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1

Non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel using passive neutron Albedo reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) is one of fourteen techniques that has been researched and evaluated to form part of a comprehensive and integrated detection system for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. PNAR implemented with ³He tubes for neutron detection (PNAR-³He) is the measurement of time correlated neutrons from a spent fuel assembly with and without a

L G Evans; M A Schear; S Croft; S J Tobin; M T Swinhoe; H O Menlove

2010-01-01

2

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of plutonium by passive neutron multiplicity counting  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay of plutonium in forms such as metal, oxide, scrap, residue, or waste using passive neutron multiplicity counting. This test method provides results that are usually more accurate than conventional neutron coincidence counting. The method can be applied to a large variety of plutonium items in various containers including cans, 208-L drums, or 1900-L Standard Waste Boxes. It has been used to assay items whose plutonium content ranges from 1 g to 1000s of g. 1.2 There are several electronics or mathematical approaches available for multiplicity analysis, including the multiplicity shift register, the Euratom Time Correlation Analyzer, and the List Mode Module, as described briefly in Ref. (1). 1.3 This test method is primarily intended to address the assay of 240Pu-effective by moments-based multiplicity analysis using shift register electronics (1, 2, 3) and high efficiency neutron counters specifically designed for multiplicity analysis. 1.4 This tes...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

3

Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

Simpson, A.; Pitts, M. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States)] [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States); Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Ave., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Ave., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Grando, C.J. [ELR Consulting, Inc., 15247 Wilbur Rd., La Conner, WA 98257 (United States)] [ELR Consulting, Inc., 15247 Wilbur Rd., La Conner, WA 98257 (United States); Haggard, D.L. [WorleyParsons Polestar, 601 Williams Blvd., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [WorleyParsons Polestar, 601 Williams Blvd., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01

4

Non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel using passive neutron Albedo reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) is one of fourteen techniques that has been researched and evaluated to form part of a comprehensive and integrated detection system for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. PNAR implemented with {sup 3}He tubes for neutron detection (PNAR-{sup 3}He) is the measurement of time correlated neutrons from a spent fuel assembly with and without a Cadmium (Cd) layer surrounding the assembly. PNAR utilizes the self-interrogation of the fuel via reflection of neutrons born in the fuel assembly back in to the fuel assembly. The neutrons originate primarily from spontaneous fission events within the fuel itself (Curium-244) but are amplified by multiplication. The presence and removal of the Cd provides two measurement conditions with different neutron energy spectra and therefore different interrogating neutron characteristics. Cd has a high cross-section of absorption for slow neutrons and therefore greatly reduces the low energy (thermal) neutron fluence rate returning. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are known as the Cd ratios, which are related to fissile content. A potential safeguards application for which PNAR-{sup 3}He is particularly suited is 'fingerprinting'. Fingerprinting could function as an alternative to plutonium (Pu) mass determination; providing confidence that material was not diverted during transport between sites. PNAR-{sup 3}He has six primary NDA signatures: Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates measured with two energy spectra at both shipping and receiving sites. This is to uniquely identify the fuel assembly, and confirm no changes have taken place during transport. Changes may indicate all attempt to divert material for example. Here, the physics of the PNAR-{sup 3}He concept will be explained, alongside a discussion on the development of a prototypical PNAR-{sup 3}He instrument using simulation. The capabilities and performance of the conceptual instrument will be summarized, in the context of (a) quantifying Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies and (b) detecting pin diversion (through a discrepancy between declared and measured properties of the fuel assembly) when the instrument is deployed. These quantitative capabilities are complementary to the 'fingerprinting' capability which is part of ensuring continuity of knowledge and custody of spent nuclear fuel.

Evans, L G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, M A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, S J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, M T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, H O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

5

Quantifying the passive gamma signal from spent nuclear fuel in support of determining the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel with nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

The objective of safeguarding nuclear material is to deter diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials by timely monitoring and detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel (SF), by means of nondestructive assay (NDA), in order to meet this goal. These motivations include the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguard nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from SF; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium in SF. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of 13 NDA techniques for characterizing Pu mass in spent fuel. This paper focuses on the development of a passive gamma measurement system in support the spent fuel assay system. Gamma ray detection for fresh nuclear fuel focuses on gamma ray emissions that directly coincide with the actinides of interest to the assay. For example, the 186-keV gamma ray is generally used for {sup 235}U assay and the 384-keV complex is generally used for assaying plutonium. In spent nuclear fuel, these signatures cannot be detected as the Compton continuum created from the fission products dominates the signal in this energy range. For SF, the measured gamma signatures from key fission products ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu) are used to ascertain burnup, cooling time, and fissile content information. In this paper the Monte Carlo modeling set-up for a passive gamma spent fuel assay system will be described. The set-up of the system includes a germanium detector and an ion chamber and will be used to gain passive gamma information that will be integrated into a system for determining Pu in SF. The passive gamma signal will be determined from a library of {approx} 100 assemblies that have been created to examine the capability of all 13 NDA techniques. Presented in this paper is a description of the passive gamma monitoring instrument, explanation of the work completed thus far involving the source set up methodology and the design optimization process, details of key fission product ratios of interest, limitations and key strengths of the measurement technique, and considerations for integrating this technique with other NDA techniques in order to develop a complete spent fuel assay strategy.

Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

6

Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

1998-07-01

7

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

8

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

9

Determining plutonium in spent fuel with nondestructive assay techniques  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in used (spent) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay including the following: shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories or fuel storage facilities. Twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is capable of determining the Pu mass in an assembly on its own. However, it is expected that the Pu mass can be quantified by combining a few of the techniques. Determining which techniques to combine and estimating the expected performance of such a system is the purpose of the research effort recently begun. The research presented here is a complimentarily experimental effort. This paper will focus on experimental results of one of the twelve non-destructive assay techniques - passive neutron albedo reactivity. The passive neutron albedo reactivity techniques work by changing the multiplication the pin experiences between two separate measurements. Since a single spent fuel pin has very little multiplication, this is a challenging measurement situation for the technique. Singles and Doubles neutron count rate were measured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for three different burnup pins to test the capability of the passive neutron albedo reactivity technique.

Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, A S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quiter, B J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rajasingam, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, M T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, S J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, W S [TEXAS A& M UNIV; Ehinger, M H [ORNL; Sandoval, N P [ORNL; Saavedra, S F [ORNL; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2009-01-01

10

Application of nondestructive assay techniques in Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

As Kazakstan has transitioned from being part of the Soviet Union to a nonweapons state (Treaty of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons [NPT] signatory) under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, significant changes have been required. Some of these changes have occurred in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting at the four nuclear facility sites in the Republic of Kazakstan. Specifically, the Republic of Kazakstan has changed from relying primarily on a subset of physical protection methods to a graded safeguards approach using a balance of material control, material accounting, and physical protection. Once more intensive material control and accounting procedures and systems are in place, a necessary step is to supply the accounting systems with measured values of high quality. This need can be met with destructive and nondestructive methods. Material control systems can also use qualitative nondestructive assay information as input. This paper will discuss the nondestructive assay techniques and systems the US Department of Energy (DOE) is providing to Kazakstan under both DOE programs and the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act as part of the nuclear material control and accounting upgrades at four facilities in Kazakstan. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Butler, G.; Collins, M. [and others

1997-11-01

11

Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums  

SciTech Connect

At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

Foster, L.A.

1998-11-01

12

Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials  

SciTech Connect

Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Helland, Carolyn, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Jay, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frame, Katherine, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Michael, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scherer, Caroylnn, P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vo, Duc, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

13

Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

1981-11-01

14

Shuffler instruments for the nondestructive assay of fissile materials  

SciTech Connect

A shuffler is a nondestructive assay instrument used to determine the fissile content of materials. It places an isotopic source of neutrons near the material to induce fissions, withdraws the source, and counts the delayed neutrons. The source is shuffled until a sufficient number of delayed neutrons have been counted. The shuffler technique is generally applied to difficult assay cases. The amount of material present may be very small (a few milligrams), and thus it does not spontaneously emit neutrons of consequence; the amount of material is also below an active well counter's level of sensitivity. On the other hand, the fissile amount may be fairly large, but the rate of spontaneously emitted neutrons may still be low (so a passive neutron count will not work) or the highest assay precision may be desired (favoring a shuffler over an active well counter) even if the material is inhomogeneous (making it difficult to interrogate with thermal neutrons). In all these cases, gamma-ray backgrounds, self- shielding, or matrix effects can make gamma-ray assays impractical. Materials ranging from highly radioactive spent-fuel assemblies to low-level waste drums have been assayed with shufflers, as have leached hulls, various process materials, scrap, and waste. This report presents a theoretical background for shufflers and describes techniques for practical applications. Procedures for assaying mixtures of fissile isotopes, inhomogeneous materials, and flowing liquids are discussed. It is shown how the precision and limits of detection of a shuffler can be calculated for a given neutron background rate. A section on data analysis gives a stepwise procedure for converting the measured counts into an assay value, including random, systematic, and total uncertainties. 31 refs.

Rinard, P.M.

1991-05-01

15

Standard terminology of C26.10 nondestructive assay methods  

E-print Network

1.1 The terminology defined in this document is associated with nondestructive assay of nuclear material. 1.2 All of the definitions are associated with measurement techniques that measure nuclear emissions (that is, neutrons, gamma-rays, or heat) directly or indirectly. 1.3 definitions are relevant to any standards and guides written by subcommittee C26.10.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

16

Kalman filter analysis of delayed neutron nondestructive assay measurements.  

SciTech Connect

The ability to nondestructively determine the presence and quantity of fissile and fertile nuclei in various matrices is important in several nuclear applications including international and domestics safeguards, radioactive waste characterization and nuclear facility operations. Material irradiation followed by delayed neutron counting is a well known and useful nondestructive assay technique used to determine the fissile-effective content of assay samples. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using Kalman filters to unfold individual isotopic contributions to delayed neutron measurements resulting from the assay of mixes of uranium and plutonium isotopes. However, the studies in question used simulated measurement data and idealized parameters. We present the results of the Kalman filter analysis of several measurements of U/Pu mixes taken using Argonne National Laboratory's delayed neutron nondestructive assay device. The results demonstrate the use of Kalman filters as a signal processing tool to determine the fissile and fertile isotopic content of an assay sample from the aggregate delayed neutron response following neutron irradiation.

Aumeier, S. E.

1998-04-29

17

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel such as independently verifying the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, making shipper/receiver mass declarations, and quantifying the input mass at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to determine the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. This research effort is anticipated to be a five year effort: the first part of which is a two years Monte Carlo modeling effort to integrate and down-select among 13 nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies, followed by one year for fabricating instruments and then two years for measuring spent fuel. This paper gives a brief overview of the approach being taken for the Monte Carlo research effort. In addition, preliminary results for the first NDA instrument studied in detail, delayed neutron detection, will be presented. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of several NDA techniques, an"assembly library" was created that contains a diverse range of pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future, diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options, spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. Integration is being designed into this study from the beginning since it is expected that the best performance will be obtained by combining a few NDA techniques. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library in three different media: air, water and borated water. In this paper the preliminary capability of delayed neutron detection will be quantified for the spent fuel library for all three media. The 13 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer, Neutron Multiplicity, Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, Passive Prompt Gamma, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry, Total Neutron (Gross Neutron), X-Ray Fluorescence, 252Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection.

Tobin, S. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Fensin, M. L.; Lee, S. Y.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Menlovea, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Rajasingume, A.; Schearf, M. A.; Smith, L. E.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

2009-06-30

18

Nondestructive Assay Measurements Using the RPI Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Assay Measurements Using the RPI Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer B. Becker and A (LSDS) is considered as a possible option for nondestructive assay of fissile material of used nuclear. INTRODUCTION Lead slowing-down spectrometers ~LSDSs! have been researched for nondestructive assay of nuclear

Danon, Yaron

19

Nondestructive assay of sphere-pac fuel rods  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) methods were studied for application to sphere-pac fuel with a high gamma ray background. It was decided that the NDA method selected should be capable of measuring total fissile content of each fuel rod as well as determining the axial fissile distribution because assay techniques that employ detection of spontaneous or induced gamma ray emission are not practicable because of the high gamma ray background of candidate fuels. Therefore, methods employing neutron detection were studied for use with sphere-pac fuel rods.

Allen, E.J.; Angelini, P.; Baker, S.P.; Heck, J.L.; Mack, J.E.

1981-03-01

20

Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues  

SciTech Connect

To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted.

Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

1986-03-29

21

First-year evaluation of a nondestructive assay system for the examination of ORNL TRU waste  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been selected as the demonstration site for a new transuranic neutron assay system (NAS) developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In addition, in order to meet specific ORNL program objectives, an upgraded segmented gamma-ray drum scanner has been integrated into the nondestructive assay (NDA) system to serve as a radioisotope identifier and as a quantitative assay backup to the NAS. A verification study, wherein selected waste drums will be emptied into glove boxes and their contents sampled and subsequently gamma-ray assayed, will take place in FY 1984. Results will be compared to those obtained from the NDA techniques. The NAS uses pulsed-neutron interrogation (differential- dieaway technique) and passive neutron measurements to determine fissile component and an upper-limit estimate of the total TRU activity contained in each waste drum. Of the 171 waste drums assayed to date, nine drums were determined to contain less than 10 nCi/g TRU isotopes. An additional number of drums (approximately 20%) are expected to be categorized as non-TRU, which is presently defined as less than 100 nCi/g TRU concentration. This requires a detailed analysis of the data which includes waste matrix compensation, systematic qualitative and quantitative gamma-ray analyses, and interpretation of neutron multiplicity data. Reproducibility of the active assay measurements on a single waste drum indicate agreement to +-3% relative error. 14 references, 24 figures, 8 tables.

Schultz, F.J.; Haff, K.W.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Caldwell, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Pratt, J.C.

1984-04-01

22

Hydroponic Growth and the Nondestructive Assay for Dinitrogen Fixation 1  

PubMed Central

Hydroponic growth medium must be well buffered if it is to support sustained plant growth. Although 1.0 millimolar phosphate is commonly used as a buffer for hydroponic growth media, at that concentration it is generally toxic to a soybean plant that derives its nitrogen solely from dinitrogen fixation. On the other hand, we show that 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, pKa 6.1, has excellent buffering capacity, and it neither interferes with nor contributes nutritionally to soybean plant growth. Furthermore, it neither impedes nodulation nor the assay of dinitrogen fixation. Hence, soybean plants grown hydroponically on a medium supplemented with 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar phosphate achieve an excellent rate of growth and, in the absence of added fixed nitrogen, attain a very high rate of dinitrogen fixation. Combining the concept of hydroponic growth and the sensitive acetylene reduction technique, we have devised a simple, rapid, reproducible assay procedure whereby the rate of dinitrogen fixation by individual plants can be measured throughout the lifetime of those plants. The rate of dinitrogen fixation as measured by the nondestructive acetylene reduction procedure is shown to be approximately equal to the rate of total plant nitrogen accumulation as measured by Kjeldahl analysis. Because of the simplicity of the procedure, one investigator can readily assay 50 plants individually per day. PMID:16662112

Imsande, John; Ralston, Edward J.

1981-01-01

23

Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

24

Technical Cross-Cutting Issues for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project  

SciTech Connect

Ever since there has been spent fuel (SF), researchers have made nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of that fuel to learn about its content. In general these measurements have focused on the simplest signatures (passive photon and total neutron emission) and the analysis has often focused on diversion detection and on determining properties such as burnup (BU) and cooling time (CT). Because of shortcomings in current analysis methods, inspectorates and policy makers are interested in improving the state-of-the-art in SF NDA. For this reason the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), targeted the determination of elemental Pu mass in SF as a technical goal. As part of this research effort, 14 nondestructive assay techniques were studied . This wide range of techniques was selected to allow flexibility for the various needs of the safeguards inspectorates and to prepare for the likely integration of one or more techniques having complementary features. In the course of researching this broad range of NDA techniques, several cross-cutting issues were. This paper will describe some common issues and insights. In particular we will describe the following: (1) the role of neutron absorbers with emphasis on how these absorbers vary in SF as a function of initial enrichment, BU and CT; (2) the need to partition the measured signal among different isotopic sources; and (3) the importance of the “first generation” concept which indicates the spatial location from which the signal originates as well as the isotopic origins.

Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Blanc, P.; Burr, T.; Evans, L. G.; Favalli, A.; Fensin, M. L.; Freeman, C. R.; Galloway, J.; Gerhart, J.; Rajasingam, A.; Rauch, E.; Sandoval, N. P.; Trellue, H.; Ulrich, T. J.; Conlin, J. L.; Croft, S.; Hendricks, John; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Eigenbrodt, J. M.; Koehler, W. E.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, T. H.; Lafleur, A. M.; Schear, M. A.; Humphrey, M. A.; Smith, Leon E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Campbell, Luke W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Shaver, Mark W.; Misner, Alex C.; Amber, S. D.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Quiter, B.; Solodov, Alexander; Charlton, W.; Stafford, A.; Romano, C.; Cheatham, J.; Ehinger, Michael; Thompson, S. J.; Chichester, David; Sterbentz, James; Hu, Jianwei; Hunt, A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Richard, J. G.

2012-03-01

25

Non-destructive assay measurement for the verification of uranium oxide powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passive non-destructive assay technique is employed in the present investigation for precise measurement of 235U enrichment of uranium oxide powders used for nuclear fuel fabrication. The technique would not require nuclear material Standards for the measurement of 235U enrichment. It uses a gamma-ray spectrometer composed of a high-resolution germanium detector system and associated electronics. A new mathematical analysis - based on Monte Carlo calculations - has been developed for the estimation of 235U enrichment. The obtained results are found to be of comparable accuracy with the results obtained by the relative methods which necessitate the use of nuclear material Standards. This work would be very useful for nuclear material control at the production level, and for inventory verification and safeguards purposes.

Badawy, I.; Youssef, A. S.; El-Kazzaz, SH; El-Gammal, W. A.

2000-10-01

26

Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

1998-09-01

27

The use of non-destructive passive neutron measurement methods in dismantling and radioactive waste characterization  

SciTech Connect

The cleaning up and dismantling of nuclear facilities lead to a great volume of technological radioactive wastes which need to be characterized in order to be sent to the adequate final disposal or interim storage. The control and characterization can be performed with non-destructive nuclear measurements such as gamma-ray spectrometry. Passive neutron counting is an alternative when the alpha-gamma emitters cannot be detected due to the presence of a high gamma emission resulting from fission or activation products, or when the waste matrix is too absorbing for the gamma rays of interest (too dense and/or made of high atomic number elements). It can also be a complement to gamma-ray spectrometry when two measurement results must be confronted to improve the confidence in the activity assessment. Passive neutron assays involve the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons emitted by even nuclides ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 244}Cm...) and neutrons resulting from ({alpha}, n) reactions with light nuclides (O, F, Be...). The latter is conditioned by the presence of high {alpha}-activity radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am...) and low-Z elements, which depends on the chemical form (metallic, oxide or fluorine) of the plutonium or uranium contaminant. This paper presents the recent application of passive neutron methods to the cleaning up of a nuclear facility located at CEA Cadarache (France), which concerns the Pu mass assessment of 2714 historic, 100 litre radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. Another application is the dismantling and decommissioning of an uranium enrichment facility for military purposes, which involves the {sup 235}U and total uranium quantifications in about a thousand, large compressors employed in the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. (authors)

Jallu, F.; Allinei, P. G. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bernard, P.; Loridon, J. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Soyer, P.; Pouyat, D. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, DPAD, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Torreblanca, L. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, LMDE, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Reneleau, A. [AREVA NC, Pierrelatte, DDAC/ESD, BP16, F-26701 Pierrelatte Cedex (France)

2011-07-01

28

LANL`s mobile nondestructive assay and examination systems for radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The ability to accurately and rapidly measure nuclear material within drums and examine their contents without having to unpack the drums saves time, reduces characterization costs and minimizes radiation exposure. Over the past two years, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and fielded a suite of mobile nondestructive assay and examination systems for use primarily on its own transuranic (TRU) waste but that also have application to low level, mixed and hazardous wastes. It has become obvious that systems like these are generally useful and have applications at other Department of Energy (DOE) production and environmental technology sites. Mobile capabilities present a potential cost savings where waste drums have to be transported to a fixed NDA facility. In other cases they fill a void where there is no fixed facility available because construction costs are prohibitive (as in the case of small quantity sites) or the available facilities may not meet current or evolving safety standards. Rather than bringing waste to a facility to be characterized, one can bring the characterization capability to the waste. The three systems described are: (1) mobile radiography system; (2) mobile segmented/tomographic gamma scanner; and (3) mobile passive/active neutron assay system.

Taggart, D.P. Betts, S.E.; Vigil, J.J.

1996-04-09

29

Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels  

SciTech Connect

This is an interim report of a study concerning the potential application of nondestructive measurements on irradiated light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels at spent-fuel storage facilities. It describes nondestructive measurement techniques and instruments that can provide useful data for more effective in-plant nuclear materials management, better safeguards and criticality safety, and more efficient storage of spent LWR fuel. In particular, several nondestructive measurement devices are already available so that utilities can implement new fuel-management and storage technologies for better use of existing spent-fuel storage capacity. The design of an engineered prototype in-plant spent-fuel measurement system is approx. 80% complete. This system would support improved spent-fuel storage and also efficient fissile recovery if spent-fuel reprocessing becomes a reality.

Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.

1982-04-01

30

Design and evaluation of a nondestructive fissile assay device for HTGR fuel samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive assay of fissile material plays an important role in nuclear fuel processing facilities. Information for product quality control, plant criticality safety, and nuclear materials accountability can be obtained from assay devices. All of this is necessary for a safe, efficient, and orderly operation of a production plant. Presented here is a design description and an operational evaluation of a

S. R. McNeany; R. W. Knoll; J. D. Jenkins

1979-01-01

31

Passive neutron techniques for the nondestructive assay of nuclear material  

E-print Network

the circuitry required for coincidence counting, and how neutrons interact with matter. The premise is that time-correlated neutrons are produced from high-energy muon interactions with the lead nucleus, a spallation reaction. Muons are a component of the "air...

Mapili, Gabriel

2012-06-07

32

Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

Gozani, Tsahi

1981-01-01

33

Guidance on meeting DOE order requirements for traceable nondestructive assay measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this guide is to facilitate accuracy and precision of nondestructive assay measurements through improvement of the materials and process of traceability. This document provides DOE and its contractor facilities with guidance to establish traceability to the national measurement base for site-prepared NDA working reference materials.

Not Available

1994-05-01

34

NDA (nondestructive assay) training for new IAEA inspectors at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

The history of the evolution of nondestructive assay (NDA) training for international inspectors at Los Alamos is described. The current NDA training course for International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors is presented in terms of structure, content, and rationale. Results of inspector measurement exercises are given along with projections for future developments in NDA inspector training. 3 refs.

Stewart, J.E.; Reilly, T.D.; Belew, W.; Woelfl, E.; Fager, J.

1987-01-01

35

SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis: Passive mode measurements of graphite waste  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the U.S. Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Active Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. To this end a modified statistical sampling and verification approach has been developed to determine the total uncertainty of a PAN measurement. In this approach the total performance of the PAN nondestructive assay system is simulated using computer models of the assay system and the resultant output is compared with the known input to assess the total uncertainty. This paper is one of a series of reports quantifying the results of the uncertainty analysis of the PAN system measurements for specific waste types and measurement modes. In particular this report covers passive mode measurements of weapons grade plutonium-contaminated graphite molds contained in 208 liter drums (waste code 300). The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from measurements using known plutonium sources and a surrogate graphite waste form drum. For actual graphite waste form conditions, a set of 50 cases covering a statistical sampling of the conditions exhibited in graphite wastes was compiled using a Latin hypercube statistical sampling approach.

Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, Woo Y.

1997-07-01

36

Automated nondestructive assay of UF 6 cylinders: Detector characterization and initial measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) intended for this purpose and has developed a field prototype of the nondestructive assay (NDA) components of an ICVS. The nondestructive assay methods would combine the "traditional" enrichment-meter signature (i.e. 186-keV emission from U-235) as well as "nontraditional" high-energy photon signatures derived from neutrons produced primarily by F-19(?,n) reactions. This paper describes the design, calibration and characterization of the NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers utilized in the field prototype. An overview of a recent field measurement campaign is then provided, supported by example gamma-ray pulse-height spectra collected on cylinders of known enrichment.

Mace, E. K.; Smith, L. E.

