performance Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.S.; Marshall, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The Inorganic Elemental Analysis Group of LANL has prepared several different sets of working reference materials (WRMs). These WRMs are prepared by blending quantities of nuclear materials (plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium) with diatomaceous earth. The blends are encapsulated in stainless steel cylinders. These WRMs are being measured as blind controls in neutron and gamma based non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. Radiometric measurements on the blending homogeneity and verification on a set of sixty three plutonium based WRMs are discussed in this paper.

  12. Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of {sup 235}U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for {sup 235}U with active assays and for {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted.

  13. Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of {sup 235}U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for {sup 235}U with active assays and for {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted.

  14. Experimental verification of modeling results for a PGNAA system for nondestructive assay of RCRA metals in drums

    PubMed

    Dulloo; Ruddy; Congedo; Seidel; McIlwain

    2000-10-01

    The use of pulsed gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive assay of mercury, cadmium and lead in a concrete matrix has been demonstrated. Calculations have also been performed to study interference with PGNAA detection sensitivity resulting from the presence of 238U, 235U, and 239Pu at levels expected in mixed waste. Analyses based on transport calculations examined the effects of these nuclides on neutron kinetics, and the contribution from the capture, fission and decay gamma-rays emitted by the nuclides to the gamma-ray spectrum. These calculations predicted insignificant effects on the system's detection limits (115, 9 and 4400 ppm for Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, for a 2000 s assay). This paper describes verification measurements recently conducted using samples of 235U and 231U in the test drum geometry, which have provided experimental confirmation of the modeling results. PMID:11003484

  15. Droplet-interface-bilayer assays in microfluidic passive networks

    PubMed Central

    Schlicht, Bárbara; Zagnoni, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Basic biophysical studies and pharmacological processes can be investigated by mimicking the intracellular and extracellular environments across an artificial cell membrane construct. The ability to reproduce in vitro simplified scenarios found in live cell membranes in an automated manner has great potential for a variety of synthetic biology and compound screening applications. Here, we present a fully integrated microfluidic system for the production of artificial lipid bilayers based on the miniaturisation of droplet-interface-bilayer (DIB) techniques. The platform uses a microfluidic design that enables the controlled positioning and storage of phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets, leading successfully to the scalable and automated formation of arrays of DIBs to mimic cell membrane processes. To ensure robustness of operation, we have investigated how lipid concentration, immiscible phase flow velocities and the device geometrical parameters affect the system performance. Finally, we produced proof-of-concept data showing that diffusive transport of molecules and ions across on-chip DIBs can be studied and quantified using fluorescence-based assays. PMID:25909686

  16. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  17. The role of non-destructive assay in support of the exemption of solid waste from nuclear licensed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA, Harwell (United Kingdom); Adsley, Ian; Green, Tommy [NUKEM Ltd., Kelburn Court, Daten Park, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6TW (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Nuclear Site License Holders within the United Kingdom are increasingly re-examining the options available for disposal of solid waste produced during routine operations and decommissioning activities. The incentives to do so include: 'Compliance with the requirement to minimise radioactive waste, as stipulated in Disposal Authorisations issued by the Environment Agency' Reducing the burden on the UK Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR)' Achieving cost savings on waste management, by avoiding expensive conditioning, transport and disposal costs for certain wastes. Wastes may be exempted from regulation under the Radioactive Substances Act, 1993 (RSA 93) provided they comply with the conditions laid out in the relevant Exemption Orders. In effect, they may be legally disposed as if they were non-radioactive waste. A national Code of Practice on Clearance and Exemption Principles, Processes and Practices was introduced in 2005 to clarify the requirements of these Exemption Orders and provide guidance on their practical application. In order to demonstrate compliance with these Exemption Orders, it is essential to have good knowledge of the items' history and their potential for contamination. Monitoring is frequently used as definitive evidence that the radioactivity content of waste items does not exceed limits proscribed in the relevant Exemption Orders. The practicalities of monitoring require careful consideration in order to achieve meaningful results and be capable of achieving the low specific activity limits quoted in the Exemption Orders. The Cross Industry Assay Working Group is a national collection of non-destructive assay specialists from a range of companies, which meets regularly to discuss challenges relating to the assay of all categories of waste. In this paper, the Group presents examples of how NDA techniques are being used to support the exemption of waste items. (authors)

  18. Application of nondestructive assay technology in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.; Brandenburg, R.W.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Hensley, D.C.; Phoenix, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Waste characterization is the process whereby physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element of a waste certification program in that it provides information which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A and WIPP-DOE-069 list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content, fissile material content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual(s) who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which the major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. International Perspective on the Application of Non-Destructive Assay Technology Platforms for Sentencing and Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12113

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2532 Camino Entrada, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade, major technology improvements have been introduced in the field of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste in compliance with an evolving regulatory structure. For example in the United States, various NDA technologies have been successfully developed to meet the stringent characterization requirements of the Department of Energy. The use of this instrumentation, combined with the compliant operational processes and expertise levels that have emerged in parallel, have enabled over 75,000 m{sup 3} (or in excess of 145,000 containers) of contact and remote handled transuranic (TRU) waste to be sentenced to date to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant from 10 different consignor sites. Many of these techniques have applicability that transcends national borders and can be used for common characterization challenges in waste sentencing and disposal on an international basis. Applicable waste streams could include LLW, ILW, TRU and HLW. There are specific design aspects of assay equipment that must be tailored to meet the applicable regulatory requirements for detection and quantification of a set of nuclides of interest to a prescribed limit of detection and measurement uncertainty. Each host nation will have specific challenges in the form of matrix types and processes, availability of historical information, needs for portable versus fixed instruments and the requirement to measure all containers versus assay of a representative sample. Furthermore, the practice of load management (combining smaller packages into a larger package designed to meet the overall waste acceptance criteria for the bulk container) may not have universal acceptability. An evaluation has been performed on a sample of the most successful technologies that have recently emerged to understand their applicability in other countries. Two types of instrumentation 'suite' are considered for measurements on drums and larger boxes / crates: (i) High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence counting combined with gamma isotopic analysis (e.g. the SuperHENC), and (ii) Portable NDA using neutron slab counters and far field high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Target countries (outside the United States) for these applications are: China, Japan, UK, Sweden and Canada. Specific challenges in each country are addressed and the applicability of the technologies as 'universal platforms' is considered. (authors)

  20. Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Haff, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed.

  1. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. PMID:25180828

  3. A non-destructive in ovo assay to quantify EROD activity in embryo-larval Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.; Kuhn-Hines, A.; Coiro, L.; Munns, W.R. Jr. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Cooper, K. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sensitive embryo-larval estuarine fish exposed to organic contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) have been shown to demonstrate characteristic biochemical responses, and impaired development and reduced survival. One of the best studied of these biochemical responses is induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, e.g., CYP1A, frequently assessed as ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Standard methods to measure EROD activity in embryo-larval fish require destructive samples, composited from many embryos, precluding information on individual variation in EROD activity or concurrent observation of health effects. A novel method has been developed that employs the non-destructive observation in individual embryos of EROD activity, demonstrated by the production and accumulation in the embryonic bladder of the fluorescent product, resorufin. EROD activity in a living embryo is quantified by bladder fluorescence using microfluorometric instrumentation. Using this technique, the authors were able to follow individual fish throughout embryonic and early larval development making temporal observations of EROD activity as well as developmental progress, lesion characterization, hatch rate and success, and post-hatch growth and survival. Results were used to examine differential responsiveness to EROD-inducing organic contaminants of embryo-larval fish from parental populations inhabiting PHAH-contaminated or uncontaminated environments.

  4. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamb, Frank W [UNWIN CORPORATION

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ Nondestructive Assay of Radioactive Materials. Some of the information that will be presented includes observations made during site visits, how information useful to all facilities using nondestructive assay to determine holdup material quantities will be disseminated, and preliminary results of a gap analysis performed on current in situ nondestructive assay holdup measurements.

  5. Use of delayed gamma rays for active non-destructive assay of 235U irradiated by pulsed neutron source (plasma focus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram; Kaushik, T. C.; Rout, R. K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D. B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B. S.; Ramakumar, K. L.; Gupta, S. C.

    2014-07-01

    A pulsed neutron source based on plasma focus device has been used for active interrogation and assay of 235U by monitoring its delayed high energy ?-rays. The method involves irradiation of fissile material by thermal neutrons obtained after moderation of a burst of neutrons emitted upon fusion of deuterium in plasma focus (PF) device. The delayed gamma rays emitted from the fissile material as a consequence of induced fission were detected by a large volume sodium iodide (NaI(Tl) detector. The detector is coupled to a data acquisition system of 2k input size with 2k ADC conversion gain. Counting was carried out in pulse height analysis mode for time integrated counts up to 100 s while the temporal profile of delayed gamma has been obtained by counting in multichannel scaling mode with dwell time of 50 ms. To avoid the effect of passive (natural) and active (from surrounding materials) backgrounds, counts have been acquired for gamma energy between 3 and 10 MeV. The lower limit of detection of 235U in the oxide samples with this set-up is estimated to be 14 mg.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  7. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy? s (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory? s (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory? s (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or mixed, which contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that employs the principles of computed tomography and gamma-ray spectral analysis to identify and quantify all of the detectable radioisotopes. Once this and other applicable technologies are developed, waste drums can be non- destructively and accurately characterized to satisfy repository and regulatory guidelines prior to disposal.

  8. A new in vitro system for evaluation of passive intestinal drug absorption: establishment of a double artificial membrane permeation assay.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Makoto; Tsuneishi, Saki; Maeda, Yukako; Masaoka, Yoshie; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this present study was to establish a new in vitro assay, double artificial membrane permeation assay (DAMPA), to evaluate the human intestinal permeability of drugs. A double artificial membrane with an intracellular compartment was constructed in side-by-side chambers by sandwiching a filter containing buffer solution with impregnated lipophilic filters with dodecane containing 2w/v% phosphatidylcholine. Permeation data of ionic compounds clearly indicated that not only the pH value of the apical solution but also that of the intracellular compartment affected the permeability across the double artificial membrane. DAMPA was performed with 20 compounds at physiological pH (apical; 6.5, intracellular and basal; 7.4). Paracellular and transcellular permeabilities of compounds in human epithelium were estimated based on the characteristics of the paracellular pathway using physicochemical properties of compounds with the Renkin function and the area factor i.e. the difference in the effective surface area between human epithelium and the double artificial membrane, respectively. The human intestinal permeability of each compound was predicted by the sum of estimated transcellular and paracellular permeabilities. Predicted human intestinal permeability was significantly correlated with the fraction of absorbed dose in humans, indicating that DAMPA has the potential to predict oral absorption of drugs in humans. PMID:25304077

  9. Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moran, Bruce W [IAEA; Lebrun, Alain [IAEA

    2009-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step in enhancing the ability of NDA beyond present attended systems. The possibility of monitoring the feed, tails, and product header pipes in such a way as to gain safeguards relevant flow and enrichment information without compromising the intellectual property of the operator including proprietary equipment and operational parameters would be a huge step forward. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including such process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector measurements reducing the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GeEPs safeguards.

  10. Recharacterization and segregation of transuranic wastes from low-level wastes by means of nondestructive assay at Los Alamos National Laboratory Solid Waste Operations facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past five years, portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectroscopy systems have been used with non- destructive assay techniques to characterize waste items at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LAND). The systems currently are used to characterize approximately 30 percent of Land waste annually, and have been used to segregate low-level wastes from transuranic (TRU) wastes at the generator facilities. As a result of the tremendous cost savings realized from the low-level/TRU waste segregation activities, a pilot program was initiated to recharacterize wastes currently stored and managed at the Solid Waste Operational facility. In the pilot program, 84 cubic meters of plutonium contaminated wastes were characterized, with 10 percent of the waste, by volume, found to be low-level waste. A follow-on effort was commenced to identify wastes in the LAND waste database that may be improperly classified as TRU. The items determined to be `suspect' TRU account for over 90 percent of the TRU waste volume in storage at the Solid Waste Operations facility. In a second recharacterization phase, over 68 cubic meters of TRU waste were recharacterized. Over 62 cubic meters of the recharacterized waste was found to be low-level waste.

  11. Characterization of waste drums using nonintrusive active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Camp, D.C.; Azevedo, S.G.; Keto, E.R.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a data acquisition scanner for gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) active and passive computed tomography (A&PCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner to acquire data sets of mock-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNIL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with gamma-ray spectroscopy assay, NDA imaging, describe the design and construction of an NDA drum scanner and report on code development for image reconstruction. We also present representative A&PCT assay results of well characterized mock-waste drums. These preliminary results suggest that A&PCT imaging can be used to produce accurate absolute assays of radioactivity in real-waste drums.

  12. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Quantitative measurements of cholera enterotoxin in cultures of toxinogenic wild-type and nontoxinogenic mutant strains of Vibrio cholerae by using a sensitive and specific reversed passive hemagglutination assay for cholera enerotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, R K; Baine, W B; Vasil, M L

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific reversed passive hemagglutination (RPHA) assay for cholera enterotoxin has been developed. Equine anti-choleragenoid antibodies purified by immunoadsorption were covalently coupled to formalinized sheep erythrocytes, using bis-diazotized benzidine, and the antitoxin-sensitized erythrocytes were shown to agglutinate specifically in the presence of cholera enterotoxin. In a microtiter RPHA assay system, the smallest quantity of enterotoxin that caused hemagglutination was approximately 20 pg. A sensitive assay for antibodies to enterotoxin was also developed, based on inhibition of RPHA. Using such assays, we demonstrated that several nontoxinogenic (tox-) strains of Vibrio cholerae produced small but detectable yields of enterotoxin, 4 to 16 ng/ml, under conditions where the highly toxinogenic strain 569B Inaba produced approximately 16 microgram of enterotoxin per ml. The enterotoxin produced in small quantities by these tox- strains was found to be identical to the enterotoxin from V. cholerae 569B Inaba iv its immunological and biological activities. Strains of V. cholerae that produce intermediate yields of enterotoxin have been obtained by two techniques: (i) as less toxinogenic mutants derived from highly toxinogenic strains and (ii) as more toxinogenic mutants derived from tox- strains. Thus, the yield of enterotoxin in cultures of V. cholerae grown under standardized conditions is is a genetically controlled trait that can be altered by mutation. Images PMID:624584

  14. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy? s (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that employs the principles of computed tomography and gamma-ray spectral analysis to identify and quantify all of the detectable radioisotopes. Once this and other applicable technologies are developed, waste drums can be nondestructively and accurately characterized to satisfy repository and regulatory guidelines prior to disposal.

  15. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  16. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Nondestructive Acoustic Imaging Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Schmitz

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic imaging techniques are used in the field of nondestructive testing of technical components to measure defects such\\u000a as lack of side wall fusion or cracks in welded joints. Data acquisition is performed by a remote-controlled manipulator and\\u000a a PC for the mass storage of the high-frequency time-of-flight data at each probe position. The quality of the acoustic images\\u000a and

  18. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Nondestructive testing with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

  20. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  1. Operational and Regulatory Performance of Waste Crate Assay Systems at RFETS

    SciTech Connect

    Clapham, M. J.; Franco, J.; Simpson, A.; Santo, J.; Menlove, H. O.; Durel, F. M.

    2003-02-27

    As Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) approaches its closure target of 2006 emphasis for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) has shifted from small waste package assay systems towards larger systems that are designed to accommodate Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and larger Low Level Waste (LLW) containers. To this end, Kaiser Hill, with the support of BNFL Instruments, Inc. (BII) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), has recently deployed two new crate assay systems. These systems provide the capacity to meet the assay requirements associated with the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) at RFETS. The Super High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence Counting System (SuperHENC) was designed and fabricated as a collaborative effort between RFETS, LANL and BII. The purpose of this counter is to provide a WIPP certified assay capability for SWBs with a sensitivity that allows for TRU/LLW sorting. The SuperHENC has been in operation since early 2001. The BII Multi-Purpose Crate Counter (MPCC) is based on the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN) technology. This counter was designed to provide diverse capacity for WIPP certified assay of SWBs and to provide assay capability for larger LLW crates that are generated at RFETS. The MPCC has been in operation since early 2002. In order to meet the requirement for measurement of the WIPP tracked radionuclides, both systems incorporate a BII Gamma Energy Analysis sub-system. The unique Energy Times Attenuation (ETA) method is used to provide isotopic mass fractions for diverse waste streams. These systems were the first, and at this time the only, waste crate assay systems that have achieved WIPP certification. This represents a significant achievement given that the performance criteria applied to the measurements of large crates is identical to the criteria for 55-gallon (208 liter) drums. They are now both fully operational at RFETS and continue to successfully support the site closure mission.

  2. Operational and regulatory performance of waste crate assay systems at RFETS.

    SciTech Connect

    Clapham, M. (Martin); Franco, J. B. (Johnna B.); Simpson, A.; Santo, J.; Menlove, Howard O.; Durel, F. M.

    2003-01-01

    As Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) approaches its closure target of 2006 emphasis for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) has shifted from small waste package assay systems towards larger systems that are designed to accommodate Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and larger Low Level Waste (LLW) containers. To this end, Kaiser Hill, with the support of BNFL Instruments, Inc . (BIn) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), has recently deployed two new crate assay systems . These systems provide the capacity to meet the assay requirements associated with the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) at RFETS . The Super High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence Counting System (SuperHENC) was designed and fabricated as a collaborative effort between RFETS, LANL and BII. The purpose of this counter is to provide a WIPP certified assay capability for SWBs with a sensitivity that allows for TRU/LLW sorting. The SuperHENC has been in operation since early 2001 . The BII Mu1ti-Purpose Crate Counter (MPCC) is based on the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPANTM) technology. This counter was designed to provide diverse capacity for WIPP certified assay of SWBs and to provide assay capability for larger LLW crates that are generated at RFETS. The MPCC h as been in operation since early 2002 . In order to meet the requirement for measurement of the WIPP tracked radionuclides, both systems incorporate a BII Gamma Energy Analysis sub-system . The unique Energy Times . Attenuation (ETA) method is used to provide isotopic mass fractions for diverse wastes treams: These systems were the first, and at this time the only, waste crate assay systems that have achieved WIPP certification. This represents a significant achievement given that the performance criteria applied to the measurements of large crates is identical to the criteria for 55-gallon (208 liter) drums . They are now both fully operational at RFETS and continue to successfully support the site closure mission .

  3. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  5. Nondestructive radioassay for waste management: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmkuhl, G.D.

    1981-06-01

    Nondestructive Assay (NDA) for Transuranic Waste Management is used to mean determining the amount of transuranic (TRU) isotopes in crates, drums, boxes, cans, or other containers without having to open the container. It also means determining the amount of TRU in soil, bore holes, and other environmental testing areas without having to go through extensive laboratory wet chemistry analyses. it refers to radioassay techniques used to check for contamination on objects after decontamination and to determine amounts of TRU in waste processing streams without taking samples to a laboratory. Gednerally, NDA instrumentation in this context refers to all use of radioassay which does not involve taking samples and using wet chemistry techniques. NDA instruments have been used for waste assay at some sites for over 10 years and other sites are just beginning to consider assay of wastes. The instrumentation used at several sites is discussed in this report. Almost all these instruments in use today were developed for special nuclear materials safeguards purposes and assay TRU waste down to the 500 nCi/g range. The need for instruments to assay alpha particle emitters at 10 nCi/g or less has risen from the wish to distinguish between Low Level Waste (LLW) and TRU Waste at the defined interface of 10 nCi/g. Wastes have historically been handled as TRU wastes if they were just suspected to be transuranically contaminated but their exact status was unknown. Economic and political considerations make this practice undesirable since it is easier and less costly to handle LLW. This prompted waste generators to want better instrumentation and led the Transuranic Waste Management Program to develop and test instrumentation capable of assaying many types of waste at the 10 nCi/g level. These instruments are discussed.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  7. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  8. Matrix effects of TRU (transuranic) assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of {sup 239}Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, J. J.; Polcari, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments performed in the evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing of chip and wire bonds are presented. Semiconductor devices were subjected to time-temperature excursions, static-load life testing and multiple pre-stressing loads to determine the feasibility of a nondestructive tensile testing approach. The report emphasizes the importance of the breaking angle in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a wire bond, a factor not generally recognized nor implemented in such determinations.

  10. Passive euthanasia

    PubMed Central

    Garrard, E; Wilkinson, S

    2005-01-01

    The idea of passive euthanasia has recently been attacked in a particularly clear and explicit way by an "Ethics Task Force" established by the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) in February 2001. It claims that the expression "passive euthanasia" is a contradiction in terms and hence that there can be no such thing. This paper critically assesses the main arguments for the Task Force's view. Three arguments are considered. Firstly, an argument based on the (supposed) wrongness of euthanasia and the (supposed) permissibility of what is often called passive euthanasia. Secondly, the claim that passive euthanasia (so-called) cannot really be euthanasia because it does not cause death. And finally, a consequence based argument which appeals to the (alleged) bad consequences of accepting the category of passive euthanasia. We conclude that although healthcare professionals' nervousness about the concept of passive euthanasia is understandable, there is really no reason to abandon the category provided that it is properly and narrowly understand and provided that "euthanasia reasons" for withdrawing or withholding life-prolonging treatment are carefully distinguished from other reasons. PMID:15681666

  11. Nondestructive assay holdup measurements with the Ortec detective

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wenz, Tracy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bracken, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Wing 4 of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to be downgraded from a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility to a Hazard Category 3 Radiological Facility. Survey and holdup measurements are used to ensure that the total contamination levels present in the facility do not contribute enough activity to go above the Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities. Additionally, the measurement information provides an understanding of the cleanup and the equipment removal needs for the next step of decontaminating and decommissioning of the site. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) facility has been housing the research and experimental activities for analytical chemistry, plutonium and uranium chemistry, and metallurgy since the start of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is currently being replaced by the new Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement facilities. As a result, the CMR is gradually closing and/or downgrading to a nonnuclear facility. In 2008, the Safeguards Science and Technology group, N-1, was assigned the task of doing survey and holdup measurements of Wing 4 of the CMR. The goal of the measurements is to provide defensible measurement data for Wing 4 of the CMR Building to be downgraded from a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility to below a Hazard Category 3 Radiological Facility. In addition, the measurement information would provide an understanding of the cleanup and the equipment removal needs for the next step of decontaminating and decommissioning the site. The large areal olume of the site and the high intensity of the high-energy gamma rays of thorium, either from the background or the contaminated objects in the measured room or the adjacent rooms, present some challenges in the holdup measurements. Typical holdup techniques of point source, line, or area measurement do not work well. In order to speed up the measurement time and to accuralely account for all the isotopes present in the facility, we used a new technique that we tentatively named 'Room Holdup Measurement' to do holdup measurements of the site. This technique uses the portable, electric-cooled high-purity germanium detectors from Ortec (the Detectives) to measure the activities of the isotopes.

  12. Nondestructive fissile material assay by induced fission neutron correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Walter

    2005-10-01

    An NDA method and interpretation model for the determination of small fissile material masses, in radioactive waste, is elaborated. The method uses a pulsed neutron source to interrogate a waste item located in the sample cavity. The sample cavity is lined with graphite to yield a long thermal neutron lifetime. For each pulse of source neutrons, the slowed down neutron population causes thermal fission in the fissile material of the sample, resulting in the emission of fast neutrons from the sample. Some of these fast neutrons escape the cavity and the cavity liner, and are slowed down in an external polyethylene moderator, designed to yield a short thermal neutron lifetime, and are subsequently detected in incorporated thermal neutron detectors. Signal groups, representing the detection of fission neutrons, are recorded in several observation intervals after the pulse of source neutrons has died away in the polyethylene moderator. Following many pulses of source neutrons, the frequency of such signal groups is accumulated. The first, second, and third factorial moment of such frequency distributions are the estimated value of signal singlets, doublets and triplets, respectively. These multiplets are expressed as function of the fissile mass, the neutron detection probability, instrumental and nuclear parameters, and a stationary neutron signal background, thus permitting an absolute determination of the fissile mass of the sample.