2011-10-01

37

Automated Nondestructive Assay of UF6 Cylinders: Detector Characterization and Initial Measurements  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders assumed to be representative of the facility's entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) intended for this purpose and has developed a field prototype of the nondestructive assay (NDA) components of an ICVS. The nondestructive assay methods would combine the 'traditional' enrichment-meter signature (i.e. 186-keV emission from 235U) as well as 'non-traditional' high-energy photon signatures derived from neutrons produced primarily by 19F({alpha},n) reactions. This paper describes the design, calibration and characterization of the NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers utilized in the field prototype. An overview of a recent field measurement campaign is then provided, supported by example gamma-ray pulse-height spectra collected on cylinders of known enrichment.

Mace, Emily K.; Smith, Leon E.

2011-10-01

38

Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe automated and integrated NDA systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the DOE complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and MOX fuel programs. These systems are typified by the ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) nondestructive assay system which is under construction at Los Alamos to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system.

Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

1997-08-01

39

Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe automated and integrated nondestructive assay (NDA) systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the Department of Energy complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and mixed oxide fuel programs. These systems are typified by the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System NDA system which is under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system.

Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

1997-12-01

40

Considerations for an active and passive scanner to assay nuclear waste drums  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes are generated at many DOE laboratories, military facilities, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, hospitals, and university research facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, packaged, categorized, and packed into some sort of container--usually 208-L (55-gal) drums--for shipment to waste-storage sites. Prior to shipment, the containers must be labeled, assayed, and certified; the assay value determines the ultimate disposition of the waste containers. An accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) method would identify all the radioisotopes present and provide a quantitative measurement of their activity in the drum. In this way, waste containers could be routed in the most cost-effective manner and without having to reopen them. Currently, the most common gamma-ray method used to assay nuclear waste drums is segmented gamma-ray scanning (SGS) spectrometer that crudely measures only the amount of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu present in the drum. This method uses a spatially-averaged, integrated, emitted gamma-ray-intensity value. The emitted intensity value is corrected by an assumed constant-attenuation value determined by a spatially-averaged, transmission (or active) measurement. Unfortunately, this typically results in an inaccurate determination of the radioactive activities within a waste drum because this measurement technique is valid only for homogeneous-attenuation or known drum matrices. However, since homogeneous-attenuation matrices are not common and may be unknown, other NDA techniques based on active and Passive CT (A PCT) are under development. The active measurement (ACT) yields a better attenuation matrix for the drum, while the passive measurement (PCT) more accurately determines the identity of the radioisotopes present and their activities. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Martz, H.E.; Azevedo, S.G.; Roberson, G.P.; Schneberk, D.J.; Koenig, Z.M.; Camp, D.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-06-08

41

Direct Actinide Assay with Surface Passivated Silicon Diodes  

SciTech Connect

The determination of transuranic (TRU) content in nuclear wastes, reactor materials, process solutions, and various other matrices is required in support of material assessment, environmental restoration and waste processing activities. We have found that direct measurements of TRU is possible using passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) diode detectors. The performance and durability of the modern PIPS diodes enables direct detection of alpha particles, with retention of some spectral information, through small air gaps or under direct contact with liquid or solid samples. Direct assay of solutions and materials can provide rapid data solutions with high-levels or beta/gamma emitters in remote locations without human exposure or waste generation issues. Result are given on performance of PIPS detectors for the determination of TRUs in liquid and solid samples.

Addleman, Raymond S.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Marks, Todd D.; Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

2005-01-01

42

Standard guide for the selection, training and qualification of nondestructive assay (NDA) personnel  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide contains good practices for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of personnel performing analysis, calibration, physical measurements, or data review using nondestructive assay equipment, methods, results, or techniques. The guide also covers NDA personnel involved with NDA equipment setup, selection, diagnosis, troubleshooting, or repair. Selection, training, and qualification programs based on this guide are intended to provide assurance that NDA personnel are qualified to perform their jobs competently. This guide presents a series of options but does not recommend a specific course of action.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2004-01-01

43

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of radioactive material by tomographic gamma scanning  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma ray emitting radionuclides inside containers using tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify the radionuclides of interest. The attenuation of an external gamma ray transmission source is used to correct the measurement of the emission gamma rays from radionuclides to arrive at a quantitative determination of the radionuclides present in the item. 1.2 The TGS technique covered by the test method may be used to assay scrap or waste material in cans or drums in the 1 to 500 litre volume range. Other items may be assayed as well. 1.3 The test method will cover two implementations of the TGS procedure: (1) Isotope Specific Calibration that uses standards of known radionuclide masses (or activities) to determine system response in a mass (or activity) versus corrected count rate calibration, that applies to only those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Respo...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

44

Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations  

SciTech Connect

For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards.

Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

1997-10-01

45

Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay  

SciTech Connect

The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02

46

A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay with a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source  

SciTech Connect

A new facility for non-destructive assay using a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 15x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays.

Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao Xin [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, 1080 A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-08-04

47

Proficiency test for non-destructive assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums by gamma assay systems  

SciTech Connect

The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (ENTRAP) initiated a feasibility study on how to organize in the most cost effective way an international proficiency tests for non-destructive, gamma-ray based, assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums in the European Union at a regular time interval of 2 or 3 years. This feasibility study addresses all aspects of proficiency testing on radioactive waste packages including the design of a commonly accepted reference 220 liter drum. This design, based on the international response on a send out questionnaire, includes matrixes, radioactive sources; a solution to overcome the tedious and expensive international transport costs of real or even simulated waste packages, general cost estimation for the organization of, and the participation in the proficiency test. The proposed concept for the proficiency testing and the estimated costs are presented. The participation costs of the first proficiency test are mainly determined by the manufacturing of the non-radioactive 220 liter drum ({+-} 55%). Applied reference sources, transport of the drum and reference sources and participation costs in the proficiency test contribute each about {+-} 15%. (authors)

Van Velzen, L.P.M. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group - NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bruggeman, M. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Botte, J. [Belgoprocess, Gravenstraat 73 - 2480 Dessel (Belgium)

2007-07-01

48

Nondestructive determination of plutonium mass in spent fuel: prelliminary modeling results using the passive neutron Albedo reactivity technique  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capability of the International Atomic Energy Agency (LAEA) to safeguard nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at pyrochemical processing facilities, providing quantitative input to burnup credit and final safeguards measurements at a long-term repository. In order to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, thirteen NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key motivation of the present research is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of rods. It is therefore anticipated that a combination of techniques will be required. A 5 year effort funded by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE was recently started in pursuit of these goals. The first two years involves researching all thirteen techniques using Monte Carlo modeling while the final three years involves fabricating hardware and measuring spent fuel. Here, we present the work in two main parts: (1) an overview of this NGSI effort describing the motivations and approach being taken; (2) The preliminary results for one of the NDA techniques - Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR). The PNAR technique functions by using the intrinsic neutron emission of the fuel (primarily from the spontaneous fission of curium) to self-interrogate any fissile material present. Two separate measurements of the spent fuel are made, both with and without cadmium (Cd) present. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are analyzed; known as the Cd ratio. The primary differences between the two measurements are the neutron energy spectrum and fluence in the spent fuel. By varying the thickness of the cadmium layer surrounding the spent fuel, a high and a low neutron-energy-measurement condition can be produced. The neutron detectors can be used to detect total neutrons (Singles) and/or Doubles and/or Triples. If the geometry of the measurement situation is unchanged between the two measurements, the change in the Cd ratio between these two measurements can be attributed to a change in the fissile content of the sample.

Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Sang Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

49

NON-DESTRUCTIVE ASSAY OF CE-144 IN PRESENCE OF TRANSURANIC WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Ce- 144 isotope has been identified as a radionuclide produced in certain Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium waste streams and thus may need to be quantified when present in reportable quantities for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The most intense gamma ray from Ce-144 was found to be the 133.53 keV peak. At this energy, there were no interfering plutonium or plutonium daughter gainma rays. Furthermore, it was determined that there were no interferences produced by Ce- 144 or its progenies that could degrade the plutonium isotopic analysis. At 5% of the total activity per gram of plutonium, the reportable limit, the Ce-144 peak at 133.53 keV will remain above the primary plutonium peak (129.3 keV) for approximately 7 years and remain quantifiable for at least 12 to 13 years from the time the isotope was chemically separated. It is therefore concluded that Ce-144 will be quantifiable whenever it exceeds 5% of the total activity per gram of plutonium, and will not interfere with the non-destructive assay of plutonium isotopic compositions.

Los Alamos National Laboratory

2001-01-01

50

Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities  

SciTech Connect

Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.

Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

1991-09-01

51

Statistical uncertainties of nondestructive assay for spent nuclear fuel by using nuclear resonance fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimated statistical uncertainties of a nondestructive assay system using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) for spent nuclear fuel including low-concentrations of actinide nuclei with an intense, mono-energetic photon beam. Background counts from radioactive materials inside the spent fuel were calculated with the ORIGEN2.2-UPJ burn-up computer code. Coherent scattering contribution associated with Rayleigh, nuclear Thomson, and Delbrück scattering was also considered. The energy of the coherent scattering overlaps with that of NRF transitions to the ground state. Here, we propose to measure NRF transitions to the first excited state to avoid the coherent scattering contribution. Assuming that the total NRF cross-sections are in the range of 3-100 eV b at excitation energies of 2.25, 3.5, and 5 MeV, statistical uncertainties of the NRF measurement were estimated. We concluded that it is possible to assay 1% actinide content in the spent fuel with 2.2-3.2% statistical precision during 4000 s measurement time for the total integrated cross-section of 30 eV b at excitation energies of 3.5-5 MeV by using a photon beam with an intensity of 106 photons/s/eV. We also examined both the experimental and theoretical NRF cross-sections for actinide nuclei. The calculation based on the quasi-particle random phase approximation suggests the existence of strong magnetic dipole resonances at excitation energies ranging from 2 to 6 MeV with the scattering cross-sections of tens eV b around 5 MeV in 238U.

Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Angell, Christopher T.; Hajima, Ryoichi; Minato, Futoshi; Suyama, Kenya; Seya, Michio; Johnson, Micah S.; McNabb, Dennis P.

2014-02-01

52

Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis by Passive Hemagglutination Assay of Antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep red cells treated with concanavalin A and sensitized with a partially purified aspergillus antigen were used to detect antibody to Aspergillus by passive hemagglutination (PHA). Sera from eight patients with aspergillomas or allergic aspergillosis had PHA titers of ? 1:800 and antibody detectable by immunodiffusion (ID). Of 122 hospitalized cancer patients without invasive aspergillosis, 118 had titers of ?1:80,

Jonathan W. M. Gold; Bruce Fisher; Bessie Yu; Nancy Chein; Donald Armstrong

1980-01-01

53

A New Facility For Non-Destructive Assay With A Time-Tagged {sup 252}Cf Source  

SciTech Connect

A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay based on a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source is now in operation at the Padova University. The system is designed to analyze samples with dimensions on the order of 20x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays as a function of energy.

Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao, Xin [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, 1080 A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2011-06-01

54

Non-destructive assay of drum package radioactive wastes utilizing tomographic gamma scanning  

SciTech Connect

A methodology for nondestructive assay of drum packaged radioactive waste materials is investigated using Emission Computed Tomography procedures. A requirement of this method is accurate gamma attenuation correction. This is accomplished by the use of a constant density distribution for the drum content, thereby requiring the need for a homogeneous medium. The current predominant NDA technique is the use of the Segmented Gamma Scanner. Tomographic Gamma Scanning improves upon this method by providing a low resolution three-dimensional image of the source distribution, yielding both spatial and activity information. Reconstruction of the source distribution is accomplished by utilization of algebraic techniques with a nine by six voxel model with detector information gathered over scanning intervals of ninety degrees. Construction of a linear system to describe the scenario was accomplished using a point-source response function methodology, where a 54 {times} 120 matrix contained the projected detector responses for each source-detector geometry. Entries in this matrix were calculated using the point-kernal shielding code QAD-CGGP. Validation was performed using the MCNP photon transport code. Solutions to the linear system were determined using the Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS) algorithm and the LSMOD algorithm. A series of four scans were performed, each reconstructing the source distribution of a mock-up waste package containing a single 73 mCi {sup 137}Cs point source. For each scan, the source was located in a different location. Results of the reconstruction routines accurately predict the location and activity of the source. The range of activity calculated using the NNLS routine is 0.2681 mCi with an average value of 77.7995 mCi. The range of values calculated using LSMOD is 5.1843 mCi with an average of 72.8018 mCi.

Ausbrooks, K.L.

1996-05-01

55

Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

1989-01-01

56

Use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition. 17 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

Parker, J.L.

1984-08-01

57

The use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition.

Parker, J.L.

1986-11-01

58

Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge  

SciTech Connect

This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

2010-12-01

59

Evaluation of 3 assays for failure of passive transfer in calves.  

PubMed

This study examined the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and classification accuracy of 3 commonly used screening tests for failure of passive transfer: the sodium sulfite turbidity test, the zinc sulfate turbidity test, and refractometry relative to serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentrations determined by radial immunodiffusion. Serum samples were obtained from 242 calves ranging from 1 to 8 days of age. Using a serum concentration of 1,000 mg/dL IgG1, to define adequate passive transfer, the zinc sulfate test had a sensitivity of 1.00 and a specificity of 0.52 in the detection of inadequate passive transfer. The endpoint of the test appeared to be higher than desired; calves testing negative had mean serum IgG1 concentration of 955 mg/dL and a large proportion of calves with adequate passive transfer were misclassified as positive for failure of passive transfer. Using the qualitative zinc sulfate test, the percentage of calves correctly classified with regard to passive transfer status was less than that observed with either the sodium sulfite test or refractometry. The sensitivity of the sodium sulfite assay was 0.85 at a 1+ endpoint and 1.00 at a 2 or 3+ endpoint. The specificity of the sodium sulfite assay varied from 0.87 at a 1+ endpoint and 0.56 at a 2+ endpoint. The sensitivity and specificity of refractometry varied from 0.01 to 1.00 depending on the choice of endpoint. Refractometry correctly classified the largest proportion of calves with regard to their passive transfer status at test endpoints of 5.0 and 5.5 g/dL, 83% and 82% respectively. The highest percentages of calves correctly classified occurred with the sodium sulfite test using a 1+ endpoint (86.30%) and refractometry using a 5.0 g/dL endpoint (83.00%). A regression equation was developed that permitted calculation of an optimal endpoint for refractometric determinations of total serum protein concentration. A serum protein concentration of 5.2 g/dL was equivalent to 1,000 mg/dL serum IgG1. Optimal selection of tests for passive transfer status in calves will be governed by the prevalence of failure of passive transfer, test performance, and the anticipated costs of classification errors. PMID:8884716

Tyler, J W; Hancock, D D; Parish, S M; Rea, D E; Besser, T E; Sanders, S G; Wilson, L K

1996-01-01

60

An integrated approach for determining plutonium mass in spent fuel assemblies with nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel. Below, five motivations are listed: (1) To verify the Pu content of spent fuel without depending on unverified information from the facility, as requested by the IAEA ('independent verification'). New spent fuel measurement techniques have the potential to allow the IAEA to recover continuity of knowledge and to better detect diversion. (2) To assure regulators that all of the nuclear material of interest leaving a nuclear facility actually arrives at another nuclear facility ('shipper/receiver'). Given the large stockpile of nuclear fuel at reactor sites around the world, it is clear that in the coming decades, spent fuel will need to be moved to either reprocessing facilities or storage sites. Safeguarding this transportation is of significant interest. (3) To quantify the Pu in spent fuel that is not considered 'self-protecting.' Fuel is considered self-protecting by some regulatory bodies when the dose that the fuel emits is above a given level. If the fuel is not self-protecting, then the Pu content of the fuel needs to be determined and the Pu mass recorded in the facility's accounting system. This subject area is of particular interest to facilities that have research-reactor spent fuel or old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. It is also of interest to regulators considering changing the level at which fuel is considered self-protecting. (4) To determine the input accountability value at an electrochemical processing facility. It is not expected that an electrochemical reprocessing facility will have an input accountability tank, as is typical in an aqueous reprocessing facility. As such, one possible means of determining the input accountability value is to measure the Pu content in the spent fuel that arrives at the facility. (5) To fully understand the composition of the fuel in order to efficiently and safely pack spent fuel into a long-term repository. The NDA of spent fuel can be part of a system that cost-effectively meets the burnup credit needs of a repository. Behind each of these reasons is a regulatory structure with MC&A requirements. In the case of the IAEA, the accountable quantity is elemental plutonium. The material in spent fuel (fissile isotopes, fission products, etc.) emits signatures that provide information about the content and history of the fuel. A variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available to quantify these signatures. The effort presented in this paper is investigation of the capabilities of 12 NDA techniques. For these 12, none is conceptually capable of independently determining the Pu content in a spent fuel assembly while at the same time being able to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of rods. For this reason the authors are investigating the capability of 12 NDA techniques with the end goal of integrating a few techniques together into a system that is capable of measuring Pu mass in an assembly. The work described here is the beginning of what is anticipated to be a five year effort: (1) two years of modeling to select the best technologies, (2) one year fabricating instruments and (3) two years measuring spent fuel. This paper describes the first two years of this work. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of the 12 NDA techniques, an 'assembly library' was created. The library contains the following: (a) A diverse range of PWR spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future. (b) Diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options. (c) The spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. It is our intention to make this library available to other researchers in the field for inter-comparison purposes. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library for measurements in three different media: air, water and borated water. The 12 NDA te

Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Mike L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

61

Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(?, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 ?g g-1.

Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Ji?í; ?anda, Zden?k; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

2015-01-01

62

Technical note: The calibration of {sup 90}Y-labeled SIR-Spheresusing a nondestructive spectroscopic assay  

SciTech Connect

{sup 90}Y-labeled SIR-Spheres are currently used to treat patients with hepatic metastases secondary to colorectal adenocarcinoma. In general, the prescribed activity is based on empirical data collected during clinical trials. The activity of the source vial is labeled by the manufacturer as 3.0 GBq{+-}10% and is not independently verified by the end user. This technical note shows that the results of a nondestructive spectroscopic assay of a SIR-Spheressample was 26% higher than the activity stated by the manufacturer. This difference should not impact the current empirical prescription method but may be problematic for patient-specific dosimetry applications, such as image-based dosimetry.

Selwyn, R.; Micka, J.; DeWerd, L.; Nickles, R.; Thomadsen, B. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2008-04-15

63

Present applications and future needs for portable and installed non-destructive assay systems for attended and unattended operation in the Euratom Safeguards Directorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different NDA (nondestructive assay) verification techniques employed by the Euratom Safeguards Directorate are reviewed based on two different complementary analyses, one based on a review of the objectives of NDA measurements and the other based on technical objectives. The different forms and types of nuclear material found in the European Communities are described as a function of nuclear facility

B. G. R. Smith; P. Chare; H. Wagner; M. Swinhoe; J. Goerten

1991-01-01

64

Nondestructive assay of plutonium and minor actinide in spent fuel using nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser Compton scattering ?-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new nondestructive assay method for 235U, 239Pu, and minor actinides in spent nuclear fuel assembly in a water pool. Nuclear fuel materials are detected using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) with laser Compton scattering (LCS) ?-rays. The NRF assay can provide a finger print of each isotope since the NRF ?-ray energy is characteristic of a specific nuclide. We design a high-flux LCS ?-ray source, in which ?-rays are generated by collision of laser photons provided from Yb-doped fiber laser and electrons from energy recovery linac. This system has following advantages; this can detect isotopes of most elements behind heavy materials such as uranium of a thickness of several centimeters, and analyze the fuel assembly in a water pool. A simulation calculation shows that we can detect 1% fraction 239Pu in all the fuel rods with statistical error lower than 2% using the high flux LCS ?-ray source and the measurement time of 4000 s.

Hayakawa, Takehito; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Hajima, Ryoichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Seya, Michio

2010-09-01

65

Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques  

SciTech Connect

This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlin, Jeremy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Kianwei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanc, P C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Am [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, H O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, M A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, M T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, M L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, C R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koehler, W E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, N P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, T H [KAERI; Cambell, L W [PNNL; Cheatham, J R [ORNL; Gesh, C J [PNNL; Hunt, A [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Ludewigt, B A [LBNL; Smith, L E [PNNL; Sterbentz, J [INL

2010-09-15

66

Non-destructive assay of {sup 242}Pu by resonance neutron capture  

SciTech Connect

For the accurate assay of plutonium by neutron correlation measurements, especially for material derived from high-burnup reactor fuel, the content of {sup 242}Pu in a sample must be determined. Since {sup 242}Pu has a long half-life (387,000 yr) and decays to {sup 238}U by alpha particle emission with the accompanying emission of only weak, low-energy gamma rays, gamma-ray spectrometry methods which are ordinarily employed to determine the isotopic composition of a plutonium sample are not feasible for {sup 242}Pu. The existence of a resonance in the neutron capture cross section of {sup 242}Pu at an energy of 2.67 electron volts (eV) with a large (72, 000 barn) cross section affords the possibility for the quantitative assay of this isotope by epithermal neutron capture. Essential for this purpose is an appropriately designed geometry of neutron moderators and absorbers which will provide maximum flux in the eV region while suppressing thermal neutron capture by the fissile plutonium isotopes. Signatures for neutron capture in {sup 242}Pu include the decay of {sup 243}Pu (4.9 hr), prompt capture gamma rays (total energy 5.034 MeV), and the decay of an isomeric state (330 nanosecond). Experiments to determine the feasibility of this approach are currently in progress.

Kane, W.R.; Lu, Ming-Shih; Aronson, A.; Forman, L.; Vanier, P.E.

1995-08-01

67

Stress-Induced Changes in Optical Properties, Pigment and Fatty Acid Content of Nannochloropsis sp.: Implications for Non-destructive Assay of Total Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a practical approach for fast and non-destructive assay of total fatty acid (TFA) and pigments in the\\u000a biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. changes in TFA, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were monitored in parallel with the cell suspension absorbance.\\u000a The experiments were conducted with the cultures grown under normal (complete nutrient f\\/2 medium at 75 ?mol

Alexei Solovchenko; Inna Khozin-Goldberg; Lee Recht; Sammy Boussiba

2011-01-01

68

Conceptual design for a receiving station for the nondestructive assay of PuO/sub 2/ at the fuels and materials examination facility  

SciTech Connect

We propose a conceptual design for a receiving station for input accountability measurements on PuO/sub 2/ received at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. Nondestructive assay techniques are proposed, including neutron coincidence counting, calorimetry, and isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectroscopy, in a versatile data acquisition system to perform input accountability measurements with precisions better than 1% at throughputs of up to 2 M.T./yr of PuO/sub 2/.

Sampson, T.E.; Speir, L.G.; Ensslin, N.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Bourret, S.; Parker, J.L.

1981-11-01

69

Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility  

SciTech Connect

A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed.

Schultz, F.J.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Haff, K.W.

1985-03-01

70

Rapid diagnosis of scrub typhus by a passive hemagglutination assay using recombinant 56-kilodalton polypeptides.  

PubMed

The genes encoding the 56-kDa polypeptides were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the genomic DNAs of three serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Gilliam, Karp, and Boryong. The amplified products were cloned into expression vector pIH821, and the recombinant antigens were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with maltose-binding protein. The recombinant 56-kDa polypeptides were purified by affinity chromatography for the sensitization of sheep erythrocytes. The recombinant 56-kDa polypeptides were evaluated with 89 serum specimens from health blood donors, 94 serum specimens from scrub typhus patients, and 31 serum specimens from patients with other febrile diseases by a passive hemagglutination assay (PHA). Among the scrub typhus patients diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody testing, the antibodies to R. tsutsugamushi were detected in 93 patients (99%). One serum specimen from a healthy person showed a false-positive reaction by this method. The recombinant PHA showed no cross-reactions with sera obtained from other febrile patients with diseases such as murine typhus, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and leptospirosis. In conclusion, this recombinant PHA could be substituted for the conventional indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test and the immunoperoxidase test. PMID:8370730

Kim, I S; Seong, S Y; Woo, S G; Choi, M S; Kang, J S; Chang, W H

1993-08-01

71

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material holdup using Gamma-Ray spectroscopic methods  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes gamma-ray methods used to nondestructively measure the quantity of 235U, or 239Pu remaining as holdup in nuclear facilities. Holdup occurs in all facilities where nuclear material is processed, in process equipment, in exhaust ventilation systems and in building walls and floors. 1.2 This test method includes information useful for management, planning, selection of equipment, consideration of interferences, measurement program definition, and the utilization of resources (1, 2, 3, 4). 1.3 The measurement of nuclear material hold up in process equipment requires a scientific knowledge of radiation sources and detectors, transmission of radiation, calibration, facility operations and error analysis. It is subject to the constraints of the facility, management, budget, and schedule; plus health and safety requirements; as well as the laws of physics. The measurement process includes defining measurement uncertainties and is sensitive to the form and distribution of the material...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

72

A non-destructive in ovo assay to quantify EROD activity in embryo-larval Fundulus heteroclitus  

SciTech Connect

Sensitive embryo-larval estuarine fish exposed to organic contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) have been shown to demonstrate characteristic biochemical responses, and impaired development and reduced survival. One of the best studied of these biochemical responses is induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, e.g., CYP1A, frequently assessed as ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Standard methods to measure EROD activity in embryo-larval fish require destructive samples, composited from many embryos, precluding information on individual variation in EROD activity or concurrent observation of health effects. A novel method has been developed that employs the non-destructive observation in individual embryos of EROD activity, demonstrated by the production and accumulation in the embryonic bladder of the fluorescent product, resorufin. EROD activity in a living embryo is quantified by bladder fluorescence using microfluorometric instrumentation. Using this technique, the authors were able to follow individual fish throughout embryonic and early larval development making temporal observations of EROD activity as well as developmental progress, lesion characterization, hatch rate and success, and post-hatch growth and survival. Results were used to examine differential responsiveness to EROD-inducing organic contaminants of embryo-larval fish from parental populations inhabiting PHAH-contaminated or uncontaminated environments.

Nacci, D.; Kuhn-Hines, A.; Coiro, L.; Munns, W.R. Jr. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Cooper, K. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

73

High sensitivity assay of cement encapsulated spent nuclear fuel sludge using the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN) system  

SciTech Connect

A new technique has been developed for high sensitivity assay of grouted spent nuclear fuel (SNF) sludge waste in 208 liter drums. The method uses the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN{sup TM}) system to provide regulatory acceptable measurements. At the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility in Hanford, two IPAN{sup TM} systems have been successfully calibrated and validated for assay of SNF grouted sludge drums (encapsulated with a cement mixture). The systems have been demonstrated to be capable of performing low level waste (LLW) / transuranic (TRU) waste sorting even in the presence of high gamma radiation fields emitted by the fission and activation products associated with SNF. The active and passive modes of the IPAN{sup TM} provide a wide dynamic range of assay: from below the TRU/LLW sorting threshold (100 nCi/g or 3700 Bq/g) up to several hundred grams of Weapons Grade Pu Equivalent. A new calibration technique was developed that uses a radial weighted average method to define the imaging response matrix. This method provides the required sensitivity to the height distribution of special nuclear material within the 208 liter drum, and makes use of the uniform radial distribution that will occur for a distribution of a large population of small particles in a homogeneous matrix. Extensive validation and testing with specially designed surrogate grouted sludge drums and radioactive standards have resulted in regulatory acceptance of this technique, permitting ultimate disposal of the SNF sludge drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. (authors)

Simpson, A.P. [BIL Solutions Inc, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Abdurrahman, N.M. [Fluor Hanford, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

74

Monte Carlo evaluation of passive NMIS for assay of plutonium in shielded containers  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated that passive Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) measurements can be used to determine the mass of Pu in AT400-R containers with measurement times as short as a few minutes. The sensitivity of the proposed detectors to gamma rays should enhance this measurement method because the gamma rays from fission, induced or spontaneous, escape this container more easily than neutrons. In these calculations, the container contained two Pu spheres with mass varying between 0.5 and 2 Kg with {approximately}6 wt% {sup 240 }Pu.

T.E. Valentine, L.G. Chiang, J.T. Mihalczo

2000-05-30

75

Simulation of Rate-Related (Dead-Time) Losses In Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting (PNMC) based on Multiplicity Shift Register (MSR) electronics (a form of time correlation analysis) is a widely used non-destructive assay technique for quantifying spontaneously fissile materials such as Pu. At high event rates, dead-time losses perturb the count rates with the Singles, Doubles and Triples being increasingly affected. Without correction these perturbations are a major source

L. G. Evans; P. I. Norman; T. W. Leadbeater; S. Croft; S. Philips

2008-01-01

76

Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in ? low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low ?-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE

F. Jallu; F. Loche

2008-01-01

77

Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in alpha low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low alpha-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment

F. Jallu; F. Loche

2008-01-01

78

Use of delayed gamma rays for active non-destructive assay of 235U irradiated by pulsed neutron source (plasma focus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulsed neutron source based on plasma focus device has been used for active interrogation and assay of 235U by monitoring its delayed high energy ?-rays. The method involves irradiation of fissile material by thermal neutrons obtained after moderation of a burst of neutrons emitted upon fusion of deuterium in plasma focus (PF) device. The delayed gamma rays emitted from the fissile material as a consequence of induced fission were detected by a large volume sodium iodide (NaI(Tl) detector. The detector is coupled to a data acquisition system of 2k input size with 2k ADC conversion gain. Counting was carried out in pulse height analysis mode for time integrated counts up to 100 s while the temporal profile of delayed gamma has been obtained by counting in multichannel scaling mode with dwell time of 50 ms. To avoid the effect of passive (natural) and active (from surrounding materials) backgrounds, counts have been acquired for gamma energy between 3 and 10 MeV. The lower limit of detection of 235U in the oxide samples with this set-up is estimated to be 14 mg.

Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram; Kaushik, T. C.; Rout, R. K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D. B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B. S.; Ramakumar, K. L.; Gupta, S. C.

2014-07-01

79

Assay of low-level plutonium effluents  

SciTech Connect

In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L.

Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

1981-01-01

80

Nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

Martz, H.E.

1997-02-01

81

PANWAS: A Passive/Active Neutron Waste Assay System for the Radiological Characterization of Waste Packages at the Nucleco Facility at Casaccia  

SciTech Connect

CANBERRA has recently supplied Nucleco SpA with a new Passive/Active Neutron Waste Assay System (PANWAS) for use at their waste management facility at Casaccia in Italy. The system complements two existing CANBERRA high-resolution gamma spectrometry waste assay systems. The three waste assay systems have been integrated into a combined facility for the radiological characterization of the waste managed by Nucleco in order to provide the information required to: - Determine the physical inventory of the nuclear material present for Safeguards purposes, - Segregate the waste into different categories, - Allow transportation to and storage in the final repository for the waste. This paper describes the main characteristics of the PANWAS, how it is used (in conjunction with the two gamma monitoring systems) to determine the radionuclide inventory of the waste and how the system was calibrated and characterized for use in this application. (authors)

Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G. [CANBERRA Harwell Ltd., B528.10 Unit 1, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 OTA (United Kingdom); Croft, S.; Villani, M.F. [CANBERRA Industries, 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut 06450 (United States); Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G. [Nucleco SpA, Strada Provinciale, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Roma (Italy)

2006-07-01

82

Non-destructive analysis of low-enriched and natural U samples by ?-spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive non-destructive assay methods were employed for quantitative analysis of low-enriched, natural, and depleted uranium-containing reactor fuel pellets of unknown origin and powder-form chemicals, using high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition and the amount of 238U were determined applying intrinsic calibration and attenuation correction methods, respectively. The 238U mass was measured by a relative method, using a certified reference set for calibration. After finding the total U-content, the matrix of the samples (UO 2, U 3O 8, uranyl-acetate, and uranyl-nitrate) was also identified for material without cladding.

Tam, N. C.; Zsigrai, J.; Lakosi, L.; József, E.; Sáfár, J.

2003-12-01

83

Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and ²³U enrichment of UF bulk material

Brian D Boyer; Martyn T Swinhoe; Bruce W Moran; Alain Lebrun

2009-01-01

84

Nondestructive testing  

SciTech Connect

Problems and defects of all kinds arise in the development and use of mechanical devices, electrical equipment, hydraulic systems, transportation mechanisms and the like. However, an extremely wide range of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are available to help you examine these different problems and various defects in an assortment of materials under varying circumstances. It is imperative that you select the best method to solve a particular problem. And that requires a sufficient understanding of the basic processes involved to realize the advantages of each NDT method available. In addition to practical hints and pertinent comments for the resolution of day to day problems, this book gives sufficient basic theory to comprehend the principles of each method so that the most appropriate can be selected and used to its fullest advantage. Typical illustrative calculations and a comprehensive bibliography are provided.

Cartz, L.

1995-12-31

85

The Contribution of and Uncertainty Associated with Self-Multiplication when Assaying Plutonium in Waste by Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting  

SciTech Connect

When Pu is present in waste items as lumps, the Reals neutron coincidence signal may be bolstered by virtue of self induced fission events. This gives rise to a positive bias to the assay result and leads to a one sided contribution to the total measurement uncertainty. In the general it is not feasible to determine to magnitude of this effect experimentally and allowance for it must therefore be estimated using separate ad hoc rules. In this paper we to develop a simple model for the self-multiplication enhancement in small lumps allowing the importance of the effect in waste assay to be quantified. In addition, an approach is suggested for how to propagate an uncertainty contribution in to the final result. In conclusion: By introducing a generic scheme we have taken the first pragmatic steps to accounting for multiplication effects in the TMU in the determination of Pu-240 eff-mass by PNCC in waste. We have used a simple physical model to derive the underlying relationships needed. A first order expression suitable for small, dense lumps was set out, primarily for instructive reasons, but this is not a restriction of the method. The method is readily scaleable to material of different isotopic composition, density and a. Numerical parameters suitable for practical applications have been established and we feel the approach is fit for the intended purpose reflecting operational experiences and the general state of knowledge of waste items. (authors)

Croft, S.; Phillips, S.; McElroy, R.D.; Bosko, A. [Canberra Industries Inc., Meriden, CT (United States)

2008-07-01

86

Nondestructive evaluations  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

Kulkarni, S.

1993-03-01

87

Nondestructive evaluations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc., and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report, were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

Kulkarni, S.

1993-03-01

88

Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps  

SciTech Connect

Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step in enhancing the ability of NDA beyond present attended systems. The possibility of monitoring the feed, tails, and product header pipes in such a way as to gain safeguards relevant flow and enrichment information without compromising the intellectual property of the operator including proprietary equipment and operational parameters would be a huge step forward. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including such process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector measurements reducing the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GeEPs safeguards.

Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moran, Bruce W [IAEA; Lebrun, Alain [IAEA

2009-01-01

89

Probing metal solidification nondestructively  

E-print Network

- 1 - Probing metal solidification nondestructively April 11, 2014 Los Alamos researchers and collaborators have used nondestructive imaging techniques to study the solidification of metal alloy samples time that high-energy protons have been used to nondestructively image a large metal sample during

90

Nondestructive biomarkers in ecotoxicology.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to attempt a concise review of the state of the art of the nondestructive biomarkers approach in vertebrates, establishing a consensus on the most useful and sensitive nondestructive biomarker techniques, and proposing research priorities for the development and validation of this promising methodology. The following topics are discussed: the advantages of the use of nondestructive strategies in biomonitoring programs and the research fields in which nondestructive biomarkers can be applied; the biological materials suitable for nondestructive biomarkers and residue analysis in vertebrates; which biomarkers lend themselves to noninvasive techniques; and the validation and implementation strategy of the nondestructive biomarker approach. Examples of applications of this methodology in the hazard assessment of endangered species are also presented. Images Figure 1. C PMID:7713034

Fossi, M C

1994-01-01

91

DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

1991-08-01

92

Passive hemagglutination test for detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and comparison of the test with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis.  

PubMed Central

A passive hemagglutination test (PHA) was developed for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) utilizing sheep erythrocytes cross-linked with purified envelope glycoprotein (gp160) of HIV-1. In an analysis of 216 human serum samples, 100% correlation was observed in 86 reactive and 124 nonreactive serum samples between PHA and commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. Serum samples from gp160-immunized chimpanzees also reacted equally well in PHA. The test is simple, rapid, and inexpensive, thus providing an alternate, quick method of detecting HIV antibodies. These advantages and the thermal stability of the reagents that are used make this an attractive alternative for detecting prior exposure of individuals to HIV-1. Images PMID:2913026

Vasudevachari, M B; Uffelman, K W; Mast, T C; Dewar, R L; Natarajan, V; Lane, H C; Salzman, N P

1989-01-01

93

[Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

Born, Martin

2010-01-01

94

Nondestructive subharmonic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles are intravascular agents that can be used to estimate blood perfusion. Blood perfusion may be estimated by destroying the bubbles in a vascular bed and observing the refresh of contrast agents back into the vascular bed. Contrast agents can be readily destroyed by traditional imaging techniques. The design of a nondestructive imaging technique is necessary for

J. Chomas; P. Dayton; D. May; K. Ferrara

2002-01-01

95

SQUIDs for nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt a comprehensive review of all published research in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) performed with the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer since the first work was reported in the mid-1980s. The SQUID is the most sensitive detector of magnetic flux known. The energy sensitivity of the SQUID may make it the most sensitive detector of any kind. The research

W G Jenksy; Amir Kabir

1997-01-01

96

Nondestructive inspection perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents ideas for consideration by those concerned with commercial aircraft nondestructive inspection (NDI). The perspective is that of an individual with a background in military aircraft NDI, and important differences are indicated between the commercial NDI and military NDI activities. In particular, it is significantly more expensive to implement some new NDI technology, and therefore, in-depth cost-benifit studies for commercial users are recommended.

Froom, Douglas A.

1992-01-01

97

Quantitative nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) provides techniques to assess deterioration of a material or a structure, and to detect and characterize discrete flaws. It plays, therefore, an important role in the prevention of failure. QNDE techniques are used in processing, manufacturing and for in-service inspection. QNDE is particularly important for the in-service inspection of high-cost and critical load-bearing structures whose failure

J. D Achenbach

2000-01-01

98

Nondestructive analysis and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

Moslehy, Faissal A.

1993-01-01

99

A Deterministic and Nondestructively-Verifiable Photon Number Source  

E-print Network

We present a deterministic approach based on continuous measurement and real-time quantum feedback control to prepare arbitrary photon number states of a cavity mode. The procedure passively monitors the number state actually achieved in each feedback stabilized measurement trajectory, thus providing a nondestructively verifiable photon source. The feasibility of a possible cavity QED implementation in the many-atom good-cavity coupling regime is analyzed.

JM Geremia

2006-03-23

100

Nondestructive testing with thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

2013-11-01

101

Nondestructive equipment study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identification of existing nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) methods that could be used in a low Earth orbit environment; evaluation of each method with respect to the set of criteria called out in the statement of work; selection of the most promising NDE methods for further evaluation; use of selected NDE methods to test samples of pressure vessel materials in a vacuum; pressure testing of a complex monolythic pressure vessel with known flaws using acoustic emissions in a vacuum; and recommendations for further studies based on analysis and testing are covered.

1985-01-01

102

Nondestructive material characterization  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01

103

29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section...Material Handling Devices § 1919.78 Nondestructive examinations. (a) Wherever...electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be carried out,...

2012-07-01

104

29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section...Material Handling Devices § 1919.78 Nondestructive examinations. (a) Wherever...electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be carried out,...

2013-07-01

105

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 192.243 Section 192.243...Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive testing. (a) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed...

2014-10-01

106

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nondestructive testing. (a) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed by any process, other than...indicate defects that may affect the integrity of the weld. (b) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed: (1) In accordance...

2013-10-01

107

Measurement of uranium and plutonium in solid waste by passive photon or neutron counting and isotopic neutron source interrogation  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the status and applicability of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for the measurement of uranium and plutonium in 55-gal barrels of solid waste is reported. The NDA techniques reviewed include passive gamma-ray and x-ray counting with scintillator, solid state, and proportional gas photon detectors, passive neutron counting, and active neutron interrogation with neutron and gamma-ray counting. The active neutron interrogation methods are limited to those employing isotopic neutron sources. Three generic neutron sources (alpha-n, photoneutron, and /sup 252/Cf) are considered. The neutron detectors reviewed for both prompt and delayed fission neutron detection with the above sources include thermal (/sup 3/He, /sup 10/BF/sub 3/) and recoil (/sup 4/He, CH/sub 4/) proportional gas detectors and liquid and plastic scintillator detectors. The instrument found to be best suited for low-level measurements (< 10 nCi/g) is the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler. The measurement technique consists of passive neutron counting followed by cyclic activation using a /sup 252/Cf source and delayed neutron counting with the source withdrawn. It is recommended that a waste assay station composed of a /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a gamma-ray scanner, and a screening station be tested and evaluated at a nuclear waste site. 34 figures, 15 tables.

Crane, T.W.

1980-03-01

108

Nondestructive evaluation technique guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

Vary, A.

1973-01-01

109

Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

2015-10-01

110

Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

1987-01-01

111

Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

1985-02-04

112

Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

Menlove, Howard O. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01

113

Aggressively Passive  

E-print Network

AGRESSIVELY PASSIVE DESIGNING WITH CFD ESL-KT-13-12-48 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-48 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...-18 Can passive ventilation work in a hot humid climate ESL-KT-13-12-48 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-48 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio...

Upadhyaya, K.

2013-01-01

114

Nondestructive assay holdup measurements with the Ortec detective  

SciTech Connect

Wing 4 of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to be downgraded from a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility to a Hazard Category 3 Radiological Facility. Survey and holdup measurements are used to ensure that the total contamination levels present in the facility do not contribute enough activity to go above the Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities. Additionally, the measurement information provides an understanding of the cleanup and the equipment removal needs for the next step of decontaminating and decommissioning of the site. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) facility has been housing the research and experimental activities for analytical chemistry, plutonium and uranium chemistry, and metallurgy since the start of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is currently being replaced by the new Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement facilities. As a result, the CMR is gradually closing and/or downgrading to a nonnuclear facility. In 2008, the Safeguards Science and Technology group, N-1, was assigned the task of doing survey and holdup measurements of Wing 4 of the CMR. The goal of the measurements is to provide defensible measurement data for Wing 4 of the CMR Building to be downgraded from a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility to below a Hazard Category 3 Radiological Facility. In addition, the measurement information would provide an understanding of the cleanup and the equipment removal needs for the next step of decontaminating and decommissioning the site. The large areal olume of the site and the high intensity of the high-energy gamma rays of thorium, either from the background or the contaminated objects in the measured room or the adjacent rooms, present some challenges in the holdup measurements. Typical holdup techniques of point source, line, or area measurement do not work well. In order to speed up the measurement time and to accuralely account for all the isotopes present in the facility, we used a new technique that we tentatively named 'Room Holdup Measurement' to do holdup measurements of the site. This technique uses the portable, electric-cooled high-purity germanium detectors from Ortec (the Detectives) to measure the activities of the isotopes.

Vo, Duc [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wenz, Tracy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bracken, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

115

An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay  

SciTech Connect

Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

Becker, G.K.

1996-10-01

116

Nondestructive fissile material assay by induced fission neutron correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An NDA method and interpretation model for the determination of small fissile material masses, in radioactive waste, is elaborated. The method uses a pulsed neutron source to interrogate a waste item located in the sample cavity. The sample cavity is lined with graphite to yield a long thermal neutron lifetime. For each pulse of source neutrons, the slowed down neutron

Walter Hage

2005-01-01

117

Nondestructive fissile material assay by induced fission neutron correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An NDA method and interpretation model for the determination of small fissile material masses, in radioactive waste, is elaborated. The method uses a pulsed neutron source to interrogate a waste item located in the sample cavity. The sample cavity is lined with graphite to yield a long thermal neutron lifetime. For each pulse of source neutrons, the slowed down neutron population causes thermal fission in the fissile material of the sample, resulting in the emission of fast neutrons from the sample. Some of these fast neutrons escape the cavity and the cavity liner, and are slowed down in an external polyethylene moderator, designed to yield a short thermal neutron lifetime, and are subsequently detected in incorporated thermal neutron detectors. Signal groups, representing the detection of fission neutrons, are recorded in several observation intervals after the pulse of source neutrons has died away in the polyethylene moderator. Following many pulses of source neutrons, the frequency of such signal groups is accumulated. The first, second, and third factorial moment of such frequency distributions are the estimated value of signal singlets, doublets and triplets, respectively. These multiplets are expressed as function of the fissile mass, the neutron detection probability, instrumental and nuclear parameters, and a stationary neutron signal background, thus permitting an absolute determination of the fissile mass of the sample.

Hage, Walter

2005-10-01

118

Mobile Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements of Standard Waste Boxes (SWB)  

SciTech Connect

A mobile NDA system was composed and qualified for Safeguards measurements of multiple standard waste boxes (SWB) generated as a result of clean-out activities at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The system included a neutron slab counter and high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. PC/FRAM software was used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium residue contained in the waste in order to interpret two independent measurement results provided by total neutron counting and gamma energy analysis (GEA). The measurement procedure developed to estimate transuranic (TRU) content of boxes was based on assumptions about characteristics of the matrix and material distribution. The neutron slab counter was calibrated with various plutonium working standards that were placed in a surrogate SWB specifically made to simulate miscellaneous waste debris. Transmission measurements with a californium source were used to correct for the matrix effects. An In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was used to acquire spectra from SWBs and ISOCS software was applied to generate the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. Infinite energy extrapolation was introduced to correct GEA results for self-attenuation. The gamma and neutron results obtained on multiple SWBs are compared and discussed in the paper. Revised measurement positions for the detector and the transmission source are also suggested based on experience gained during the measurements.

Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, James R.; Mapili, Gabriel M.

2006-11-01

119

Passive and Active Neutron Matrix Correction for Heterogeneous Distributions Utilizing the Neutron Imaging Technique  

SciTech Connect

Classical Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) and Differential Die-Away (DDA) active neutron interrogation techniques [1, 2] are well suited for determining the gross matrix correction factors for homogenous mass distributions of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) within an interfering waste drum matrix. These measured passive and active matrix correction factors are crucial in quantifying the SNM mass, associated Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) within the drum. When heterogeneous SNM mass distributions are encountered, the measured SNM mass, TMU and MDA biases introduced may be 100%, or greater, especially for dense hydrogenous matrices. The standard matrix correction factors can be adjusted if a coarse spatial image of the SNM mass, relative to the matrix, is available. The image can then be analyzed to determine the spatially-adjusted, matrix correction factors case by case. This image analysis approach was accomplished by modifying the standard Passive-Active Neutron (PAN) counter design [3] to accommodate a unique data acquisition architecture that supports a newly developed image acquisition and analysis application called the Neutron Imaging Technique (NIT). The NIT functionality supports both PNCC and DDA acquisition and analysis modes and exploits the symmetry between a stored set of factory acquired NIT images with those from the unknown PAN assay. The NIT result is then an adjustment to the classical correction factor reducing, if not removing, the SNM mass bias and revealing the true TMU and MDA values. In this paper we describe the NIT for the PAN design from the software and algorithmic perspectives and how this technique accommodates waste matrix drums that are difficult, from the classical standpoint, if not impossible, to extract meaningful SNM mass, TMU and MDA results. (authors)

Villani, M.F.; Croft, St. [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT (United States); Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G.; Stamp, D.; Fisher, J. [Canberra Harwell, Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom); Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G. [Nucleco SpA, Casaccia (Italy); Bourva, L.C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Safeguards, Vienna (Australia)

2008-07-01

120

49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.  

...Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive tests. 193.2321 Section 193.2321 Transportation...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells of...

2014-10-01

121

EIGHTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING  

E-print Network

- L EIGHTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING H U I T I E M E CONFERENCE MONDIALE SUR LES of the results. tint I - I - I #12;Risø Risø-M-GED Title and authors) Computer control in nondestructive testing on Nondestructive Testing in Cannes, France. In our automatic tube inspection system data (acre than half a Billion

122

Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

1972-01-01

123

Microcomputers and nondestructive test systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcomputers are finding their way into Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Systems. They can be used for scanning system motion control, instrumentation control, data acquisition, data display, and data analysis. This paper describes the application of the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), LSI-11 series microcomputers in systems developed and used by the NDT Unit of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These systems are

1983-01-01

124

Acoustic imaging for nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of acoustic imaging techniques to non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials is discussed. After a description of the standard NDT techniques employed in the field and some examples of mechanically scanned imaging devices, most of the paper is devoted to a description of electronically scanned and focused systems. As holographic techniques are described by Ahmed et al. [22] in

G. S. Kino

1979-01-01

125

A non-destructive characterization and real time monitor technique for low-loss, polymeric waveguide circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical polymer waveguide is a key passive component for the optical interconnection. Design, fabrication, and characterization of high performance waveguides have critical importance for the success of optoelectronic integration. In addition, defect effect, coupling, leakages and cross talk etc. are big concerns for the lightwave circuits. We present here a fast, non-destructive, sensitive, and real-time technique for detailed investigation of

Fengtao Wang; Fuhan Liu; Gee-Kung Chang; Mathew Q. Yao; Ali Adibi; Rao Tummala

2008-01-01

126

Overview of nondestructive evaluation technologies  

SciTech Connect

The infrastructure in the US and the world is aging. There is an increasing awareness of the need to assess the severity of the damage occurring to the infrastructure. Limited resources preclude the replacement of all structures that need repairs or have exceeded their life times. Methods to assess the amount and severity of damage are crucial to implementing a systematic, cost effective approach to repair and/or replace the damaged structures. The challenges of inspecting aging structures without impairing their usefulness rely on a variety of technologies and techniques for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper will briefly describe several nondestructive evaluation technologies that are required for inspecting a variety of systems and structures.