  13. Nondestructive fissile material assay by induced fission neutron correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Hage

    2005-01-01

    An NDA method and interpretation model for the determination of small fissile material masses, in radioactive waste, is elaborated. The method uses a pulsed neutron source to interrogate a waste item located in the sample cavity. The sample cavity is lined with graphite to yield a long thermal neutron lifetime. For each pulse of source neutrons, the slowed down neutron

  14. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

  15. Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

    2012-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

  16. Nondestructive Acoustic Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Volker

    Acoustic imaging techniques are used in the field of nondestructive testing of technical components to measure defects such as lack of side wall fusion or cracks in welded joints. Data acquisition is performed by a remote-controlled manipulator and a PC for the mass storage of the high-frequency time-of-flight data at each probe position. The quality of the acoustic images and the interpretation relies on the proper understanding of the transmitted wave fronts and the arrangement of the probes in pulse-echo mode or in pitch-and-catch arrangement. The use of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique allows the depth-dependent resolution to be replaced by a depth-independent resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio to be improved. Examples with surface-connected cracks are shown to demonstrate the improved features. The localization accuracy could be improved by entering 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional reconstructed data into the environment of a 3-dimensional CAD drawing. The propagation of ultrasonic waves through austenitic welds is disturbed by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous structure of the material. The effect is more or less severe depending upon the longitudinal or shear wave modes. To optimize the performance of an inspection software tool, a 3-dimensional CAD-Ray program has been implemented, where the shape of the inhomogeneous part of a weld can be simulated together with the grain structure based on the elastic constants. Ray-tracing results are depicted for embedded and for surface-connected defects.

  17. Nondestructive analysis at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Uranium Recovery Facility. [Segmented gamma scanner, the solution analysis system, and the neutron interrogation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Hogue; S. E. Smith

    1985-01-01

    A nondestructive assay (nondestructive analysis) laboratory is in operation at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in a facility for the recovery of highly enriched uranium from manufacturing wastes. The laboratory contains instruments for gamma scanning and neutron interrogation of containers of solid wastes, gamma analysis of solution samples, and measurement of solution density. This facility has replaced sampling and chemical

  18. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in...

  1. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (d) When nondestructive testing is required under § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the operator, must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference: (1) In...

  2. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (d) When nondestructive testing is required under § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the operator, must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference: (1) In...

  3. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (d) When nondestructive testing is required under § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the operator, must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference: (1) In...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in...

  6. Opsonophagocytic assay.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Markryan; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay is used as a correlate for protection to measure the functional capacities of vaccine-candidate-raised antibodies. This in vitro assay aids selecting promising vaccines by demonstrating whether the vaccine-induced antibodies drive efficient complement deposition and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. Here, we describe two protocols for an OPK assay using either human-derived PMNs or cultured HL-60 cells. PMID:24218277

  7. Passive interspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnuolo, W.G. Jr.; Kamper, K.W. (Georgia State Univ., Atlanta (USA) David Dunlap Observatory, Richmond Hill (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    'Interspectroscopy' is a method of obtaining the separated spectra of binary (or multiple) stars too close to be resolved by conventional techniques. The method is 'passive' because, like speckle interferometry, the atmosphere provides a series of random phase variations, and no control system is used to maintain phase. Results in terms of spectral purity are given for several cases in both the pupil and image planes. It is shown that significant spectral separation can occur. Planned observations with a fiber-fed, pulse-counting spectrograph at the 1.9-m DDO telescope are discussed. 19 refs.

  8. RAS Assays

    Cancer.gov

    The proportion of oncogenic mutants of KRAS proteins that are in the "active" (GTP-bound) form is far higher than that of wild-type RAS proteins. Scientists at the National Lab are developing high-throughput in vitro assays to measure interactions of GTP-loaded KRAS and effectors, such as CRAF and calmodulin, as well as imaging assays that can detect oncogenic KRAS interactions inside cells.

  9. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  10. Overview of nondestructive evaluation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.

    1995-04-01

    The infrastructure in the US and the world is aging. There is an increasing awareness of the need to assess the severity of the damage occurring to the infrastructure. Limited resources preclude the replacement of all structures that need repairs or have exceeded their life times. Methods to assess the amount and severity of damage are crucial to implementing a systematic, cost effective approach to repair and/or replace the damaged structures. The challenges of inspecting aging structures without impairing their usefulness rely on a variety of technologies and techniques for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper will briefly describe several nondestructive evaluation technologies that are required for inspecting a variety of systems and structures.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A review is presented of Lewis Research Center efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation techniques for characterizing advanced ceramic materials. Various approaches involved the use of analytical ultrasonics to characterize monolythic ceramic microstructures, acousto-ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic matrix composites, damage monitoring in impact specimens by microfocus X-ray radiography and scanning ultrasonics, and high resolution computed X-ray tomography to identify structural features in fiber reinforced ceramics.

  12. Holographic system for nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a holographic system for nondestructive testing. The system is comprised of a mirror which illuminates the test object surface; the mirror is positionable to direct illumination on an object at varying angles with respect to a line normal to the surface of the object. In this manner holograms may be produced with varying degrees of sensitivity enabling optimum observation of dimensions of deformation of an object occurring between test exposures.

  13. Application of nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques for the safeguarding of irradiated fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Lee, D.M.; Beach, S.E.; Bement, T.R.; Dermendjiev, E.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kaieda, K.; Medina, E.G.

    1980-05-01

    Nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques were used to characterize the irradiation exposures of irradiated fuel assemblies. Techniques for the rapid measurement of the axial-activity profiles of fuel assemblies have been developed using ion chambers and Be(..gamma..,n) detectors. Detailed measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and passive neutron techniques were correlated with operator-declared values of cooling times and burnup.

  14. Non-destructive Orthonormal State Discrimination

    E-print Network

    M. Gupta; A. Pathak; R. Srikanth; P. K. Panigrahi

    2005-07-11

    We provide explicit quantum circuits for the non-destructive deterministic discrimination of Bell states in the Hilbert space $C^{d^{n}}$, where $d$ is qudit dimension. We discuss a method for generalizing this to non-destructive measurements on any set of orthogonal states distributed among $n$ parties. From the practical viewpoint, we show that such non-destructive measurements can help lower quantum communication complexity under certain conditions.

  15. The Nuclear Renaissance - Implications on Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, Regis A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 20 International Drive, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States)

    2007-03-21

    The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not even have access to electricity. With this increased energy demand and the high and volatile price of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is experiencing resurgence. This so-called nuclear renaissance is broad based, reaching across Asia, the United States, Europe, as well as selected countries in Africa and South America. Some countries, such as Italy, that have actually turned away from nuclear energy are reconsidering the advisability of this design. This renaissance provides the opportunity to deploy more advanced reactor designs that are operating today, with improved safety, economy, and operations. In this keynote address, I will briefly present three such advanced reactor designs in whose development Westinghouse is participating. These designs include the advanced passive PWR, AP1000, which recently received design certification for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the Pebble Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) which is being demonstrated in South Africa; and the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), which was showcased in the US Department of Energy's recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), program. The salient features of these designs that impact future requirements on quantitative nondestructive evaluations will be discussed. Such features as reactor vessel materials, operating temperature regimes, and new geometric configurations will be described, and mention will be made of the impact on quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation with laser ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes how laser-based systems generate and detect ultrasonic waves from a distance for on-line process control and rapid NDE inspection. Not long after the laser was invented in the 1960s, scientists proposed using the powerful new optical device for a novel nondestructive examination (NDE) technique that could probe the interior of an object from a distance. A short, intense laser pulse, they suggested, could non-destructively ''whack'' the surface of a test article by rapidly heating a small target area. The spot would thermally expand nearly instantaneously and send ultrasonic waves through the material. When these acoustic waves hit the boundaries of the test object or any internal flaws or discontinuities, they would rebound elastically and produce minute surface vibrations at the target area. This target would then be illuminated by a second detection laser, whose light is scattered by the surface. Ultrasonic motion at the surface causes a small phase or frequency shift (Doppler effect) in the scattered laster light, which is detected by an interferometer--a precision instrument that uses interference fringe phenomena to measure small displacements and their velocities. When the resulting interference patterns are analyzed to determine the frequency content of the tiny surface perturbations, the test item's dimensions, defect content, and even its physical state of matter can be determined.

  17. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006). PMID:19045633

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

  19. Nondestructive Imaging of Individual Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, Matthias; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2010-03-01

    Radiation damage is considered to be the major problem that still prevents imaging an individual biological molecule for structural analysis. So far, all known mapping techniques using sufficient short wavelength radiation, be it x rays or high energy electrons, circumvent this problem by averaging over many molecules. Averaging, however, leaves conformational details uncovered. Even the anticipated use of ultrashort but extremely bright x-ray bursts of a free electron laser shall afford averaging over 106 molecules to arrive at atomic resolution. Here, we present direct experimental evidence for nondestructive imaging of individual DNA molecules. In fact, we show that DNA withstands coherent low energy electron radiation with deBroglie wavelength in the Ångstrom regime despite a vast dose of 108electrons/nm2 accumulated over more than one hour.

  20. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  1. Assaying mechanosensation*

    PubMed Central

    Chalfie, Martin; Hart, Anne C.; Rankin, Catharine H.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans detect and respond to diverse mechanical stimuli using neuronal circuitry that has been defined by decades of work by C. elegans researchers. In this WormMethods chapter, we review and comment on the techniques currently used to assess mechanosensory response. This methods review is intended both as an introduction for those new to the field and a convenient compendium for the expert. A brief discussion of commonly used mechanosensory assays is provided, along with a discussion of the neural circuits involved, consideration of critical protocol details, and references to the primary literature. PMID:25093996

  2. A non-destructive transformer oil tester

    E-print Network

    Cargol, Timothy L. (Timothy Lawrence), 1976-

    2000-01-01

    A new non-destructive test of transformer oil dielectric strength is a promising technique to automate and make more reliable a diagnostic that presently involves intensive manual efforts. This thesis focuses some of the ...

  3. NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

  4. Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams

    E-print Network

    Dincal, Selcuk

    2010-12-08

    is also vital for a nation’s economy. Substantial sums of money may be saved upon detecting structural deterioration in a timely manner. Nondestructive damage evaluation (NDE) offers effective and economically feasible solutions to perform such tasks...

  5. SHEAROGRAPHY AND APPLICATIONS IN NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Y. Y. Hung

    This article reviews shearography and its applications in nondestructive testing. Shearography is a laser-based technique for full-field and non-contacting measurement of surface deformation (displacement or strains). Despite being a relative young technique, it has already received considerable industrial acceptance, in particular, for nondestructive testing. One major difference of shearography from other NDT techniques is the mechanics of revealing flaws. Shearography

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  7. Interlanguage Passive Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simargool, Nirada

    2008-01-01

    Because the appearance of the passive construction varies cross linguistically, differences exist in the interlanguage (IL) passives attempted by learners of English. One such difference is the widely studied IL pseudo passive, as in "*new cars must keep inside" produced by Chinese speakers. The belief that this is a reflection of L1 language…

  8. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not. Another approach, in addition to differentiation between various cure conditions, may even provide information with respect to the bond strength. Several technical papers were published during the course of this research and a summary is presented in the Ph.D. dissertation of Tobias P. Berndt, a graduate student financially supported by this NASA Grant.

  9. SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis: Active mode measurements of solidified aqueous sludge waste

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the US Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Active Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper is one of a series of reports quantifying the results of the uncertainty analysis of the PAN system measurements for specific waste types and measurement modes. In particular this report covers active mode measurements of weapons grade plutonium-contaminated aqueous sludge waste contained in 208 liter drums (item description codes 1, 2, 7, 800, 803, and 807). Results of the uncertainty analysis for PAN active mode measurements of aqueous sludge indicate that a bias correction multiplier of 1.55 should be applied to the PAN aqueous sludge measurements. With the bias correction, the uncertainty bounds on the expected bias are 0 {+-} 27%. These bounds meet the Quality Assurance Program Plan requirements for radioassay systems.

  10. SQUIDs: microscopes and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2005-03-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are magnetic field sensores with unsurpassed sensitivity. They are amazingly versatile, being able to measure all physical quantities which can be converted to magnetic flux. They are routinely fabricated in thin film technology from two classes of superconducting materials: high-temperature superconductors (HTS) which are usually cooled to 77 K, and low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which have to be cooled to 4.2 K. SQUIDs have many applications, two of which shall be discussed in this paper. In SQUID microscopy, a SQUID scans a sample, which preferrably is at room temperature, and measures the two-dimensional magnetic field distribution at the surface of the sample. In order to achieve a relatively high spatial resolution, the stand-off distance between the sample and the SQUID is made as small as possible. SQUIDs show also promising results in the field of nondestructive testing of various materials. For example, ferromagnetic impurities in stainless steel formed by aging processes in the material can be detected with high probability, and cracks in conducting materials, for example aircraft parts, can be located using eddy current methods. Especially for the case of thick, highly conductive, or ferromagnetic materials, as well as sintered materials, it can be shown that a SQUID-based NDE system exhibits a much higher sensitivity compared to conventional eddy current NDE and ultrasonic testing.

  11. Passivity, complete passivity, and virtual temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Silva, Ralph; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    We give a simple and intuitive proof that the only states which are completely passive, i.e., those states from which work cannot be extracted even with infinitely many copies, are Gibbs states at positive temperatures. The proof makes use of the idea of virtual temperatures, i.e., the association of temperatures to pairs of energy levels (transitions). We show that (1) passive states are those where every transition is at a positive temperature and (2) completely passive states are those where every transition is at the same positive temperature.

  12. Microcomputers and nondestructive test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Microcomputers are finding their way into Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Systems. They can be used for scanning system motion control, instrumentation control, data acquisition, data display, and data analysis. This paper describes the application of the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), LSI-11 series microcomputers in systems developed and used by the NDT Unit of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These systems are used for ultrasonic testing and industrial computerized tomography. In some systems more than one microcomputer is used with one acting as a slave to the controlling or master unit. This becomes necessary when the single processor is not capable of handling all required tasks within the interval between data samples or other time constraints. The systems can be interfaced to a variety of NDT instrumentation. If the instrument has a digital command interface, then data and commands are passed back and forth through this interface. Frequently, the NDT instrumentation used does not have a digital capability and has only analog outputs. A general purpose interface has been designed and built to accept and digitize these inputs and to also display data on a storage cathode ray tube display. The systems contain translator circuits to drive stepper motors. While each system is normally coupled to a specific scanning device, its use is not restricted to only that scanner since the system can be easily programmed to drive other motors or scanners. Motors of almost any size or torque rating can be used without changing anything in the basic control system. A translator card and adequate power supply are the only changes that might be required, and a software change might also be required to keep the motor speed within its operating limits. Therefore, special purpose fixtures can be designed, built, and interfaced to the control system to perform inspections of special parts when the part has an axis of symmetry that can be used to simplify the scanning process.

  13. Nondestructive Characterization of Aged Components

    SciTech Connect

    Panetta, Paul D.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Garner, Francis A.; Balachov, Iouri I.

    2003-10-21

    It is known that high energy radiation can have numerous effects on materials. In metals and alloys, the effects include, but may not be limited to, mechanical property changes, physical property changes, compositional changes, phase changes, and dimensional changes. Metals and alloys which undergo high energy self-irradiation are also susceptible to these changes. One of the greatest concerns with irradiation of materials is the phenomenon of void swelling which has been observed in a wide variety of metals and alloys. Irradiation causes the formation of a high concentration point defects and microclusters of vacancies and interstitials. With the assistance of an inert atom such as helium, the vacancy-type defects can coalesce to form a stable bubble. This bubble will continue to grow through the net absorption of more vacancy-type defects and helium atoms, and upon reaching a certain critical size, the bubble will begin to grow at an accelerated rate without the assistance of inert atom absorption. The bubble is then said to be an unstably growing void. Depending on the alloy system and environment, swelling values can reach in excess of 50% !V/Vo where Vo is the initial volume of the material. Along with dimensional changes resulting from the formation of bubbles and voids comes changes in the macroscopically observed speed of sound, moduli, electrical resistivity, yield strength, and other properties. These effects can be detrimental to the designed operation of the aged components. In situations where irradiation has sufficient time to cause degradation to materials used in critical applications such as nuclear reactor core structural materials, it is advisable to regularly survey the material properties. It is common practice to use surveillance specimens, but this is not always possible. When surveillance materials are not available, other means for surveying the material properties must be utilized. Sometimes it is possible to core out a small sample which may be used for material properties measurements. A more appealing solution is to use nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

  14. SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software test plan and report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.J.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact- handled waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other DOE sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the software itself The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 software. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach. The new software incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional improvements include an improved user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without having to modify the code, and other features for maintainability. The primary purpose of this test plan and report is to document the test process and to verify that the requirements for the SAS are implemented correctly. This test plan and report satisfies the testing requirements of ASME NQA-1-1994 Supplement 11S-2 for a Quality Level 2 application. The intended audiences for this test plan are the developers and verification and validation analysts for the SAS.

  15. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) OF DAMAGED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H. [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 (United States)

    2009-03-03

    A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation (nde) of Damaged Structural Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H.

    2009-03-01

    A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

  17. Optimal Passive Source Localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Neering; Marc Bordier; N. Maizi

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the estimation of an object's position, this paper proposes a procedure for placing acoustical sensors in 3D space, using passive source localization. A standard performance measure in estimation theory is the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), which describes the lower bound of the variance of unbiased estimators. In the case of passive source localization, this bound depends

  18. Chinese Passives: Transformational or Lexical?

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiuwu; Wen, Xiaohong

    1989-01-01

    There are two types of passive constructions in Chinese. Type I is a syntactic passive since it is derived through a transformational rule. Type II is a lexical passive. It has certain properties in common with the predicate ...

  19. Novel Trends in Optical Non-Destructive Testing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huke, P.; Klattenhoff, R.; von Kopylow, C.; Bergmann, R. B.

    2013-07-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) describes a wide range of methods for measuring and comparing physical quantities against a nominal condition. In this paper we describe and compare different optical NdT (ONDT)-methods with respect to their characteristics and capability for different measurement tasks. ONDT may be specified in two categories, passive and active. The NDT principles of the first category just use a measurement method like view inspection, elipsometry or reflectometry to detect defects which are easily accessible. The principles of the second category use an excitation force, such as heat or mechanical vibration introduced by transducers to detect hidden defects. This category can be specified into two subcategories. The first subcategory "time-/depth-resolved" includes measurement methods delivering detailed information of the geometric features of a hidden defect. Therefore the excitation of the material and the detection of the reaction have to provide a ti! me step which enables depth-solved measurements. Phase-resolved thermography and laser ultrasound are examples for this category. The second subcategory "Integrating" includes measurement technique coupled with an excitation that enables detection of defects but not evaluation of their geometric features. Examples for these measurement techniques are shearography, reflectometry, vibrometry and thermography coupled with excitation method like simple heating or loading with a constant force. We demonstrate experimental results obtained using methods developed in our institute and highlight directions of further development.

  20. Overview of acoustical technology for nondestructive evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Green Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of acoustical techniques for nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures. Among the general topics covered are modes of elastic wave propagation in solid materials, energy flux vector, and nonlinear effects. Included in the section on ultrasonic measurements are ultrasonic attenuation, laser ultrasonics, full-field imaging of acoustic displacements, optical detection of acoustic emission, acousto-ultrasonics, acoustic microscopy,

  1. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  2. Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.R.

    1991-08-21

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques.

  3. Nondestructive testing standards and the ASME code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spanner

    1991-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) requirements and standards are an important part of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In this paper, the evolution of these requirements and standards is reviewed in the context of the unique technical and legal stature of the ASME Code. The coherent and consistent manner by which the ASME Code rules are organized is described, and

  4. Nondestructive ultrasonic determination of avocado softening process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amos Mizrach; Uri Flitsanov

    1999-01-01

    A testing technique based on a new nondestructive ultrasonic device was applied to a whole avocado fruit to measure its internal changes during ripening and to assess its quality. The method was based on local measurements of ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation, by means of two inclined ultrasonic probes, which were moved across the fruit peel. Multiple readings of wave

  5. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  6. FTIR spectrophotometric methods used for antioxidant activity assay IN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei A. Bunaciu; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein; Serban Fleschin

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a fast and nondestructive analytical method. Associated with chemometrics, it is a powerful tool for research and industry. The present review discusses the antioxidant activities assay of some plants (fruits, leaves, aerian part) having medical properties using FTIR spectrophotometric method in comparison with other UV-VIS different spectrophotometric methods. A good correlation was found between

  7. ACR-1000 Passive Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lekakh, Boris; Hau, Ken; Ford, Steven [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor{sup TM} (ACR{sup TM}) is a Generation III+ pressure tube type reactor using light water coolant and heavy water moderator. The ACR-1000 reactor design is an evolutionary extension of the proven CANDU reactor design. The ACR-1000 incorporates multiple and diverse passive systems for accident mitigation. Where necessary, one or more features that are passive in nature have been included for mitigation of any postulated accident event. This paper describes how the use of passive design elements complements active features enhances reliability and improves safety margins. (authors)

  8. Passive microfluidic interconnects

    E-print Network

    Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

    2005-01-01

    Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

  9. Acquisition of the Passive

    E-print Network

    Hill, Francine

    1998-01-01

    This single-subject pilot study, modeled after de Villiers' 1973, investigates the subject's acquisition of the passive construction (i.e., 'The boy was hit by the girl', as opposed to The girl hit the boy'). The purposes ...

  10. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  11. Use of calorimetric assay for operational and accountability measurements of pure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium pure metal products (PMP) are high purity plutonium metal items produced by electrorefining. The plutonium metal is produced as an approximately 3-kg ring. Accountability measurements for the electro-refining runs are typically balance/weight factor (incoming impure metal), chemistry (pure metal rings), and calorimetric assay or neutron counting of the crucibles and other wastes. The PMP items are qualified for their end use by extensive chemical assay. After PMP materials are made they are often sent to the vault for storage before being sent to the casting process, the next step in the production chain. The chemical assay of PMP items often takes a few weeks; however, before the metal items are allowed into the vault they must be measured. Non-destructive assay personnel measure the metals either by multiplicity neutron counting or calorimetric assay, depending on which instrument is available, thus generating comparisons between non-destructive assay and chemical assay. The suite of measurements, calorimetric assay, chemical assay, and neutron mUltiplicity counting is compared for a large group of PMP items.

  12. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components – Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  13. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  14. Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.

  15. Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Bart M; Defraeye, Thijs; De Ketelaere, Bart; Herremans, Els; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Saeys, Wouter; Torricelli, Alessandro; Vandendriessche, Thomas; Verboven, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We review nondestructive techniques for measuring internal and external quality attributes of fruit and vegetables, such as color, size and shape, flavor, texture, and absence of defects. The different techniques are organized according to their physical measurement principle. We first describe each technique and then list some examples. As many of these techniques rely on mathematical models and particular data processing methods, we discuss these where needed. We pay particular attention to techniques that can be implemented online in grading lines. PMID:24387604

  16. Nondestructive Testing of Rail Tunnel Linings 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Nathan Douglas

    2014-11-14

    NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF RAIL TUNNEL LININGS A Thesis by NATHAN DOUGLAS WILLIAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, Stefan Hurlebaus Committee Members, Gary Fry Alex Fang Head of Department, Robin Autenrieth December 2014 Major Subject: Civil Engineering Copyright 2014 Nathan Williams ii ABSTRACT...

  17. How non-destructive is ISS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. N. D. Teodoro; A. M. C. Moutinho

    2004-01-01

    Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) is normally considered a non-destructive technique for surface analysis, while secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is intrinsically destructive. However, both SIMS and ISS use similar primary beams in the kilo-electron-volt region to perform surface analysis. Although energies and projectile mass are chosen in order to minimize or maximize sputtering for each technique, care should be taken

  18. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  19. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R(2), 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  20. Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, S.

    1991-09-23

    The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Trends in nondestructive imaging of IC packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. M.; Hartfield, C. D.