Thomas, G.

1995-04-01

127

In-plant measurements of gamma-ray transmissions for precise Kedge and passive assay of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundance in product solutions at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test has been carried out for more than 2 years for determination of plutonium concentration by K-edge absorption densitometry and for determination of plutonium isotopic abundance by transmission-corrected passive gamma-ray spectrometry. This system was designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

Y. Asakura; I. Kondo; J. Masui; K. Shoji; P. A. Russo; S. T. Hsue; J. K. Jr. Sprinkle; S. S. Johnson

1982-01-01

128

Magnetoresistive Sensors for Nondestructive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New high-sensitivity solid-state magnetoresistive (MR) sensor technologies offer significant advantages in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems. A key advantage of MR sensors is a flat frequency response extending from dc to hundreds of MHz, making them particularly attractive for low-frequency and multi- frequency eddy current detection for deep-flaw detection and depth profiling. MR sensors are mass produced by thin film processing

Albrecht Jander; Carl Smith; Robert Schneider

129

Topoisomerase Assays  

PubMed Central

Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

2012-01-01

130

Opsonophagocytic assay.  

PubMed

The opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay is used as a correlate for protection to measure the functional capacities of vaccine-candidate-raised antibodies. This in vitro assay aids selecting promising vaccines by demonstrating whether the vaccine-induced antibodies drive efficient complement deposition and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. Here, we describe two protocols for an OPK assay using either human-derived PMNs or cultured HL-60 cells. PMID:24218277

Dwyer, Markryan; Gadjeva, Mihaela

2014-01-01

131

Passive Semantics: Ambiguity of the Short Passive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents clues for determining whether "short passives," passive sentences from which the "by"-phrase has been deleted, are actually passive or stative. The clues include intensifiers, the verb "seems," contrasts, present tense, past tense, progressive aspect, and confirmation by examples. (CB)

Cook, Walter A.

1990-01-01

132

Simulation of Rate-Related (Dead-Time) Losses In Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting Systems  

SciTech Connect

Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting (PNMC) based on Multiplicity Shift Register (MSR) electronics (a form of time correlation analysis) is a widely used non-destructive assay technique for quantifying spontaneously fissile materials such as Pu. At high event rates, dead-time losses perturb the count rates with the Singles, Doubles and Triples being increasingly affected. Without correction these perturbations are a major source of inaccuracy in the measured count rates and assay values derived from them. This paper presents the simulation of dead-time losses and investigates the effect of applying different dead-time models on the observed MSR data. Monte Carlo methods have been used to simulate neutron pulse trains for a variety of source intensities and with ideal detection geometry, providing an event by event record of the time distribution of neutron captures within the detection system. The action of the MSR electronics was modelled in software to analyse these pulse trains. Stored pulse trains were perturbed in software to apply the effects of dead-time according to the chosen physical process; for example, the ideal paralysable (extending) and non-paralysable models with an arbitrary dead-time parameter. Results of the simulations demonstrate the change in the observed MSR data when the system dead-time parameter is varied. In addition, the paralysable and non-paralysable models of deadtime are compared. These results form part of a larger study to evaluate existing dead-time corrections and to extend their application to correlated sources. (authors)

Evans, L.G.; Norman, P.I.; Leadbeater, T.W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Croft, S.; Philips, S. [Canberra Industries Inc., Meriden, CT (United States)

2008-07-01

133

SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software design description  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. This program has been in operation since 1985 at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was originally used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. This program was originally developed at Los Alamos and extensively modified by a commercial vendor of PAN systems and by personnel at the INEL. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the program itself. The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 program in early 1994. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach and is documented in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. The new program incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional functionality and improvements include a graphical user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without program code modification, an `object model` design approach and other features for improved flexibility and maintainability.

East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.

1996-08-01

134

49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...welding day must be nondestructively tested over the entire circumference of the weld. (e) All girth welds installed each day...locations must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference, except that when nondestructive testing is...

2012-10-01

135

49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...welding day must be nondestructively tested over the entire circumference of the weld. (e) All girth welds installed each day...locations must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference, except that when nondestructive testing is...

2010-10-01

136

49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...welding day must be nondestructively tested over the entire circumference of the weld. (e) All girth welds installed each day...locations must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference, except that when nondestructive testing is...

2011-10-01

137

49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...welding day must be nondestructively tested over the entire circumference of the weld. (e) All girth welds installed each day...locations must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference, except that when nondestructive testing is...

2013-10-01

138

Visualizing Industrial CT Volume Data for Nondestructive Testing Applications  

E-print Network

Visualizing Industrial CT Volume Data for Nondestructive Testing Applications Runzhen Huang Kwan for the visualization of high-resolution volume data generated from industrial computed tomography for nondestructive, interac- tive visualization, nondestructive testing and evaluation, sci- entific visualization, surface

Ma, Kwan-Liu

139

Trusted Integrated Circuits: A Nondestructive Hidden Characteristics Extraction Approach  

E-print Network

Trusted Integrated Circuits: A Nondestructive Hidden Characteristics Extraction Approach Yousra security problems. The new method leverages nondestructive gate-level characterization of ICs post. Characterization is done in a nondestructive way, without the need for additional circuitry or special processes

Potkonjak, Miodrag

140

49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.  

... 2014-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section 195...Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be...integrity of the weld. (b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be...

2014-10-01

141

Cellulase Assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulose is a heterogeneous polysaccharide, and its enzymatic hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase), and ?-glucosidase to work together. We summarize the most commonly used assays for individual enzymes and cellulase mixture.

Zhang, Y. H. Percival; Hong, Jiong; Ye, Xinhao

142

Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Denison, Arthur B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

143

Nondestructive spectroscopic characterisation of visible resonant cavity light emitting diode  

E-print Network

Nondestructive spectroscopic characterisation of visible resonant cavity light emitting diode in the nondestructive, noncontact, PR measurements, at all angles of incidence, although only the CM feature is visible

Ghosh, Sandip

144

Nondestructive detection of titanium disilicide phase transformation by picosecond ultrasonics  

E-print Network

Nondestructive detection of titanium disilicide phase transformation by picosecond ultrasonics H demonstrate that picosecond ultrasonics is a sensitive nondestructive probe of the formation of TiSi, from

Rubloff, Gary W.

145

Non-Destructive Testing Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

1990-01-01

146

Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

1987-01-01

147

Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of structural ceramics for heat engine applications is reviewed. Microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy are the NDE techniques highlighted. The techniques were applied to research samples of sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture (MOR) bars. The strength and limitations of the aforementioned techniques are given in terms of probablility of detection for voids in green and sintered MOR bars. Voids for this purpose were introduced by seeding green ceramic bars and characterizing each void in terms of its size, shape, location, and nature before and after sintering. The effects of material density, microstructure, surface finish, thickness, void depth, and size characteristics on detectability are summarized.

Vary, Alex

1986-01-01

148

Use of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) technique to characterize the film for applications in transdermal drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the potential of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) technique for use in characterization of film for the application in transdermal drug delivery system. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and loratadine were selected as model matrix material and drug, respectively. Both blank and drug-loaded films were prepared using the solvent-evaporation method. The films were subjected to dimensional analysis, drug content assay

NorKhaizan Anuar; Wong Tin Wui; D. K. Ghodgaonkar; M. N. Taib

2005-01-01

149

Uncertainty analysis of the SWEPP PAN assay system for glass waste (content codes 440, 441 and 442)  

SciTech Connect

INEL is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to WIPP. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Action Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper discusses a modified statistical sampling and verification approach used to determine the total uncertainty of SWEPP PAN measurements for glass waste (content codes 440, 441, and 442) contained in 208 liter drums. In the modified statistical sampling and verification approach, the total performance of the SWEPP PAN nondestructive assay system for specifically selected waste conditions is simulated using computer models. A set of 100 cases covering the known conditions exhibited in glass waste was compiled using a combined statistical sampling and factorial experimental design approach. Parameter values assigned in each simulation were derived from reviews of approximately 100 real-time radiography video tapes of RFP glass waste drums, results from previous SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums, and shipping data from RFP where the glass waste was generated. The data in the 100 selected cases form the multi-parameter input to the simulation model. The reported plutonium masses from the simulation model are compared with corresponding input masses. From these comparisons, the bias and total uncertainty associated with SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums are estimated. The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from calibration measurements using known plutonium sources and two glass waste calibration drums.

Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, W.Y.

1996-10-01

150

Nondestructive inspection requirements for aboveground storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are designed, built, and nondestructively inspected to a variety of codes and standards. This discussion deals only with the nondestructive inspection requirements for the more common codes and standards generated in the US for these type structures. Standards and codes for which nondestructive inspection or nondestructive testing (NDT) requirements will be reviewed are listed. This article reviews the NDT applications, acceptance criteria, and personnel requirements for welds or components for radiography, ultrasonic alternatives to radiography, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, visual, and leak testing for the above standards and codes. The problems of how to communicate to the NDT technician the required inspection or testing information within these standard or code documents for both new ASTs and repaired, reconstructed, or altered ASTs are discussed.

Sherlock, C.N.

1996-02-01

151

6 Nondestructive Estimation of Foliar Pigment  

E-print Network

141 6 Nondestructive Estimation of Foliar Pigment (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, and Anthocyanins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. The chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b are essential pigments for the conversion............................................................................................................... 143 6.2.3 Anthocyanins

Gitelson, Anatoly

152

NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

153

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the operator, must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference: (1) In Class 1 locations, except offshore, at least 10 percent. (2) In Class 2 locations, at least 15...

2010-10-01

154

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the operator, must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference: (1) In Class 1 locations, except offshore, at least 10 percent. (2) In Class 2 locations, at least 15...

2011-10-01

155

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the operator, must be nondestructively tested over their entire circumference: (1) In Class 1 locations, except offshore, at least 10 percent. (2) In Class 2 locations, at least 15...

2012-10-01

156

Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams  

E-print Network

is also vital for a nation’s economy. Substantial sums of money may be saved upon detecting structural deterioration in a timely manner. Nondestructive damage evaluation (NDE) offers effective and economically feasible solutions to perform such tasks...

Dincal, Selcuk

2010-12-08

157

Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not. Another approach, in addition to differentiation between various cure conditions, may even provide information with respect to the bond strength. Several technical papers were published during the course of this research and a summary is presented in the Ph.D. dissertation of Tobias P. Berndt, a graduate student financially supported by this NASA Grant.

2000-01-01

158

Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

2011-01-01

159

Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

2004-01-01

160

Nondestructive testing for identifying poor-quality onions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of nondestructively examining Granex type sweet onions are needed to insure that only good quality onions are shipped at harvest and to avoid putting infected onions in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage where they occupy valuable space and can ruin surrounding onions. A Toshiba TCT 20Ax tomographic scanner operated in the line scan mode and an incandescent light box were used to evaluate the potential for detecting infected onions nondestructively. A study (CA storage study) involving 200 onions, 100 harvested early and 100 harvested late, one half destructively inspected before the remaining half were placed into CA storage was initiated May 1994. All onions were line scanned and scored with the light box before CA storage and those in CA storage were line (will be) scanned and optical scored on retrieval from the storage. An additional study (Disease storage study) involving 40 onions, late harvest, stored at 25C, 60% rh for three weeks with line scanning as above on a weekly interval. After the third week these fruit were assayed for visual damage and for decay organisms. Results from the incandescent light box scoring were not encouraging. From both studies the number of defects, average defect size and the difference image intensity as determined from line scanning were the major contributing parameters to a discriminant analyses model predicting about 70% or better accuracy.

Tollner, Ernest W.; Hung, Yen-Con; Maw, B. W.; Sumner, D. R.; Gitaitis, R. D.

1995-01-01

161

An Improved Whole-Seed Assay for Screening Wheat Germplasm for Polyphenol Oxidase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

portant for consumer acceptance (Moss, 1971; Miskelly, 1984, 1996), while low L* values indicate undesirable Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) causes darkening and discoloration of discoloration or darkening of noodles. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods such as noodles. Consequently, a simple, nondestructive, quantitative assay for determining PPO on There is a need for a simple, quantitative assay for one to a few

James V. Anderson; Craig F. Morris

2001-01-01

162

Non-destructive measurement technologies for nuclear safeguards  

SciTech Connect

There are three aspects that need to be in place in order to maintain a valid safeguards system: (1) Physical protection; guarding the access to nuclear materials using physical protection and surveillance. (2) Accounting systems; computer based accounting systems that provide the current location of nuclear materials, quantities, and the uncertainty in the assayed values. (3) Measurement systems; detectors, data acquisition systems and data analysis methods that provide accurate assays of nuclear material quantities for the accounting system. The authors expand on this third aspect, measurement systems, by discussing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. NDA is defined as the quantitative or qualitative determination of the kind and/or amount of nuclear material in an item without alteration or invasion of the item. This is contrasted with destructive analysis which is the process of taking small samples from the item in question, analyzing those samples by chemical analysis, destroying the original nature of the samples in the process (hence the term destructive), and applying the results to the entire item. Over the past 30 years, numerous techniques, using the atomic and nuclear properties of the actinides, have been developed for reliable, rapid, accurate, and tamper-proof NDA of nuclear materials. The authors distinguish between two types of measurements: the first involving the detection of spontaneously emitted radiation, produced by the natural radioactive decay processes; the second involving the detection of induced radiation, produced by irradiating the sample with an external radiation source.

Gavron, A.

1998-04-01

163

Nondestructive Characterization of Aged Components  

SciTech Connect

It is known that high energy radiation can have numerous effects on materials. In metals and alloys, the effects include, but may not be limited to, mechanical property changes, physical property changes, compositional changes, phase changes, and dimensional changes. Metals and alloys which undergo high energy self-irradiation are also susceptible to these changes. One of the greatest concerns with irradiation of materials is the phenomenon of void swelling which has been observed in a wide variety of metals and alloys. Irradiation causes the formation of a high concentration point defects and microclusters of vacancies and interstitials. With the assistance of an inert atom such as helium, the vacancy-type defects can coalesce to form a stable bubble. This bubble will continue to grow through the net absorption of more vacancy-type defects and helium atoms, and upon reaching a certain critical size, the bubble will begin to grow at an accelerated rate without the assistance of inert atom absorption. The bubble is then said to be an unstably growing void. Depending on the alloy system and environment, swelling values can reach in excess of 50% !V/Vo where Vo is the initial volume of the material. Along with dimensional changes resulting from the formation of bubbles and voids comes changes in the macroscopically observed speed of sound, moduli, electrical resistivity, yield strength, and other properties. These effects can be detrimental to the designed operation of the aged components. In situations where irradiation has sufficient time to cause degradation to materials used in critical applications such as nuclear reactor core structural materials, it is advisable to regularly survey the material properties. It is common practice to use surveillance specimens, but this is not always possible. When surveillance materials are not available, other means for surveying the material properties must be utilized. Sometimes it is possible to core out a small sample which may be used for material properties measurements. A more appealing solution is to use nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

Panetta, Paul D.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Garner, Francis A.; Balachov, Iouri I.

2003-10-21

164

Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to fabricate design critical and man-rated aerospace structures using materials near the limits of their capabilities requires a comprehensive and dependable assurance program. The quality assurance program must rely heavily on nondestructive testing methods for thorough inspection to assess properties and quality of hardware items. A survey of nondestructive testing methods is presented to provide space program managers, supervisors and engineers who are unfamiliar with this technical area with appropriate insight into the commonly accepted nondestructive testing methods available, their interrelationships, used, advantages and limitations. Primary emphasis is placed on the most common methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonics and eddy current. A number of the newer test techniques including thermal, acoustic emission, holography, microwaves, eddy-sonic and exo-electron emission, which are beginning to be used in applications of interest to NASA, are also discussed briefly.

Meister, R. P.; Randall, M. D.; Mitchell, D. K.; Williams, L. P.; Pattee, H. E.

1972-01-01

165

Passive magnetic bearing configurations  

DOEpatents

A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2011-01-25

166

Passive solar building design  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the basic principles of passive solar design and offers quantitative design aids in the form of microcomputer programs to stimulate innovative passive designs. These programs are unlike most others, which focus on conventional designs. The volume also covers landscaping, energy conservation and aesthetics.

Carter, C.; De Villiers, J.

1987-01-01

167

Passive solar food system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A move towards residential self-sufficiency, the Passive Solar Food System (PSFS), was designed to produce both vegetables and high quality animal protein in the form of fish and shellfish. Housed in an attached, passively heated solar greenhouse, the aquaculture tank is designed to provide much of the thermal storage for the PSFS. Additional energy storage mass is provided by the

R. G. Gregoire; C. M. Gregoire

1980-01-01

168

Passive solar construction handbook  

SciTech Connect

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-08-01

169

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2010-10-01

170

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2014-10-01

171

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2012-10-01

172

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2011-10-01

173

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2013-10-01

174

Passive Optical PassiveOpticalNetworks Contents  

E-print Network

Cable-TV (CATV) infrastructures · Power Line Communication ­ PLC · Wireless access technologies ­ Local, large distances · Low power consumption · Large Bandwidth, many broadband users · Requires new fiber line ­ Curb Switch power in the field ­ 2N+2 transcievers #12;PassiveOpticalNetworks Optical Access

Mellia, Marco

175

Feedback control of coherent spin states using weak nondestructive measurements  

E-print Network

Feedback control of coherent spin states using weak nondestructive measurements T. Vanderbruggen,1 collective random rotations, and study, both theoretically and experimentally, how a nondestructive coherent spin states of trapped ultra-cold atoms, and nondestructively probed with a dispersive optical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas  

E-print Network

- 1 - Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas sampling June 8, 2012 New weapons assessment technology engineered: nondestructive laser welding process far less expensive and engineers at LANL. The new automated testing technology is called Nondestructive Laser Gas Sampling (NDLGS

177

Nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in squamate reptiles  

E-print Network

Nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in squamate reptiles W.A. Hopkins a,b, *, J.H. Roe'': Nondestructive sampling techniques, such as blood samples and tail clips, can be used to evaluate as development of nondestructive sampling techniques useful for assessing and monitoring contaminant exposure

Hopkins, William A.

178

MULTIPLE SENSOR PERIODIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF A CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK  

E-print Network

MULTIPLE SENSOR PERIODIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF A CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK J. Cui1 , D.R. Huston2 results of periodically multiple sensor nondestructive testing of a reinforced concrete slab experiment. In the last few decades, a variety of nondestructive evaluation techniques and methods emerged

Huston, Dryver R.

179

Optimal Source Control and Resolution in Nondestructive Testing  

E-print Network

Optimal Source Control and Resolution in Nondestructive Testing Elena Cherkaeva Department on the amount of damaged material. Key words: nondestructive testing, generalized eigenvalue problem, res with measurements of a given accuracy. 2 Variational formulation of the problem of detection in nondestructive

Cherkaev, Elena

180

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods David C. Dobson \\Lambda Department is a nondestructive evaluation technique to detect flaws in metalic specimens. It has found prevalent use in aircraft­93­1­0500 and grant F49620­95­1­0305. 1 #12; While this nondestructive evaluation method has been quite effective

Santosa, Fadil

181

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods David C. Dobson Department is a nondestructive evaluation technique to detect aws in metalic specimens. It has found prevalent use in aircraft this nondestructive evaluation method has been quite e ective in detecting the presence of aws, it is generally

Dobson, David C.

182

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods David C. Dobson Department current method is a nondestructive evaluation technique to detect aws in metalic specimens. It has found-93-1-0500 and grant F49620-95-1-0305. 1 #12;While this nondestructive evaluation method has been quite eective

183

Featured Research Nondestructive Testing of Early Age Concrete  

E-print Network

Featured Research Nondestructive Testing of Early Age Concrete Thomas Voigt and Surendra P. Shah, Northwestern University Introduction The nondestructive, in-situ testing of early-age concrete properties. A nondestructive, ultrasonic technique, which measures the reflection coefficient of ultrasonic transverse waves

184

Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques.

Weber, J.R.

1991-08-21

185

NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST TECHNOLOGY FOR THE COMPOSITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

When manufacturing composite structure, material and structural components are created concurrently. Thus, for composite materials in critical structural applications, it is more important than ever to independently assure structural integrity. Complexity of the advanced composite materials manufacturing and composite in service maintenance represents challenges in developing optimized nondestructive tools and tests. Traditional metals based NDT methods are inappropriate and often

B. Boro Djordjevic; Suite C; Glen Burnie

186

Method for non-destructive testing  

DOEpatents

Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-30

187

EDDY CURRENT MODELLING FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Eddy ,current nondestructive ,evaluation is widely ,used ,to inspect ,conducting ,materials during manufacture or in service. In this context, modeling is a powerful tool for inspection improvements : it helps probe- coil designers to optimise sensors for each examination requirement, it gives better understanding of the involved physics, it helps operator training and it also increases defect analysis reliability.

G. Pichenot; F. Buvat; V. Maillot; H. Voillaume

188

Nondestructive Evaluation of Ageing Steel Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually, materials are inspected by nondestructive methods to detect and evaluate defects that may cause failure under the designed operation conditions. However, the structure may also fail due to uncertainties of material properties like strength or hardness, and may also suffer from unexpected degradation during operation. A reliable NDE technique for detecting the inception of failure during early stages of

Iris Altpeter; Michael Kröning

189

Fast Geometric Algorithms for Tomographic Nondestructive Evaluation  

E-print Network

Fast Geometric Algorithms for Tomographic Nondestructive Evaluation Peyman Milanfar SRI and application of a novel approach to fast non- destructive evaluation (NDE) via direct estimation of signi cant NDE is an important part of many industrial processes. NDE techniques and equipment have been

Milanfar, Peyman

190

Novel Trends in Optical Non-Destructive Testing Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive testing (NDT) describes a wide range of methods for measuring and comparing physical quantities against a nominal condition. In this paper we describe and compare different optical NdT (ONDT)-methods with respect to their characteristics and capability for different measurement tasks. ONDT may be specified in two categories, passive and active. The NDT principles of the first category just use a measurement method like view inspection, elipsometry or reflectometry to detect defects which are easily accessible. The principles of the second category use an excitation force, such as heat or mechanical vibration introduced by transducers to detect hidden defects. This category can be specified into two subcategories. The first subcategory "time-/depth-resolved" includes measurement methods delivering detailed information of the geometric features of a hidden defect. Therefore the excitation of the material and the detection of the reaction have to provide a ti! me step which enables depth-solved measurements. Phase-resolved thermography and laser ultrasound are examples for this category. The second subcategory "Integrating" includes measurement technique coupled with an excitation that enables detection of defects but not evaluation of their geometric features. Examples for these measurement techniques are shearography, reflectometry, vibrometry and thermography coupled with excitation method like simple heating or loading with a constant force. We demonstrate experimental results obtained using methods developed in our institute and highlight directions of further development.

Huke, P.; Klattenhoff, R.; von Kopylow, C.; Bergmann, R. B.

2013-07-01

191

Passive microfluidic interconnects  

E-print Network

Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

2005-01-01

192

SWEPP assay system software: An update  

SciTech Connect

The development of a new software package to control data acquisition and perform data analysis for a Passive/Active Neutron Assay system was reported at this conference in 1994. The software has undergone additional development including improvements to the user interface, additional data integrity checks and support for a shift register coincidence analyzer. An overview of this additional work is presented in this report.

East, L.V.

1997-01-01

193

Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components – Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Suter, Jonathan D.

2014-09-12

194

Pulse compression approach to infrared nondestructive characterization.  

PubMed

Infrared thermography is a whole field, noncontact, and nondestructive characterization technique widely used for the investigation of subsurface features in various solid materials (conductors, semiconductors, and composites). Increased demand for greater subsurface probing in thermal nondestructive testing is often thwarted by the probing high peak power into the sample, for which narrow pulse operation is usually used. The technique of pulse compression offers a means of increasing the average power available to illuminate test specimen without any loss of the depth resolution needed for the tactical requirements. This is accomplished by transmitting a wide pulse in which the incident heat flux is frequency modulated and then, by proper signal processing methods, causing a time compression of the received signal to a much narrower pulse of high effective peak power. For the demonstration, a mild steel sample having flat bottom holes at various depths is introduced and detection capability of the proposed approach has been studied. PMID:19044447

Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Vaddi, Jyani Somayajulu; Singh, Pushpraj

2008-09-01

195

Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others] [and others

1994-01-01

196

Nondestructive inspection requirements aboveground storage tanks (ASTs)  

SciTech Connect

Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are designed, built and nondestructively inspected to a variety of Standards and Codes. This discussion deals only with the nondestructive inspection requirements for the more common Standards and Codes generated in the United States for these type structures. The problems of how to communicate to the NDT technician the required inspection or testing information within these Standard or Code documents for both new ASTs and repaired, reconstructed or altered ASTs are discussed. In the presentation of this paper, NDT applications, acceptance criteria and personnel requirements for welds or components for radiography, ultrasonic alternatives to radiography, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, visual and leak testing for the mentioned Standards and Codes will be reviewed.

Sherlock, C.N.

1995-12-31

197

Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

1978-01-01

198

Nondestructive imaging of an ultracold lattice gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the nondestructive imaging of a lattice gas of ultracold bosons. Atomic fluorescence is induced in the simultaneous presence of degenerate Raman sideband cooling. The combined influence of these processes controllably cycles an atom between a dark state and a fluorescing state while eliminating heating and loss. Through spatially resolved sideband spectroscopy following the imaging sequence, we demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging technique in various regimes of lattice depth and fluorescence acquisition rate. Our work provides an important extension of quantum gas imaging to the nondestructive detection, control, and manipulation of atoms in optical lattices. In addition, our technique can also be extended to atomic species that are less amenable to molasses-based lattice imaging.

Patil, Y. S.; Chakram, S.; Aycock, L. M.; Vengalattore, M.

2014-09-01

199

Nondestructive imaging of an ultracold lattice gas  

E-print Network

We demonstrate the nondestructive imaging of a lattice gas of ultracold bosons. Atomic fluorescence is induced in the simultaneous presence of degenerate Raman sideband cooling. The combined influence of these processes controllably cycles an atom between a dark state and a fluorescing state while eliminating heating and loss. Through spatially resolved sideband spectroscopy following the imaging sequence, we demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging technique in various regimes of lattice depth and fluorescence acquisition rate. Our work provides an important extension of quantum gas imaging to the nondestructive detection, control and manipulation of atoms in optical lattices. In addition, our technique can also be extended to atomic species that are less amenable to molasses-based lattice imaging.

Y. S. Patil; L. M. Aycock; S. Chakram; M. Vengalattore

2014-04-22

200

Magnetoresistive sensors for nondestructive evaluation (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New high-sensitivity solid-state magnetoresistive (MR) sensor technologies offer significant advantages in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems. A key advantage of MR sensors is a flat frequency response extending from dc to hundreds of MHz, making them particularly attractive for low-frequency and multi-frequency eddy current detection for deep-flaw detection and depth profiling. MR sensors are mass produced by thin film processing techniques

Albrecht Jander; Carl Smith; Robert Schneider

2005-01-01

201

Nondestructive characterization of structural ceramic components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced structural ceramic components under development for heat-engine applications include both monolithic and continuous fiber composites (CFC). Nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods being developed differ for each material system. For monolithic materials, characterization during processing steps is important. For many CFC, only post process characterization is possible. Many different NDC systems have been designed and built A 3D x-ray micro computed

W. A. Ellingson; J. S. Steckenrider; E. A. Sivers; J. R. Ling

1994-01-01

202

Noninvasive, Nondestructive Approaches to Cell Bioenergetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To demonstrate the feasibility of using NMR spectra of human limbs and larger animals for continuous, noninvasive, nondestructive evaluation of cell bioenergetics, we have constructed a relatively simple and inexpensive 31P NMR apparatus. This apparatus consists of an 18-cm (7-in.) bore superconducting magnet and appropriate transmit-receive components for Fourier transform NMR. The principal signals observed by this instrument in the

B. Chance; S. Eleff; J. S. Leigh

1980-01-01

203

Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

1997-01-01

204

Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP) Do you need: Advice on further development of a cancer diagnostics assay? Assay optimization? Design or implementation of assay controls, assay standards or assay calibrators? Determination

205

Nondestructive determination of lead-210 and radium-226 in sediments by direct photon analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the non-destructive determination of210Pb and226Ra in sediments. The procedure is based on the direct counting of the 46.5-keV -ray of210Pb and the 351.9-keV -emission of214Pb. The self-absorption of the 46.5-KeV -ray is corrected using a technique involving direct gamma transmission measurements on sample and efficiency calibration standard. Several reference materials when assayed by the described

S. R. Joshi

1987-01-01

206

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOEpatents

A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, M.W.

1990-06-19

207

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOEpatents

A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01

208

Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

1974-01-01

209

Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

1998-12-04

210

Automation for nondestructive inspection of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss the motivation and an architectural framework for using small mobile robots as automated aids to operators of nondestructive inspection (NDI) equipment. We review the need for aircraft skin inspection, and identify the constraints in commercial airlines operations that make small mobile robots the most attractive alternative for automated aids for NDI procedures. We describe the design and performance of the robot (ANDI) that we designed, built, and are testing for deployment of eddy current probes in prescribed commercial aircraft inspections. We discuss recent work aimed at also providing robotic aids for visual inspection.

Siegel, M. W.

1994-01-01

211

Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinguished advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states, i.e. our identification is quantum-state nondestructive. It is also shown finally how to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics.

Jia-sen Jin; Chang-shui Yu; He-shan Song

2011-11-17

212

Nondestructive readout for a superconducting flux qubit  

E-print Network

We present a new readout method for a superconducting flux qubit, based on the measurement of the Josephson inductance of a superconducting quantum interference device that is inductively coupled to the qubit. The intrinsic flux detection efficiency and back-action are suitable for a fast and nondestructive determination of the quantum state of the qubit, as needed for readout of multiple qubits in a quantum computer. We performed spectroscopy of a flux qubit and we measured relaxation times of the order of 80 $\\mu s$.

A. Lupascu; C. J. M. Verwijs; R. N. Schouten; C. J. P. M. Harmans; J. E. Mooij

2004-10-28

213

Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinguished advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states, i.e. our identification is quantum-state nondestructive. It is also shown finally how to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics.

Jin, Jia-sen; Song, He-shan; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.032109

2011-01-01

214

Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2011-03-15

215

A Consortium of the United States Council for Automotive Research Nondestructive Evaluation Steering Committee  

E-print Network

A Consortium of the United States Council for Automotive Research Nondestructive Evaluation Steering Committee Strategic Plan for Nondestructive Evaluation Development in the North American #12;Cover Photo: Pictured is a modern use of Nondestructive Evaluation for ensuring paint quality

Knowles, David William

216

Data Fusion Techniques of Multiple Sensors Nondestructive Evaluation of a Concrete Bridge Deck  

E-print Network

Data Fusion Techniques of Multiple Sensors Nondestructive Evaluation of a Concrete Bridge Deck J decades, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been applied widely and significantly on concrete of reinforced steel rebars, cracks, voids, etc. Various commercial nondestructive evaluation techniques

Huston, Dryver R.

217

NONDESTRUCTIVE DAMAGE EVALUATION OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPONENTS USING A HYBRID,  

E-print Network

NONDESTRUCTIVE DAMAGE EVALUATION OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPONENTS USING A HYBRID, COMPUTATIONAL, a novel hybridized use of nondestructive, noninvasive, remote, full field of view, quantitative opto and computational modeling provides an effective engineering tool for nondestructive study of electro

Furlong, Cosme

218

A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave Sintering  

E-print Network

A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave, microwave imaging, neural network applications, nondestructive testing. I. INTRODUCTION Microwave (MW the development of suitable means of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of powder samples under microwave 978

Yakovlev, Vadim

219

Nondestructive In Situ Identification of Crystal Orientation of Anisotropic ZnO  

E-print Network

Nondestructive In Situ Identification of Crystal Orientation of Anisotropic ZnO Nanostructures, a fast, unambiguous, and nondestructive technique for identification of the crystalline orientation nondestructive tool to probe the chemical composition, physical state, phonon confinement, and lattice dynamics

Wang, Zhong L.

220

Nondestructive electroluminescence characterization of as-grown semiconductor optoelectronic device structures using  

E-print Network

Nondestructive electroluminescence characterization of as-grown semiconductor optoelectronic device for publication 9 December 1999 We describe an arrangement for nondestructive electroluminescence measurements regions is usually done using photoluminescence PL spectroscopy.1 Although nondestructive, PL has several

Ghosh, Sandip

221

Applications of aerospace technology in industry: A technology transfer profile, nondestructive testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of nondestructive testing procedures by NASA and the transfer of nondestructive testing to technology to civilian industry are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) an overview of the nondestructive testing field, (2) NASA contributions to the field of nondestructive testing, (3) dissemination of NASA contributions, and (4) a transfer profile. Attachments are included which provide a brief description of common nondestructive testing methods and summarize the technology transfer reports involving NASA generated nondestructive testing technology.

1972-01-01

222

Neutron measurement techniques for the nondestructive analysis of irradiated fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive measurement of the passive neutron signatures of irradiated light-water reactor fuel assemblies is a rapid and simple technique for verifying operator-declared exposure values. Fuel assemblies from four different reactor facilities have been measured to establish the functional relationship between the operator-declared exposure values and the experimentally measured neutron emission rates. Experimentally measured neutron emission rates of small fuel rod sections have been shown to agree with the predicted results from our calculational model. Destructive results for the actinide isotopes also agreed very well with our prediction. Neutron emission rates varied by 30 to 40% between opposite corners of the source fuel assembly. Symmetrical neutron detector systems that measure all sides simultaneously were evaluated.

Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Lee, D.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1981-11-01

223

Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of engineering materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of engineering material is described. The method utilizes the nonlinearity parameter measurement which describes the anharmonic behavior of the solid through measurements of amplitudes of the fundamental and of the generated second harmonic ultrasonic waves. The nonlinearity parameter is also directly related to the acoustoelastic constant of the solid which can be determined by measuring the linear dependence of ultrasonic velocity on stress. A major advantage of measurements of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes it more applicable for in-service nondestructive characterization. The relationships between the nonlinearity parameter of second-harmonic generation and the percentage of solid solution phase in engineering materials such as heat treatable aluminum alloys was established. The acoustoelastic constants are measured on these alloys for comparison and confirmation. A linear relationship between the nonlinearity parameter and the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in the alloys is indicated.

Salama, K.

1985-01-01

224

Industrial Use Of Holographic Nondestructive Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic interferometry is more and more used in industry as a nondestructive testing method. It is competing with conventional testing methods, which are limited in use, especially when dealing with composites and reinforced materials. One has to refuse the opinion, that the application of holographic interferometry demands specially qualified personnel with long-time training. "Press button"-apparatus are proving, that serial testing can be performed by semiskilled operators even today. The examples, presented in the following text, are mainly suitable for three important fields of application: 1. The best known application of holographic interferometry is the nondestructive testing. For some tasks testing automata are constructed, that only for operation and interpretation of the interferogram need semiskilled operators. The examples shown here mainly relate to adhesive joints and reinforced plastics. 2. An important field of application of holographic interferometry is the optimization during the construction process, which is done to a great extent in the development laboratories of great companies. 3. Another wide field of application is the vibration analysis as a tool for noise reduction at motor vehicles and machines or for (preventive) damage analysis at turbine blades.

Rottenkolber, H.; Schorner, J.; Juptner, W.

1983-12-01

225

Passive optoelectronic tag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to a pressing demand for tagging systems and technologies developing, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes a novel Passive Optoelectronical (POET) Tag system. The POET tag is an omnidirectional (360° in azimuth), with up to 180° field-of-view in elevation, retroreflection optical system with a high frequency multiple quantum well (MQW) light intensity modulator for free space IR optical communication. The POET tag optical scheme is a compact, high quality generalized fish-eye lens with telecentric arrangement in image space. The telecentric arrangement in image space provides perfect omnidirectional retroreflection of a recall beam and an optimum divergent of light at the MQW providing maximum modulation contrast ratios. The important POET tag features are low power consumption, zero probability of jamming and intercepting (high security of communication,) because it operates in a passive retroreflection mode with a highly-directed optical beam.

Agurok, Il'ya P.; Jannson, Tomasz P.; Savant, Gajendra D.

2003-09-01

226

Simulated Performance of the Integrated Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity and Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry Detector Designed for Spent Fuel Measurement at the Fugen Reactor in Japan  

SciTech Connect

An integrated nondestructive assay instrument, which combined the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) techniques, is the research focus for a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative. We will quantify the anticipated performance of this experimental system in two physical environments: (1) At LANL we will measure fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) assemblies for which the average enrichment can be varied from 0.2% to 3.2% and for which Gd laced rods will be included. (2) At Fugen we will measure spent Mixed Oxide (MOX-B) and LEU spent fuel assemblies from the heavy water moderated Fugen reactor. The MOX-B assemblies will vary in burnup from {approx}3 GWd/tHM to {approx}20 GWd/tHM while the LEU assemblies ({approx}1.9% initial enrichment) will vary from {approx}2 GWd/tHM to {approx}7 GWd/tHM. The estimated count rates will be calculated using MCNPX. These preliminary results will help the finalization of the hardware design and also serve a guide for the experiment. The hardware of the detector is expected to be fabricated in 2012 with measurements expected to take place in 2012 and 2013. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

Ulrich, Timothy J. II [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seya, Michio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolind, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-16

227

Applications of the wavefield transform to nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy current nondestructive techniques offer many attractive benefits such as reduced inspection time, low cost and reproducibility. Nevertheless, they are not used in many industrial applications, primarily due to the difficulty associated with the lack of simple and physically meaningful interpretation techniques. In contrast; wave propagation phenomena based non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques employ a host of physical intuitive concepts, among

Yong Tian

2005-01-01

228

Nondestructive dynamic testing of apples for firmness evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two nondestructive dynamic test methods, low-mass impact and acoustic response, were tested and compared with destructive compression and penetration tests to evaluate apple firmness. The purpose of the study was to analyze the performance of the impact test methods for nondestructive firmness evaluation, and to assess whether the acoustic tests could add sorting capacity to low-mass impact testing in apples.

I Shmulevich; N Galili; M. S Howarth

2003-01-01

229

Passive fetal monitoring sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

Zuckerwar, Allan J. (inventor); Hall, Earl T. (inventor); Baker, Donald A. (inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

230

Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented ?-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, neutron flux distribution. The validation of the measurements simulations with Mont-Carlo transport codes for the design, optimization and data analysis of further P&DGNAA facilities is performed in collaboration with LMN CEA Cadarache. The performance of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive determination of actinides in small samples is investigated. The quantitative determination of actinides relies on the precise knowledge of partial neutron capture cross sections. Up to today these cross sections are not very accurate for analytical purpose. The goal of the TANDEM (Trans-uranium Actinides' Nuclear Data - Evaluation and Measurement) Collaboration is the evaluation of these cross sections. Cross sections are measured using prompt gamma activation analysis facilities in Budapest and Munich. Geant4 is used to optimally design the detection system with Compton suppression. Furthermore, for the evaluation of the cross sections it is strongly needed to correct the results to the self-attenuation of the prompt gammas within the sample. In the framework of cooperation RWTH Aachen University, Forschungszentrum Jülich and the Siemens AG will study the feasibility of a compact Neutron Imaging System for Radioactive waste Analysis (NISRA). The system is based on a 14 MeV neutron source and an advanced detector system (a-Si flat panel) linked to an exclusive converter/scintillator for fast neutrons. For shielding and radioprotection studies the codes MCNPX and Geant4 were used. The two codes were benchmarked in processing time and accuracy in the neutron and gamma fluxes. Also the detector response was simulated with Geant4 to optimize components of the system.

Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

2014-06-01

231

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS  

E-print Network

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

232

Preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the space shuttle. [preliminary nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements are presented for some 134 potential fracture-critical structural areas identified, for the entire space shuttle vehicle system, as those possibly needing inspection during refurbishment/turnaround and prelaunch operations. The requirements include critical area and defect descriptions, access factors, recommended NDE techniques, and descriptive artwork. Requirements discussed include: Orbiter structure, external tank, solid rocket booster, and thermal protection system (development area).

Pless, W. M.

1974-01-01

233

Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

Heyman, Joseph S.

1991-01-01

234

Projection Registration Applied to Nondestructive Testing  

SciTech Connect

Registration of radiographic and computed tomography (CT) data has the potential to allow automated metrology and defect detection. While registration of the three-dimensional reconstructed data is a common task in the medical industry for registration of data sets from multiple detection systems, registration of projection sets has only seen development in the area of tomotherapy. Efforts in projection registration have employed a method named Fourier phase matching (FPM). This work discusses implementation and results for the application of the FPM method to industrial applications for the nondestructive testing (NDT) community. The FPM method has been implemented and modified for industrial application. Testing with simulated and experimental x-ray CT data shows excellent performance with respect to the resolution of the imaging system.

Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Arrowood, Lloyd [Y-12 National Security Complex

2010-01-01

235

Non-destructive XRF analysis of paintings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage has become one of the main concerns today all over the world. In particular there is an increasing need for non-destructive investigations, as sampling from the unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. In addition to the conventional analytical procedures, techniques utilising nuclear instruments and methods play increasing role in this field. The small, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers using radioisotope excitation allow in situ analysis in museums, galleries, or even on field. This paper presents illustrative applications of our XRF devices with radioisotope excitation. The detection of the presence of titanium in white spots of a painting provided scientific basis to decide that the painting in question was a fake. The difficulties caused by the simultaneous presence of Ti and Ba (a very frequent component white paints) are also discussed.

Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Demeter, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kovács, I.

2004-11-01

236

Non-destructive testing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-10-04

237

Practical applications of nondestructive materials characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are reviewed for applications to the industrial production of materials including microstructural, physical, and chemical analyses. NDE techniques addressed include: (1) double-pulse holographic interferometry for sealed-package leak testing; (2) process controls for noncontact metals fabrication; (3) ultrasonic detections of oxygen contamination in titanium welds; and (4) scanning acoustic microscopy for the evaluation of solder bonds. The use of embedded sensors and emerging NDE concepts provides the means for controlling the manufacturing and quality of quartz crystal resonators, nickel single-crystal turbine blades, and integrated circuits. Advances in sensor technology and artificial intelligence algorithms and the use of embedded sensors combine to make NDE technology highly effective in controlling industrial materials manufacturing and the quality of the products.

Green, Robert E., Jr.

1992-10-01

238

Decoherence and equilibration under nondestructive measurements  

E-print Network

The evolution of observable quantities of finite quantum systems is analyzed when the latter are subject to nondestructive measurements. The type and number of measurements characterize the level of decoherence produced in the system. A finite number of instantaneous measurements leads to only a partial decoherence. But infinite number of such measurements yields complete decoherence and equilibration. Continuous measurements result in partial decoherence in finite time, but produce complete decoherence and equilibration as time tends to infinity. Resulting equilibrium states are characterized by representative statistical ensembles that, generally, retain information on initial conditions. Any system, to be observable, necessarily requires the presence of measurements, whose large number leads to the system equilibration and decoherence.

Yukalov, V I

2012-01-01

239

Decoherence and equilibration under nondestructive measurements  

E-print Network

The evolution of observable quantities of finite quantum systems is analyzed when the latter are subject to nondestructive measurements. The type and number of measurements characterize the level of decoherence produced in the system. A finite number of instantaneous measurements leads to only a partial decoherence. But infinite number of such measurements yields complete decoherence and equilibration. Continuous measurements result in partial decoherence in finite time, but produce complete decoherence and equilibration as time tends to infinity. Resulting equilibrium states are characterized by representative statistical ensembles that, generally, retain information on initial conditions. Any system, to be observable, necessarily requires the presence of measurements, whose large number leads to the system equilibration and decoherence.

V. I. Yukalov

2012-02-20

240

Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite  

SciTech Connect

The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 2209, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2209 (United States)

2012-05-17

241

Specification and acceptance in nondestructive testing  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive testing is often defined as the detection of defects in materials by using techniques that do not damage the product tested. For the user, a supply without defects is a reliable one, i.e., able to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. For the quality manager, a supply without defects is one complying with specifications. This is why the vocabulary of quality control has opted for the following definition: [open quotes]Defect: the nonfulfillment of specified requirements for a characteristic of an item[close quotes]. In this case too, the author has to define the state of a characteristic and shall prefer to employ the word [open quotes]nonconformity[close quotes]. The specifier cannot only consider supplies in their totality, but must also look for the reasons for any failures. The performance of a supply may be reduced by the presence of variations in the physical, chemical, or structural properties of the material. Finally, the nondestructive testing inspector measures the variations of a physical quantity that are related to the presence of discontinuities. After completing the supply inspection and according to the type of data processing, the NDT inspector in fact measures the peak height on a diagram or the spotted area on an image. The defect is thus, as for the specifier, an item and shall employ the word [open quotes]signal[close quotes]. It is clear that, in the definition of NDT given at the beginning, the word [open quotes]defect[close quotes] must be taken in the sense of [open quotes]discontinuity[close quotes]. This is why the author shall prefer to define NDT as the verification of the homogeneity of a supply without its being damaged; by [open quotes]homogeneity[close quotes] it is meant that there is no significant difference with respect to samples taken from the supply.

Perdijon, J. (CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Grenoble (France))

1993-07-01

242

Infrared thermography standards for nondestructive testing  

SciTech Connect

Although infrared thermography is a well developed technology, its applications to nondestructive testing (NDT) are only now beginning to approach maturity. The efforts of many to have infrared thermography recognized by the NDT community, as a powerful and reliable tool for the inspection of materials, structures, and assemblies, has been inhibited by the absence of recognized standards for the method. The unavailability of standard test methods, standard practices, and even a standard terminology, has undoubtedly been responsible, to some extent, for the fact that neither the American national standard for the qualification and certification of NDT personnel, nor the comparable ISO standard, include infrared thermography among the recognized NDT methods. To remedy this situation, a group of infrared and nondestructive testing professionals initiated an ASTM activity to develop consensus standards relating to thermal imaging equipment and test methods. The first project undertaken by the group was directed toward standard test methods for evaluating those performance characteristics of thermal imaging systems that are important for NDT applications. The first part of this project was a study, sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, to define the performance criteria of thermal imaging systems that are important for NDT applications. This study resulted in a paper presented at Thermosense VI, in which three such criteria were identified. Through the sustained efforts of the ASTM task group, standard test methods have now been promulgated for evaluating each of these characteristics in terms meaningful to the NDT community. The three Standard Test Methods developed so far are: (1) The Minimum Detectable Temperature Difference for Thermal Imaging Systems, (2) The Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference for Thermal Imaging Systems, and (3) The Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference of Thermal Imaging Systems.

Bruening, R.; Mordfin, L. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

243

Test procedure for boxed waste assay system  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

Wachter, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-12-07

244

Passive application of masonry products  

SciTech Connect

The sensible thermal storage provided by masonry and concrete is what is needed in the current thermal storage media for passive solar energy systems. Masonry, in passive heating, in direct gain passive, in attached sunspace, and in solar cooling, is suggested. Masonry stores thermal energy efficiently, with less cost, and it can be a structural element of the building. These characteristics highly recommend masonry for thermal storage.

Szoke, S.S.

1982-06-01

245

Passive solar design handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume Three updates Volume Two by presenting extensive new data on the optimum mix of conservation and solar direct gain, sunspaces, thermal storage walls, and solar radiation. The direct gain, thermal storage wall, and solar radiation data are greatly expanded relative to the Volume 2 coverage. The needed flexibility to analyze a variety of system designs is accommodated by the large number of reference designs to be encompassed - 94 in contrast to 6 in Volume two - and the large amount of sensitivity data for direct gain and sunspace systems - approximately 1100 separate curves.

Jones, R.W.

1981-01-01

246

Adaptation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to the avian system.  

PubMed Central

A microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect chicken anti-rovirus antibodies. Studies of the parameters which affect the outcome of the assay with avian serum revealed two aspects for a successful assay. First, enzyme-antibody conjugates prepared by the periodate oxidation technique were found to have retained far more immunological activity than conjugates produced by a glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Second, the results indicated an unusually high affinity of chicken immunoglobulin for the microplate plastic which was mostly eliminated by a pretreatment technique with fixed fetal calf serum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared favorably with the latex passive agglutination test, yielding a titration endpoint of 1:511,000, or approximately 1,300 times more sensitive than the latex passive agglutination assay. The assay proved not only to be sensitive to less than 1 ng of specific antibody, but also to have low to moderate variance and high reliability. PMID:120876

Slaght, S S; Yang, T J; van der Heide, L

1979-01-01

247

The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

2009-05-26

248

Gamma ray scanner systems for nondestructive assay of heterogeneous waste barrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional gamma safeguards measurements have usually been performed using a segmented gamma scanning (SGS) system. The accuracy of this technique relies on the assumption that the sample matrix and the activity are both uniform for a segment. Waste barrels are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of composition and matrix type. The primary sources of error are all directly

H. E. Martz; B. J. Decman; G. P. Roberson; F. Levai

1997-01-01

249

Non-destructive assay of mechanical components using gamma-rays and thermal neutrons  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results obtained in the inspection of several mechanical components through neutron and gamma-ray transmission radiography. The 4.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} thermal neutron flux available at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear has been used as source for the neutron radiographic imaging. The 412 keV {gamma}-ray emitted by {sup 198}Au, also produced in that reactor, has been used as interrogation agent for the gamma radiography. Imaging Plates - IP specifically designed to operate with thermal neutrons or with X-rays have been employed as detectors and storage devices for each of these radiations.