    1998-11-01

    Since the industry-wide conversion to surface mount packages in the mid-1980's, nondestructive imaging of moisture induced delaminations and cracks in plastic packaged ICs by scanning acoustic microscopy has been a critically important capability. Subsurface imaging and phase analysis of echoes has allowed scanning acoustic microscopy to become the primary nondestructive technique for component level inspection of packaged ICs and is sensitive to defects that are undetectable by real time x-ray inspection. It has become the preferred method for evaluating moisture sensitivity, and for many package processes, provides more reliable detection of wire bond degradation than physical cross sectioning or conventional electrical testing. However, the introduction of new technologies such as ball grid array (BGA) and flip chip packages demands improvements in acoustic inspection techniques. Echoes from the laminated substrates in BGA packages produce interference problems. Phase inversion detection is an important advantage of pulse-echo imaging of molded surface mount packages. However, phase inversion is not always helpful for delamination detection in these new packages, due to the properties of the materials involved. The requirement to nondestructively inspect flip chip interconnect bumps has arisen. Alternative approaches such as through-transmission screening of BGAs and high frequency (>200 MHz) pulse-echo inspection of flip chip bumps are addressing these new issues. As the acoustic frequency approaches the limits dictated by attenuation, new methods of frequency-domain signal analysis will become important for routine inspection and may give acoustic microscopy a predictive capability.

  2. Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nondestructive Isotopic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir; Haefner, Andrew; Quiter, Brian

    2010-07-14

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) has been studied as one of the nondestructive analysis (NDA) techniques currently being investigated by a multi-laboratory collaboration for the determination of Pu mass in spent fuel. In NRF measurements specific isotopes are identified by their characteristic lines in recorded gamma spectra. The concentration of an isotope in a material can be determined from measured NRF signal intensities if NRF cross sections and assay geometries are known. The potential of NRF to quantify isotopic content and Pu mass in spent fuel has been studied. The addition of NRF data to MCNPX and an improved treatment of the elastic photon scattering at backward angles has enabled us to more accurately simulate NRF measurements on spent fuel assemblies. Using assembly models from the spent fuel assembly library generated at LANL, NRF measurements are simulated to find the best measurement configurations, and to determine measurement sensitivities and times, and photon source and gamma detector requirements. A first proof-of-principal measurement on a mock-up assembly with a bremsstrahlung photon source demonstrated isotopic sensitivity to approximately 1% limited by counting statistics. Data collection rates are likely a limiting factor of NRF-based measurements of fuel assemblies but new technological advances may lead to drastic improvements.

  3. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, radiographic examination, eddy current, and acoustic emission. [CGD 85-061, 54 FR 50965, Dec. 11,...

  5. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, radiographic examination, eddy current, and acoustic emission. [CGD 85-061, 54 FR 50965, Dec. 11,...

  6. Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel for the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel are being developed to meet safeguards and materials managment requirements at nuclear facilities. Spent-fuel measurement technology and its applications are reviewed.

  7. Active source requirements for assay of sludge drums on the BIR WIT system

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Camp, D.C.

    1998-04-27

    The design of the active source for active and passive computed tomography (A&PCT) is critical with respect to accuracy and throughput. The A&PCT active source requirements are highly dependent upon the attenuation properties of the waste matrix within the drum. On of the most highly attenuating waste matrices is sludge. This waste stream will consist of solidified aqueous waste consisting of IDC 001 first stage sludge and IDC 007 wet sludge. Also, the stream consists of solidified organic waste known as code IDC 003 organic setups. We have evaluated the sludge drum data that was previously acquired on the WIT system and have determined that the active source activity must be increased to provide reasonable throughput. The sludge drum that is evaluated here is drum CEPRF11. CEPRF11 is a test drum that was part of the Nondestructive Assay system Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) and contained an actual Rocky Flats waste that is categorized as code 003 solidified organic waste. The full drum was evaluated and found to be somewhat homogenous; therefore, a single slice is arbitrarily chosen to represent the entire drum. Slice number 8 is used and is located approximately at the center of the drum. Figure 1 shows the averaged projections for different energies derived from the active sinogram of slice number 8 from the CEPRF11 drum. This is the average of all the projections of slice 8 taken over 180 degrees with an active integration time of 6 seconds. Figure 2 is also a graph showing the average of all the projections for slice 8; however, the active integration time is 30 seconds.

  8. Nondestructive monitoring of carotenogenesis in Haematococcus pluvialis via whole-cell optical density spectra.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Aflalo, Claude; Lukyanov, Alexander; Boussiba, Sammy

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of rapid, nondestructive assay of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll (Car/Chl) ratio and total carotenoids (Car) in cell suspensions of the carotenogenic chlorophyte Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow under stressful conditions. Whole-cell spectra are characterized by variable nonlinear contributions of Car and chlorophylls (Chl), with a strong influence of Car packaging and sieve effect inherent to stressed H. pluvialis cells. Nevertheless, nondestructive assay of Car/Chl in the range of 0.55-31.2 (Car content up to 188 mg L(-1); 5.4 % of the cell dry weight) turned to be achievable with a simple spectrophotometer lacking an integrating sphere upon deposition of the cells on glass fiber filters. The scattering-corrected optical density (OD) in the blue-green region of the whole-cell spectrum, normalized to that in the red maximum of Chl absorption (OD500/OD678), was tightly related (r (2) = 0.96) with the Car/Chl ratio found in extracts. Some features such as the amplitude and position of the minimum of the normalized first-derivative OD whole-cell spectra also exhibited a strong (r (2) > 0.90) nonlinear correlation with Car/Chl. These spectral indices were also tightly related with Car, but the slope of the relationship varied with the stressor intensity. The importance of calibration over the widest possible range of pigment contents and a correct choice of biomass load per filter are emphasized. The advantages and limitations of nondestructive monitoring of carotenogenesis in H. pluvialis are discussed in view of its possible application in optical sensors for laboratory cultivation and mass production systems of the algae. PMID:23318838

  9. Modern Non-Destructive Electronic Detection TechniquesModern Non-Destructive Electronic Detection Techniques in Cryogenic Trap Systemsin Cryogenic Trap Systems

    E-print Network

    Rumolo, Giovanni

    Charge = Electrical Current => you can measure it ! #12;S. Stahl: Nondestructive Electronic Detection How Limitation: B-field drifts short measurement times #12;S. Stahl: Nondestructive Electronic Detection CountingModern Non-Destructive Electronic Detection TechniquesModern Non-Destructive Electronic Detection

  10. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  11. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  12. Nondestructive characterization of lattice block material™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipetzky, Kirsten G.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2002-05-01

    Lattice Block Material™ (LBM™) is the name given to a new class of materials that makes use of the well-understood principles of trusses and space frames to create a variety of components having high strength to weight ratios. Differences in product design, materials selection, and manufacturing process, however, can lead to uncertainty as to the overall performance of a given end product. For this reason, a variety of nondestructive methods were utilized to characterize LBM™ for potential Navy applications, including, visual inspection, x-ray radiography, x-ray computed tomography, and infrared thermography.

  13. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

  14. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  15. Applications of aerospace technology in industry: A technology transfer profile, nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of nondestructive testing procedures by NASA and the transfer of nondestructive testing to technology to civilian industry are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) an overview of the nondestructive testing field, (2) NASA contributions to the field of nondestructive testing, (3) dissemination of NASA contributions, and (4) a transfer profile. Attachments are included which provide a brief description of common nondestructive testing methods and summarize the technology transfer reports involving NASA generated nondestructive testing technology.

  16. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Moving to passive designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Rosner; Rebecca Lordan; Stephen Goldberg

    2011-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have greatly renewed the public focus on the safety of the existing fleet of nuclear reactors, especially as many US reactors share the same fundamental design—and safety systems—as the affected Japanese reactors. The authors explore the proposition that a transition to increasingly passive safety features in new advanced reactor designs— supplementing, and in some cases

  19. Passive Dynamic Running

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clay M. Thompson; Marc H. Raiber

    1989-01-01

    Previous work has considered how springy legs can improve the efficiency of the vertical motions of running, making them into resonant spring-mass oscillations that recycle energy from one step to the next. This paper considers how springy hips can be used to improve the efficiency of the legs' fore and aft swinging motions in running. We have studied a passive

  20. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Novel passive thermal mixer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Idem; Sastry S. Munukutla

    1991-01-01

    A passive thermal mixer concept is proposed for improvement of the thermal performance of a heating tank containing heating elements attached to the top lid. The element is enclosed by a cylindrical shroud extending to the bottom without touching it. Discharge tubes extending to the bottom are connected to the shroud. As the liquid surrounding the heating element is heated,

  2. Nondestructive electroluminescence characterization of as-grown semiconductor optoelectronic device structures using

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Sandip

    Nondestructive electroluminescence characterization of as-grown semiconductor optoelectronic device for publication 9 December 1999 We describe an arrangement for nondestructive electroluminescence measurements

  3. EPRI nondestructive evaluation center: technology transfer to improve reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Nemzek; P. L. Schoenecke; G. W. Wickliffe

    1985-01-01

    The development and improvement of nondestructive evaluation methods used by the electric utility industry for in-service inspection (ISI) is a priority program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The institute established the EPRI Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The NDE Center, completed in February 1981, is operated for EPRI by J.A. Jones Applied Research Company and

  4. Featured Research Nondestructive Testing of Early Age Concrete

    E-print Network

    Featured Research Nondestructive Testing of Early Age Concrete Thomas Voigt and Surendra P. Shah, Northwestern University Introduction The nondestructive, in-situ testing of early-age concrete properties of such techniques can establish e.g. the earliest possible form removal from concrete construction elements, thereby

  5. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of engineering material is described. The method utilizes the nonlinearity parameter measurement which describes the anharmonic behavior of the solid through measurements of amplitudes of the fundamental and of the generated second harmonic ultrasonic waves. The nonlinearity parameter is also directly related to the acoustoelastic constant of the solid which can be determined by measuring the linear dependence of ultrasonic velocity on stress. A major advantage of measurements of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes it more applicable for in-service nondestructive characterization. The relationships between the nonlinearity parameter of second-harmonic generation and the percentage of solid solution phase in engineering materials such as heat treatable aluminum alloys was established. The acoustoelastic constants are measured on these alloys for comparison and confirmation. A linear relationship between the nonlinearity parameter and the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in the alloys is indicated.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-07-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

  7. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

  8. Passive acoustics as a monitoring tool for evaluating oyster reef restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenil Becerra, Hilde P.

    Oyster reefs are biodiverse communities that provide many ecological and commercial benefits. However, oyster reefs have declined around the world from human activities. Oyster reef restoration programs have begun to limit some of the decline, but the need for determining the success of a program has been problematic. Passive acoustic techniques can use naturally occurring sounds produced by organisms to assess biodiversity. Passive acoustics was utilized to compare the sounds in natural and restored oyster reefs, with special attention on snapping shrimp (Alpheus spp.) snap sounds, in the St. Lucie Estuary, Florida over a one year period. Season, estuary region, habitat and day period had an effect on sound production Passive acoustic monitoring of snapping shrimp sound production may be a useful non-destructive technique for monitoring the progress of oyster reef restoration projects once further correlations are established between environmental effects and sound production.

  9. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  10. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or excessive back pulsing conditions and high temperature transient) could be reflected from the shift of vibration frequencies. These shifts are due to changes in structural properties such as stiffness, which are directly related to the Young's modulus of the candle filters. Further studies are necessary in implementing and verifying the applicability of dynamic NDE characterization methods for actual in-situ conditions, and in establishing a systematic testing procedure for field applications. Also investigations on the filter's natural frequency due to the effect of dust cake or due to the change of boundary conditions may provide insight as to how the filter will perform in the field.

  11. Nondestructive Assay Measurements Using the RPI Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Danon, Yaron

    Detection and Nuclear Sciences Group National Security Division, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999, MSIN J like MCNP ~Ref. 13! and current nuclear data.14,15 To complement the previous modeling-based stud- ies

  12. QA objectives for nondestructive assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    1999-07-12

    This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the various QAOs. A brief description of each test and any significant conclusions is included. Variables which may have affected test outcomes are examined. This report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

  13. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    1999-09-15

    This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the various QAOs. A brief description of each test and any significant conclusions is included. Variables which may have affected test outcomes are examined. This report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

  14. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  15. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA); Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin (Lagga Arby, SE); Ciovati, Gianluigi (Newport News, VA)

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  16. WASTE CRATE ASSAY SYSTEM (WCAS) : ASSAY SOLUTIONS FOR VERY LARGE REMOTE HANDLED CRATES

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O.; Rinard, Phillip M.; Li, T. K. (Tien K.); Romero, M.; Hiruta, K.; Nasuno, S.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed and fabricated to measure the plutonium content in large remote handled (RH) waste crates. The waste crate assay system (WCAS) was developed under an agreement between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL), and BNFL Instruments Inc. (BII) to measure the plutonium content in the waste generated in the Rokkasho reprocessing facility. The primary goal of the design was to produce an assay system for large waste containers. The system also includes 200-L drum pallet assay capability. The measurements are based on neutron-time correlation counting of the passive neutron emissions from the 240Pu, and the plutonium isotopic ratios are used to calculate the total plutonium. The system is designed for both RH waste and low-activity plutonium waste. The system permits the measurement of the singles, doubles, and triples rates and the multiplicity mode analysis is used together with the 'add-a-source' method to correct for the matrix materials in the crates. In the multiplicity analysis, the efficiency for counting the neutrons emitted from the crate is directly calculated from the three measured rates. For improved detectability limits, advanced methods have been incorporated in the WCAS-A to reduce the cosmic-ray neutron backgrounds. These methods include statistical filters and truncation of high-multiplicity events. The paper describes the WCAS-A design, performance, and calibration.

  17. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (inventor); Hall, Earl T. (inventor); Baker, Donald A. (inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  18. Passivation of stainless steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R Maller

    1998-01-01

    This paper, the 19th in a series of articles on the hygienic design of food processing equipment published in TIFS, introduces the first joint EHEDG\\/3-A Update article in the series, a set of guidelines for the hygienic passivation of stainless steel surfaces intended for food-contact use. These guidelines have been prepared on behalf of the US-based 3-A Steering Committee and

  19. Non-destructive sampling of a comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessberger, H. L.; Kotthaus, M.

    1991-04-01

    Various conditions which must be met for the development of a nondestructive sampling and acquisition system are outlined and the development of a new robotic sampling system suited for use on a cometary surface is briefly discussed. The Rosetta mission of ESA will take samples of a comet nucleus and return both core and volatile samples to earth. Various considerations which must be taken into account for such a project are examined including the identification of design parameters for sample quality; the identification of the most probable site conditions; the development of a sample acquisition system with respect to these conditions; the production of model materials and model conditions; and the investigation of the relevant material properties. An adequate sampling system should also be designed and built, including various tools, and the system should be tested under simulated cometary conditions.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-01

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  1. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

  2. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  3. Projection registration applied to nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Philip; Arrowood, Lloyd

    2010-07-01

    Registration of radiographic and computed tomography (CT) data has the potential to allow automated metrology and defect detection. While registration of the three-dimensional reconstructed data is a common task in the medical industry for registration of data sets from multiple detection systems, registration of projection sets has only seen development in the area of tomotherapy. Efforts in projection registration have employed a method named Fourier phase matching (FPM). This work discusses implementation and results for the application of the FPM method to industrial applications for the nondestructive testing (NDT) community. The FPM method has been implemented and modified for industrial application. Testing with simulated and experimental x-ray CT data shows excellent performance with respect to the resolution of the imaging system.

  4. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 2209, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2209 (United States)

    2012-05-17

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  6. Nondestructive characterization of woven fabric ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D.K.; Saini, V. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Liaw, P.K.; Yu, N.; Miriyala, N.; McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Snead, L.L.; Lowden, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Woven fabric ceramic composites fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration method are susceptible to high void content and inhomogeneity. The condition of such materials may be characterized nondestructively with ultrasonic methods. In this work, longitudinal and shear waves were used in the quantitative determination of elastic constants of Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composites as a function of volume percent of porosity. Elastic stiffness constants were obtained for both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions with respect to fiber fabric. The effect of porosity on the modulus of woven fabric composites was also modeled and compared to the measured results. Scan images based on the amplitude and time-of-flight of radio frequency (RF) ultrasonic pulses were used for evaluating the material homogeneity for the purpose of optimizing the manufacturing process and for correlation with the mechanical testing results.

  7. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  8. A new non-destructive readout by using photo-recovered surface potential

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    A new non-destructive readout by using photo-recovered surface potential contrast Le Wang1 , Kui stability, non-destructive readout and high intensity storage. As a non-contact and non-destructive the feasibility of such photo-assisted non-volatile and non-destructive readout of the ferroelectric memory. F

  9. Assays without Borders

    Cancer.gov

    CPTAC researchers partner with international labs to demonstrate the ability of Targeted mass spectrometry–based assays to reproducibly quantify Human proteins across labs, countries and continents in a recently published journal article.

  10. Standardization of portable assay instrumentation: the neutron-coincidence tree

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Standardization of portable neutron assay instrumentation has been achieved by using the neutron coincidence technique as a common basis for a wide range of instruments and applications. The electronics originally developed for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter has been adapted to both passive- and active-assay instrumentation for field verification of bulk plutonium, inventory samples, pellets, powders, nitrates, high-enriched uranium, and materials-testing-reactor, light-water-reactor, and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. The family of detectors developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their performance under in-field conditions are described. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Passive films on magnesium anodes in primary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the passive films over Mg anodes, which essentially govern the voltage delay of the latter, have been determined nondestructively from an analysis of the transient and steady-state response of the electrode potential to low amplitude galvanostatic polarization under various experimental conditions viz., with different corrosion inhibitor coatings on Mg, after various periods of ageing of anode in solutions containing corrosion inhibitors, at various low temperatures etc. Using these parameters, the kinetics of film build-up or dissolution under these conditions have been monitored. The morphology of the anode film has been verified with scanning electron microscopy. Similar transients at low temperatures point out a steep rise in the film resistivity which is essentially responsible for the severe voltage delay. Finally, possible application of this technique in secondary Li batteries to improve cycling characteristics of the Li anode has been pointed out.

  12. Confocal imaging to quantify passive transport across biomimetic lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Hu, Peichi; Malmstadt, Noah

    2010-09-15

    The ability of a molecule to pass through the plasma membrane without the aid of any active cellular mechanisms is central to that molecule's pharmaceutical characteristics. Passive transport has been understood in the context of Overton's rule, which states that more lipophilic molecules cross membrane lipid bilayers more readily. Existing techniques for measuring passive transport lack reproducibility and are hampered by the presence of an unstirred layer (USL) that dominates transport across the bilayer. This report describes assays based on spinning-disk confocal microscopy (SDCM) of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) that allow for the detailed investigation of passive transport processes and mechanisms. This approach allows the concentration field to be directly observed, allowing membrane permeability to be determined easily from the transient concentration profile data. A series of molecules of increasing hydrophilicity was constructed, and the transport of these molecules into GUVs was observed. The observed permeability trend is consistent with Overton's rule. However, the values measured depart from the simple partition-diffusion proportionality model of passive transport. This technique is easy to implement and has great promise as an approach to measure membrane transport. It is optimally suited to precise quantitative measurements of the dependence of passive transport on membrane properties. PMID:20722391

  13. Confocal imaging to quantify passive transport across biomimetic lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Hu, Peichi; Malmstadt, Noah

    2010-01-01

    The ability of a molecule to pass through the plasma membrane without the aid of any active cellular mechanisms is central to that molecule’s pharmaceutical characteristics. Passive transport has been understood in the context of Overton’s rule, which states that more lipophilic molecules cross membrane lipid bilayers more readily. Existing techniques for measuring passive transport lack reproducibility and are hampered by the presence of an unstirred layer (USL) that dominates transport across the bilayer. This report describes assays based on spinning-disk confocal microscopy (SDCM) of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) that allow for the detailed investigation of passive transport processes and mechanisms. This approach allows the concentration field to be directly observed, allowing membrane permeability to be determined easily from the transient concentration profile data. A series of molecules of increasing hydrophilicity was constructed and the transport of these molecules into GUVs was observed. The observed permeability trend is consistent with Overton’s rule. However, the values measured depart from the simple partition-diffusion proportionality model of passive transport. This technique is easy to implement and has great promise as an approach to measure membrane transport. It is optimally suited to precise quantitative measurements of the dependence of passive transport on membrane properties. PMID:20722391

  14. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  15. Instrument performs nondestructive chemical analysis, data can be telemetered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A.

    1965-01-01

    Instrument automatically performs a nondestructive chemical analysis of surfaces and transmits the data in the form of electronic signals. It employs solid-state nuclear particle detectors with a charged nuclear particle source and an electronic pulse-height analyzer.

  16. 12. VIEW OF THE NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO DETECT FLAWS IN FABRICATED COMPONENTS. (6/76) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Ultrasonic recording scanner used for nondestructive weld inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Portable ultrasonic recording scanner is used for nondestructive inspection of welds. It is adaptable to continuous operation in one direction while maintaining oscillatory motion at a right angle to this direction. The scanning speed and oscillation frequency are independently adjustable.

  18. Optimizing passive quantum clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

  19. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  20. Passive-solar construction handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    An identification and explanation of pertinent considerations in the construction of passively solar heated buildings are presented. Toward that end, the handbook discusses solar design principles, site planning and access, system components, construction details, financial considerations and other items which are essential considerations in passive solar design. The handbook was designed for a multitude of uses: as an instructional tool in workshops and seminars; as a compendium of passive solar design elements; and, as a reference guide to building trade professionals entering passive solar construction.

  1. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-08-30

    Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

  2. Calibration parameters from Monte Carlo simulations for neutron coincidence assay of MOX (mixed oxide) fuel elements: A substitute for standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Stewart; R. R. Ferran; S. M. Simmonds; H. O. Menlove

    1989-01-01

    Results from application of a calculational model for the two- parameter (singles and doubles) passive neutron coincidence assay of finished Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) subassemblies are compared with calibration measurements. Two assay instruments are considered; the Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter (UFBC) and the Capsule Counter installed at the Japanese Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF). In the case of

  3. The Phospholipid Vesicle-Based Drug Permeability Assay: 5. Development Toward an Automated Procedure for High-Throughput Permeability Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gøril Eide Flaten; Opeyemi Awoyemi; Kristina Luthman; Martin Brandl; Ulrich Massing

    2009-01-01

    In vitro screening for oral absorption has become an essential part of drug discovery and development. Recently, a new phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay was developed which has shown to satisfyingly predict passive absorption of drugs in humans. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the assay may be further developed into a high-throughput tool by automating its

  4. A Review of Non-destructive Detection for Fruit Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Zhu, Fengmei; Cai, Jinxing

    An overview of non-destructive detection in quality of post-harvest fruit was presented in this paper, and the research and application were discussed. This paper elaborated the fruit quality detection methods which were based on one of the following properties: optical properties, sonic vibration, machine vision technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electronic noses, electrical properties, computed tomography. At last, the main problems of non-destructive detection in application were also explained.

  5. A new technique for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints 

    E-print Network

    Hanneman, Susan Elisabeth

    1991-01-01

    A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF ADHESIVE JOINTS A Thesis by SUSAN ELISABETH HANNEMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF ADHESIVE JOINTS A Thesis by SUSAN ELISABETH HANNEMAN Approved as to style and content by: Vikram K. Kinra (Chair...

  6. Photorefractive nondestructive memory with Kitty-type conjugator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Hisatoshi; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2003-08-01

    In this report, we propose a photorefractive (PR) nondestructive memory with a Kitty-type phase conjugate mirror (Kitty PCM). Nondestructive readout without any fixing technique and high quality image rewriting can be achieved in this memory. An optical feedback circuit including a Kitty PCM is added on to the usual PR memory in the nondestructive reading method. The nondestructive readout means that the recorded data of the dynamic hologram, generally erased by the exposure of the reading beam, is maintained by only all-optical configuration. The nondestructive readout in this memory is achieved by the hologram rewriting effect that is generated by the reillumination of the diffraction beam reflected by a phase conjugate mirror. But a conventional Cat-type self-pumped phase conjugate mirror (Cat SPPCM) has insufficient reflectivity to obtain large feedback rate required for this nondestructive readout. In this report, we calculate and experiment on the phase conjugate reflectivity and the time response property of the Kitty PCM and show it has the advantages of high reflectivity and fast response time. We perform the experiment on our rewritable PR memory using BaTiO3 crystals and demonstrate the long time reading over 18 minutes is achieved in this memory.