Souza, Erica Silvani; Avelino, Mila R. [PPG-EM/UERJ, R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracana - Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Souza, Maria Ines S. [IEN/CNEN, Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

2013-05-06

250

An integrated approach for determining plutonium mass in spent fuel assemblies with nondestructive assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel. Below, five motivations are listed: (1) To verify the Pu content of spent fuel without depending on unverified information from the facility, as requested by the IAEA (“independent verification”). New spent fuel measurement techniques have the potential to allow the IAEA to recover continuity of knowledge and

Martyn T. Swinhoe; Stephen J. Tobin; Mike L. Fensin; Howard O. Menlove

2009-01-01

251

Passive-solar construction handbook  

SciTech Connect

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-02-01

252

Passive films on magnesium anodes in primary batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the passive films over Mg anodes, which essentially govern the voltage delay of the latter, have been determined nondestructively from an analysis of the transient and steady-state response of the electrode potential to low amplitude galvanostatic polarization under various experimental conditions viz., with different corrosion inhibitor coatings on Mg, after various periods of ageing of anode in solutions containing corrosion inhibitors, at various low temperatures etc. Using these parameters, the kinetics of film build-up or dissolution under these conditions have been monitored. The morphology of the anode film has been verified with scanning electron microscopy. Similar transients at low temperatures point out a steep rise in the film resistivity which is essentially responsible for the severe voltage delay. Finally, possible application of this technique in secondary Li batteries to improve cycling characteristics of the Li anode has been pointed out.

Ratnakumar, B. V.

1988-01-01

253

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOEpatents

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14

254

Mechanical passive logic module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nothing from nothing gives simple simile, but something from nothing is an interesting and challenging task. Adolf Lohmann once proposed 'do nothing machine' in optics, which only copies input to output. Passive logic module (PALM) is a special type of 'do nothing machine' which can converts inputs into one of 16 possible binary outputs. This logic module is not like the conventional irreversible one. It is a simple type of reversible Turing machine. In this manuscript we discussed and demonstrated PALM using mechanical movement of plane mirrors. Also we discussed the theoretical model of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) based PALM in this manuscript. It may have several valuable properties such as passive operation (no need for nonlinear elements as other logic device require) and modular logic (one device implementing any Boolean logic function with simple internal changes). The result is obtained from the demonstration by only looking up the output. No calculation is required to get the result. Not only that, PALM is a simple type of the famous 'billiard ball machine', which also discussed in this manuscript.

Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Caulfield, H. John

2015-02-01

255

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOEpatents

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-05-15

256

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01

257

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

258

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.  

SciTech Connect

Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

BERNDT,M.L.

2001-03-23

259

Nondestructive testing using stress waves: wave propagation in layered media  

E-print Network

The use of stress waves in several civil engineering applications such as nondestructive testing of soil deposits or pavement systems has become extremely popular over the last few years. In all cases, a dynamic impulse is applied to the surface...

Ortega, Jose Alberto

2013-02-22

260

Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesives and adhesive joints are widely used in various industrial applications to reduce weight and costs, and to increase reliability. For example, advances in aerospace technology have been made possible, in part, through the use of lightweight materials and weight-saving structural designs. Joints, in particular, have been and continue to be areas in which weight can be trimmed from an airframe through the use of novel attachment techniques. In order to save weight over traditional riveted designs, to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations associated with rivet holes, and to take full advantage of advanced composite materials, engineers and designers have been specifying an ever-increasing number of adhesively bonded joints for use on airframes. Nondestructive characterization for quality control and remaining life prediction has been a key enabling technology for the effective use of adhesive joints. Conventional linear ultrasonic techniques generally can only detect flaws (delamination, cracks, voids, etc) in the joint assembly. However, more important to structural reliability is the bond strength. Although strength, in principle, cannot be measured nondestructively, a slight change in material nonlinearity may indicate the onset of failure. Furthermore, microstructural variations due to aging or under-curing may also cause changes in the third order elastic constants, which are related to the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of the polymer adhesive. It is therefore reasonable to anticipate a correlation between changes in the ultrasonic nonlinear acoustic parameter and the remaining bond strength. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasonic wave passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such nonlinearity can be effectively used to characterize bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect. Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear interface binding force, a quantitative method was presented. Recently, a comparison between the experimental and simulated results based on a similar theoretical model was presented. A through-transmission setup for water immersion mode-converted shear waves was used to analyze the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of an adhesive bond. In addition, ultrasonic guided waves have been used to analyze adhesive or diffusion bonded joints. In this paper, the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is used to characterize the curing state of a polymer/aluminum adhesive joint. Ultrasonic through-transmission tests were conducted on samples cured under various conditions. The magnitude of the second order harmonic was measured and the corresponding ultrasonic nonlinear parameter was evaluated. A fairly good correlation between the curing condition and the nonlinear parameter is observed. The results show that the nonlinear parameter might be used as a good indicator of the cure state for adhesive joints.

Qu, Jianmin

1999-01-01

261

Antireflection/Passivation Step For Silicon Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process excludes usual silicon oxide passivation. Changes in principal electrical parameters during two kinds of processing suggest antireflection treatment almost as effective as oxide treatment in passivating cells. Does so without disadvantages of SiOx passivation.

Crotty, Gerald T.; Kachare, Akaram H.; Daud, Taher

1988-01-01

262

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

263

Passive Ball Capture Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive ball capture joint has a sleeve with a plurality of bores distributed about a circumference thereof and formed therethrough at an acute angle relative to the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A spring-loaded retainer is slidingly fitted in each bore and is biased such that, if allowed, will extend at least partially into the sleeve to retain a ball therein. A ring, rotatably mounted about the bores, has an interior wall defining a plurality of shaped races that bear against the spring-loaded retainers. A mechanized rotational force producer is coupled to the ring. The ring can be rotated from a first position (that presses the retainers into the sleeve to lock the ball in place) to a second position (that allows the retainers to springback out of the sleeve to release the ball).

Cloyd, Richard A. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

264

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

265

Passive magnetic bearing system  

DOEpatents

An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

Post, Richard F.

2014-09-02

266

Passive seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, deployment, and operation of the Apollo 16 passive seismic experiment (PSE) are discussed. Since activation, all elements of the PSE have operated as planned, with the exception of the sensor thermal control system. Significant progress in the measurement of meteoroid flux in near-earth space has been made, along with dilineation of active moonquake source regions. The data obtained indicate that moonquakes are concentrated at great depth (800 to 1000 km) and that the apparent disparity between meteoroid flux estimtes based on lunar crater counts and those from earth-based observations can be resolved by seismic measurements in favor of the lower flux indicated by the crater count method. The results obtained from the PSE are summarized and their significance is discussed in detail.

Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

1972-01-01

267

Adaptive passive fathometer processing.  

PubMed

Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing. PMID:20370000

Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

2010-04-01

268

Rapid mercury assays  

SciTech Connect

We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

269

Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

2012-05-01

270

Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of solid objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic testing (UT) has been used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials for more than half a century. A number of NDE techniques have been developed and specific standards have been created for the UT applications in different areas of engineering. UT has two main goals related to inspection of solid objects, firstly, detection and characterization of material discontinuities (flaws), and secondly, material characterization. This paper is focused on the selected techniques for flaw detection and imaging using bulk waves as well as guided waves. The main part of the paper contains presentation of array techniques used for the inspection of solid structures with focus on ultrasonic imaging of discontinuities. An overview of the high resolution imaging methods based on synthetic aperture concept (SAFT) is given and illustrated with experimental results. The UT review is concluded with a short presentation of recently developed methods using Lamb waves for monitoring planar structures in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Damage detection methods based on application of multiple transducers (2D arrays) for generating and detecting Lamb waves in metallic and composite plates are presented.

Stepinski, Tadeusz

2012-05-01

271

Noninvasive, Nondestructive Approaches to Cell Bioenergetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To demonstrate the feasibility of using NMR spectra of human limbs and larger animals for continuous, noninvasive, nondestructive evaluation of cell bioenergetics, we have constructed a relatively simple and inexpensive 31P NMR apparatus. This apparatus consists of an 18-cm (7-in.) bore superconducting magnet and appropriate transmit-receive components for Fourier transform NMR. The principal signals observed by this instrument in the tissues are due to phosphocreatine and inorganic phosphate. The apparatus can be used to detect tissue normoxia and hypoxia. The large phosphocreatine/phosphate ratio (>10:1), and the low phosphate signal from normoxic tissue (? 10% of the phosphocreatine signal from brain and human skeletal tissue) make an increased phosphate peak a very sensitive indicator of tissue hypoxia. Direct experiments on the human forearm and leg and the brains of dog and rabbit suggest the applicability of 31P NMR to humans and animals. This method and optical methods can both be used for quantitative determination of oxygen delivery to tissue, function of mitochondria, and the coupling of bioenergetic processes to functional activity in skeletal tissue and brain.

Chance, B.; Eleff, S.; Leigh, J. S.

1980-12-01

272

Nondestructive characterization of structural ceramic components  

SciTech Connect

Advanced structural ceramic components under development for heat-engine applications include both monolithic and continuous fiber composites (CFC). Nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods being developed differ for each material system. For monolithic materials, characterization during processing steps is important. For many CFC, only post process characterization is possible. Many different NDC systems have been designed and built A 3D x-ray micro computed tomographic (3DXCT) imaging system has been shown to be able to map density variations to better than 3% in pressure slip cast Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} monolithic materials. In addition, 3DXCT coupled to image processing has been shown to be able to map through-thickness fiber orientations in 2D lay-ups of 0{degrees}/45{degrees}, 0{degrees}/75{degrees}, 0{degrees}/90{degrees}, in SiC/SiC CVI CFC. Fourier optics based laser scatter systems have been shown to be able to detect surface and subsurface defects (as well as microstructural variations) in monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} bearing balls. Infrared methods using photothermal excitation have been shown to be able to detect and measure thermal diffusivity differences on SiC/SiC 2D laminated CFC which have been subjected to different thermal treatments including thermal shock and oxidizing environments. These NDC methods and their applications help provide information to allow reliable usage of ceramics in advanced heat engine applications.

Ellingson, W.A.; Steckenrider, J.S.; Sivers, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ling, J.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Ceramics

1994-06-01

273

Nondestructive evaluation development for process control  

SciTech Connect

A joint project between Garrett Ceramic Components (GCC) of Allied Signal Aerospace Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is ongoing to evaluate nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods to detect and measure process-induced variations in ceramic materials. The process methods of current focus on slip-casting and injection molding and the NDC methods being evaluated are microfocus X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and nuclear magnetic resonance computed tomography (MRCT). As part of this work, SiC whisker reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GCC`s GN-10 material) has been pressure slip-cast at two casting pressures, 15 and 40 psi; and at length/diameter ratios of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.0 with whisker contents of 20, 23, 27 and 30 wt %. Three-dimensional microfocus XCT has been used to study density variations in billets produced by different process conditions. Destructive measurement of density variation has been compared to the XCT measurements and correlations established. XCT has been shown to be able to detect <5% variations in as-cast density and these were destructively verified.

Ellingson, W.A.; Holloway, D.L.; Sivers, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ling, J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai SH (China). Inst. for Ceramics; Pollinger, J.P.; Yeh, H.C. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

1991-12-31

274

Nondestructive evaluation development for process control  

SciTech Connect

A joint project between Garrett Ceramic Components (GCC) of Allied Signal Aerospace Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is ongoing to evaluate nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods to detect and measure process-induced variations in ceramic materials. The process methods of current focus on slip-casting and injection molding and the NDC methods being evaluated are microfocus X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and nuclear magnetic resonance computed tomography (MRCT). As part of this work, SiC whisker reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GCC's GN-10 material) has been pressure slip-cast at two casting pressures, 15 and 40 psi; and at length/diameter ratios of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.0 with whisker contents of 20, 23, 27 and 30 wt %. Three-dimensional microfocus XCT has been used to study density variations in billets produced by different process conditions. Destructive measurement of density variation has been compared to the XCT measurements and correlations established. XCT has been shown to be able to detect <5% variations in as-cast density and these were destructively verified.

Ellingson, W.A.; Holloway, D.L.; Sivers, E.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ling, J. (Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai SH (China). Inst. for Ceramics); Pollinger, J.P.; Yeh, H.C. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

1991-01-01

275

Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing  

E-print Network

1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

276

Nondestructive electromagnetic characterization of uniaxial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, a method for the simultaneous non-destructive extraction of the permittivity and permeability of a dielectric magnetic uniaxial anisotropic media is developed and several key contributions are demonstrated. The method utilizes a single fixture in which the MUT is clamped between two rectangular waveguides with 6" x 6" PEC flanges. The transmission and reflection coefficients are measured, then compared with theoretically calculated coefficients to find a least squares solution to the minimization problem. One of the key contributions of this work is the development of the total parallel plate spectral-domain Green's function by two independent methods. The Green's function is thereby shown to be correct in form and in physical meaning. A second significant contribution of this work to the scientific community is the evaluation of one of the inverse Fourier transform integrals in the complex plane. This significantly enhances the efficiency of the extraction code. A third significant contribution is the measurement of a number of uniaxial anisotropic materials, many of which were envisioned, designed and constructed in-house using 3D printing technology. The results are shown to be good in the transverse dimension, but mildly unstable in the longitudinal dimension. A secondary contribution of this work that warrants mention is the inclusion of a flexible, complete, working code for the extraction process. Although such codes have been written before, they have not been published in the literature for broader use.

Rogers, Neil G.

277

MIMO array imaging for ultrasonic nondestructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic sensor arrays continue to be broadly applied for nondestructive material testing. Generally, conventional beamforming techniques have been the favorite approach to generate images from the sensor array data. In this paper, we examine the use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) ultrasonic processing technique for imaging internal structures of materials. The goal is to identify and locate potential defects and anomalies. The imaging technique is comprised of excitation of transmitting sensors with sequential or orthogonal wideband signals, matched filtering, and adaptive weighting. The weighting of the signals at the receiver takes into account the transducer ultrasound radiation patterns. The MIMO technique is particularly attractive for ultrasonic imaging, as the different bistatic combinations of transmit and receive sensor pairs allows effective and simple formations of virtual arrays with extended apertures and denser spatial sampling. As such, high-resolution images can be generated with fewer or available transducers. The performance of this technique is experimentally examined using test specimens with artificially drilled small size flat bottom holes that simulate defects. One-dimensional and two-dimensional array configurations are used to form desired virtual arrays and their respective imaging capabilities are evaluated and compared.

Demirli, Ramazan; Rivenq, Xavier; Zhang, Yimin D.; Ioana, Cornel; Amin, Moeness G.

2011-04-01

278

WASTE CRATE ASSAY SYSTEM (WCAS) : ASSAY SOLUTIONS FOR VERY LARGE REMOTE HANDLED CRATES  

SciTech Connect

An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed and fabricated to measure the plutonium content in large remote handled (RH) waste crates. The waste crate assay system (WCAS) was developed under an agreement between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL), and BNFL Instruments Inc. (BII) to measure the plutonium content in the waste generated in the Rokkasho reprocessing facility. The primary goal of the design was to produce an assay system for large waste containers. The system also includes 200-L drum pallet assay capability. The measurements are based on neutron-time correlation counting of the passive neutron emissions from the 240Pu, and the plutonium isotopic ratios are used to calculate the total plutonium. The system is designed for both RH waste and low-activity plutonium waste. The system permits the measurement of the singles, doubles, and triples rates and the multiplicity mode analysis is used together with the 'add-a-source' method to correct for the matrix materials in the crates. In the multiplicity analysis, the efficiency for counting the neutrons emitted from the crate is directly calculated from the three measured rates. For improved detectability limits, advanced methods have been incorporated in the WCAS-A to reduce the cosmic-ray neutron backgrounds. These methods include statistical filters and truncation of high-multiplicity events. The paper describes the WCAS-A design, performance, and calibration.

Menlove, Howard O.; Rinard, Phillip M.; Li, T. K. (Tien K.); Romero, M.; Hiruta, K.; Nasuno, S.

2001-01-01

279

Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing  

PubMed Central

Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be made for hydrophobic chemicals using passive dosing. PMID:22125776

Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

2011-01-01

280

Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis. PMID:18238584

Rose, J L

2000-01-01

281

Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.

Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

1999-01-01

282

Standardization of portable assay instrumentation: the neutron-coincidence tree  

SciTech Connect

Standardization of portable neutron assay instrumentation has been achieved by using the neutron coincidence technique as a common basis for a wide range of instruments and applications. The electronics originally developed for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter has been adapted to both passive- and active-assay instrumentation for field verification of bulk plutonium, inventory samples, pellets, powders, nitrates, high-enriched uranium, and materials-testing-reactor, light-water-reactor, and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. The family of detectors developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their performance under in-field conditions are described. 16 figures, 3 tables.

Menlove, H.O.

1983-01-01

283

Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

284

Passive blast pressure sensor  

SciTech Connect

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

285

Doped colorimetric assay liposomes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Stevens, Raymond C. (Albany, CA)

2001-01-01

286

Microfluidic DNA hybridization assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA hybridization is one of the most powerful techniques applied in diagnostic assays. Microfluidics provides a promising\\u000a means to analyse small sample volumes, reduce reagent consumption and cost, shorten processing time as well as develop fast,\\u000a sensitive and portable diagnostic tools. By coupling with the microfluidic technology, DNA hybridization assay can achieve\\u000a high sensitivity, enhance hybridization kinetics and decrease the

Xuan WengHai; Hai Jiang; Dongqing Li

287

CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-20

288

Passivity indices for symmetrically interconnected distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the passivity indices for both lin- ear and nonlinear multi-agent systems with feedforward and feedback interconnections are derived. For linear systems, the passivity indices are explicitly characterized, while the passivity indices in the nonlinear case are characterized by a set of matrix inequalities. We also focus on symmetric interconnections and specialize the passivity indices results to this

Po Wu; Panos J. Antsaklis

2011-01-01

289

On Passive One-Way Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passivity or positive real condition of passive linear two-terminal-pair networks is introduced. The formulas for thermal noise voltages of these networks are derived by using the Nyquist theorem. A relation between the passivity condition and thermal noise voltages is discussed. From these results, several interesting features of passive one-way systems are derived. For instance, any physically realizable passive one-way

Hideya Gamo

1959-01-01

290

NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil-carbon analysis; however, these also are invasive and destructive techniques. The INS approach permits quantification in a relatively large volume of soil without disrupting the measurement site. The technique is very fast and provides nearly instantaneous results thereby reducing the cost, and speeding up the rate of analysis. It also has the potential to cover large areas in a mobile scanning mode. These capabilities will significantly advance the tracking carbon sequestration and offer a tool for research in agronomy, forestry, soil ecology and biogeochemistry.

WIELOPOLSKI,L.MITRA,S.HENDREY,G.ORION,I.ROGERS,H.TORBERT,A.PRIOR,S.RUNION,B.

2004-02-01

291

On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Examining Fuel Particles  

SciTech Connect

Tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuels, being considered for use in various advanced nuclear power reactors, consist of sub-millimeter diameter uranium oxide spheres uniformly coated to prevent the release of fission products into the reactor. About 15 billion of these spheres are needed to fuel a single reactor. Current quality control (QC) methods are manual, can destroy test specimens, and are not economically feasible. Replacing these methods with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, automated for higher speed, will make fuel production and reactor operation economically feasible, considering the requirement for extremely large fuel particle throughput rates. This paper reports a project to develop and demonstrate nondestructive examination methods to detect and reject defective particles, and in particular progress made in the final year of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project . The work explored adapting, developing, and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to cost-effectively assure the quality of large percentages of the fuel particles.

Pardini, Allan F.; Bond, Leonard J.; Good, Morris S.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Saurwein, John J.; Gray, Joseph N.

2007-09-15

292

Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis  

DOEpatents

A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electrolyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polarographically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods. 6 figs.

Greenbaum, E.

1988-02-22

293

Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis  

DOEpatents

A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01

294

Homogeneous, bioluminescent proteasome assays.  

PubMed

Protein degradation is mediated predominantly through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The importance of the proteasome in regulating degradation of proteins involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and angiogenesis led to the recognition of the proteasome as a therapeutic target for cancer. The proteasome is also essential for degrading misfolded and aberrant proteins, and impaired proteasome function has been implicated in neurodegerative and cardiovascular diseases. Robust, sensitive assays are essential for monitoring proteasome activity and for developing inhibitors of the proteasome. Peptide-conjugated fluorophores are widely used as substrates for monitoring proteasome activity, but fluorogenic substrates can exhibit significant background and can be problematic for screening because of cellular autofluorescence or interference from fluorescent library compounds. Furthermore, fluorescent proteasome assays require column-purified 20S or 26S proteasome (typically obtained from erythrocytes), or proteasome extracts from whole cells, as their samples. To provide assays more amenable to high-throughput screening, we developed a homogeneous, bioluminescent method that combines peptide-conjugated aminoluciferin substrates and a stabilized luciferase. Using substrates for the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like proteasome activities in combination with a selective membrane permeabilization step, we developed single-step, cell-based assays to measure each of the proteasome catalytic activities. The homogeneous method eliminates the need to prepare individual cell extracts as samples and has adequate sensitivity for 96- and 384-well plates. The simple "add and read" format enables sensitive and rapid proteasome assays ideal for inhibitor screening. PMID:25308265

O'Brien, Martha A; Moravec, Richard A; Riss, Terry L; Bulleit, Robert F

2015-01-01

295

Rapid and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using field portable-XRF.  

PubMed

The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-field. This study evaluated the capability of field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: ?g cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to rapidly and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids. PMID:23912422

Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao

2013-09-01

296

Microgravity Passive Phase Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface area of the separating screen. Additionally, there are no moving parts, and there are no failure modes that involve fluid loss. A patent application has been filed.

Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

297

Passive Wake Vortex Control  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

Ortega, J M

2001-10-18

298

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into the nondestructive evaluation of advanced reinforced composite laminates is summarized. The applicability of the Framers-Kronig equations to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials is described.

Miller, James G.

1987-01-01

299

J Nondestruct Eval DOI 10.1007/s10921-014-0231-2  

E-print Network

J Nondestruct Eval DOI 10.1007/s10921-014-0231-2 Optimized Dynamic Acousto-elasticity Applied that the increase in the second harmonic 123 #12;J Nondestruct Eval was associated with the fatigue of a piece

300

Tachykinin receptor assays.  

PubMed

Described in this unit are methods for obtaining, preparing, and testing smooth muscle preparations bearing tachykinin receptors to study the agonist or antagonist properties of test compounds. Concentration-response curves to agonists are constructed to measure their ability to produce smooth muscle contractions and thus evaluate the potency and efficacy of the agonists. Antagonists are tested for their ability to shift the agonist concentration-response curve and to calculate their potency. Two different protocols are described for each of the three tachykinin receptors (NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3)). The NK(1) receptor assays use guinea pig ileum longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus (GPI) and rat urinary bladder (RUB), the NK(2) receptor assays use isolated endothelium-deprived rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) and hamster trachea (HT), and the NK(3) receptor assays use GPI and rat portal vein (RPV). PMID:22294370

Meini, Stefania; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

2010-03-01

301

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOEpatents

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08

302

Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation, 12th, San Antonio, Tex., April 24-26, 1979, Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of papers is presented regarding the research, development, and application achievements in the area of nondestructive testing. Topics of interest include computer signal processing for ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements, nondestructive measurement of plate glass temper, a proposed time-domain quantitative ultrasonic NDE system, and nondestructive evaluation techniques for composite materials. Also discussed are computer-controlled ultrasonic inspection of magnetic

W. W. Bradshaw

1979-01-01

303

Nondestructive Evaluation Quality Procedure: Personnel Qualification and Certification Radiographic Testing-Levels I& II  

SciTech Connect

This Operational Procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the qualification and certification/recertification of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) personnel in the nondestructive testing (NDT) radiographic testing (RT) method. This document is in accordance with the American Society for Nondestructive Testing Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, 1996, except as amended herein.