  7. Passivity Analysis and Passivation of Interconnected Event-Triggered Feedback

    E-print Network

    Antsaklis, Panos

    its power in compositional design of cyber-physical systems. Although passivity theory has been of energy across passive components in the circuit theory field, see e.g. Anderson and Vongpanitlerd [1973 in theory and practice, see e.g. Bao and Lee [2007], Khalil [2002], Ebenbauer et al. [2009]. The significant

  8. Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jerald D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Aryaeinejad, Rahmat (Idaho Falls, ID); Greenwood, Reginald C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field.

  9. Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cole, J.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1995-01-03

    The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source) and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field. 7 figures.

  10. Passive ocean acoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, O. A.; Goncharov, V. V.; Zabotin, N. A.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility to apply natural acoustic ocean noise in the ocean and noise of distant vessels as sounding signals in order to determine the physical parameters of a water layer is considered in this paper. We developed the methods making it possible to suppress the non-diffuse components of noise produced, e.g., by local vessels and to account for hydrophone motion. These methods are applied to the noise records obtained in the course of a year-long experiment on long-range sound propagation in the Pacific Ocean. We confirmed experimentally our theoretical predictions as to the possibility of retrieving deterministic acoustic ray travel times in a nonuniform environment from a mutual correlation function of imperfectly diffuse (gradually anisotropic and spatially nonuniform) noise without invoking any data on its source. We performed passive measurements of sound velocity in the ocean with a relative error of about 0.1% by correlation of noise fields recorded with vertical aerials. This accuracy approaches that needed for oceanological applications. Further investigations are necessary to study the feasibility of passive acoustic tomography and thermometry in the ocean at distances of tens and hundreds of kilometers and the possibility to use simpler arrays not equipped with hydrophone positioning systems.

  11. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactive Powder Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Graybeal, Benjamin; Rezaizadeh, Ali

    2004-02-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has been introduced as a structural material for civil engineering applications. The material consists of a finely graded combination of cement, sand, ground quartz and silica fume which combined with water form a cement paste. Small steel fibers measuring approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length are distributed throughout the cement matrix and the combined material has very high compressive strength and toughness. The material is proposed for use in the primary load bearing members in bridges, and as such nondestructive evaluation technologies are needed to evaluate material quality and monitor in-service condition. This paper reports on research to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing for determining the elastic properties of RPC. Comparison between static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic modulus measurements is presented. A system for determining elastic moduli as a quality control tool is discussed. The effect of curing conditions on ultrasonic velocities and resulting calculated moduli values is presented and compared with traditional measurement methods.

  13. Corrosion quantification by different nondestructive inspection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, Paul S.; Luzar, Joe J.

    1999-01-01

    Boeing investigated corrosion effects on crack growth rates under a USAF contract with Tinker AFB in an engineering assignment performed by the Boeing Wichita. Sixty-eight crack growth specimens were notched, corroded, and fatigue test to determine crack growth rates. After salt spray exposure and crack growth testing the specimens were nondestructively inspected (NDI) by five different NDI methods to determine the amount of material lost. The NDI methods were chosen to represent different methods that could detect the presence of corrosion and digitize the data for analysis later to determine percent material lost. The NDI methods evaluated were computed tomography, pulse-echo ultrasonic c-scan, eddy current c-scan, thermography and digital radiography. Microscopy cross sectioning was also performed to visually document the corrosion damage. This data was used to compare the effectiveness of the NDI methods for detecting and quantifying corrosion damage and was used in the reanalysis of pre-corroded crack growth data. The results of NDI portion of this study are presented.

  14. Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

    2012-05-01

    Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

  15. Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be made for hydrophobic chemicals using passive dosing. PMID:22125776

  16. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    PubMed

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  17. [Glutathione and glutathione assays].

    PubMed

    Rousar, Tomás; Cervinková, Zuzana; Muzáková, Vladimíra; Kucera, Otto; Lotková, Halka; Krivákovaá, Pavla

    2005-01-01

    Glutathione, the very important intracellular antioxidant, is present in intracelullar environment in milimolar concentrations. Glutathione is a tripeptide molecule, which plays an essential role in the antioxidant system, as well as in maintenance of the intracellular redox state. This thiol compound exists in two forms, the reduced (GSH) and the oxidized (GSSG), and the ratio of both forms is crucial for the characterization of the oxidative stress in cells. Number of analytical methods have been developed for the measurement of the glutathione. Especially, High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods (HPLC) are mostly used linked to different types of detection, including electrochemical, UV/VIS or fluorimetric detection. Another approach for glutathione assay is using the spectral methods, either fluorimetric or spectrophotometric assays. In enzymatic assay, glutathione reductase reduces GSSG with simultaneous oxidation of specific substrate, which is sequentially photometrically detected. The fluorimetric method is based on the detection of derivatized GSH molecule. PMID:16669486

  18. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01

    temperature for 21 a passive dosimeter loaded vrith an organic chemical that ould provide the maximum desorption effi- ciency during thermal desorption; 2. To compare desorption efficiencies determined using thermal desorption and solvent desorption... S LIST CF FIGUHES II, THODUCT CI LIT=HATUHE BEVIES . Passive Dosimeter Activated Charcoal Theories of Adsorption Desorption IIethods Solvent Desorption Thermal Desorption Desorption Efficiency Determination Objectives NETHODOLOGY Chemicals...

  19. Passive Greenhouses and Ecological Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Balas; M. M. Balas; M. V. Putin-Racovita

    2008-01-01

    This paper is discussing the ecological reconstruction opportunity opened by the extended use of the energetic passive greenhouses, independent of any conventional infrastructure (water, gas, electricity). A specific passive greenhouse configuration is considered: the main heating device is a heat pump extracting energy from cold underground water. A dc wind generator is supplying the small amount of energy necessary for

  20. Surface passivation in diamond nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Lin, Z. D.; Shang, N. G.; Liao, L. S.; Bello, I.; Wang, N.; Lee, S. T.

    2000-12-01

    Surface passivation is introduced to suppress the deleterious effect of Si surface oxides and thus enhance diamond heteroepitaxial nucleation. Surface composition and diamond nucleation and growth on H-, Br-, and I-passivated Si surfaces were studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the passivated Si surfaces were free of silicon oxides and carbides. Remarkable enhancement in nucleation was achieved on passivated surfaces and the nucleation density obtained on a Br-passivated Si surface reached 1010 cm-2. Programmable temperature desorption revealed that the adsorbate desorption temperature increased in the order of H, I, and Br passivation. The same order of increase was also observed in the saturation value of electron emission current from the passivated surfaces, which was related to the degree of nucleation. Nucleation enhancement was shown to be greater when the adsorbate desorption temperature is closer to the nucleation temperature, so that more adsorbate- and oxide-free Si surface area would be available for nucleation. The study established that surface passivation is potentially an effective approach for diamond heteroepitaxial nucleation.

  1. Failure Analysis of Passive Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Mann

    1978-01-01

    The failure analysis of passive devices requires all the skills and technology used in the failure analysis of solid state devices. Passive devices use similar manufacturing methods compared to solid state techniques to accomplish the finished device. Thin oxides, used in the manufacturing of tantalum slug capacitors, are subject to current and voltage transients which concern analysts on MOS structures.

  2. Failure analysis of passive devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Mann

    1978-01-01

    The failure analysis of passive devices requires all the skills and technology used in the failure analysis of solid state devices. Passive devices use similar manufacturing methods compared to solid state techniques to accomplish the finished device. Thin oxides, used in the manufacturing of tantalum slug capacitors, are subject to current and voltage transients which concern analysts on MOS structures.

  3. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  4. Passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Siderius, Martin; Huang, Chen-Fen; Harrison, Chris H

    2008-03-01

    Ocean acoustic noise can be processed efficiently to extract Green's function information between two receivers. By using noise array-processing techniques, it has been demonstrated that a passive array can be used as a fathometer [Siderius, et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 1315-1323 (2006)]. Here, this approach is derived in both frequency and time domains and the output corresponds to the reflection sequence. From this reflection sequence, it is possible to extract seabed layering. In the ocean waveguide, most of the energy is horizontally propagating, whereas the bottom information is contained in the vertically propagating noise. Extracting the seabed information requires a dense array, since the resolution of the bottom layer is about half the array spacing. If velocity sensors are used instead of pressure sensors, the array spacing requirement can be relaxed and simulations show that just one vertical velocity sensor is sufficient. PMID:18345818

  5. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  6. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing. PMID:20370000

  7. A short note on passivity, complete passivity and virtual temperatures

    E-print Network

    Paul Skrzypczyk; Ralph Silva; Nicolas Brunner

    2014-12-17

    We give a simple and intuitive proof that the only states which are completely passive, i.e. those states from which work cannot be extracted even with infinitely many copies, are Gibbs states at positive temperatures. The proof makes use of the idea of virtual temperatures, i.e. the association of temperatures to transitions. We show that (i) passive states are those where every transition is at a positive temperature, and (ii) completely passive states are those where every transition is at the same positive temperature.

  8. Macroautophagic cargo sequestration assays.

    PubMed

    Seglen, Per O; Luhr, Morten; Mills, Ian G; Sætre, Frank; Szalai, Paula; Engedal, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Macroautophagy, the process responsible for bulk sequestration and lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm, is often monitored by means of the autophagy-related marker protein LC3. This protein is linked to the phagophoric membrane by lipidation during the final steps of phagophore assembly, and it remains associated with autophagic organelles until it is degraded in the lysosomes. The transfer of LC3 from cytosol to membranes and organelles can be measured by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence microscopy, but these assays provide no information about functional macroautophagic activity, i.e., whether the phagophores are actually engaged in the sequestration of cytoplasmic cargo and enclosing this cargo into sealed autophagosomes. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggest that macroautophagy can proceed independently of LC3. There is therefore a need for alternative methods, preferably effective cargo sequestration assays, which can monitor actual macroautophagic activity. Here, we provide an overview of various approaches that have been used over the last four decades to measure macroautophagic sequestration activity in mammalian cells. Particular emphasis is given to the so-called "LDH sequestration assay", which measures the transfer of the autophagic cargo marker enzyme LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) from the cytosol to autophagic vacuoles. The LDH sequestration assay was originally developed to measure macroautophagic activity in primary rat hepatocytes. Subsequently, it has found use in several other cell types, and in this article we demonstrate a further validation and simplification of the method, and show that it is applicable to several cell lines that are commonly used to study autophagy. PMID:25576638

  9. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  10. Development of high-efficiency passive counters (HEPC) for the verification of large LEU samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Peerani; V. Canadell; J. Garijo; K. Jackson; R. Jaime; M. Looman; A. Ravazzani; P. Schwalbach; M. Swinhoe

    2009-01-01

    A paper describing the conceptual idea of using passive neutron assay for the verification of large size uranium samples in fuel fabrication plants was first presented at the 2001 ESARDA conference. The advantages of this technique, as a replacement of active interrogation using the PHOto-Neutron Interrogation Device (PHONID) device, were evident provided that a suitable detector with higher efficiency than

  11. Efficiency of Protection of Guinea Pigs against Infection with Bacillus anthracis Spores by Passive Immunization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kobiler; Yehoshua Gozes; Hagai Rosenberg; Dino Marcus; Shaul Reuveny; Zeev Altboum

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of passive immunization as a postexposure prophylactic measure for treatment of guinea pigs intranasally infected with Bacillus anthracis spores was evaluated. Antisera directed either against the lethal toxin components (PA or LF) or against a toxinogenic strain (Sterne) were used for this evaluation. All antisera exhibited high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers against the corresponding antigens, high titers of

  12. Infection on a chip: a microscale platform for simple and sensitive cell-based virus assays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Warrick, Jay W; Haubert, Kathryn; Beebe, David J; Yin, John

    2009-06-01

    The plaque assay has long served as the "gold standard" to measure virus infectivity and test antiviral drugs, but the assay is labor-intensive, lacks sensitivity, uses excessive reagents, and is hard to automate. Recent modification of the assay to exploit flow-enhanced virus spread with quantitative imaging has increased its sensitivity. Here we performed flow-enhanced infection assays in microscale channels, employing passive fluid pumping to inoculate cell monolayers with virus and drive infection spread. Our test of an antiviral drug (5-fluorouracil) against vesicular stomatitis virus infections of BHK cell monolayers yielded a two-fold improvement in sensitivity, relative to the standard assay based on plaque counting. The reduction in scale, simplified fluid handling, image-based quantification, and higher assay sensitivity will enable infection measurements for high-throughput drug screening, sero-conversion testing, and patient-specific diagnosis of viral infections. PMID:19142734

  13. Non-destructive evaluation and quality control of surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rideout, Curtis A.; Ritchie, Scott J.

    2007-04-01

    The ability to detect and quantify beneficial surface and subsurface residual stresses, and operational damage in aerospace materials/structures in a reliable and efficient manner presents significant challenges to existing nondestructive inspection technologies. Induced Positron Analysis (IPA) has demonstrated the ability to nondestructively quantify shot peening/surface treatments and relaxation effects in single crystal superalloys, steels, titanium and aluminum with a single measurement as part of a National Science Foundation SBIR program and in projects with commercial companies. IPA measurement of surface treatment effects provides a demonstrated ability to quantitatively measure initial treatment effectiveness along with the effect of operationally induced changes over the life of the treated component. Use of IPA to nondestructively quantify surface and subsurface residual stresses in turbine engine materials and components has the potential to significantly improve the understanding at the microscale level the effects of surface coatings and treatments on the durability and fatigue life of critical components.

  14. Nondestructive inspection and evaluation of composite-material flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Reifsnider, K.L.; Boyd, D.M.; Kulkarni, S.V.

    1982-02-24

    It has been demonstrated that flywheels made from composite materials are capable of storing energy with a significantly higher energy density than those made from conventional metals. Since composite materials are also very durable and inherently safer for such applications, it would appear that they will play a major role in flywheel energy-storage systems. This report addresses the question of how flywheels made from composite materials can be inspected with nondestructive test methods to establish their initial quality and their subsequent integrity during service. A variety of methods is discussed in the context of special requirements for the examination of composite flywheel structures and the results of several example nondestructive evaluations before and after spin testing are presented. Recommendations for general nondestructive testing and evaluation of composite-material flywheels are made.

  15. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  16. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Raymond Edwin, IV

    Ceramic materials have been incorporated into armor systems to reduce their weight while providing high hardness, strength, and elastic response to stress. However, the presence of defects and flaws in armor ceramics can lead to ballistic failure. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been studied to locate and characterize defects and inhomogeneities in these materials. High frequency ultrasound NDE has been explored for detecting and locating micron-range defects and identifying microstructural changes in dense armor ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC). Ultrasound parameters such as transducer frequency have been analyzed to determine system conditions necessary for obtaining C-scan image maps based on differences in intensity of the collected ultrasound signals (reflected signal amplitudes) or transit time of ultrasound energy through materials (time-of-flight TOF). While TOF has have been used to evaluate changes in thickness, velocity, density, and acoustic impedance, reflected signal amplitude has been used to analyze attenuation, or loss, through a test specimen. Reflected signal amplitude and TOF C-scan imaging have been useful for identifying and locating isolated defects and microstructural differences. Elastic property maps have been developed to plot differences in Poisson's ratio, elastic modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus. Quantitative analysis techniques have been used to evaluate cumulative effects of reflected signal amplitude and TOF changes over scanned regions and their distributions over selected areas. Amplitude and TOF histogram curves, which have been characterized by area-under-the-curve values, full-width at half-maximum values, and critical tail regions, have provided a valuable means of sample comparison. Generally, more narrow distributions of amplitude and TOF values have corresponded to high density armor-grade samples, while broad distributions have indicated defects or inhomogeneous regions in the samples. In addition to developing techniques for determining individual defect size distributions within a bulk specimen, histogram simulations have been explored to study amplitude and TOF distribution trends by analyzing how the addition of defects of varying size, quantity, and acoustic impedance affect histogram characteristics. These data have been utilized to establish a representative materials fingerprint that provides defect input data which can be further quantified and applied to property, design, and performance modeling of armor ceramic materials.

  17. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil-carbon analysis; however, these also are invasive and destructive techniques. The INS approach permits quantification in a relatively large volume of soil without disrupting the measurement site. The technique is very fast and provides nearly instantaneous results thereby reducing the cost, and speeding up the rate of analysis. It also has the potential to cover large areas in a mobile scanning mode. These capabilities will significantly advance the tracking carbon sequestration and offer a tool for research in agronomy, forestry, soil ecology and biogeochemistry.

  18. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  19. Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

    2003-01-01

    Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  20. Lifespan Assay Reagents needed

    E-print Network

    Lamitina, Todd

    with a 50µl spot of OP50 Lifespan assay using RNAi · 6cm NGM/FUDR RNAi plates - standard NGM recipe + 50µg/ml FUDR + 1mM IPTG + 25µg/ml carbenicillin) seeded with a 50µl spot of appropriate RNAi bacteria · 6cm NGM RNAi plates - standard NGM recipe + 1mM IPTG + 25µg/ml carbenicillin) seeded with a 50µl spot

  1. CSER-98-009: antech neutron multiplicity counter for nondestructive analysis

    SciTech Connect

    GOLDBERG, H.J.

    1999-05-12

    The ANTECH neutron multiplicity counter is a portable nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument which measures plutonium content by counting fission neutrons in the presence of (a,n) neutrons. Neutrons from the (a,n) process are discriminated against through the use of coincidence counting. The instrument will be used for the purpose of determining inventory of plutonium in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The portability of the instrument will facilitate this task by minimizing the necessity of transporting fissile material. The use of the Antech counter is approved based on the inherent safety of the containers to be assayed in that an acceptable margin of subcriticality has been demonstrated for all normal and credible abnormal conditions in accordance with HNF-PRO-537 (F, 1997). A summary of the results of the abnormal conditions are tabulated in Table 2. For foreseeable contingencies, the calculated k{sub eff}s are less than 0.95 after taking into account the calculational bias and statistical uncertainty equal to or larger than the 95% confidence level. This approval is based on the requirement that only one container is to be put in the counter at a time and in accordance with the other limits listed in section 1.4. The design of the current instrument conforms with the acceptability criteria which allow the other NDA detectors currently employed at the facility to be safely used.

  2. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  3. [Passive smoking. Effects on health].

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Zalcman, G; Boffetta, P; Hirsch, A

    1993-05-15

    Passive smoking--also called involuntary or environmental smoking--is the exposure of non-smokers to the tobacco smoke released by smokers. The physico-chemical composition of tobacco smoke, and notably its contents in toxic and carcinogenic substances, is the same in the secondary stream between puffs as in the primary stream released by the smoker. The pathogenic effects of passive smoking are increasingly well known and accepted. A high incidence of respiratory tract infections and of chronic respiratory and asthmatic symptoms is observed in children. In adults, passive smoking seems to be one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Its repercussions on the respiratory tracts is difficult to evaluate, but there are marked by an increase of respiratory symptoms and perhaps of chronic obstructive lung diseases. Finally, it is now recognized that passive smoking is a major risk factor for primary lung cancer in non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke. PMID:8235360

  4. Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

  5. Insect vector transmission assays.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids. PMID:22987407

  6. Passive-blind Image Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Tsong Ng; Shih-Fu Chang; Ching-Yung Lin; Qibin Sun

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we will review the research area of passive-blind image forensics, i.e., an form of image analysis for flnding out the condition of an image without relying on pre-registration or pre-embedded information. We consider the two main functions of passive-blind image forensics as be- ing image forgery detection and image source identiflcation. In this vein, we provide a

  7. Passive Scanning in Modbus Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús González; Mauricio Papa

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a passive scanner for Modbus networks. The tool integrates packet parsing\\u000a and passive scanning functionality to interpret Modbus transactions and provide accurate network representations. In particular,\\u000a the scanner monitors Modbus messages to maintain and update state table entries associated with field devices. Entries in\\u000a the state tables record important information including function

  8. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  9. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  10. A fully integrated microdevice for biobarcode assay based biological agent detection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Minkyung; Chung, Soyi; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Jae Hwan; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-07-01

    An integrated microdevice, consisting of a micropump, a passive mixer, a magnetic separation chamber, and a microcapillary electrophoretic channel, was constructed for biobarcode assay based multiplex biological agent detection in a sample-to-answer-out manner within 30 min with high sensitivity. PMID:26032690

  11. Continuous nondestructive monitoring of microbial biofilms: A review of analytical techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D E Nivens; RJ Palmer Jr; D C White

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for the understanding and control of biofilms is the continuous nondestructive monitoring of biofilm processes. This paper reviews research analytical techniques that monitor biofilm processes in a continuous nondestructive manner and that could also be modified for industrial applications. To be considered ‘continuous’ and ‘nondestructive’ for the purpose of this review a technique must: (a) function in

  12. Embedded Non-destructive Evaluation for Structural Health Monitoring, Damage Detection, and Failure

    E-print Network

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Articles Embedded Non-destructive Evaluation for Structural Health Monitoring, Damage Detection, diagnosis, prog- nosis, mixed-mode fracture, non-destructive evaluation, non- destructive inspection 1; Butterworth-Hayes, 2003; Talbot, 2003; Staszewski et al., 2004) 1.1. Conventional Non-destructive Evaluation

  13. Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via Multi-scale Micro CT Imaging Combined with Stereology

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ge

    Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via Multi-scale Micro CT Imaging Combined with Stereology Tech, Virginia, USA Running head Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via µCT Contact Information Eric without destruction of the lung. A novel X-ray based imaging method that allows non-destructive imaging

  14. Non-destructive Integration of Form-based Jan Hidders1

    E-print Network

    Houben, Geert-Jan

    Non-destructive Integration of Form-based Views Jan Hidders1 , Jan Paredaens1 , Philippe Thiran2 data. This paper presents a non-destructive approach of their integration. The main idea of our call this non-destructive integration. The fact that the original views remain part of the global data

  15. SIMULATION-BASED NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION SCHEDULING OF STEEL BRIDGES

    E-print Network

    Manuel, Lance

    SIMULATION-BASED NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION SCHEDULING OF STEEL BRIDGES by Hsin-Yang Chung, Ph. Manuel and K. H. Frank 2 ABSTRACT A procedure for selecting an optimal NDI (non-destructive inspection. Keywords: Probability of detection; Non-destructive inspection; Monte Carlo simulation. #12;H.-Y. Chung, L

  16. A non-destructive method to measure coupling and propagation losses in optical guided structures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A non-destructive method to measure coupling and propagation losses in optical guided structures Ferrara, Italy * monique.thual@univ-rennes1.fr Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a non-destructive is destructive. There is an attractive non-destructive method which applies for short optical fibers

  17. Novel Glassy Nematic Liquid Crystals for Non-destructive Rewritable Optical Memory

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shaw H.

    Novel Glassy Nematic Liquid Crystals for Non-destructive Rewritable Optical Memory and Photonic by a photochromic reaction will inevitably erase the stored information. Numer- ous concepts for non-destructive synthesized with the refractive index serving as the means of non-destructive readout.[10,11] Here we report

  18. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  19. Growth cone collapse assay.

    PubMed

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia. PMID:24838959

  20. Infrared thermography as a nondestructive tool for materials characterisation and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdelidis, N. P.; Gan, T.-H.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Maldague, X. P. V.

    2011-05-01

    Thermographic approaches, passive and active, are widely used due to the outstanding advantages that offer in a number of applications and particularly for the assessment of materials. Nonetheless, there are limitations; depending upon the approach used, as well as on the materials thermal, optical and physical properties, proper assessment (detection and/or quantification) is feasible. In thermal non-destructive evaluation (NDE), the active approach of infrared thermography where an excitation source, such as optical flash lamps, heat lamps, hot or cold air guns, etc., is employed with the intention of inducing thermal contrasts, has several applications. The temperature differences during the transient phase appear on the material surface and so detection of subsurface defects is possible (areas of different temperatures when compared to the sound part(s) due to the different thermal diffusivity). Since the heating or cooling features of the stimulus source are identifiable (in time and amplitude) by considering the time factor quantitative assessment is also feasible. However, when a material is heated, the thermal waves penetrate the material's surface. These waves are generally of various amplitudes and frequencies and are launched into the specimen, in a transient mode (i.e. transient thermography). In this work, different applications, employing transient thermographic testing, concerning the assessment of various composite materials and components are presented. Real time NDE is presented using various transient thermography approaches, i.e. pulsed thermography (PT), pulsed phase thermography (PPT) and/or thermal modelling (TM).

  1. A review of SQUID magnetometry applied to nondestructive evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Weinstock; Bolling AFB

    1991-01-01

    The development of the SQUID as the most sensitive instrument known for the measurement of changes in magnetic flux has presented new opportunities for its use for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of electrically conducting and ferromagnetic structures. The preliminary studies of this application within the past few years are reviewed in order to serve as an introduction to those that follow.

  2. Nondestructive test determines overload destruction characteristics of current limiter fuses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, G. A.

    1968-01-01

    Nondestructive test predicts the time required for current limiters to blow /open the circuit/ when subjected to a given overload. The test method is based on an empirical relationship between the voltage rise across a current limiter for a fixed time interval and the time to blow.

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Meir; S. Gordon; M. Karsh; A. Wiezman; R. Ayers; D. L. Olson

    2011-01-01

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start

  4. NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES: METHODS AND PRACTICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David K. HSU

    Composite materials are widely used in a number of industrial sectors from aviation, space, to boat building, automotive, and sports goods. In recent years composite structures have seen a substantial increase of their use in the new generation of airplanes. The nondestructive testing and inspection of composite structures, both for manufacturing quality assurance and for in-service damage detection, has prompted

  5. Federal Aviation Administration aging aircraft nondestructive inspection research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seher, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper highlights the accomplishments and plans of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the development of improved nondestructive evaluation (NDE) equipment, procedures, and training. The role of NDE in aircraft safety and the need for improvement are discussed. The FAA program participants, and coordination of activities within the program and with relevant organizations outside the program are also described.

  6. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Ruffino, Norman; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Winfree, William; Russell, Richard; Bryson, Craig; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Landy, James

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines the background and objective of nondestructive crack detection, flow control valve assembly and poppet post flight evaluation, poppet properties. magnetic property characterization of lab data, NDE, eddy current inspection, simulation, eddy current criteria, poppet cycle testing and NDE criteria, and the use of ultrasonic surface wave for crack detection.

  7. Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of thick-composite fatigue damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Green

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the comparison of a variety of nondestructive evaluation techniques to monitor the development of fatigue damage in thick graphite\\/epoxy composites. Three inch long, one inch square cross-section test specimens were fatigue tested in compression. Most specimens incorporated stress (strain) concentration notches at their mid- section in order to localize the primary fatigue damage regions

  9. Condensed matter physics for non-destructive 100 T magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Boebinger; S. Brazovskii; L. J. Campbell

    1998-01-01

    Various topics in condensed matter physics are cited as potential beneficiaries of non-destructive 100T magnets now being designed. These include layered systems, metals, superconductors, semi-metals, narrow gap and doped semiconductors, as well as systems of spin-polarized superstructures, real space Cooper pairs, and bipolarons. An extensive bibliography is provided.

  10. Nondestructive Characterization of Bifurcated Crack by Potential Drop Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Saka; D. Yuasa; H. Abe

    1992-01-01

    A method was presented for the nondestructive evaluation of a crack bifurcated from a horizontal crack in a rail. The method was based on the measurement of the difference and distribution of d.c electrical potential on the top surface of thc rail.First, a problem of current flow in a plate, which contained horizontal and bifurcated cracks and was subjected to

  11. Macropinosome quantitation assay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack T.H.; Teasdale, Rohan D.; Liebl, David

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to phagocytosis, macropinocytosis is not directly initiated by interactions between cell surface receptors and cargo ligands, but is a result of constitutive membrane ruffling driven by dynamic remodelling of cortical actin cytoskeleton in response to stimulation of growth factor receptors. Wang et al. (2010) [13] developed a reliable assay that allows quantitative assessment of the efficiency and kinetics of macropinosome biogenesis and/or maturation in cells where the function of a targeted protein has been perturbed by pharmacological inhibitors or by knock-down or knock-out approaches. In this manuscript we describe a modified quantitative protocol to measure the rate and volume of fluid phase uptake in adherent cells. This assay:•uses fluorescent dextran, microscopy and semi-automated image analysis;•allows quantitation of macropinosomes within large numbers of individual cells;•can be applied also to non-homogenous cell populations including transiently transfected cell monolayers. We present the background necessary to consider when customising this protocol for application to new cell types or experimental variations.

  12. Assays for ?-synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    This review describes different ways to achieve and monitor reproducible aggregation of ?-synuclein, a key protein in the development of Parkinson's disease. For most globular proteins, aggregation is promoted by partially denaturing conditions which compromise the native state without destabilizing the intermolecular contacts required for accumulation of regular amyloid structure. As a natively disordered protein, ?-synuclein can fibrillate under physiological conditions and this process is actually stimulated by conditions that promote structure formation, such as low pH, ions, polyamines, anionic surfactants, fluorinated alcohols and agitation. Reproducibility is a critical issue since ?-synuclein shows erratic fibrillation behavior on its own. Agitation in combination with glass beads significantly reduces the variability of aggregation time curves, but the most reproducible aggregation is achieved by sub-micellar concentrations of SDS, which promote the rapid formation of small clusters of ?-synuclein around shared micelles. Although the fibrils produced this way have a different appearance and secondary structure, they are rich in cross-? structure and are amenable to high-throughput screening assays. Although such assays at best provide a very simplistic recapitulation of physiological conditions, they allow the investigator to focus on well-defined molecular events and may provide the opportunity to identify, e.g. small molecule inhibitors of aggregation that affect these steps. Subsequent experiments in more complex cellular and whole-organism environments can then validate whether there is any relation between these molecular interactions and the broader biological context. PMID:21163351

  13. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-07-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year.

  14. Passive solar design: final evaluation, the Passive Studio

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Duncan S.; Rose, Stuart

    1980-08-01

    The further evaluation of the workshops in passive design for practicing architects and engineers through delayed interviews with a sample of the participants is reported with particular emphasis on the extent to which the participants have practiced passive design in the three-four months since attending. Also discussed is an unsuccessful attempt to conduct a lower-cost version of the program outside of normal office hours. Finally, the follow-on programs and improvements that the interviews indicated are needed are identified. (MHR)

  15. Cholesterol Efflux Assay

    PubMed Central

    Low, Hann; Hoang, Anh; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol content of cells must be maintained within the very tight limits, too much or too little cholesterol in a cell results in disruption of cellular membranes, apoptosis and necrosis 1. Cells can source cholesterol from intracellular synthesis and from plasma lipoproteins, both sources are sufficient to fully satisfy cells' requirements for cholesterol. The processes of cholesterol synthesis and uptake are tightly regulated and deficiencies of cholesterol are rare 2. Excessive cholesterol is more common problem 3. With the exception of hepatocytes and to some degree adrenocortical cells, cells are unable to degrade cholesterol. Cells have two options to reduce their cholesterol content: to convert cholesterol into cholesteryl esters, an option with limited capacity as overloading cells with cholesteryl esters is also toxic, and cholesterol efflux, an option with potentially unlimited capacity. Cholesterol efflux is a specific process that is regulated by a number of intracellular transporters, such as ATP binding cassette transporter proteins A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) and scavenger receptor type B1. The natural acceptor of cholesterol in plasma is high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I. The cholesterol efflux assay is designed to quantitate the rate of cholesterol efflux from cultured cells. It measures the capacity of cells to maintain cholesterol efflux and/or the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol released from cells. The assay consists of the following steps. Step 1: labelling cellular cholesterol by adding labelled cholesterol to serum-containing medium and incubating with cells for 24-48 h. This step may be combined with loading of cells with cholesterol. Step 2: incubation of cells in serum-free medium to equilibrate labelled cholesterol among all intracellular cholesterol pools. This stage may be combined with activation of cellular cholesterol transporters. Step 3: incubation of cells with extracellular acceptor and quantitation of movement of labelled cholesterol from cells to the acceptor. If cholesterol precursors were used to label newly synthesized cholesterol, a fourth step, purification of cholesterol, may be required. The assay delivers the following information: (i) how a particular treatment (a mutation, a knock-down, an overexpression or a treatment) affects the capacity of cell to efflux cholesterol and (ii) how the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol is affected by a disease or a treatment. This method is often used in context of cardiovascular research, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders, infectious and reproductive diseases. PMID:22414908

  16. Passive wireless ultrasonic transducer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, C. H.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-02-01

    Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling both offer simple solutions to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such system in the context of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Firstly, the physical principles and construction of an inductively coupled transducer system (ICTS) and a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) are introduced. Then the development of a transmission line model with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate for both systems is described. The models are validated experimentally. Several applications of CCTS are presented, such CCTS for the underwater and through-composite testing.

  17. All-Passive Nonreciprocal Metasurface

    E-print Network

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Engheta, Nader

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a systematic approach to design all-passive subwavelength high performance metasurfaces that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover we build upon those findings and propose a new paradigm for a quasi-2D metasurface that mimic the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices.

  18. Photonitride passivating coating for IC's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, T. C.; Peters, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Increased reliability and simplified fabrication result from postassembly preencapsulation passivation process. Photonitride reaction chamber receives silane, ammonia, and mercury from mixing manifold to form passivating coating on IC's. Photonitride layer is barrier to moisture and penetration by mobile ions, and helps to protect IC devices subjected to severe mechanical handling or circuit repair procedures. Process is compatible with variety of wire-bonded lead frame assemblies. Advantages over plasma and sputtering deposition processes are low deposition temperature and zero stray radiation and ion levels.

  19. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  20. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and...Quality Assurance § 225.158 Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by...

  1. HCI gesture tracking using wearable passive tags

    E-print Network

    Bainbridge, Rachel M

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis. a wearable system is developed to track hand gestures with passive RFID sensor tags. This system was composed of an ultra-high frequency reader and small, passive, finger-worn tags powered by scavenged RFID ...

  2. NCI Launches Proteomics Assay Portal

    Cancer.gov

    In a paper recently published by the journal Nature Methods, Investigators from the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) announced the launch of a proteomics Assay Portal for multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assays. This community web-based repository for well-characterized quantitative proteomic assays currently consists of 456 unique peptide assays to 282 unique proteins and serves as a public resource of methodologies and data related to cancer associated targets.

  3. Passive solar roof ice melter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deutz

    1981-01-01

    An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window

  4. Passive Tuneable Fibers and Matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Dry

    1992-01-01

    Active smart electrorheological fluids in building materials are expensive, need to be widely dispersed, and require large amounts of electricity. These practical considerations led to the consideration of ways of having similar effects in a matrix but using different materials. Tuneable fibers is an inexpensive dispersed passive system, requiring no electricity. The modulus of elasticity of a solid-filled fiber is

  5. Monitored passive-solar buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.

    1982-06-01

    Selected performance results from six monitored passive and hybrid solar heated buildings are presented. These employ: a two story trombe wall; a thermosyphoning solar air heater with rock bin storage; a greenhouse; a composite concrete and water trombe wall; two story sunspace; and, for a mobile/modular home, direct gain and roof pond.

  6. Security of passive access vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansaf Ibrahem Alrabady

    2002-01-01

    A passive vehicle system for automotive applications is an evolution of the popular remote keyless entry systems. It provides the ultimate user comfort to access the vehicle. The user no longer needs to reach for any form of mechanical or electronic key to gain access to the vehicle. The vehicle recognizes an authorized user from others by the possession of

  7. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  8. Passivation Of High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Surfaces of high-temperature superconductors passivated with native iodides, sulfides, or sulfates formed by chemical treatments after superconductors grown. Passivating compounds nearly insoluble in and unreactive with water and protect underlying superconductors from effects of moisture. Layers of cuprous iodide and of barium sulfate grown. Other candidate passivating surface films: iodides and sulfides of bismuth, strontium, and thallium. Other proposed techniques for formation of passivating layers include deposition and gas-phase reaction.

  9. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  11. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Goleman, R.; Czerwinski, D.; Gizewski, T.

    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth.

  12. Uranium holdup in concrete floors: a comparison of nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, T.L.; Dedo, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, Babcock and Wilcox ceased operations at its high-enriched uranium conversion facility in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Incorporated in the Company's action was the responsibility to clean up, recover and/or identify any an all uranium that might be held up in processing equipment, piping, and the building. By 1980, most of the historical inventory difference had been recovered from the equipment and piping, which had been removed from the plant. It was anticipated that over the 20-yr history of this facility, some special nuclear material (SNM) would be embedded in the floors of the building. The objective of this work was to develop a method to measure this material nondestructively and as accurately as possible. This paper illustrates two nondestructive methods used at the Apollo facility and then presents a comparison of the NDA to the results of destructive recovery.

  13. Nondestructive characterization of ductile cast iron by magnetic adaptive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Tomáš, I.; Takagi, T.

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports correlation of magnetic descriptors with Brinell hardness and conductivity of ductile cast iron, aiming to develop a novel nondestructive method by magnetic adaptive testing. Four series of cast iron staircase-shaped samples were investigated by this method, where different cooling rates of samples during casting resulted in different structures of each sample. The flat samples were magnetized by an attached yoke, and sensitive descriptors were obtained from a proper evaluation, based on the measurements of series of magnetic minor hysteresis loops, without magnetic saturation of the samples. Results of the nondestructive magnetic tests were compared with destructive mechanical measurements of Brinell hardness and conductivity and good correlation was found between them.

  14. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  15. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  16. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  17. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  18. Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  19. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Haggag, F.M. [Advanced Technology Corp. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.

  20. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  1. Towards quantitative non-destructive evaluation of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, J. D.; Thompson, D. O.

    Nondestructive testing techniques, as they are practiced in the field of quantitative nondestructive evaluation, are at the basis of a comprehensive approach to secure the safety of aging aircraft. The applications, advantages and disadvantages of the principal NDE techniques are summarized in this paper. It is discussed that measurement models for these techniques, in conjunction with the probability of detection concept, scanning plans, and methods of graphical display, facilitate the selection of optimal procedures for specific inspection problems. These models also suggest NDE standards and calibration techniques, and they can be an important part of inspection system validation and operator training. Four major components of a comprehensive quantitative NDE program for aging aircraft are identified and briefly discussed.

  2. Reliability assessment of passive safety systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Burgazzi; GL Fiorini; F De Magistris; W Von Lensa; M Staat; J Altes

    1998-01-01

    Innovative reactor concepts make use of passive safety features to a large extent in combination with active safety or operational systems. Following the IAEA definitions a passive component does not need external input (especially energy) to operate. This is why it is expected that passive systems combine among others the advantages of simplicity, reduction of the need for human interaction,

  3. Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

  4. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  5. Magnetic nondestructive technology for detection of tempered martensite embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashefi, Mehrdad; Rafsanjani, Ali; Kahrobaee, Saeed; Alaee, Moeen

    2012-11-01

    A nondestructive eddy current technique is used to evaluate tempered martensite embrittlement in 4340 AISI steels after quench and tempering in the range 240-550 °C. A relation between the responses of the magnetic induction (normalized impedance of the coil) and destructive Charpy impact test results has been established. The study shows that the eddy current method could be used to separate brittle parts due to the microstructure changes.

  6. Fault determinations in electroexplosive devices by nondestructive techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J.; Rosenthal, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Several nondestructive test techniques were developed for electroexplosive devices. The bridgewire responds, when pulsed with a safe level current, by generating a characteristic heating curve. The response is indicative of the electrothermal behavior of the bridgewire-explosive interface. Bridgewires which deviate from the characteristic heating curve were dissected and examined to determine the cause of the abnormality. Deliberate faults were fabricated into squibs. The relationship of the specific abnormality and the fault associated with it is demonstrated.

  7. Nondestructive diagnostics for relativistic picosecond bunched electron beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Swartz; B. D. Guenther; F. C. de Lucia; Wei Guo; C. R. Jones; H. Kosai; J. M. Dutta

    1995-01-01

    The duration and form of relativistic picosecond electron bunches in the Duke University Mark III free-electron laser have been nondestructively measured by monitoring the submillimeter radiation produced by the bunches as they pass by or through a rectangular waveguide. Unlike other methods, our technique produces negligible electron bunch perturbation and allows real-time beam diagnostics to be performed simultaneously with free-electron

  8. Non-destructive metallurgical analysis of astrolabes utilizing synchrotron radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, B.; Stephenson, B.; Almer, J. D.; Notis, M.; Haeffner, D. R.; Slade Cargill, G., III

    2002-05-22

    From the experiments performed it is possible to determine a wide range of information about the metallurgy of the astrolabes studied. It was found that different brass alloys were used for components that were cast and those that were mechanically deformed. Chemical composition, forming history, and thickness measurements are all determined non-destructively, illustrating that this technique could be useful for many applications with metal artifact analysis where non-intrusive methods are required.

  9. Nondestructive Testing System for Eggshells Based on DSP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong He; Dejun Jiang; Lan Liu; Jingang Liu

    2007-01-01

    In order to check and eliminate the cracked eggs quickly and exactly in the process of egg products, a nondestructive testing\\u000a system for eggshells based on digital signal processor (DSP) was established. The system utilized a TMS320VC33 DSP as a hardware\\u000a platform, and has many functions such as controlling knock-equipment, sampling and processing the acoustics signals, judging\\u000a the cracked-shell eggs,

  10. NASA CR-2120 - Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    This is a familiarization report of nondestructive testing (ndt) prepared by staff of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories on a NASA contract. There is a short introduction, a chapter on applicability of ndt which is illustrated with examples of typical defects and includes tables comparing the characteristics, interrelationships, and costs of the different techniques. There are chapters dealing with penetrants, magnetic particle radiography, ultrasonics, and eddy currents. New techniques are described.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of turbines and generators: 1980 conference and workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, R.H.; Rettig, T. (eds.)

    1981-07-01

    This report contains formal presentations and results of four workshop sessions on the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of steam turbines and generators. The workshop was directed at utility problems in turbine-generator evaluation and in making repair or run-retire decisions. Areas of concentration include (1) industry problems, (2) turbine NDE, (3) generator NDE, (4) EPRI projects, (5) vibration signature analysis, and (6) new developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for 29 of the papers.

  12. Non-destructive ultrasonic measurements of case depth. [in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flambard, C.; Lambert, A.

    1978-01-01

    Two ultrasonic methods for nondestructive measurements of the depth of a case-hardened layer in steel are described. One method involves analysis of ultrasonic waves diffused back from the bulk of the workpiece. The other method involves finding the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves launched on the surface of the work. Procedures followed in the two methods for measuring case depth are described.

  13. Development of SQUID-Based System for Nondestructive Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nagendran; M. P. Janawadkar; M. Pattabiraman; J. Jayapandian; R. Baskaran; L. S. Vaidhyanathan; Y. Hariharan; A. Nagesha; M. Valsan; K. B. S. Rao; B. Raj

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based system for nondestructive evaluation. The setup incorporates an in-house developed thin-film-based Nb SQUID with readout flux locked loop electronics and consists of a liquid helium cryostat with adjustable stand-off distance, a precision XY- thetas scanner for studying both flat and cylindrical samples, and a data acquisition system. The

  14. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  15. The Effects of Stress Mitigation on Nondestructive Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Eric D. Larsen; Timothy R. Mcjunkin; Arthur D. Watkins

    2004-08-01

    Ultrasonic volumetric and eddy current and visual profile surface inspections of the completed weld securing the outer lid of the Yucca Mountain waste package are required after stress mitigation. However, the technique implemented may affect the ability of the different evaluation techniques to properly characterize the completed weld. An evaluation was performed to determine the extent the nondestructive evaluation techniques are affected by two candidate mitigation processes: controlled plasticity burnishing and laser peening. This report describes the work performed and summarizes the results.

  16. Principles and applications of emittance-independent infrared nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Green, D R

    1968-09-01

    Three emittance-independent ir nondestructive testing techniques are described. Two of these use the dual scan ratio principle, and the other uses ir energy reflected from the test specimen surface to compen. sate for emittance differences. Complete details on the theory behind the three techniques are given-Instrumentation used to carry out tests and the results of two practical applications are described. PMID:20068882

  17. Advances of unilateral mobile NMR in nondestructive materials testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Blümich; Federico Casanova; Juan Perlo; Sophia Anferova; Vladimir Anferov; Kai Kremer; Nicolae Goga; Klaus Kupferschläger; Michael Adams

    2005-01-01

    Unilateral mobile NMR employs portable instrumentation with sensors, which are applied to the object from one side. Based on the principles of well-logging NMR, a hand-held sensor, the NMR-MOUSE (MObile Universal Surface Explorer) has been developed for nondestructive materials testing. In the following, a number of new applications of unilateral NMR in materials science are reviewed. They are the state

  18. Non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite-laminates is summarized. Indices derived from the measurement of fundamental acoustic parameters are used in order to quantitatively estimate the local material properties of the laminate. The following sections describe ongoing studies of phase insensitive attenuation measurements, and discuss several phenomena which influences the previously reported technique of polar backscatter. A simple and effective programmable gate circuit designed for use in estimating attenuation from backscatter is described.

  19. NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. GAYDECKP; F. M. BURDEKIN

    1998-01-01

    The integrity of internal steel components, whether they be in the form of reinforcing bar mesh, pre-tensioned tendons or post-tensioned cables encased within ducts, is a major factor in determining the useful life of structures built from reinforced and pre-stressed concrete. This article reviews the nondestructive techniques that have been or are being developed which provide information relating to the

  20. A nondestructive tool for nanomaterials: Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, A.; Dhar, P.; Roy, Anushree

    2005-03-01

    Modern materials science requires efficient processing and characterization techniques for low dimensional systems. Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy are important nondestructive tools which provide much information about such systems. Commercial Raman spectrometers are expensive. We discuss a less expensive apparatus with assembled collection optics. Studies of Ge nanoparticles, porous silicon (nanowire), carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional InGaAs quantum layers demonstrate that this apparatus is useful for teaching and research on nanomaterials.

  1. A nondestructive tool for nanomaterials: Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Singha; P. Dhar; Anushree Roy

    2005-01-01

    Modern materials science requires efficient processing and characterization techniques for low dimensional systems. Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy are important nondestructive tools which provide much information about such systems. Commercial Raman spectrometers are expensive. We discuss a less expensive apparatus with assembled collection optics. Studies of Ge nanoparticles, porous silicon (nanowire), carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional InGaAs quantum layers demonstrate that this

  2. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-05-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.

  3. TGS[underscore]FIT: Image reconstruction software for quantitative, low-resolution tomographic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R J

    1993-01-01

    We developed the computer program TGS[underscore]FIT to aid in researching the tomographic gamma scanner method of nondestructive assay. This software, written in C-programming, language, implements a full Beer's Law attenuation correction in reconstructing low-resolution emission tomograms. The attenuation coefficients for the corrections are obtained by reconstructing a transmission tomogram of the same resolution. The command-driven interface, combined with (crude) simulation capabilities and command file control, allows design studies to be performed in a semi-automated manner.

  4. Nitrogen concentration estimation in tomato leaves by VIS-NIR non-destructive spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. PMID:22163962

  5. Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Tomato Leaves by VIS-NIR Non-Destructive Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. PMID:22163962

  6. Study of passive MMW personnel imaging with respect to suspicious and common concealed objects for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Süß, Helmut

    2008-10-01

    Microwaves in the range of 1-300 GHz are used in many respects for remote sensing applications. Besides radar sensors particularly passive measurement methods are used for two-dimensional imaging. The imaging of persons and critical infrastructures for security purposes is of increasing interest particularly for transportation services or public events. Personnel inspection with respect to weapons and explosives becomes an important mean concerning terrorist attacks. Microwaves can penetrate clothing and a multitude of other materials and allow the detection of hidden objects by monitoring dielectric anomalies. Passive microwave remote sensing allows a daytime independent non-destructive observation and examination of the objects of interest under nearly all weather conditions without artificial exposure of persons or areas. Some millimeter-wave radiometric imaging devices with respect to low cost are investigated. Measurement results of some typical personnel screening scenarios are discussed. Requirements for future operational systems are outlined.