Dolan, K; Rikard, R D; Rodriquez, J

2003-07-01

304

Continuous nondestructive monitoring of microbial biofilms: A review of analytical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental requirement for the understanding and control of biofilms is the continuous nondestructive monitoring of biofilm processes. This paper reviews research analytical techniques that monitor biofilm processes in a continuous nondestructive manner and that could also be modified for industrial applications. To be considered ‘continuous’ and ‘nondestructive’ for the purpose of this review a technique must: (a) function in

D E Nivens; RJ Palmer Jr; D C White

1995-01-01

305

The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement-based  

E-print Network

The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement for Nondestructive Testing of Cement-Based Materials at Early Ages An Experimental and Numerical Analysis by Dr for Nondestructive Testing of Cement-Based Materials at Early Ages ­ An Experi- mental and Numerical Analysis ist

306

Seminars in Food Analysis 3, 131-140 (1998) Nondestructive internal quality assessment of  

E-print Network

Seminars in Food Analysis 3, 131-140 (1998) Nondestructive internal quality assessment of kiwifruit of Callfornia, Davis, CA95616, USA A nondestructive optical method for determining the intemal quality of intact. Keywords: nondestructive measurements; near-infrared spectroscopy; intemal quality; kiwifruit - 0 1998

Crisosto, Carlos H.

307

Nondestructive Probing of Rabi Oscillations on the Cesium Clock Transition near the Standard Quantum Limit  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Probing of Rabi Oscillations on the Cesium Clock Transition near the Standard March 2008) We report on the nondestructive observation of Rabi oscillations on the Cs clock transition as a refractive medium. Such nondestructive probing could, e.g., prove advanta- geous to optical lattice clocks

Saffman, Mark

308

Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic  

E-print Network

Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon and other elemental abun- dances accurately and nondestructively at the m-scale will be central that facilitates nondestructive, in situ mapping of elemental abundances, including organic carbon, at the m scale

Boyce, C. Kevin

309

Nondestructive Monitoring of Setting and Hardening of Portland Cement Mortar with Sonic Methods  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Monitoring of Setting and Hardening of Portland Cement Mortar with Sonic Methods on the shear wave reflection method. Introduction The nondestructive, in-situ testing of early-age concrete post-tensioning with greatest efficiency. A nondestructive, ultrasonic technique, which measures

310

Akkaya, Voigt, Shah 1/7 Document 1 Nondestructive measurement of concrete strength  

E-print Network

Akkaya, Voigt, Shah 1/7 Document 1 Nondestructive measurement of concrete strength gain A one-sided, nondestructive, ultrasonic technique for monitoring the setting and hardening process of concrete by nondestructive techniques is one of the most challenging tasks in modern civil engineering

311

Automated NonDestructive Inspector of Aging Aircraft Ian Davis and M. W. Siegel  

E-print Network

Automated NonDestructive Inspector of Aging Aircraft Ian Davis and M. W. Siegel The Robotics, the Automated NonDestructive Inspector (ANDI), holds to the aircraft skin with vacuum assisted suction cups- able neural network system. 1.0 BACKGROUND 1.1 Project Goals The initial goal of the Automated NonDestructive

Siegel, Mel

312

Need for Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) in the Detection of Decay in Structures1  

E-print Network

Need for Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) in the Detection of Decay in Structures1 W. Wayne Wilcox2 Abstract: Examples of the need for nondestructive and remote sensing technologies for evaluating existing technologies. Sometimes, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is not needed to determine

Standiford, Richard B.

313

Hertzian contact transducers for nondestructive evaluation F. L. Degertekin and B. T. Khuri-Yakub  

E-print Network

Hertzian contact transducers for nondestructive evaluation F. L. Degertekin and B. T. Khuri plates through a Hertzian contact. As a particular application to nondestructive evaluation, accu- rate, misalignment of fibers, etc.3 Lamb waves are the dominantly used ultrasonic wave modes for nondestructive

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

314

An inverse problem in nondestructive evaluation of Elisa Francini, Thomas Hoftand Fadil Santosa  

E-print Network

An inverse problem in nondestructive evaluation of spot-welds Elisa Francini, Thomas Hoftand Fadil arises in a novel nondestructive evaluation technique for assessing the quality of a spot-weld. We devise;Nondestructive evaluation of spot-welds 2 z x transducer weld nugget sheet metals infrared camera Figure 1

Santosa, Fadil

315

Peeping at chaos: Nondestructive monitoring of chaotic systems by measuring long-time  

E-print Network

OFFPRINT Peeping at chaos: Nondestructive monitoring of chaotic systems by measuring long) 40001 www.epljournal.org doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/80/40001 Peeping at chaos: Nondestructive monitoring and chaos PACS 05.60.Cd ­ Classical transport Abstract ­ One or more small holes provide non-destructive

Dettmann, Carl

316

J Nondestruct Eval (2010) 29: 143153 DOI 10.1007/s10921-010-0072-6  

E-print Network

J Nondestruct Eval (2010) 29: 143­153 DOI 10.1007/s10921-010-0072-6 The Effect of Hardness on Eddy plastic strain. Nondestructive residual stress assessment in surface- enhanced engine components the remaining service life of such compo- #12;144 J Nondestruct Eval (2010) 29: 143­153 nents without properly

Nagy, Peter B.

317

Nondestructive Sampling of Human Skeletal Remains Yields Ancient Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Sampling of Human Skeletal Remains Yields Ancient Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 KEY WORDS ancient DNA; nondestructive DNA to valuable specimens, we describe a nondestructive method for extracting DNA from ancient human remains

Kemp, Brian M.

318

J Nondestruct Eval DOI 10.1007/s10921-014-0225-0  

E-print Network

J Nondestruct Eval DOI 10.1007/s10921-014-0225-0 Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity in a Fatigue of Paris VI, UPMC, CNRS, Paris, France Keywords Nondestructive evaluation · Nonlinear ultra- sound-probe meth- ods that have existed in nonlinear acoustics from at least the 123 #12;J Nondestruct Eval 1950s

319

Porosity evaluation of PoSi wafer using a nondestructive ultrasonic technic  

E-print Network

Porosity evaluation of PoSi wafer using a nondestructive ultrasonic technic J. Bustilloa , J measurement methods of PoSi are currently destructive. Therefore in this study a nondestructive ultrasonic travelling through it, ultrasonic non-destructive testing can be a good way to measure these parameters [9

Boyer, Edmond

320

Postharvest Biology and Technology 44 (2007) 248253 Relationship between nondestructive firmness measurements  

E-print Network

Postharvest Biology and Technology 44 (2007) 248­253 Relationship between nondestructive firmness, methods of assessing fruit texture properties nondestructively were not commercially available. The nondestructive Sinclair iQTM firmness tester was investi- gated to monitor ripening and predict bruising

Crisosto, Carlos H.

321

Nondestructive Monitoring of a Pipe Network using a MEMS-Based Wireless Network  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Monitoring of a Pipe Network using a MEMS-Based Wireless Network Masanobu Shinozukaa sensor network (WSN) is developed for nondestructive monitoring of pipeline systems. It incor- porates such as a water distribution network can be monitored nondestructively for the purpose of damage localization

Shinozuka, Masanobu

322

J Nondestruct Eval (2007) 26: 123134 DOI 10.1007/s10921-007-0027-8  

E-print Network

J Nondestruct Eval (2007) 26: 123­134 DOI 10.1007/s10921-007-0027-8 Single Mode Tuning Effects extensive computation, and is not effective for real- time SHM system [6, 7]. #12;124 J Nondestruct Eval-reversal mirror [11] Furthermore, traditional guided wave SHM techniques developed from nondestructive evaluation

Giurgiutiu, Victor

323

Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

Pierson, Duane L. (inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (inventor); Koeing, David W. (inventor)

1992-01-01

324

Microwave Moisture Meter for Rapid and Nondestructive Grading of Peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A low-cost microwave moisture meter made with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for the grading of peanuts. The meter allows rapid and nondestructive determination of kernel moisture content from measurements on unshelled peanut pods. Th...

325

Model Selection for Nondestructive Quantification of Fruit Growth in Pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying fruit growth can be desirable for several purposes (e.g., prediction of fruit yield and size, or for the use in crop simulation models). The goal of this article was to determine the best sigmoid function to describe fruit growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum) from nondestructive fruit growth measurements. The Richards, Gompertz, logistic, and beta growth functions were tested. Fruit

A. M. Wubs; Y. T. Ma; E. Heuvelink; L. Hemerik; L. F. M. Marcelis

2012-01-01

326

Nondestructive method for measuring residual stresses in metals, a concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive direct measurement of residual surface stresses in metals can be made because metal under stress has a different electrochemical solution potential than in the unstressed condition. The method uses two matched electrolytic cells to cancel extraneous effects on the actual solution potential of the metal specimen.

Schwebel, C. D.

1968-01-01

327

Electrical tagging of cement composites for nondestructive integrity monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an investigation on the bulk electrical properties of carbon fiber cement composites (CFCC) with the prospect of developing a new nondestructive testing method are presented. The addition of carbon fibers to portland cement- based concrete or mortar improves the structural performance and at the same time significantly decreases the bulk electrical resistivity. This makes CFCC responsive to

Farhad Reza; Gordon B. Batson; Jerry A. Yamamuro; Jong S. Lee

1998-01-01

328

Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components

A. Manescu; F. Fiori; A. Giuliani; N. Kardjilov; Z. Kasztovszky; F. Rustichelli; B. Straumal

2008-01-01

329

Nondestructive evaluation of load transfer at rigid airport pavement joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current design criteria for rigid pavements for commercial and military airfields assume that 25% of the load applied to an edge of a slab is transferred through the joint to an adjacent unloaded slab. A nondestructive testing technique using a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to conduct field testing at a number of sites. A transfer function, developed from

Michael I. Hammons

1995-01-01

330

Federal Aviation Administration aging aircraft nondestructive inspection research plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper highlights the accomplishments and plans of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the development of improved nondestructive evaluation (NDE) equipment, procedures, and training. The role of NDE in aircraft safety and the need for improvement are discussed. The FAA program participants, and coordination of activities within the program and with relevant organizations outside the program are also described.

Seher, Chris C.

1992-01-01

331

Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

332

Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds from Guided Wave Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The critical role played by interface zones in the fracture and failure of composites and other bonded materials is well known. The existing nondestructive evaluation methods are generally not capable of yielding useful quantitative information of the strength of an interface.

Mal, A.; Lih, S-S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

1994-01-01

333

A REVIEW OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETECTION FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

E-print Network

A REVIEW OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETECTION FOR FRUIT QUALITY Haisheng Gao, Fengmei Zhu, Jinxing Cai-harvest fruit was presented in this paper, and the research and application were discussed. This paper elaborated the fruit quality detection methods which were based on one of the following properties: optical

334

Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

335

Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for structural ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for application to fossil energy systems continues in three areas: (a) mapping axial and radial density gradients in hot gas filters, (b) characterization of the quality of continuous fiber ceramic matrix composite (CFCC) joints and (c) characterization and detection of defects in thermal barrier coatings. In this work, X-ray computed tomographic imaging was further

W. A. Ellingson; R. D. Koehl; J. B. Stuckey; J. G. Sun; H. P. Engel; R. G. Smith

1997-01-01

336

Simple Nondestructive Method for the Measurement of Complex Permittivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple nondestructive method is presented for the measurement of the complex permittivity ¿r of materials. The reflection coefficient ¿ of a flanged open-ended rectangular waveguide placed, next to a flat large sample is computed by a variational method as a function of the dielectric constant. Computer-generated charts and an optimization computer program are elaborated. ¿r can then be easily

Marc. C. Decreton; Fred E. Gardiol

1974-01-01

337

Time reversal techniques in ultrasonic nondestructive testing of scattering media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time reversal techniques are adaptive methods that can be used in nondestructive evaluation to improve flaw detection through inhomogeneous and scattering media. Two techniques are presented: the iterative time reversal process and the DORT (French acronym for decomposition of the time reversal operator) method. In pulse echo mode, iterative time reversal mirrors allow one to accurately control wave propagation and

Claire Prada; Estelle Kerbrat; Didier Cassereau; Mathias Fink

2002-01-01

338

A global optimization technique for microwave nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global optimization technique based on a genetic algorithm is proposed for microwave nondestructive evaluation. Starting from an integral formulation of the inverse scattering problem, the detection of a flaw in a known host medium is reduced to the minimization of a suitable nonlinear functional relating the measured field to the field predicted at a given iteration. The geometrical parameters

Matteo Pastorino; Salvatore Caorsi; Andrea Massa

2002-01-01

339

A subnanosecond Josephson tunneling memory cell with nondestructive readout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and experimental investigation of a Josephson tunneling memory cell with nondestructive readout (NDRO) is described. The cell consists of a relatively large (20×25 mil\\/SUP 2\\/) superconductive loop which contains two Josephson tunneling write gates. NDRO is performed with a third gate per cell. It is shown that such a cell is an L, R, C parallel circuit which

HANS H. ZAPPE

1975-01-01

340

A review of SQUID magnetometry applied to nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the SQUID as the most sensitive instrument known for the measurement of changes in magnetic flux has presented new opportunities for its use for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of electrically conducting and ferromagnetic structures. The preliminary studies of this application within the past few years are reviewed in order to serve as an introduction to those that follow.

Harold Weinstock; Bolling AFB

1991-01-01

341

Photocurrent estimation from multiple nondestructive samples in CMOS image sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

CMOS image sensors generally suffer form lower dynamic range than CCDs due to their higher readout noise. Their high speed readout capability and the potential of integrating memory and signal processing with the sensor on the same chip, open up many possibilities for enhancing their dynamic range. Earlier work have demonstrated the use of multiple non-destructive samples to enhance dynamic

Xinqiao Liu; Abbas El Gamal

2001-01-01

342

Genetic algorithms for nondestructive testing in crack identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to identify the nature of a crack on the surface of a region using nondestructive testing (NDT) and inverse problem methodology is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) based approach, which involves a global search to avoid local minima, is presented and applied to solve the inverse problem of identifying the position, shape and the orientation of a surface

A. A. Arkadan; T. Sareen; S. Subramaniam

1994-01-01

343

Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation examines the background and objective of nondestructive crack detection, flow control valve assembly and poppet post flight evaluation, poppet properties. magnetic property characterization of lab data, NDE, eddy current inspection, simulation, eddy current criteria, poppet cycle testing and NDE criteria, and the use of ultrasonic surface wave for crack detection.

Koshti, Ajay; Ruffino, Norman; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Winfree, William; Russell, Richard; Bryson, Craig; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Landy, James

2010-01-01

344

Blind deconvolution of ultrasonic signals in nondestructive testing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced nondestructive testing techniques use a laser to generate ultrasonic waves at the surface of a test material. An air-coupled transducer receives the ultrasound that is the convolution of the signal leaving the test material and the distortion function. Blind deconvolution methods are applied to estimate the signal leaving the material

A. K. Nandi; D. Mampel; B. Roscher

1997-01-01

345

Nondestructive test determines overload destruction characteristics of current limiter fuses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive test predicts the time required for current limiters to blow /open the circuit/ when subjected to a given overload. The test method is based on an empirical relationship between the voltage rise across a current limiter for a fixed time interval and the time to blow.

Swartz, G. A.

1968-01-01

346

Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the

David J. Eisenmann; L. Scott Chumbley

2009-01-01

347

FORENSIC EXAMINATION USING A NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION METHOD FOR SURFACE METROLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the

David J. Eisenmann; L. Scott Chumbley

2009-01-01

348

All-Passive Nonreciprocal Metasurface  

E-print Network

We introduce a systematic approach to design all-passive subwavelength high performance metasurfaces that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover we build upon those findings and propose a new paradigm for a quasi-2D metasurface that mimic the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices.

Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Engheta, Nader

2014-01-01

349

Passivation of high temperature superconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

Vasquez, Richard P. (inventor)

1991-01-01

350

Performance assessment of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry for spent nuclear fuel assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is one of several nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques being integrated into systems to measure spent fuel as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Spent Fuel Project. The NGSI Spent Fuel Project is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration to measure plutonium in, and detect diversion of fuel pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies. SINRD shows promising capability in determining the 239Pu and 235U content in spent fuel. SINRD is a relatively low-cost and lightweight instrument, and it is easy to implement in the field. The technique makes use of the passive neutron source existing in a spent fuel assembly, and it uses ratios between the count rates collected in fission chambers that are covered with different absorbing materials. These ratios are correlated to key attributes of the spent fuel assembly, such as the total mass of 239Pu and 235U. Using count rate ratios instead of absolute count rates makes SINRD less vulnerable to systematic uncertainties. Building upon the previous research, this work focuses on the underlying physics of the SINRD technique: quantifying the individual impacts on the count rate ratios of a few important nuclides using the perturbation method; examining new correlations between count rate ratio and mass quantities based on the results of the perturbation study; quantifying the impacts on the energy windows of the filtering materials that cover the fission chambers by tallying the neutron spectra before and after the neutrons go through the filters; and identifying the most important nuclides that cause cooling-time variations in the count rate ratios. The results of these studies show that 235U content has a major impact on the SINRD signal in addition to the 239Pu content. Plutonium-241 and 241Am are the two main nuclides responsible for the variation in the count rate ratio with cooling time. In short, this work provides insights into some of the main factors that affect the performance of SINRD, and it should help improve the hardware design and the algorithm used to interpret the signal for the SINRD technique. In addition, the modeling and simulation techniques used in this work can be easily adopted for analysis of other NDA systems, especially when complex systems like spent nuclear fuel are involved. These studies were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J.; LaFleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

2013-11-01

351

HIGH ENERGY DELAYED GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY FOR PLUTONIUM ASSAY OF SPENT REACTOR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear safeguards requires accountancy of plutonium present in spent reactor fuels. Current non-destructive methods do not directly measure plutonium content but instead rely on indirect measurements that require operator declarations of the fuel history. Delayed gamma spectroscopy is one method being investigated which can overcome these limitations. Delayed gamma rays from fission depend on the isotopic fission yield of the fissile isotope, and thus can be used to fingerprint the isotopes undergoing fission. However, difficulties arise because of the intense background due to long lived fission radionuclides already present in the fuel. We report on progress on simulated measurements of the delayed gamma spectrum in the presence of this background, using neutrons from a D-T source thermalized in an interrogation chamber slipped over a fuel assembly. By focusing on delayed gammas in the 3 to 4 MeV range, the passive spectrum becomes negligible, while allowing the preferential attenuation of the passive background to acceptable levels.

Campbell, Luke W.; Smith, L. E.; Misner, Alex C.

2011-07-18

352

HCI gesture tracking using wearable passive tags  

E-print Network

In this thesis. a wearable system is developed to track hand gestures with passive RFID sensor tags. This system was composed of an ultra-high frequency reader and small, passive, finger-worn tags powered by scavenged RFID ...

Bainbridge, Rachel M

2010-01-01

353

The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

Whitson, Signe

2013-01-01

354

Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

Miller, Stephen W.

2007-01-01

355

Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured

Mayes Mullins; Paul J. Thomas; John W. Harron; Philip Duggan; Peter M. Sinclair; S. M. Khanna

1998-01-01

356

Silicon nitride passivation of IC's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility study looks at effectiveness of silicon nitride passivation coating against moisture and mobile ions. Coating was tested on CMOS microcircuits. Tests included temperature cycling, high-temperature electrical stress, and temperature and humidity exposure. Report concludes plastic-encapsulated circuits with protective coating exhibit high survival rates; it includes tables summarizing test results and figures that show effects of flexing.

Erickson, J. J.; Gebhart, F. L.; Hall, T. C.; Peters, J. W.

1980-01-01

357

Passive solar, country-style  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a 2170 ft{sup 2} (202 m{sup 2}) custom-designed passive solar home in rural Burlington, North Carolina. The architectural style elegantly combines pleasing aesthetics with practical attention to energy conservation. Included in the article are details of the construction, energy efficient materials and design, energy performance, cost performance.

Miller, B.

1996-07-01

358

Reliability of passive earth pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive earth pressure calculations in geotechnical analysis are usually performed with the aid of the Rankine or Coulomb theories of earth pressure based on uniform soil properties. These traditional earth pressure theories assume that the soil is uniform. The fact that soils are spatially variable leads to two potential problems in design: do sampled soil properties adequately reflect the effective

D. V. Griffiths; Gordon A. Fenton; Heidi R. Ziemann

2008-01-01

359

Passive solar roof ice melter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window

Deutz

1981-01-01

360

[Passive smoking--active killer].  

PubMed

Although still not perceived in this way, passive smoking is a public health issue of great importance. World Health Organization estimates that as a result of passive exposure to tobacco smoke each year 600,000 people die, of which 165,000 children. There are 33% of men, 35% of women and 40% of children who do not smoke, but are exposed to second hand smoke, and still only 11% of the world population is protected by adequate smoke-free legislation. Scientific literature provides evidence that passive exposure to tobacco smoke can result in numerous adverse health effects: asthma and allergies, respiratory infections and (middle) ear infections, cancers of various localization, accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, retardation of growth and development in children, and in pregnancy it can lead to congenital anomalies and premature birth as well as lower body weight and length of the child. Certainly, the scariest consequence of all is sudden infant death syndrome, also called "death in the crib". Smoke-free policies have proven their effectiveness, but while implementing the laws, it is necessary to raise public awareness of the hazards of, both active and passive, exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:24490334

Palavra, Irena Rojni?; Franeli?, Iva Pejnovi?; Milanovi?, Sanja Musi?; Pulji?, Kresimir

2013-01-01

361

Multiplexed Elispot assay.  

PubMed

Micron scale latex beads are well established as highly biocompatible reagents. Imbibing two fluorescent dyes into the interior of the beads enables the creation of a family of combinatorially colored labels. Previous use of such beads, in flow cytometry for example, has focused on beads of approximately 5 microm diameter. We show here that 280 nm combinatorially labeled particles can be used to create ELISA-style assays in 200 microm scale virtual wells, using digital microscopy as the readout. The utility of this technique is illustrated by profiling the secreted cytokine footprints of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a multiparametric version of the popular Elispot assay. Doing so reveals noncanonical classes of T lymphocytes. We further show that the secreting cell type can be concurrently identified by surface staining with a cell type specific antibody conjugated to the same multiplexed beads. PMID:19084532

Harriman, William D; Collarini, Ellen J; Cromer, Remy G; Dutta, April; Strandh, Magnus; Zhang, Fen; Kauvar, Lawrence M

2009-02-28

362

Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

1993-01-01

363

Passivation Of High-Temperature Superconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surfaces of high-temperature superconductors passivated with native iodides, sulfides, or sulfates formed by chemical treatments after superconductors grown. Passivating compounds nearly insoluble in and unreactive with water and protect underlying superconductors from effects of moisture. Layers of cuprous iodide and of barium sulfate grown. Other candidate passivating surface films: iodides and sulfides of bismuth, strontium, and thallium. Other proposed techniques for formation of passivating layers include deposition and gas-phase reaction.

Vasquez, Richard P.

1991-01-01

364

Microcalorimetric assay of acetylcholinesterase.  

PubMed

Comparative assays were made in a spectrophotometer and a microcalorimeter for the reaction between acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) and acetylthiocholine. The rate of light absorbance change and the rate of heat flow were measured from similar and simultaneous reactions in spectrophotometer and microcalorimeter, respectively. At the enzyme activity levels studied, i.e., 0.05-0.15 I.U. in calorimetry and 1-4 I.U. in spectrophotometry, the reaction rates were linear and showed first-order kinetics A highly significant positive correlation was seen between the two methods (r = 0.997). More importantly, spectrophotometric assay with acetylthiocholine (which utilized a secondary reaction with chromagen, dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid) stood in highly significant positive correlation with calorimetric assays (which did not require a chromagen) either with the same substrate (r = 0.976) or with acetylcholine (r = 0.900). It appears that microcalorimetry can be used in preference to spectrophotometry for enzyme kinetic studies to overcome the complexity of reaction mixture and interference problems and with the advantage of using natural substrates. PMID:7370307

Rosenstein, S; Brown, H D

1980-04-17

365

Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

Olsen, L. C.

1984-01-01

366

Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

2010-01-01

367

February 1, 2001 / Vol. 26, No. 3 / OPTICS LETTERS 137 Nondestructive spatial heterodyne imaging of cold atoms  

E-print Network

February 1, 2001 / Vol. 26, No. 3 / OPTICS LETTERS 137 Nondestructive spatial heterodyne imaging for nondestructive imaging of laser-cooled atoms. This spatial heterodyne technique forms a phase image spatial heterodyne method for nondestructive imaging of trapped atoms. As with other nondestructive

Walker, Thad G.

368

Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

2014-04-01

369

Nondestructive Testing Qualification of Main Circulatory Tube Pipes DU 500  

SciTech Connect

The criteria for safe operation of nuclear energetic installations is given a higher priority in the policy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant. An efficient non-destructive inspection is the key point for the safe service. Kozloduy NPP keeps on making investments in equipment and qualification of specialists in this field. The processes of qualification of the NDT components, important for the nuclear and radiation safety, make considerable improvement in Kozloduy NPP, thanks to the accumulated in the years experience in the activities of NDT inspection qualification, and to the help of our partners Serco Assurance and the Institute of Rzes. The results obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of circulation tube mains DU 500 WWER 440 type are under discussion in this report. (authors)

Tabakova, Bojana M.; Tzokov, Petio [Technical University - Sofia, Nuclear Power Plant - Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

2004-07-01

370

Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Schaschl, Leslie

2011-01-01

371

Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.  