  7. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  8. Passive monitoring using traffic noise recordings - case study on the Steinachtal Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Stähler, Simon; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Civil structures age continuously. The early recognition of potentially critical damages is an important economical issue, but also one of public safety. Continuous tracking of small changes in the medium by using passive methods would offer an extension to established active non-destructive testing procedures at relatively low cost. Here we present a case study of structural monitoring using continuous recordings of traffic noise on a 200 meter long reinforced concrete highway bridge in Germany. Over two months of continuos geophone records are used in the frequency range of 2-8 Hz. Using passive image interferometry, evaluation of hourly cross-correlations between recordings at pairs of receivers yield velocity variations in the range of -1.5% to +2.1%. We were able to correlate our outcomes with temperature measurements of the same two month period. The measured velocity changes scale with the temperature variations with on average a dv/v of 0.064% per degree Celsius. This value is in accordance with other studies of concrete response to temperature, confirming that we are able to observe subtle changes with physical origin. It is shown that traffic noise is temporally homogenenous enough to fulfill the requirements of passive image interferometry.

  9. Study on Autonomous Path Planning by Mobile Robot for Road Nondestructive Testing Based on GPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lunhui Xu; Fan Ye; Yanguo Huang

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper analyses the statements of video imaging, CT, infrared thermography and radiography applied in the road nondestructive\\u000a testing, and design a path planning mobile robot with GPS positioning which can remarkably increase the efficient of road\\u000a nondestructive testing. Besides, appropriate algorithm for nondestructive testing on the road autonomous mobile robot path\\u000a planning is given. This method is simplicity, versatility,

  10. Passive oscillatory heat transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    2002-01-01

    An underdeveloped class of oscillatory passive heat transport cycles are discussed that have the potential to transport significantly higher heat loads than current heat pipes. Prototype cycles employing inferior working fluids have demonstrated transport of higher heat loads over significantly greater distances than similarly sized heat pipes (including CPLs and LHPs) employing ammonia. Most of the proposed cycles do not require capillary forces to circulate the working fluid. They are also relatively insensitive to gravity and might best be compared to thermal systems using mechanical pumps. The history of development to date of such cycles is presented in relation to other approaches under consideration for various semi/passive thermal control applications. Specific operational characteristics of a select loop are presented. The obvious pros and cons of these systems are discussed as well as potential applications-particularly as regards electronics cooling. .

  11. Passive Photonic Devices in Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Shane M.; Herman, Peter R.

    Femtosecond laser microfabrication offers the potential for writing passive photonic circuits inside bulk glasses, for use in last-mile photonic networks, sensing, and lab-on-a-chip applications. In this chapter, the fabrication methods for writing low-loss optical waveguides along with waveguide and device characterization techniques are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of femtosecond laser writing are analyzed and compared with existing planar lithographic fabrication techniques.

  12. Exploratory loading techniques. [in holographic nondestructive testing of flat metal plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M., III

    1976-01-01

    Interferometric holographic nondestructive testing of aluminum, copper, and steel flat plates is reported. Structural weaknesses under positive pressure, negative pressure, heating, and cooling are discussed.

  13. Life extension of structural components via an improved nondestructive testing methodology

    E-print Network

    Hohmann, Brian P. (Brian Patrick)

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine the flaw detection sensitivity of advanced nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques with respect to structural applications. The techniques analyzed exemplify the incorporation ...

  14. PRESSURE BAG MOLDING: MANUFACTURING, MECHANICAL TESTING, NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, AND ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    -up ..............................................................................................................13 Resin Transfer Molding.............................................................................................14 Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MoldingPRESSURE BAG MOLDING: MANUFACTURING, MECHANICAL TESTING, NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, AND ANALYSIS

  15. The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dejian Huang; Boxin Ou; Ronald L. Prior

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply

  16. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. From Antenna to Assay

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ?60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. To efficiently sensitize Eu(III) emission, we have used the 1-hydroxypyridin-2-one (1,2-HOPO) chelate to create remarkable ligands that combine excellent photophysical properties and exceptional aqueous stabilities. A more complete understanding of this chromophore has been achieved by combining low-temperature phosphorescence measurements with the same TD-DFT approach used with the IAM system. Eu(III) complexes with strong CPL activity have also been obtained with chiral 1,2-HOPO ligands. We have also undertaken the kinetic analysis of radiative and non-radiative decay pathways for a series of Eu(III) complexes; the importance of the metal ion symmetry on the ensuing photophysical properties is clear. Lastly, we describe a Tb(III)-IAM compound—now carried through to commercial availability—that offers improved performance in the common HTRF platform and has the potential to vastly improve sensitivity. PMID:19323456

  18. Doug Berndt Evaluated Bacterial Assay

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS microbiology technician evaluates a bacterial assay to determine the cause of a wildlife mortality. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease....

  19. Paper #1547 Presented at the International Congress on Ultrasonics, Vienna, April 9 -13, 2007, Session S04: Non-destructive evaluation of anisotropic materials

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Session S04: Non-destructive evaluation of anisotropic materials - 1 - Non-destructive diagnosis transducers, and a numerical system and computing and recording the projections. When performing non-destructive

  20. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and...Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a) Identification. An endotoxin assay is a device that uses serological...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food...and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A sulfhemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food...Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A carboxyhemoglobin assay is a device used to determine the...

  4. Liberty Bell 7 Recovery Evaluation and Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Smith, William L.

    1999-01-01

    An inspection of the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, and its contents was made on September 1 and 2, 1999. The condition of the capsule and its contents was consistent with long-term exposure to salt water and high pressures at the bottom of the ocean. Many of the metallic materials suffered corrosion, whereas the polymer-based materials seem to have survived remarkably well. No identifiable items or structures were found that appeared to have any scientific value. At this time, no further nondestructive evaluation appears to be justified.

  5. NON-DESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF SHIELDED HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. HOLLAS; C. A. GOULDING; B. L. MEYERS

    2001-04-01

    Arms control and special nuclear material reduction requirements will eventually encompass shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU) systems. Non-destructive analysis (NDA) techniques for plutonium such as neutron multiplicity measurements and analysis are well developed and provide information regarding the properties of plutonium systems. In a previous study [1] we developed a NDA method for determining the mass and neutron multiplication of subcritical bare metal systems of HEU. In this work we present results for a HEU sphere enclosed within various shielding materials of low density, (carbon and beryllium), medium density (iron) and high density (lead).

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. G.; Verrilli, M. J.; Stephan, R.; Barnett, T. R.; Ojard, G.

    2003-03-01

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by X-ray, ultrasonic and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications were found to correlate with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations.

  7. Nondestructive diagnostics for relativistic picosecond bunched electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, J. C.; Guenther, B. D.; de Lucia, F. C.; Guo, Wei; Jones, C. R.; Kosai, H.; Dutta, J. M.

    1995-11-01

    The duration and form of relativistic picosecond electron bunches in the Duke University Mark III free-electron laser have been nondestructively measured by monitoring the submillimeter radiation produced by the bunches as they pass by or through a rectangular waveguide. Unlike other methods, our technique produces negligible electron bunch perturbation and allows real-time beam diagnostics to be performed simultaneously with free-electron laser (FEL) operation. We have measured 2.1-ps full width at half maximum duration electron bunches, studied the effect of electron gun and FEL modifications on bunch duration, and observed electron bunch variations during bunch trains.

  8. Optical non-destructive testing methods of cultural heritage artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Miroslav; Bartl, Ján; Jacko, Vlado

    2005-08-01

    Optical methods are very powerful tools for non-destructive testing of works of art. There are several tasks connected with testing of works of art, which can be solved by use of optical methods, for example revealing of underdrawings in pictures, visualisation of artefacts that are due to degradation process invisible by naked eye, distinguishing between authentic and retouched parts of work of art, testing of degradation and ageing of works of art and many other tasks. In the contribution several selected optical testing methods will be described, among them ultraviolet fluorescence, infrared reflectography and laser scattering method.

  9. Physical principals for nondestructive testing of pure metal components

    SciTech Connect

    Smorodinskii, Ya.G.; Rinkevich, A.B.

    1994-09-01

    Effects are considered that are dependent on conduction-electron relaxation time, which are applied to nondestructive testing of pure-metal components. Conditions are given under which one can use some effects for measuring or estimating the relaxation time: Doppler-shifted acoustic cyclotron resonance, quantized oscillations in ultrasound absorption, and helicon resonance. These phenomena are compared, as are methods of measuring the resistivity and eddy currents in order to estimate the purity and structural perfection. The methods are classified as being applicable to single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens.

  10. Microwave nondestructive evaluation: State-of-the-Art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoughi, R.; Ganchev, S.

    1995-02-01

    This State-of-the-Art Review contains information on both the fundamental science and general applications of microwave nondestructive evaluation. Chapter contents include: introductory background on microwave and millimeter wave spectra, definition and scope of microwave NDE, dielectric properties of materials, material characterization using microwaves, thickness and disbond measurements, microwave techniques for surface cracks, defect detection in thick composites, and concluding remarks and the future of microwave NDE. The publication contains 553 references to microwave NDE-related papers in the public literature.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Wiezman, A. [Netania (Israel)

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  12. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  13. Nondestructive inspection and evaluation of composite-material flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, D M; Maxfield, B W; Kulkarni, S V; Schwarber, A J

    1982-02-24

    Several composite panels and flywheel designs were evaluated in support of the Mechanical Energy Storage Technology (MEST) project. Conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology was used on the panels and flywheels. All flywheels and panels were radiographed and, where practical, were also inspected using ultrasonic techniques. The results provided information about the structural features of flywheels and materials. This information is useful for the quality control of fabrication procedures. The detection of apparent flaws in fabrication cannot be related to the ultimate strength until failure mechanisms in composite materials have been fully defined. Therefore, the location of detected flaws should be recorded for later comparison with dynamic and destructive evaluations.

  14. Advances of unilateral mobile NMR in nondestructive materials testing.

    PubMed

    Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Anferova, Sophia; Anferov, Vladimir; Kremer, Kai; Goga, Nicolae; Kupferschläger, Klaus; Adams, Michael

    2005-02-01

    Unilateral mobile NMR employs portable instrumentation with sensors, which are applied to the object from one side. Based on the principles of well-logging NMR, a hand-held sensor, the NMR-MOUSE (MObile Universal Surface Explorer) has been developed for nondestructive materials testing. In the following, a number of new applications of unilateral NMR in materials science are reviewed. They are the state assessment of polyethylene pipes, the characterization of wood, the in situ evaluation of stone conservation treatment, high-resolution profiling of rubber tubes and 2-D imaging for defect analysis in rubber products. PMID:15833612

  15. Non-destructive interferometric characterization of an optical dipole trap

    E-print Network

    Plamen G. Petrov; Daniel Oblak; Carlos L. Garrido Alzar; Niels Kjaergaard; Eugene S. Polzik

    2006-10-13

    A method for non-destructive characterization of a dipole trapped atomic sample is presented. It relies on a measurement of the phase-shift imposed by cold atoms on an optical pulse that propagates through a free space Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Using this technique we are able to determine, with very good accuracy, relevant trap parameters such as the atomic sample temperature, trap oscillation frequencies and loss rates. Another important feature is that our method is faster than conventional absorption or fluorescence techniques, allowing the combination of high-dynamical range measurements and a reduced number of spontaneous emission events per atom.

  16. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.

  17. Localized photoelectrochemical measurements of passive filmson titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.

    1983-12-01

    Using a focused laser and a digitally controlled x-y stage, localized photoelectrochemical measurements have been made on 100A thick passive films on polycrystalline titanium. The photocurrent dependence on potential is semiquantitatively explained by a model considering trap dominated electronic charge transport in the passive film. Variations in the measured electronic properties are observed which correlate with the underlying metal grain structure. The data suggest extremely high trap densities in the passivating film.

  18. Cellular automaton formulation of passive scalar dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Hudong; Matthaeus, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Cellular automata modeling of the advection of a passive scalar in a two-dimensional flow is examined in the context of discrete lattice kinetic theory. It is shown that if the passive scalar is represented by tagging or 'coloring' automation particles a passive advection-diffusion equation emerges without use of perturbation expansions. For the specific case of the hydrodynamic lattice gas model of Frisch et al. (1986), the diffusion coefficient is calculated by perturbation.

  19. Physics of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

  20. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays

    PubMed Central

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh–Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed. PMID:20000921

  1. Passive tamper-indicating secure container

    SciTech Connect

    Bartberger, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a passive tamper-indicating secure container that has been designed to demonstrate concepts, features, and materials that can be used in passive container applications. (In a passive security system, physical phenomena provide visual indication of tampering.) The basic container {open_quotes}volume within a volume{close_quotes} assembly consists of a transparent plastic outer container and an aluminum inner container. Both containers incorporate passive, fingerprinted layers as part of the tamper-indicating container system. Many of the tamper-indicating features can be visually inspected without disassembling the container. The status of container development and potential applications for the container are addressed.

  2. Image processing for the non-destructive characterization of porous media. Application to limestones and trabecular bones

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Image processing for the non-destructive characterization of porous media. Application constituting these porous materials. An accurate and powerful non-destructive method to characterize, the characterization of porous material has gradually switched from classical, and often destructive, exploration

  3. Record 97.4 T non-destructive magnetic field Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    Record 97.4 T non-destructive magnetic field Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field the angle-averaged belly. Record 97.4 T non-destructive magnetic field Gregory S. Boebinger, National High

  4. Non-destructive determination of maize leaf and canopy chlorophyll content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid non-destructive technique to estimate total chlorophyll (Chl) content in a maize canopy using Chl content in a single leaf. The approach was (1) to calibrate and validate a reflectance-based non-destructive technique to estimate leaf Chl in maize; (...

  5. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Gan; Qing-hua Kong; Li-fu Wei

    2008-01-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the

  6. Comparative eggshell stability assessment using three different non-destructive sensing instruments and breakage force strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Amer Eissa

    2009-01-01

    Different techniques are presented that measure non-destructively eggshell. The incidence of broken and cracked eggs range from 6% to 8% of all eggs produced. Breaking force strength has proven to be closely related to the proportion of broken eggs but the relationship with non-destructive measurements is not yet clear. Therefore, the relationship of deformation (static stiffness), compression cone hardness and

  7. Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic

    E-print Network

    Boyce, C. Kevin

    Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon that facilitates nondestructive, in situ mapping of elemental abundances, including organic carbon, at the m scale-1305 Contributed by A. H. Knoll, March 16, 2001 The electron microprobe allows elemental abundances to be mapped

  8. Non-destructive evaluation of thermal barrier coatings using impedance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Wang; Junfa Mei; Ping Xiao

    2001-01-01

    Determining the oxidation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) non-destructively is essential for monitoring the performance of TBCs and predicting the lifetime of TBCs in service. In this research, impedance spectroscopy was used, as a non-destructive tool, to examine the oxidation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Impedance diagrams obtained from impedance measurements at 623 K, were analysed according to equivalent circuit

  9. Nondestructive examination of irradiated fuel rods by pulsed eddy current techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Francis; W. J. Quapp; M. R. Martin; G. W. Gibson

    1976-01-01

    A number of fuel rods and unfueled zircaloy cladding tubes which had been irradiated in the Saxton reactor have undergone extensive nondestructive and corroborative destructive examinations by Aerojet Nuclear Company as part of the Water Reactor Safety Research Program, Irradiation Effects Test Series. This report discusses the pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive examinations on the fuel rods and tubing and

  10. Identifying Fracture Origin in Ceramics by Combination of Nondestructive Testing and Discrete Element Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Senapati; Jianmei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Advanced ceramic materials have been extensively applied in aerospace, automobile and other industries. However, the reliability of the advanced ceramics is a major concern because of the brittle nature of the materials. In this paper, combination of nondestructive testing and numerical modeling Discrete Element Method is proposed to identify the fracture origin in ceramics. The nondestructive testing-laser scattering technology is

  11. Two non-destructive techniques for determining the sex of live adult Hylobius warreni

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    Two non-destructive techniques for determining the sex of live adult Hylobius warreni Petter Öhrn1--Two non-destructive sexing techniques suitable for use in the field and laboratory are described, but required at least 12× magnification. Résumé--Deux techniques non destructives, permettant le sexage lors d

  12. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non-destructive technique originally developed for evaluating

    E-print Network

    RUS Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non- destructive technique originally developed of vibration observed in samples with regular geometry. RUS can also be used for non-destructive evaluation measurement results. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non-destructive material characterisation

  13. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The application and interpretation of specific ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques are studied. The Kramers-Kronig or generalized dispersion relationships are applied to nondestructive techniques. Progress was made on an improved determination of material properties of composites inferred from elastic constant measurements.

  14. Automated Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Characterizing Ceramic and Metallic Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Pastila, P.; Koehl, E.R.; Wheeler, B.; Deemer, C.; Forster, G.A.

    2002-09-19

    The objective of this work was to develop a nondestructive (NDE), cost-effective and reliable method to assess the condition of rigid ceramic hot gas filters. The work was intended to provide an end user, as well as filter producers, with a nondestructive method to assess the ''quality'' or status of the filters.

  15. Development of a portable neutron coincidence counter for field measurements of nuclear materials using the advanced multiplicity capabilities of MCNPX 2.5.F and the neutron coincidence point model 

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Angela Lynn

    2008-10-10

    Neutron coincidence counting is an important passive Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technique widely used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear material in bulk samples. During the fission process, multiple neutrons are simultaneously...

  16. Development of a portable neutron coincidence counter for field measurements of nuclear materials using the advanced multiplicity capabilities of MCNPX 2.5.F and the neutron coincidence point model 

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Angela Lynn

    2009-05-15

    Neutron coincidence counting is an important passive Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technique widely used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear material in bulk samples. During the fission process, multiple neutrons are simultaneously...

  17. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

  18. Nondestructive estimation of anthocyanins and chlorophylls in anthocyanic leaves.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Chivkunova, Olga B; Merzlyak, Mark N

    2009-10-01

    The anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents in leaves provide valuable information about the physiological status of plants. Thus, there is a need for accurate, efficient, and practical methodologies to estimate these biochemical parameters of vegetation. In this study, we tested the performance and accuracy of several nondestructive, reflectance-based techniques for estimating anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents in leaves of four unrelated species, European hazel (Corylus avellana), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba =Swida alba), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), with widely variable pigment content and composition. An anthocyanin reflectance index, which uses reflectances in the green and red edge spectral bands, and a modified anthocyanin reflectance index, employing, in addition, the near-infrared (NIR) band, were able to accurately estimate leaf anthocyanin for all species taken together with no reparameterization of algorithms. Total chlorophyll content was accurately estimated by a red edge chlorophyll index that uses spectral bands in the red edge and the NIR. These approaches can be used to estimate anthocyanin and chlorophyll nondestructively and allow the development of simple handheld field instrumentation. PMID:21622307

  19. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Nowak, Paul S.; Zoughi, Reza

    1999-12-01

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  20. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Zoughi, Reza [Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Nowak, Paul S. [Civil Enginering Department, Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington 99258 (United States)

    1999-12-02

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  1. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of two-phase materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Kamel

    1987-01-01

    The development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of two phase engineering materials are described. The primary goal was to establish relationships between the nonlinearity parameter and the percentage of solid solution phase in two phase systems such as heat treatable aluminum alloys. The acoustoelastic constant was also measured on these alloys. A major advantage of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes the method more applicable to inservice nondestructive characterization. The results obtained on the heat treatable 7075 and the work hardenable 5086 and 5456 aluminum alloys show that both the acoustoelastic constant and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter change considerable with the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in these aluminum alloys. A mathematical model was also developed to relate the effective acoustic nonlinearity parameter to volume fraction of second phase precipitates in an alloy. The equation is approximated to within experimental error by a linear expression for volume fractions up to approx. 10%.

  2. Nondestructive examination of the TRMM RCS propellant tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of using eddy current nondestructive examination of determine flaw sizes in completely assembled hydrazine propellant tanks. The study was performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project to help determine whether existing propellant tanks could meet the fracture analysis requirements of the current pressure vessel specification, MIL-STD-1522A and, therefore be used on the TRMM spacecraft. After evaluating several nondestructive test methods, eddy current testing was selected as the most promising method for determining flaw sizes on external and internal surfaces of completely assembled tanks. Tests were conducted to confirm the detection capability of the eddy current NDE, procedures were developed to inspect two candidate tanks, and the test support equipment was designed. The non-spherical tank eddy current NDE test program was terminated when the decision was made to procure new tanks for the TRMM propulsion subsystem. The information on the development phase of this test program is presented in this paper as a reference for future investigation on the subject.

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Nondestructive Residual Stress Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, P. B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0070 (United States)

    2006-03-06

    For a long time, nondestructive residual stress assessment has been one of the greatest opportunities as well as one of the greatest challenges for the NDE community, and probably it will remain so in the foreseeable future. The most critical issue associated with nondestructive residual stress assessment seems to be that of selectivity. Numerous NDE methods have been found to be sufficiently sensitive to the presence of residual stress, but unfortunately also rather sensitive to other spurious variations that usually accompany residual stresses, such as anisotropic texture, microstructural inhomogeneity, plastic deformation, etc., which could interfere with, or even overshadow, the elastic strain caused by the sought residual stress. The only sufficiently selective NDE method that is more or less immune from these spurious effects is X-ray diffraction measurement, which however does not have the required penetration depth in most applications unless high-energy neutron radiation is used. It is timely for the community to sit back and ask where we are in this important area. This paper presents an overview of the various indirect techniques that have been used to measure residual stress in the past. It is shown that traditional techniques have a number of limitations, which have spurred several recent research programs. Some of the new techniques that are presently being examined in the NDE community are reviewed and the current status of these research efforts is assessed.

  4. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junfeng Wang; Changyun Miao; Wei Wang; Xiaocui Lu

    2008-01-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with

  5. On-orbit Passive Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2008-01-01

    On July 12, 2006, British-born astronaut Piers Sellers became the first person to conduct thermal nondestructive evaluation experiments in space, demonstrating the feasibility of a new tool for detecting damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) structures of the Shuttle. This new tool was an EVA (Extravehicular Activity, or spacewalk) compatible infrared camera developed by NASA engineers. Data was collected both on the wing leading edge of the Orbiter and on pre-damaged samples mounted in the Shuttle s cargo bay. A total of 10 infrared movies were collected during the EVA totaling over 250 megabytes of data. Images were downloaded from the orbiting Shuttle to Johnson Space Center for analysis and processing. Results are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory with the same type of camera and simulated solar heating. The EVA camera system detected flat-bottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 50% material loss from the back (hidden) surface in RCC during this first test of the EVA IR Camera. Data for the time history of the specimen temperature and the capability of the inspection system for imaging impact damage are presented.

  6. Assay and kinetics of arginase.

    PubMed

    Garganta, C L; Bond, J S

    1986-05-01

    A sensitive colorimetric assay for arginase was developed. Urea produced by arginase was hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease, the ammonia was converted to indophenol, and the absorbance was measured at 570 nm. The assay is useful with low concentrations of arginase (0.5 munit or less than 1 ng rat liver arginase) and with a wide range of arginine concentrations (50 microM to 12.5 mM). Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a Km for arginine of 1.7 mM were obtained for Mn2+-activated rat liver arginase; the unactivated enzyme did not display linear behavior on double-reciprocal plots. The kinetic data for unactivated arginase indicated either negative cooperativity or two types of active sites on the arginase tetramer with different affinities for arginine. The new assay is particularly well suited for kinetic studies of activated and unactivated arginase. PMID:3728959

  7. Quantitative assay for algal chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Sjoblad, R D; Chet, I; Mitchell, R

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative capillary assay is described for measuring chemoreception in the neritic and littoral unicellular alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. Lucite chemotaxis plates were used in the assay with 3-microliter capillaries. A Coulter Counter was employed to determine algal cell numbers. D. tertiolecta is attracted to ammonium ion with a maximum positive response at 10(-3) M. Inclusion of calcium and L-methionine in the chemotaxis medium stimulates algal chemoreception, although neither chemical is essential for motility. Attraction of the chlorophyte to ammonium is dependent on time of incubation, cell density, and pH. The optimum pH for attraction was found to be 6.25. PMID:32834

  8. Terrain data aided passive ground target tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Hwan Kim; Keeyoung Choi; Chang-Kyung Ryoo; Kyeong-Dae Park; Jin-Bok Kim; Ki-Sung Kim; Jong-Lae Jo

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of passive tracking function is to support weapon systems on the military aircraft. A ground-attacking aircraft must know the precise location of the target to fulfill its missions. The target tracking system must estimate location of the target passively, if the need of stealth performance is highly required. A target is designated using integrated sensors, such as

  9. Passive Safety Features for Small Modular Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size and complexity of commercial nuclear power plants in the 1970s spawned an interest in smaller, simpler designs that are inherently or intrinsically safe through the use of passive design features. Several designs were developed, but none were ever built, although some of their passive safety features were incorporated into large commercial plant designs that

  10. Bond Graph Based Approach to Passive Teleoperation

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    in which the coordination control approximates the hydraulic system by its kinematic behavior been directed toward developing passive hydraulic systems 7­11 . To enable the passivity analysis-port systems a command port and a hydraulic port with respect to the total scaled power input have been

  11. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  12. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  13. Passive radar in the high frequency band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Fabrizio; Fabiola Colone; Pierfrancesco Lombardo; Alfonso Farina

    2008-01-01

    Passive radar systems using emitters of opportunity for target detection and tracking have received significant interest recently, especially those which exploit frequency modulated (FM) radio stations and TV transmitters as signal sources. This paper is concerned with passive radar systems that utilize signal sources in the high frequency (HF) band (3-30 MHz), where due to long-distance ionospheric propagation, the transmitter

  14. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Simpson; L. A. Boatner; D. E. Holcomb; S. A. McElhaney; J. T. Mihalczo; J. D. Muhs; M. R. Roberts; N. W. Hill

    1993-01-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs

  15. Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

  16. The German Passive: Analysis and Teaching Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffen, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes an analysis of German passive based upon internal structure rather than translation conventions from Latin and Greek. Claims that this approach leads to a description of the perfect participle as an adjectival complement, which eliminates the classification of a passive voice for German and simplifies the learning task. (MES)

  17. EVALUATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES (PSDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basic objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the EPA passive sampling device (PSD) for sampling of ambient level volatile organic compounds (VOC's); to develop an understanding of the mechanics of passive sampling using reversible adsorption; and to appl...

  18. Computerized semiautomated microbiological assay of folacin.

    PubMed

    Keagy, P M

    1986-01-01

    A semiautomated microbiological folacin assay system is described. A microcomputer controls sample dilutions, medium addition, turbidity determination, and data acquisition. Assay capacity is 600 tubes per day, approximately twice that of comparable manual assays. Using the automated equipment, more samples can be compared within one assay, eliminating many sources of between-assay variation in large studies. Additional advantages of this system are reduced human errors, flexibility of assay design, and multifunctional component equipment. Folacin results from chicken liver, spinach, and breakfast cereal samples show equivalent precision for manual and automated assays. PMID:3095308

  19. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI) technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory. PMID:26029091

  20. Passive Tracking System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Chen, Henry A. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Bourgeois, Brian A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor); Hill, Brent W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for passively determining the location of a moveable transmitter utilizing a pair of phase shifts at a receiver for extracting a direction vector from a receiver to the transmitter. In a preferred embodiment, a phase difference between the transmitter and receiver is extracted utilizing a noncoherent demodulator in the receiver. The receiver includes antenna array with three antenna elements, which preferably are patch antenna elements placed apart by one-half wavelength. Three receiver channels are preferably utilized for simultaneously processing the received signal from each of the three antenna elements. Multipath transmission paths for each of the three receiver channels are indexed so that comparisons of the same multipath component are made for each of the three receiver channels. The phase difference for each received signal is determined by comparing only the magnitudes of received and stored modulation signals to determine a winning modulation symbol.

  1. Passive States for Essential Observers

    E-print Network

    Robert Strich

    2008-01-23

    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given in \\cite{bb99} and \\cite{bs04} which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g. $d$-dimensional Minkowski space-time for $d\\geq 3$). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer travelling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a KMS-state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also the modular objects associated to such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.

  2. Passive Tracking System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Chen, Henry A. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Bourgeois, Brian A. (Inventor); Dusl, Jon (Inventor); Hill, Brent W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed for passively determining the location of a moveable transmitter utilizing a pair of phase shifts at a receiver for extracting a direction vector from a receiver to the transmitter. In a preferred embodiment, a phase difference between the transmitter and receiver is extracted utilizing a noncoherent demodulator in the receiver. The receiver includes an antenna array with three antenna elements, which preferably are patch antenna elements spaced apart by one-half wavelength. Three receiver channels are preferably utilized for simultaneously processing the received signal from each of the three antenna elements. Multipath transmission paths for each of the three receiver channels are indexed so that comparisons of the same multipath component are made for each of the three receiver channels. The phase difference for each received signal is determined by comparing only the magnitudes of received and stored modulation signals to determine a winning modulation symbol.

  3. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  4. Biochemical Assays of Cultured Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Subpopulations of human embryonic kidney cells isolated from continuous flow electrophoresis experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas and on STS-8 have been analyzed. These analyses have included plasminogen activator assays involving indirect methodology on fibrin plated and direct methodology using chromogenic substrates. Immunological studies were performed and the conditioned media for erythropoietin activity and human granulocyte colony stimulating (HGCSF) activity was analyzed.

  5. Magnetoresistive Sensors in Biological Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Tondra

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic beads or nanoparticles can be used as ``labels'' in biochemical assays by attaching the beads to the biospecies of interest using a bio-specific attachment. Once the labels are attached, they can be used to manipulate, capture, and detect the species to be analyzed. Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors may be used to detect and count these labels, and thus make an

  6. Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , warm, and windy season, between January and May, localized epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occurPolymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance in Remote Areas, Niger Fati reference laboratory for meningitis in Niger used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to enhance

  7. Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nissenson, R.A.; Teitelbaum, A.P.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells.

  8. Recent advances in enzyme assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Goddard; Jean-Louis Reymond

    2004-01-01

    Enzyme assays for high-throughput screening and enzyme engineering, which are often based on derivatives of coumarin, nitrophenol, fluorescein, nitrobenzofurazane or rhodamine dyes, can be divided into two categories: those that depend on labelled substrates, and those that depend on sensing the reactions of unmodified substrates. Labelled substrates include, for example, fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates that generate a reporter molecule by

  9. Problems with the PTH assays.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Delanaye, Pierre; Nyssen, Laurent; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2015-05-01

    Even if the first assay for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was published in the early 1960s, its determination remains a challenge even today. Indeed, in the circulation, PTH is present in its active form (PTH 1-84), but many PTH fragments can also be present. These fragments accumulate when renal function declines and are recognized, at different extents, by the 2nd generation ("intact") PTH assays that are widely used in the clinical laboratories. Some assays, called "3rd generation PTH" do not recognize these fragments, but are not available everywhere. Hence, different problems are also linked with PTH determination. Among them, one can cite the lack of a reference method, the lack of standardization of the assays and, sometimes, the lack of consistent reference range. We can also point out stability problems and a large intra-individual variation. A workgroup is working on these problems under the auspices of the IFCC and we hope that some of these problems will be resolved in the next years. In this article, we will discuss all the possible issues of PTH determination. PMID:25916762

  10. Nondestructive monitoring damage in composites using scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, A. C.; Kessler, L. W.; Dos Reis, H. L. M.

    1992-01-01

    Several Nicalon fiber reinforced LAS (lithium alumino-silicate) glass matrix composites were tested to study the relation between the residual strength and the different amounts of damage. The samples were fatigued by four-point cyclic loading at a 5 Hz rate at 500 C for a different number of cycles. 10 MHz scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) images were taken to monitor damage on the samples. Our SLAM results indicate that there were defects already existing throughout the sample before fatigue, and the resultant damage pattern from fatigue could be related to the initial defect distribution in the sample. Finally, the fatigued samples were fractured and the residual strength data could not be explained by the cyclic fatigue alone. Rather, the damage patterns evident in the SLAM images were needed to explain the scatter in the data. The results show that SLAM is useful in nondestructively monitoring damage and estimating residual strength of fatigued ceramic composites.

  11. Nerva fuel nondestructive evaluation and characterization equipment and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, A.J. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States))

    1993-01-20

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is one of the technologies that the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has identified as essential for a manned mission to Mars. A base or prior work is available upon which to build in the development of nuclear rockets. From 1955 to 1973, the U.S Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsored development and testing of a nuclear rocket engine under Project Rover. The rocket engine, called the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA), used a graphite fuel element incorporating coated particle fuel. Much of the NERVA development and manufacturing work was performed at the Oak Ridge Y[minus]12 Plant. This paper gives a general review of that work in the area of nondestructive evaluation and characterization. Emphasis is placed on two key characteristics: uranium content and distribution and thickness profile of metal carbide coatings deposited in the gas passage holes.

  12. Millimeter-wave imaging for nondestructive evaluation of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N; Bakhtiari, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.; Lepper, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.)

    1994-03-01

    A millimeter-wave imaging system has been developed in the W band (75--110 GHz) for nondestructive evaluation of low-loss materials. The system employs a focused beam to provide spatial resolution of about one wavelength. A plane-wave model is used to calculate the effective reflection (or transmission) coefficient of a multilayer geometry. Theoretical analysis is used to optimize the measurement frequency for higher image contrast and to interpret the experimental results. Both reflection and transmission images, based on backscattered and forward-scattered powers, were made with Kevlar/epoxy samples containing artificially introduced defects such as subsurface voids and disbonds. The results indicate that millimeter wave imaging has high potential for noncontact detection of defects in low-loss materials.

  13. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-01

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  14. Cyclic deformation, fracture, and nondestructive evaluation of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.R.; Buck, O.

    1992-01-01

    Papers are presented on cyclic fatigue of alumnia, fatigue crack growth in ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, fatigue test methodology and results for ceramic matrix composites at room and elevated temperatures, and modeling crack growth resistance in ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites. Attention is also given to thermomechanical cyclic deformation of metal-matrix composites, the effect of tensile mean stress on the fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys, the influence of constituent properties on the compression behavior of aluminates with discontinuities, and cyclic creep effects in single-overlap bonded joints under constant-amplitude testing. Other papers discuss an ultrasonic wave technique to assess cyclic-load fatigue damage in silicon-carbide whisker-reinforced 2124 aluminum alloy composites, nondestructive characterization for metal-matrix composite fabrication, NDE of a ceramic matrix composite material, and split spectrum processing of backscattered Rayleigh wave signals to improve detectability of fatigue microcracks.

  15. Inverse problem in nondestructive testing using arrayed eddy current sensors.

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Abdelhalim; Menana, Hocine; Feliachi, Mouloud; Berthiau, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    A fast crack profile reconstitution model in nondestructive testing is developed using an arrayed eddy current sensor. The inverse problem is based on an iterative solving of the direct problem using genetic algorithms. In the direct problem, assuming a current excitation, the incident field produced by all the coils of the arrayed sensor is obtained by the translation and superposition of the 2D axisymmetric finite element results obtained for one coil; the impedance variation of each coil, due to the crack, is obtained by the reciprocity principle involving the dyadic Green's function. For the inverse problem, the surface of the crack is subdivided into rectangular cells, and the objective function is expressed only in terms of the depth of each cell. The evaluation of the dyadic Green's function matrix is made independently of the iterative procedure, making the inversion very fast. PMID:22163680

  16. Implementation of nondestructive Young's modulus measurement by miniature optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Xu, Juncheng; Yu, Bing; Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo

    2005-11-01

    Accurate real time nondestructive modulus measurement is one of the principal requirements in service life monitoring of smart structures. However, most current measurement methods, such as tension and/or compression testing are inappropriate for such applications. For one thing, the force load may damage the casting. For another, the test process is not trivial and inconvenient for real-time modulus monitoring. This paper describes an acoustic-based measurement mechanism using two separated miniature optical sensors. The sensor features miniature size (<500?m), high resolution and accuracy, high temperature and pressure survivability, electromagnetic interference immunity (EMI), electrically non- conductivity, and chemical erosion inertness. This technique offers future potential for real-time measurement for in-service monitoring, particularly in applications involving such environments as high temperatures or high pressure.

  17. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  18. NDE (nondestructive examination) development for ceramics for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W. (McClung (R.W.), Powell, TN (USA)); Johnson, D.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) project was initiated in 1983 to meet the ceramic technology needs of DOE's advanced heat engines programs (i.e., advanced gas turbines and low heat rejection diesels). The objective is to establish an industrial ceramic technology base for reliable and cost-effective high-temperature components. Reliability of ceramics was recognized as the major technology need. To increase the material reliability of current and new ceramics, advances were needed in component design methodology, materials processing technology, and data base/life prediction. Nondestructive examination (NDE) was identified as one of the key elements in the approach to high-reliability components. An assessment was made of the current status of NDE for structural ceramics, and a report was prepared containing the results and recommendations for needed development. Based on these recommendations, a long-range NDE development program has been established in the CTAHE project to address these needs.

  19. Nondestructive decontamination of radioactive electronic equipment by fluorinated surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yam, C.S.; Harling, O.K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Kaiser, R. [Entropic Systems, Inc., Winchester, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The application of ESI`s enhanced particle removal process, initially developed for the cleaning of inertial guidance instrument parts, to the nondestructive decontamination of nuclear equipment is discussed. The cleaning medium used in this process is a solution of a high molecular weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid which results in enhanced particle removal. The perfluorinated liquids of interest, which are recycled in the process, are non-toxic, nonflammable, generally safe to use, and do not present a hazard to the atmospheric ozone layer. An experimental cleaning system has been developed by ESI to demonstrate the application of this cleaning process to nuclear decontamination of electronic circuit boards. A high degree of decontamination is obtained and with no resulting physical damage to the circuits.

  20. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  1. Inverse Problem in Nondestructive Testing Using Arrayed Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zaoui, Abdelhalim; Menana, Hocine; Feliachi, Mouloud; Berthiau, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    A fast crack profile reconstitution model in nondestructive testing is developed using an arrayed eddy current sensor. The inverse problem is based on an iterative solving of the direct problem using genetic algorithms. In the direct problem, assuming a current excitation, the incident field produced by all the coils of the arrayed sensor is obtained by the translation and superposition of the 2D axisymmetric finite element results obtained for one coil; the impedance variation of each coil, due to the crack, is obtained by the reciprocity principle involving the dyadic Green’s function. For the inverse problem, the surface of the crack is subdivided into rectangular cells, and the objective function is expressed only in terms of the depth of each cell. The evaluation of the dyadic Green’s function matrix is made independently of the iterative procedure, making the inversion very fast. PMID:22163680

  2. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet [Terahertz Systems Laboratory (TeSLa) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  3. Concrete nondestructive tests conducted in 225-B building

    SciTech Connect

    Vollert, F.R.

    1996-09-19

    In 1982, Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL), Portland Cement Association conducted additional sonic concrete nondestructive testing (NDT) in the Service Gallery on the south process (hot) cell walls and adjacent floor slab, including the locations where significant concrete degradation had been found by the 1981 sonic NDT. In the ceiling slabs, the anchor areas For the monorail hangers, and some visible cracks were sonic NDT inspected. CTL concluded that the hot cell walls have no significant reduction of structural capacity due to concrete degradation. Epoxy injection repairs were recommended by CTL for the damaged anchor areas and through depth cracks in the reinforced concrete ceiling slabs. When completed, the epoxy repairs should be inspected and confirmed with follow on sonic NDT. Lateral bracing for the Monorail system is also recommended to relieve the lateral loads on the hangers.

  4. Microwave Nondestructive Evaluation of Dielectric Materials with a Metamaterial Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreiber, Daniel; Gupta, Mool; Cravey, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel microwave Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) sensor was developed in an attempt to increase the sensitivity of the microwave NDE method for detection of defects small relative to a wavelength. The sensor was designed on the basis of a negative index material (NIM) lens. Characterization of the lens was performed to determine its resonant frequency, index of refraction, focus spot size, and optimal focusing length (for proper sample location). A sub-wavelength spot size (3 dB) of 0.48 lambda was obtained. The proof of concept for the sensor was achieved when a fiberglass sample with a 3 mm diameter through hole (perpendicular to the propagation direction of the wave) was tested. The hole was successfully detected with an 8.2 cm wavelength electromagnetic wave. This method is able to detect a defect that is 0.037 lambda. This method has certain advantages over other far field and near field microwave NDE methods currently in use.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  6. Non-destructively shattered mesoporous silica for protein drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Chenghong; Chen, Baowei; Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been extensively used for entrapping small chemical molecules and biomacromolecules for drug delivery. We hypothesize that the loading density of biomacromlecules such as proteins in mesoporous silicas could be limited due to disordering in the pore structure and long diffusion time in the pore channels. We shattered mesoporous silicas non-destructively resulting in improved intramesoporous structures and reduced particle sizes in aqueous solutions by a powerful sonication, where the mesoporous structures were still well maintained. The sonication-shattered mesoporous silica can increase the protein loading density to nearly 2.7 times as high as that of the non-shattered one, demonstrating that significantly more mesopore space of the silica could be accessible by the protein molecules, which may result in more sustained protein drug delivery. PMID:23687455

  7. Nondestructive evaluation of load transfer at rigid airport pavement joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammons, Michael I.

    1995-07-01

    Current design criteria for rigid pavements for commercial and military airfields assume that 25% of the load applied to an edge of a slab is transferred through the joint to an adjacent unloaded slab. A nondestructive testing technique using a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to conduct field testing at a number of sites. A transfer function, developed from an analytical study, was used to estimate load transfer from the measured joint efficiency as a function of the loaded area and the radius of relative stiffness of the pavement. This procedure, although analytically sound, lacks actual field verification at an instrumented pavement site. This procedure was used to estimate load transfer at a number of commercial and military airfields for a variety of joint types, climate conditions, and pavement structures. The results of these tests indicate that the assumption of load transfer as a constant value of 25% appears to be unconservative, especially during the winter months.

  8. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  9. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F. [Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Institut for Fysik og Astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Institut for Fysik og Astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation Methodologies Developed for Certifying Composite Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Konno, Kevin E.; Martin, Richard E.; Thompson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing readiness of composite rotors and certification of flywheels depend in part on the maturity of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology for process optimization and quality assurance, respectively. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the capabilities and limitations of x-ray-computed tomography and radiography, as well as advanced ultrasonics were established on NDE ring and rotor standards with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches and drilled holes. Also, intentionally seeded delamination, tow break, and insert of bagging material were introduced in hydroburst-rings to study the NDE detection capabilities of such anomalies and their effect on the damage tolerance and safe life margins of subscale rings and rotors. Examples of possible occurring flaws or anomalies in composite rings as detected by NDE and validated by destructive metallography are shown. The general NDE approach to ensure the quality of composite rotors and to help in the certification of flywheels is briefly outlined.

  11. Nondestructive testing and flow visualization: Two aerospace applications of holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erf, R. K.; Gagosz, R. M.; Waters, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The application of holography to both nondestructive testing (NDT) and flow visualization is discussed. In the NDT area, particular attention is given to determining the most suitable stress systems for recognizing potential defects within aerospace materials and components when subjected to interferometric holographic examination. It was found that pressure cycling is most appropriate for studying honeycomb structures, diffusion bonds, electron beam and resistance welds, rubber laminates, and solid-propellant-to-liner disbonds; acoustic excitation procedures are preferred for composite bond studies, material thickness measurement, and vibration analysis; and thermal shocking shows promise for the inspection of some composite components. Representative results from these investigations are summarized with the intent of describing the several tools which were developed and are now available for studying the various problems confronting the aerospace industry.

  12. Optical surface contouring for non-destructive inspection of turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modarress, Dariush; Schaack, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Detection of stress cracks and other surface defects during maintenance and in-service inspection of propulsion system components, including turbine blades and combustion compartments, is presently performed visually. There is a need for a non-contact, miniaturized, and fully fieldable instrument that may be used as an automated inspection tool for inspection of aircraft engines. During this SBIR Phase 1 program, the feasibility of a ruggedized optical probe for automatic and nondestructive inspection of complex shaped objects will be established. Through a careful analysis of the measurement requirements, geometrical and optical constraints, and consideration of issues such as manufacturability, compactness, simplicity, and cost, one or more conceptual optical designs will be developed. The proposed concept will be further developed and a prototype will be fabricated during Phase 2.

  13. Residual stress measurement of refractory coatings as a nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chollet, L.; Boving, H.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1985-03-01

    Due to their good resistance to wear and corrosion, TiC refractory coatings are increasingly applied in certain domains of the nuclear and aerospace industries. Quality control of materials being usually destructive, residual-stress measurements are suggested as a means of a nondestructive quality control. Based on the classical sin/sup 2//PSI/ method, residual stresses are measured for TiC coatings on cemented carbides and steel substrates. Medium tensile residual stresses are obtained in TiC on cemented carbide substrates, while rather large compressive residual stresses appear on steel substrates. A phenomenological interpretation of these stresses is given. The experimental results disprove the generally assumed two-dimensional stress system, confirming thus the existence of stress gradients in the third dimension, and of a threedimensional stress system in the volume sampled by the X-ray beams.

  14. Monte carlo feasibility study of an active neutron assay technique for full-volume UF6 cylinder assay using a correlated interrogation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Karen A.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2013-03-01

    Uranium cylinder assay plays an important role in the nuclear material accounting at gas centrifuge enrichment plants. The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) was designed to determine uranium mass and enrichment in 30B and 48Y cylinders using total neutron and coincidence counting in the passive mode. 30B and 48Y cylinders are used to hold bulk UF6 feed, product, and tails at enrichment plants. In this paper, we report the results of a Monte-Carlo-based feasibility study for an active uranium cylinder assay system based on the PNEM design. There are many advantages of the active technique such as a shortened count time and a more direct measure of 235U content. The active system is based on a modified PNEM design and uses a 252Cf source as the correlated, active interrogation source. We show through comparison with a random AmLi source of equal strength how the use of a correlated driver significantly boosts the active signal and reduces the statistical uncertainty. We also discuss ways in which an active uranium cylinder assay system can be optimized to minimize background from 238U fast-neutron induced fission and direct counts from the interrogation source.

  15. Broad base biological assay using liquid based detection assays

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F; Albala, J; Colston, B; Langlois, R; Venkateswaren, K

    2000-10-31

    The release of a biological agent by terrorists represents a serious threat to the safety of US citizens. At present there are over 50 pathogens and toxins on various agency threat lists. Most of these pathogens are rarely seen by public health personnel so the ability to rapidly identify their infection is limited. Since many pathogenic infections have symptomatic delays as long as several days, effective treatment is often compromised. This translates into two major deficiencies in our ability to counter biological terrorism (1) the lack of any credible technology to rapidly detect and identify all the pathogens or toxins on current threat lists and (2) the lack of a credible means to rapidly diagnose thousands of potential victims. In this SI we are developing a rapid, flexible, inexpensive, high throughput, and deeply multiplex-capable biological assay technology. The technology, which we call the Liquid Array (LA), utilizes optical encoding of small diameter beads which serve as the templates for biological capture assays. Once exposed to a fluid sample these beads can be identified and probed for target pathogens at rates of several thousand beads per second. Since each bead can be separately identified, one can perform parallel assays by assigning a different assay to each bead in the encoded set. The goal for this development is a detection technology capable of simultaneously identifying 100s of different bioagents and/or of rapidly diagnosing several thousand individuals. We are pursuing this research in three thrusts. In the first we are exploring the fundamental interactions of the beads with proteins and nucleic acids in complex mixtures. This will provide us with a complete understanding of the limits of the technology with respect to throughput and complex environment. A major spin-off of this activity is in the rapidly emerging field of proteomics where we may be able to rapidly assess the interactions responsible for cell metabolism, structural organization, and DNA replication and repair. Understanding the complexities of these interactions is a fundamental step towards comprehending key aspects of disease biochemistry. This past year, using the LA technology, we were able to confirm the dynamics of a well characterized three protein, bacterial DNA repair mechanism--UvrABC. Next fiscal year we will begin studying the less characterized mammalian homologous recombinational DNA repair pathway examining the protein/protein and protein/DNA interactions of RAD51B/C. In the second thrust, we are looking at a model human disease state to assess the application of the LA in highly parallel and rapid medical diagnostics. In collaboration with researchers at UCSF and the California Department of Public Health we are developing a multiplex assay for the determination of Herpes-8 exposure (a cancer inducing virus) in aids patients. We have successfully demonstrated a 8-plex assay and will extend to 20-plex in the near future. In a parallel effort we will develop an 18-plex assay for detecting antibodies to all vaccine-preventable childhood viral infections. Finally we are developing a concept that would utilize the bead assay in the simplest possible form. After microbead capture of the biomarker sample and a fluorescent reporter in solution, the beads are trapped on an ordered dipstick array. The color of each bead is used to identify the biomarker, while the fluorescent reporter measures its concentration. This concept, MIDS, would enable widespread use of the technology by reducing the capital investment required while greatly simplifying its operation and maintenance.

  16. Passive and active thermography for in situ damage monitoring in woven composites during mechanical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, J.-M.; Balageas, D.; Lamboul, B.; Bai, G.; Passilly, F.; Mavel, A.; Grail, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to highlight the contribution of both passive and active infrared thermography for in situ damage detection and monitoring in a 2D woven composite, during a mechanical testing constituted of multiple sequences of loadings and intermediate pauses. During the monotonic tensile loadings, damages such as matrix cracking and fiber-matrix debondings are monitored by passive thermography. Their thermal signatures are analyzed and the released heat, which is assumed to be a relevant index of their severity, is evaluated and correlated to the associated acoustic energies, simultaneously recorded. Finally, the contribution of the TSR (Thermographic Signal Reconstruction) advanced processing technique to provide a qualitative overview of the detected damages is underlined. As for the constant stress plateau levels, a nondestructive damage inspection of the tested specimen is carried out by pulsed thermography. The difficulties, due to the woven structure of the composite, in detecting any damage are put into relief. Once more, it is shown that the TSR technique can be useful.

  17. Overview of space propulsion systems for identifying nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    The next generation of space propulsion systems will be designed to incorporate advanced health monitoring and nondestructive inspection capabilities. As a guide to help the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community impact the development of these space propulsion systems, several questions should be addressed. An overview of background and current information on space propulsion systems at both the programmatic and technical levels is provided. A framework is given that will assist the NDE community in addressing key questions raised during the 2 to 5 April 1990 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Nondestructive Evaluation Subcommittee (NDES).

  18. IGF-I assays: current assay methodologies and their limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Clemmons

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of growth hormone (GH) is dependent upon accurate measurement of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)\\u000a concentrations since serum IGF-I assays have been found to be useful as a screening tests for the presence of growth hormone\\u000a deficiency (GHD) in children and in both children and adults they have been found very useful in establishing the diagnosis\\u000a of

  19. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  20. Reduction of bias in neutron multiplicity assay using a weighted point model

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W. H. (William H.); Krick, M. S. (Merlyn S.); Mayo, D. R. (Douglas R.)

    2004-01-01

    Accurate assay of most common plutonium samples was the development goal for the nondestructive assay technique of neutron multiplicity counting. Over the past 20 years the technique has been proven for relatively pure oxides and small metal items. Unfortunately, the technique results in large biases when assaying large metal items. Limiting assumptions, such as unifoh multiplication, in the point model used to derive the multiplicity equations causes these biases for large dense items. A weighted point model has been developed to overcome some of the limitations in the standard point model. Weighting factors are detemiined from Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNPX code. Monte Carlo calculations give the dependence of the weighting factors on sample mass and geometry, and simulated assays using Monte Carlo give the theoretical accuracy of the weighted-point-model assay. Measured multiplicity data evaluated with both the standard and weighted point models are compared to reference values to give the experimental accuracy of the assay. Initial results show significant promise for the weighted point model in reducing or eliminating biases in the neutron multiplicity assay of metal items. The negative biases observed in the assay of plutonium metal samples are caused by variations in the neutron multiplication for neutrons originating in various locations in the sample. The bias depends on the mass and shape of the sample and depends on the amount and energy distribution of the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the sample. When the standard point model is used, this variable-multiplication bias overestimates the multiplication and alpha values of the sample, and underestimates the plutonium mass. The weighted point model potentially can provide assay accuracy of {approx}2% (1 {sigma}) for cylindrical plutonium metal samples < 4 kg with {alpha} < 1 without knowing the exact shape of the samples, provided that the ({alpha},n) source is uniformly distributed throughout the sample and has an average neutron energy close to the O({alpha},n) average neutron energy. Better assay results can be obtained if there is some knowledge of the plutonium geometry, because weighting factor curves can be calculated for any specified geometry.

  1. New assistive technology for passive standing.

    PubMed

    Gear, A J; Suber, F; Neal, J G; Nguyen, W D; Edlich, R F

    1999-01-01

    The anesthetic skin of patients with spinal cord injuries makes these patients a high-risk population for burn injuries. Innovations in rehabilitation engineering can now provide the disabled with mechanical devices that allow for passive standing. Passive standing has been shown to counteract many of the effects of chronic immobilization and spinal cord injury, including bone demineralization, urinary calculi, cardiovascular instability, and reduced joint range of motion and muscular tone. This article will describe several unique assistive devices that allow for passive standing and an improvement in daily living for people with disabilities. PMID:10188115

  2. Assaying PTEN catalysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Laura; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2015-05-01

    PTEN is a major tumour suppressor protein and a regulator of numerous diverse biological processes. It has an evolutionarily conserved role as a phosphoinositide lipid phosphatase, regulating the PI3K signalling pathway, but also has catalytic phosphatase activity against protein substrates, although the significance of this latter activity is less well understood. Unlike many tumour suppressors, even modest changes in PTEN activity can have strong effects on phenotypes, including tumour formation. Due to this recognised functional significance, several experimental platforms have been developed to assay the catalytic activity of PTEN against different substrates and are being applied to understand this cellular substrate diversity and the regulation of PTEN. Here we present and discuss methods to assay the phosphatase activity of PTEN in vitro. PMID:25461809

  3. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  4. In Vivo Rodent Micronucleus Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Hayashi

    Genotoxicity plays an important role for the safety evaluation of chemicals. Chromosomal aberration is one of two major end\\u000a points of genotoxicity. The rodent haematopoietic cell micronucleus assay is most widely used as an in vivo test to evaluate\\u000a structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. The historical aspects of the development of the in vivo micronucleus test,\\u000a the mechanism of micronucleus

  5. Interdigital dielectrometry sensor design and parameter estimation algorithms for non-destructive materials evaluation

    E-print Network

    Mamishev, Alexander V., 1974-

    1999-01-01

    The major objective of this thesis is to develop instrumentation and parameter estimation algorithms for nondestructive measurement of non-homogeneous material property profiles with fringing electric field dielectrometry ...

  6. Predicting current compressive strength of concrete based on non-destructive testing by way of sound 

    E-print Network

    Coots, Emmit Kevin

    2013-02-22

    There are many ways to test the compressive strength of concrete to include both destructive and non-destructive methods. There are many pros and cons associated with the various methods of testing to include cost, size, and method associated...

  7. Use of medical and dental X-ray equipment for nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Industrial X ray equipment is used for nondestructive testing to detect defects in metal joints, electrical terminal blocks, sealed assemblies, and other hardware. Medical and dental X ray equipment is also used for hardware troubleshooting.

  8. Superconducting gamma-detectors for non-destructive analysis in nuclear safeguards

    E-print Network

    Robles Olson, Andrea Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma ray detectors operated at temperatures of 0. 1 K can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude ...

  9. Speckle reference beam holographic and speckle photographic interferometry in non-destructive test systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques of speckle beam holographic interferometry and speckle photographic interferometry are described. In particular, their practical limitations and their applications to the existing holographic nondestructive test system are discussed.

  10. Assessment of FRP-confined concrete : understanding behavior and issues in nondestructive evaluation using radar

    E-print Network

    Ortega, Jose Alberto, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Increase in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for strengthening and retrofitting of concrete columns and bridge piers has urged the development of' an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) ...

  11. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and imaging of defects in reinforced cementitious materials

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ji-yong, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Characterization of defect is one of the important objectives of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for condition assessment of structures. Among many other NDE techniques, ultrasonic methods play a prominent role in the both ...

  12. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Bridge Stay Cable and External Post-Tensioning Systems 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Katlyn Mae

    2014-10-09

    Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of bridge stay cable and external post-tensioning (PT) systems is an essential tool to thorough bridge inspections and also eliminates any necessary repair of destructions made during ...

  13. Passive solar roof ice melter

    SciTech Connect

    Deutz, R.T.

    1981-09-29

    An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window situated at right angles with respect to the bottom wall, and a reflecting wall connecting the opposite side edges of the bottom wall and the first window. The reflecting wall has a surface facing the bottom wall and the window which is highly reflective to radiant solar energy. Radiant solar energy passes through the first window and either strikes the highly absorbent upper surface of the bottom wall or first strikes the reflecting wall to be reflected down to the upper surface of the bottom wall. The heat generated thereby melts through the ice below the bottom wall causing the ice dam to be removed between the bottom wall and the top of the roof and immediately adjacent to the ice melter along the roof. Water dammed up by the ice dam can then flow down through this break in the dam and drain out harmlessly onto the ground. This prevents dammed water from seeping back under the shingles and into the house to damage the interior of the house.

  14. Remote electrically passive position transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Markos, Constantine T.; Rieder, R. J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.

    1999-02-01

    We will report on the design and testing of a precision, remote, via fiber optics position transducer suitable for incorporation in a closed loop fly-by-light positioning system. The design is based on Visidyne developed technology for an ultra high resolution optical radar based on Continuous Wave modulated light at a frequency of 1 GHz. It produces digital position data with 12 bit precision e.g., for a travel distance, stroke of 6 inches or greater at a bandwidth, update rate of 1 KHz. The passive nature of the transducer at the actuator location and the high operating frequency makes it highly tolerant to even extreme levels of Electro Magnetic Interference and when constructed from high temperature material is can operate at temperatures well in excess of 300 degrees C. We will discuss transducer performance, precision and position stability with particular emphasis on the effects of length changes within the multi-mode optical fibers used to deliver and collect the light to and from the transducer. We will also discuss cost aspects of the design and their effect on overcoming market entry barriers.

  15. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital. PMID:24974840

  16. The Future of Passive Solar in Industry 

    E-print Network

    Wulfinghoff, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Passive solar is a family of techniques for the direct use of sunlight for illumination and heating. Industrial facilities have characteristics which particularly favor the use of these techniques. This paper examines the applicability and economic...

  17. Defeating passive eavesdropping with quantum illumination

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    A two-way protocol for defeating passive eavesdropping is proposed. For each information bit, Alice sends Bob T sec of signal-beam output from a spontaneous parametric down-converter over a pure-loss channel while retaining ...

  18. Passive Limitations for a Magnetic Gravity Compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Jeroen L. G.; Paulides, Johannes J. H.; Lomonova, Elena A.

    The development of sophisticated advanced vibration isolation is important because even the minutest vibrations have disastrous effects on the performance of static and moving parts in high-precision machines. This paper concerns with the isolation of these vibrations for a large static body in an advanced micro-lithographic system, where a passive/active electromagnetic solution is presented. In these configurations passive permanent magnets (PM) provide the gravity compensation and active electromagnets the accurate positioning. This paper only considers the applicability of a passive magnetic solution for this high force gravity compensation application, or, more specifically, the influence of various PM array topologies on the force density. Further, fast-solving analytical models are presented and consequently are used to illustrate the feasibility of using passive permanent magnets for gravity compensation in this demanding high precision industrial application.

  19. Passive machine augmented composite for multifunctional properties 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation studies by experiment and numerical analysis an advanced composite material (Machine Augmented Composite or MAC) for enhancement of the passive damping while maintaining its stiffness. This MAC is composed of a pre-buckled wall...

  20. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

  1. Influence and Passivity in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Romero, Daniel M; Asur, Sitaram; Huberman, Bernardo A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing amount of information flowing through Social Media forces the members of these networks to compete for attention and influence by relying on other people to spread their message. A large study of information propagation within Twitter reveals that the majority of users act as passive information consumers and do not forward the content to the network. Therefore, in order for individuals to become influential they must not only obtain attention and thus be popular, but also overcome user passivity. We propose an algorithm that determines the influence and passivity of users based on their information forwarding activity. An evaluation performed with a 2.5 million user dataset shows that our influence measure is a good predictor of URL clicks, outperforming several other measures that do not explicitly take user passivity into account. We also explicitly demonstrate that high popularity does not necessarily imply high influence and vice-versa.

  2. PRIMA: passive reduced-order interconnect macromodeling algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Altan Odabasioglu; Mustafa Celik; Lawrence T. Pileggi

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes PRIMA, an algorithm for generating provably passive reduced order N-port models for RLC interconnect circuits. It is demonstrated that, in addition to requiring macromodel stability, macromodel passivity is needed to guarantee the overall circuit stability once the active and passive driver\\/load models are connected. PRIMA extends the block Arnoldi technique to include guaranteed passivity. Moreover, it is

  3. Nondestructive thermal wave detection of internal micro-defects using scanning electron-induced acoustic microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Shibutani; J. Fujita; A. Koyama

    2009-01-01

    The nondestructive instrument as the application of coupling phenomenon between the thermal wave by non-Fourier heat conduction and the thermal stress wave by elastic vibration has been proposed for more than twenty years. This technique is called scanning electron-induced acoustic microscope (SEAM). Our own-built SEAM has, so far, successfully provided some nondestructive observations of micro-defects such as the micro-voids of

  4. Soil stiffness beneath a rigid mass using non-destructive impact testing 

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, James Christopher

    1992-01-01

    SOIL STIFFNESS BENEATH A RIGID MASS USING NON-DESTRUCTIVE IMPACT TESTING A Thesis by JAMES CHRISTOPHER MAXWELL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Civil Engineering SOIL STIFFNESS BENEATH A RIGID MASS USING NON-DESTRUCTIVE IMPACT TESTING A Thesis by JAMES CHRISTOPHER MAXWELL Approved as to style and content by: / Jean-Louis Braud (Chair...

  5. Portable apparatus with CRT display for nondestructive testing of concrete by the ultrasonic pulse method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manta, G.; Gurau, Y.; Nica, P.; Facacaru, I.

    1974-01-01

    The development of methods for the nondestructive study of concrete structures is discussed. The nondestructive test procedure is based on the method of ultrasonic pulse transmission through the material. The measurements indicate that the elastic properties of concrete or other heterogeneous materials are a function of the rate of ultrasonic propagation. Diagrams of the test equipment are provided. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  6. Space shuttle: Structural integrity and assessment study. [development of nondestructive test procedures for space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was conducted to determine the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements and to develop a preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the entire space shuttle vehicle. The rationale and guidelines for structural analysis and NDE requirements development are discussed. Recommendations for development of NDE technology for the orbiter thermal protection system and certain structural components are included. Recommendations to accomplish additional goals toward space shuttle inspection are presented.

  7. Nondestructive Visualization of Defects and Crack Propagation of Shuttle-Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Zheng-Wei; DeCarlo, F.

    2005-01-01

    Shuttle insulating foam is a low-density closed-cell solid-gas composite. A chief barrier to understanding foam loss has been extreme difficulties in nondestructively visualizing defects of the foam that is almost transparent to x-rays. Here we show that defects, crack propagation, and cell structure can be clearly and nondestructively observed by turning the density inhomogeneity across foam structures into a source for phase contrast imaging. This provides a new powerful way to help understand foam loss.

  8. ProteoStatTM Protein Aggregation Assay

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    ProteoStatTM Protein Aggregation Assay Biochemical assays for monitoring protein aggregates often:EffectivelineardynamicrangeforantibodyaggregatedetectionusingtheEnzo LifeSciencesProteoStatTMdetectionreagentcomparedwithThioflavinT:Rabbitanti-goat IgG(4.26mg- wellmicroplate.Aggregationwasmonitoredforseveralweeksatroomtemperature.TheEnzo

  9. CWDM passive components fabricated by FBT technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Shanhong; Li, Xinwan; Yin, Zongmin; Zeng, QingJi; Cui, Huaijun; Jiang, Yongjun

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, the process of fabricating coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) passive components using Fused Biconic Taper (FBT) technology is introduced. The performances and specifications of CWDM passive components are measured and reported. And we compare the performances and cost of this kind of CWDM module with the performances and cost of CWDM module based on thin-film-filter technology and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) module.

  10. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  11. Antimony Passivation of InP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Nobusawa; Hideaki Ikoma

    1993-01-01

    Antimony passivation of InP was investigated. Sb was evaporated on a HCl-etched InP substrate and annealed at 300°C for 10 min. I--V characteristics of the Au\\/Sb\\/InP diode are substantially improved and the Schottky barrier height becomes higher as compared with the conventional Au\\/InP diode. The reverse current decreases by about two orders of magnitude upon Sb passivation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic

  12. A Better Approach to Passive Microphone Splitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Brown; Bill Whitlock

    While there are clear technical advantages to active microphone splitting, operational considerations dictate the use of passive splitting of microphones in most sound reinforcement applications. Modern microphones generally re- quire a load impedance greater than 1,000 ohms, and performance often degrades significantly with heavier loading. Since mix desk input impedances rarely exceed 1,500 ohms, passive splitting utilizing 1:1 turns ratio

  13. Passive Safety Features for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, Daniel T [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size and complexity of commercial nuclear power plants in the 1970s spawned an interest in smaller, simpler designs that are inherently or intrinsically safe through the use of passive design features. Several designs were developed, but none were ever built, although some of their passive safety features were incorporated into large commercial plant designs that are being planned or built today. In recent years, several reactor vendors are actively redeveloping small modular reactor (SMR) designs with even greater use of passive features. Several designs incorporate the ultimate in passive safety they completely eliminate specific accident initiators from the design. Other design features help to reduce the likelihood of an accident or help to mitigate the accident s consequences, should one occur. While some passive safety features are common to most SMR designs, irrespective of the coolant technology, other features are specific to water, gas, or liquid-metal cooled SMR designs. The extensive use of passive safety features in SMRs promise to make these plants highly robust, protecting both the general public and the owner/investor. Once demonstrated, these plants should allow nuclear power to be used confidently for a broader range of customers and applications than will be possible with large plants alone.

  14. Technology platforms for pharmacogenomic diagnostic assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter H. Koch

    2004-01-01

    Rapid advances in the understanding of genomic variation affecting drug responses, and the development of multiplex assay technologies, are converging to form the basis for new in vitro diagnostic assays. These molecular diagnostic assays are expected to guide the therapeutic treatment of many diseases, by informing physicians about molecular subtypes of disease that require differential treatment, which drug has the

  15. Low-frequency electromagnetic technique for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalichaouch, Yacine; Singsaas, Alan L.; Putris, Firas; Perry, Alexander R.; Czipott, Peter V.

    2000-05-01

    We have developed a low frequency electromagnetic technique using sensitive room temperature magnetoresistive (MR) sensors for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. These applications include the NDE of medical implants and aircraft structures, the detection of cracks and corrosion in metals, the detection of ferromagnetic foreign objects in the eye and the brain, and the noninvasive determination of iron content in the liver. Our technique consists of applying a low frequency ac magnetic field to the sample and detecting the sample response. The low excitation frequency enables us to probe deep into metal structures; the sensitivity of the MR sensor allows us to detect weak responses from the sample without applying too large an excitation field, particularly in the case of human tissue. The MR sensors are small and relatively inexpensive compared to other sensitive magnetic field sensors such as fluxgates and superconducting quantum interference devices or SQUIDs; hence the resulting NDE instrument will be compact and cost-efficient, enabling its commercialization for practical applications. In this paper, we focus primarily on NDE of orthopedic implants.

  16. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  17. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials via Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging for the non-destructive evaluation of the degree of cure, aging, and other properties of resin-based composite materials. This method can be used in air, and is portable for field use. This method operates in reflectance, absorbance, and luminescence modes. The ultraviolet source is used to illuminate a composite surface of interest. In reflectance mode, the reflected response is acquired via the imaging system or via the spectrometer. The spectra are analyzed for organic compounds (conjugated organics) and inorganic compounds (semiconducting band-edge states; luminescing defect states such as silicates, used as adhesives for composite aerospace applications; and metal oxides commonly used as thermal coating paints on a wide range of spacecraft). The spectra are compared with a database for variation in conjugation, substitution, or length of molecule (in the case of organics) or band edge position (in the case of inorganics). This approach is useful in the understanding of material quality. It lacks the precision in defining the exact chemical structure that is found in other materials analysis techniques, but it is advantageous over methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and chromatography in that it can be used in the field to assess significant changes in chemical structure that may be linked to concerns associated with weaknesses or variations in structural integrity, without disassembly of or destruction to the structure of interest.

  18. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones. PMID:25824342

  19. Nondestructive analysis of nanomaterials using optofluidic assisted Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, Amr S.; Mak, Jacky S. W.; Rutledge, S. A.; Ramanan, J.

    2015-03-01

    This talk will review and compare the different optofluidic techniques for enhancing the retrieved Raman signal of nanomaterials in liquids and aerosols. Recent progress on this front utilizing optofluidics such as photonic crystal waveguides will be discussed. Techniques and applications to combine surface enhanced with optofluidic-assisted Raman spectroscopy will be also reviewed. Challenges and future opportunities to advance optofluidics-assisted Raman spectroscopy that are carried out using portable Raman spectrometers and controlled using handheld controllers such as mobile phones will be presented. As an example, a detailed, non-destructive characterization of CdTe nanoparticles using Raman spectroscopy using concentrations of 2 mg/mL, will be highlighted. Our platform allows clear vibrational modes corresponding to the structure and interactions of the QDs to be observed. These vibrational modes include those of the CdTe core, Te defects, CdSTe interface, thiol agent and carboxylate-metal complexes. These modes are correlated with the crystallinity of the QD core, interfacial structure formed upon stabilization, QD-thiol interaction mechanisms, water solubility of the QDs and their potential bio-conjugation abilities.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of hydrogel mechanical properties using ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jason M.; Myers, Ashley M.; Schluchter, Mark D.; Goldberg, Victor M.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Berilla, Jim A.; Mansour, Joseph M.; Welter, Jean F.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasound technology as a noninvasive, nondestructive method for evaluating the mechanical properties of engineered weight-bearing tissues was evaluated. A fixture was designed to accurately and reproducibly position the ultrasound transducer normal to the test sample surface. Agarose hydrogels were used as phantoms for cartilage to explore the feasibility of establishing correlations between ultrasound measurements and commonly used mechanical tissue assessments. The hydrogels were fabricated in 1–10% concentrations with a 2–10 mm thickness. For each concentration and thickness, six samples were created, for a total of 216 gel samples. Speed of sound was determined from the time difference between peak reflections and the known height of each sample. Modulus was computed from the speed of sound using elastic and poroelastic models. All ultrasonic measurements were made using a 15 MHz ultrasound transducer. The elastic modulus was also determined for each sample from a mechanical unconfined compression test. Analytical comparison and statistical analysis of ultrasound and mechanical testing data was carried out. A correlation between estimates of compressive modulus from ultrasonic and mechanical measurements was found, but the correlation depended on the model used to estimate the modulus from ultrasonic measurements. A stronger correlation with mechanical measurements was found using the poroelastic rather than the elastic model. Results from this preliminary testing will be used to guide further studies of native and engineered cartilage. PMID:21773854