PubMed

Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

2011-01-01

372

Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing  

PubMed Central

Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

2011-01-01

373

Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

2011-06-01

374

Nondestructive Characterization Techniques Used for Ceramic Matrix Composite Life Determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results indicate that the specific damping capacity and resonant frequency measurements taken periodically during a component's lifetime is able to quantify the mechanical fatigue of CMCS. This gives hope for the potential of determining the actual and residual life of CMC materials using a combination of nondestructive techniques. If successful, then this new paradigm for life prediction of CMCs could revolutionize the approach for designing and servicing CMC components, thereby significantly reducing costs for design, development, health monitoring, and maintenance of CMC components and systems. The Nondestructive Characterization (NDC) life prediction approach would complement life prediction using micromechanics and continuum finite element models. This paper reports on the initial concept of NDC life prediction, a review of the C/SiC blisk damping data, and how changes in the specific damping capacity & ultrasonic elastic modulus data have established the concept as a possibility.

Effinger, Michael; Koenig, John; Ellingson, Bill; Spohnholtz, Todd

2000-01-01

375

Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels  

SciTech Connect

Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

2011-06-23

376

Feedback control of coherent spin states using weak nondestructive measurements  

E-print Network

We consider the decoherence of a pseudo-spin ensemble under collective random rotations, and study, both theoretically and experimentally, how a nondestructive measurement combined with real-time feedback correction can protect the state against such a decoherence process. We theoretically characterize the feedback efficiency with different parameters --- coherence, entropy, fidelity --- and show that a maximum efficiency is reached in the weak measurement regime, when the projection of the state induced by the measurement is negligible. This article presents in detail the experimental results published in [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{110}, 210503 (2013)], where the feedback scheme stabilizes coherent spin states of trapped ultra-cold atoms, and nondestructively probed with a dispersive optical detection. In addition, we study the influence of several parameters, such as atom number and rotation angle, on the performance of the method. We analyze the various decoherence sources limiting the feedback efficiency a...

Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Bertoldi, Andrea; Cantin, Etienne; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

2014-01-01

377

Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol  

SciTech Connect

In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.

Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

1987-05-01

378

Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

Clark, E

2005-05-31

379

Non-destructive speckle interferometry diagnosis method for art conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a field non-destructive Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry diagnosis method to be applied in art conservation works, using as the light source a home-made single-frequency pulsed micro-laser oscillator-amplifier system. The green nanosecond laser-pulses are directed towards an interferometer set-up, where a beam splitter cube divides the incoming beam to define the object, respectively the reference beams. The object beam

Vivi Tornari; Y. Orphanos; R. Dabu; C. Blanaru; A. Stratan; D. Ursu

2007-01-01

380

Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

2011-08-01

381

Fault determinations in electroexplosive devices by nondestructive techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several nondestructive test techniques were developed for electroexplosive devices. The bridgewire responds, when pulsed with a safe level current, by generating a characteristic heating curve. The response is indicative of the electrothermal behavior of the bridgewire-explosive interface. Bridgewires which deviate from the characteristic heating curve were dissected and examined to determine the cause of the abnormality. Deliberate faults were fabricated into squibs. The relationship of the specific abnormality and the fault associated with it is demonstrated.

Menichelli, V. J.; Rosenthal, L. A.

1972-01-01

382

Non-destructive characterization of archaeological glasses by neutron tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is carried out in the framework of a National Italian Project, whose aim is the assessment of innovative physical non-destructive techniques applied to archaeology. Towards this end, some archaeological artefacts have been studied by our group, in collaboration with the National Museum of Altino (VE) and EniTecnologie S.p.A. The objects come from the excavations in Altino, near

F. Fiori; G. Giunta; A. Hilger; N. Kardjilov; F. Rustichelli

2006-01-01

383

Nondestructive quantitative stress characterization of wire rope and steel cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new approach to nondestructive and quantitative characterization of residual and applied stress (absolute stress) on wire rope and steel cable. Examples are given from both field work as well as laboratory tests, including stress characterization of post-tensioning cables, bridge suspension cables, wire rope and thin strand steel wire. The approach is based on x-ray diffraction techniques. A detailed description of the results and the methodologies used to obtain them are provided.

Brauss, Michael E.; Pineault, James A.; Belassel, M.; Teodoropol, Stefan I.

1998-03-01

384

Nondestructive diagnostics for relativistic picosecond bunched electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duration and form of relativistic picosecond electron bunches in the Duke University Mark III free-electron laser have been nondestructively measured by monitoring the submillimeter radiation produced by the bunches as they pass by or through a rectangular waveguide. Unlike other methods, our technique produces negligible electron bunch perturbation and allows real-time beam diagnostics to be performed simultaneously with free-electron

J. C. Swartz; B. D. Guenther; F. C. de Lucia; Wei Guo; C. R. Jones; H. Kosai; J. M. Dutta

1995-01-01

385

Giant magnetoresistance based eddy current probes for nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of deeply buried cracks and of small cracks initiating at edges of metallic parts and structures are among the challenges encountered by the nondestructive testing industry. Solid-state magnetic sensors based on Giant Magneto-Resistance (GMR) and Spin-Dependent Tunneling (SDT) effects have been integrated in eddy current probes that are capable of addressing these difficult problems. Because of their superior sensitivity,

Teodor Dogaru

2002-01-01

386

Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

1987-02-01

387

Non-destructive ultrasonic measurements of case depth. [in steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two ultrasonic methods for nondestructive measurements of the depth of a case-hardened layer in steel are described. One method involves analysis of ultrasonic waves diffused back from the bulk of the workpiece. The other method involves finding the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves launched on the surface of the work. Procedures followed in the two methods for measuring case depth are described.

Flambard, C.; Lambert, A.

1978-01-01

388

Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for structural ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods using three-dimensional microfocus X-ray computed tomographic imaging (3DXCT) were employed to map axial and radial density variations in hot-gas filters and heat exchanger tubes. 3D XCT analysis was conducted on (a) two 38-mm-OD, 6.5-mm wall, SiC\\/SiC heat exchanger tubes infiltrated by CVI; (b) eight 10 cm diam. oxide\\/oxide heat exchanger tubes; and (c) one 26-cm-long Nextel

W. A. Ellingson; R. D. Koehl; J. A. Wilson; J. B. Stuckey; H. P. Engel

1996-01-01

389

Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for structural ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year, the focus of our work on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods was on the development and application of these methods to technologies such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) hot-gas filters, CMC high-temperature heat exchangers, and CMC ceramic\\/ceramic joining. Such technologies are critical to the ''Vision 21 Energy-Plex Fleet'' of modular, high-efficiency, low-emission power systems. Specifically, our NDE

Ellingson

1998-01-01

390

Recent developments in nondestructive evaluation for structural ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to characterize ceramic materials and allow improvement of process technology. If one can determine porosity, map organic binder\\/plasticizer distributions, measure average through-volume and in-plane density, as well as detect inclusions, then process and machine operations may be modified to enhance the reliabilty of ceramics. Two modes of x-ray tomographic imaging - advanced film

W. A. Ellingson; R. A. Roberts; M. W. Vannier; J. L. Ackerman; B. D. Sawicka; S. Gronemeyer; R. J. Kriz

1987-01-01

391

Nondestructive Fluorescent State Detection of Single Neutral Atom Qubits  

E-print Network

We demonstrate non-destructive (loss-less) fluorescent state detection of individual neutral atom qubits trapped in an optical lattice. The hyperfine state of the atom is measured with a 95% accuracy and an atom loss rate of 1%. Individual atoms are initialized and detected over 100 times before being lost from the trap, representing a 100-fold improvement in data collection rates over previous experiments. Microwave Rabi oscillations are observed with repeated measurements of one-and-the-same single atom.

Michael J. Gibbons; Christopher D. Hamley; Chung-Yu Shih; Michael S. Chapman

2010-12-08

392

Precise nondestructive determination of the density of porous ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast, accurate inexpensive, and nondestructive method to determine the density of very porous ceramics is discussed. This method is an extension of the water-displacement technique with three weighings and the use of glycerol instead of water. For small (1.13 g), 29% porosity BâCâ pellets, the precision is 0.002 g\\/cm³ and the accuracy is better than 0.006 g\\/cm³ compared with

Erik C. M. Pennings; Wolfgang Grellner

1989-01-01

393

Optical Nondestructive Controlled-NOT Gate without Using Entangled Photons  

E-print Network

We present and experimentally demonstrate a novel optical nondestructive controlled-NOT gate without using entangled ancilla. With much fewer measurements compared with quantum process tomography, we get a good estimation of the gate fidelity. The result shows a great improvement compared with previous experiments. Moreover, we also show that quantum parallelism is achieved in our gate and the performance of the gate can not be reproduced by local operations and classical communications.

Xiao-Hui Bao; Teng-Yun Chen; Qiang Zhang; Jian Yang; Han Zhang; Tao Yang; Jian-Wei Pan

2007-05-08

394

Nondestructive Fluorescent State Detection of Single Neutral Atom Qubits  

E-print Network

We demonstrate non-destructive (loss-less) fluorescent state detection of individual neutral atom qubits trapped in an optical lattice. The hyperfine state of the atom is measured with a 95% accuracy and an atom loss rate of 1%. Individual atoms are initialized and detected over 100 times before being lost from the trap, representing a 100-fold improvement in data collection rates over previous experiments. Microwave Rabi oscillations are observed with repeated measurements of one-and-the-same single atom.

Gibbons, Michael J; Shih, Chung-Yu; Chapman, Michael S

2010-01-01

395

Physical basis for nondestructive tests of MOS radiation hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that the 1\\/f noise and channel resistance of unirradiated nMOS transistors from a single lot with various gate-oxide splits closely correlate with the oxide-trap and interface trap charge, respectively, following irradiation. The 1\\/f noise is explained by scattering from interface-trap precursor defects. It appears that both noise and channel mobility measurements may be useful in defining nondestructive

John H. Scofield; D. M. Fleetwood

1991-01-01

396

The Effects of Stress Mitigation on Nondestructive Examination  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic volumetric and eddy current and visual profile surface inspections of the completed weld securing the outer lid of the Yucca Mountain waste package are required after stress mitigation. However, the technique implemented may affect the ability of the different evaluation techniques to properly characterize the completed weld. An evaluation was performed to determine the extent the nondestructive evaluation techniques are affected by two candidate mitigation processes: controlled plasticity burnishing and laser peening. This report describes the work performed and summarizes the results.

Dennis C. Kunerth; Eric D. Larsen; Timothy R. Mcjunkin; Arthur D. Watkins

2004-08-01

397

Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured end temperature reached is 151 K in a liquid nitrogen dewar which extrapolates to an end temperature of lower than 145 K in space. Thermal vacuum testing and random vibration testing at levels consistent with an Ariane 5 launch have been performed as part of formal qualification for the STRV mission. In this paper, details of the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the passive cryocooler are presented.

Mullins, Mayes; Thomas, Paul J.; Harron, John W.; Duggan, Philip; Sinclair, Peter M.; Khanna, Shyam M.

1998-11-01

398

Passive Neutron Detection at Borders  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitor systems have been deployed to screen for illicit trafficking of radioactive materials at international border crossings. This report reviews some of the neutron detection requirements and capabilities of passive detection systems used for such applications. Simulations show the effects of cargo materials on neutron spectra, different detector geometries, using a large-array of neutron detectors, and the effects of backgrounds including “ship effect” neutrons.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Ely, James H.; Keller, Paul E.; McConn, Ronald J.

2008-03-01

399

Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

Carswell, James R.

2010-01-01

400

Monolithically Integrable RF MEMS Passives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents high performance MEMS passives using fully CMOS compatible, monolithically integrable 3-D RF MEMS processes for RF and microwave applications. The 3-D RF MEMS technology has been developed and investigated as a viable technological option, which can break the limit of the conventional IC technology. We have demonstrated the versatility of the technology by fabricating various 3-D thick-metal

Eun-Chul Park; Yun-Seok Choi; Jun-Bo Yoon; Euisik Yoon

2002-01-01

401

Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

2014-11-01

402

Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in vitro. PMID:15781217

Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

2005-04-01

403

Determination of the plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly by passive and active interrogation using a differential die-away instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel approach to estimating the total plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly (SFA) that is based on combining information from a passive measurement of the total neutron count rate (PN) of the assayed SFA and a measure of its multiplication. While PN can be measured essentially with any non-destructive assay (NDA) technique capable of neutron detection, the measure of multiplication is, in our approach, determined by means of active interrogation using an instrument based on the Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). The DDA is a NDA technique developed within the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) project focused on the utilization of NDA techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in commercial nuclear SFA's [1]. This approach was adopted since DDA also allows determination of other SFA characteristics, such as burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time, and also allows for detection of certain types of diversion of nuclear material. The quantification of total plutonium is obtained using an analytical correlation function in terms of the observed PN and active multiplication. Although somewhat similar approaches relating Pu content with PN have been adopted in the past, we demonstrate by extensive simulation of the fuel irradiation and NDA process that our analytical method is independent of explicit knowledge of the initial enrichment, burnup, and an absolute value of the SFA's reactivity (i.e. multiplication factor). We show that when tested with MCNPX™ simulations comprising the 64 SFA NGSI Spent Fuel Library-1 we were able to determine elemental plutonium content, using just a few calibration parameters, with an average variation in the prediction of around 1-2% across the wide dynamic range of irradiation history parameters used, namely initial enrichment (IE=2-5%), burnup (BU=15-60 GWd/tU) and cooling time (CT=1-80 y). In this paper we describe the basic approach and the success obtained against synthetic data. We recognize that our synthetic data may not fully capture the rich behavior of actual irradiated fuel and the uncertainties of the practical measurements. However, this design study is based on a rather complete nuclide inventory and the correlations for Pu seem robust to variation of input. Thus it is concluded that the proposed method is sufficiently promising that further experimentally based work is desirable.

Henzl, V.; Croft, S.; Richard, J.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Tobin, S. J.

2013-06-01

404

Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

Ludewigt, Bernhard A

2010-12-30

405

Efficient methods for solving boundary integral equation in diffusive scalar problem and eddy current nondestructive evaluation.  

E-print Network

??Eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of airframe structures involves the detection of electromagnetic field irregularities due to non-conducting inhomogeneities in an electrically conducting material. Usually,… (more)

Yang, Ming

2010-01-01

406

PRESSURE BAG MOLDING: MANUFACTURING, MECHANICAL TESTING, NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

PRESSURE BAG MOLDING: MANUFACTURING, MECHANICAL TESTING, NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, AND ANALYSIS..........................................................................................................4 Pressure Bag Molding-up ..............................................................................................................13 Resin Transfer Molding

407

Gap between active and passive solar heating  

SciTech Connect

The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

Balcomb, J.D.

1985-01-01

408

THE PASSIVITY CONTROL FOR TS FUZZY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the notion of strict passivity to T-S fuzzy system and consider the problem of passivity control for a kind of uncertain T-S fuzzy system with time-delay. The su-cient conditions which make the closed-loop system be stable and strictly passive are obtained for the system. The conditions are expressed as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). So checking

BAOYAN ZHU; JINBAO WANG; YANLI GU

2009-01-01

409

The Future of Passive Solar in Industry  

E-print Network

THE FUTURE OF PASSIVE SOLAR IN INDUSTRY Donald R. WUlfingh9ff, P.E. WUlfinghoff Energy Services, Inc. Wheaton, Maryland ABSTRACT Passive solar is a family of tech niques for the direct use of sunlight for illumination and heating.... Industrial facilities have characteristics which particularly favor the use of these tech niques. This paper examines the applic ability and economic potential of passive solar in the industrial environment, and offers specific suggestions for achieving...

Wulfinghoff, D. R.

410

Physics of passive solar buildings  

SciTech Connect

Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

Balcomb, J.D.

1981-01-01

411

Effects of isokinetic passive exercise and isometric muscle contraction on passive stiffness.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic passive exercise and motion velocity on passive stiffness. In addition, we also discuss the effects of the contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles on passive stiffness. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 healthy men with no bone or joint disease. [Methods] Isokinetic passive exercise and isometric muscle contraction were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. The angular acceleration measured by the accelerometer was compared before and after each task. [Results] After the passive exercise, the angular acceleration increased in the phase of small damped oscillation. Moreover, the effect was higher at high-speed movement. The angular acceleration was decreased by the contraction of the agonist muscle. Conversely, the angular acceleration was increased by the contraction of the antagonist muscle. [Conclusion] Isokinetic passive exercise reduced passive stiffness. Our results suggest the possibility that passive stiffness is increased by agonist muscle contraction and decreased by antagonist muscle contraction. PMID:24259791

Terada, Shigeru; Miaki, Hiroichi; Uchiyama, Keita; Hayakawa, Shozo; Yamazaki, Toshiaki

2013-10-01

412

NCI Launches Proteomics Assay Portal  

Cancer.gov

In a paper recently published by the journal Nature Methods, Investigators from the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) announced the launch of a proteomics Assay Portal for multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assays. This community web-based repository for well-characterized quantitative proteomic assays currently consists of 456 unique peptide assays to 282 unique proteins and serves as a public resource of methodologies and data related to cancer associated targets.

413

Nondestructive inspection of kinetic bonding by eddy current method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic bonding is a welding procedure in which two metals are joined together by forcing them to collide under high pressure and at high velocity by explosive detonation. Applied to steam condenser tube/tube-sheet welding, this method has demonstrated considerable reduction in cost and improvement in welding speed and effectiveness. Presented in this paper is the result of a theoretical study conducted to determine the suitability of ``eddy current method'' for nondestructively testing the kinetically bonded tube/tube-sheet region. The study shows that an eddy current probe is sensitive enough for this application and an advanced state-of-the-art instrumentation may be needed for quantitative evaluation.

Palanisamy, R.

1984-03-01

414

Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols  

DOEpatents

The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

2014-09-16

415

[Ionizing radiation in the aeronautics industry. Non-destructive testing].  

PubMed

The constant increase in the non-military use of nuclear energy in various fields induced this study of one particular field: the aero industry. Alitalia has been using gammagraphy and industrial metallography for nondestructive testing for over 20 years. Workers exposed to ionising radiations at work are protected by precisely detailed standards based on extremely rigorous national and international legislation. The health and protection of these workers is entrusted to a Company Doctor and a Qualified Specialist. The latter is thought to be indispensable since he is responsible for primary preventions as well as prompt diagnosis. PMID:6866316

La Verde, R; Travaglini, C

1983-08-25

416

Nondestructive diagnostics for relativistic picosecond bunched electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The duration and form of relativistic picosecond electron bunches in the Duke University Mark III free-electron laser have been nondestructively measured by monitoring the submillimeter radiation produced by the bunches as they pass by or through a rectangular waveguide. Unlike other methods, our technique produces negligible electron bunch perturbation and allows real-time beam diagnostics to be performed simultaneously with free-electron laser (FEL) operation. We have measured 2.1-ps full width at half maximum duration electron bunches, studied the effect of electron gun and FEL modifications on bunch duration, and observed electron bunch variations during bunch trains.

Swartz, J. C.; Guenther, B. D.; de Lucia, F. C.; Guo, Wei; Jones, C. R.; Kosai, H.; Dutta, J. M.

1995-11-01

417

Physical Principles of Magnetic Fluid Guides Used for Nondestructive Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiarities of magnetic fluid (MF) usage in Non-Destructive testing are discussed. It is shown that MF is a perspective acoustic material not only for ensuring an acoustic contact, but also for: fluid sound refracting prisms in order to excite subsurface (head) and surface waves in solids with low velocity; directivity controlling of ultrasonic probes with magnetic fluid guide; ultrasound excitation in solids by laser pulse radiation. New methods of MF usage, as an indicator medium for dimension measurements of internal geometrical sizes of solids, is proposed. A new approach is being developed for analysis of acoustical, magnetic and others fields.

Baev, A. R.; Prokhorenko, P. P.; Mayorov, A. L.

2004-02-01

418

Nondestructive interferometric characterization of an optical dipole trap  

SciTech Connect

A method for nondestructive characterization of a dipole-trapped atomic sample is presented. It relies on a measurement of the phase shift imposed by cold atoms on an optical pulse that propagates through a free-space Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Using this technique we are able to determine, with very good accuracy, relevant trap parameters such as the atomic sample temperature, trap oscillation frequencies, and loss rates. Another important feature is that our method is faster than conventional absorption or fluorescence techniques, allowing the combination of high-dynamical range measurements and a reduced number of spontaneous emission events per atom.

Petrov, Plamen G.; Oblak, Daniel; Alzar, Carlos L. Garrido; Kjaergaard, Niels; Polzik, Eugene S. [QUANTOP, Danish National Research Foundation Centre of Quantum Optics, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

2007-03-15

419

Efficient Nondestructive Evaluation of Prototype Carbon Fiber Reinforced Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermography inspection is an optic based technology that can reduce the time and cost required to inspect propellant tanks or aero structures fabricated from composite materials. Usually areas identified as suspect in the thermography inspection are examined with ultrasonic methods to better define depth, orientation and the nature of the anomaly. This combination of nondestructive evaluation techniques results in a rapid and comprehensive inspection of composite structures. Examples of application of this inspection philosophy to prototype will be presented. Methods organizing the inspection and evaluating the results will be considered.

Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

420

Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1982-01-01

421

Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure  

DOEpatents

A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure at regions of interest within the object.

Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

1983-11-01

422

Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy  

SciTech Connect

The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Wiezman, A. [Netania (Israel)

2011-06-23

423

Liberty Bell 7 Recovery Evaluation and Nondestructive Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inspection of the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, and its contents was made on September 1 and 2, 1999. The condition of the capsule and its contents was consistent with long-term exposure to salt water and high pressures at the bottom of the ocean. Many of the metallic materials suffered corrosion, whereas the polymer-based materials seem to have survived remarkably well. No identifiable items or structures were found that appeared to have any scientific value. At this time, no further nondestructive evaluation appears to be justified.

Madaras, Eric I.; Smith, William L.

1999-01-01

424

Nondestructive identification of isotopes using nuclear resonance fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive identification of heavy isotopes concealed in a thick iron box has been demonstrated by using nuclear resonance fluorescence. A quasi-monochromatic photon beam produced by the collision of laser quanta with high energy electrons was used for resonant excitation of nuclear levels in {sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb. By measuring the resonant {gamma} rays emitted from {sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb, each of these isotopes were clearly identified. The ratio of the effective thickness, i.e., concentration distribution, of these isotopes was deduced from the relative intensities of the measured nuclear resonance fluorescence strengths.

Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Hajima, Ryoichi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Toyokawa, Hiroyuki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2012-01-15

425

Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by X-ray, ultrasonic and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications were found to correlate with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations. [copyright] 2003 American Institute of Physics

Sun, J. G.; Verrilli, M. J.; Stephan, R.; Barnett, T. R.; Ojard, G.

2003-01-01

426

Nondestructive Evaluation of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Wiezman, A.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.

2011-06-01

427

A review of SQUID magnetometry applied to nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the development of the SQUID as the most sensitive instrument known for the measurement of changes in magnetic flux has presented new opportunities for its use for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of electrically conducting and ferromagnetic structures. This presentation will review the preliminary studies of this application within the past few years in order to serve as an introduction to those that follow. It will include early work by the author which explored the ability of a SQUID to detect defects in a buried pipe and to detect fatigue in steel structures.

Weinstock, H. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Bolling AFB, DC (United States))

1991-03-01

428

Photoelectrochemistry of disordered passive films  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model, which describes subband gap photoexcitation involving localized electronic states, was developed. The escape probability of a charge carrier trapped in a localized state is considered via Poole-Frenkel, direct tunneling, or phonon-assisted tunneling processes, as competing escape mechanisms. Photoelectrochemical experiments were performed on the passive films formed on zirconium and amorphous iron-zirconium alloys and on pure HfO/sub 2/ films and HfO/sub 2/ films implanted with varying concentrations of xenon. These films were found to possess some degree of disorder depending on the substrate, the thickness of the film, and the extent of implantation. The spectral dependence of the photocurrent in all of the films studied is considerably different from what was found for crystalline passive films. The potential dependence of the photocurrent yields Poole-Frenkel behavior. Reverse tunneling processes were also observed at low photon energies and low fields across the film, which is consistent with the theoretical results.

Newark, A.R.

1987-01-01

429

Passive detection of moving targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the concept of passive detection of moving targets based on thermal radiation in microwave region. Up to now the passive detection of moving targets, especially airplanes and ground vehicles is performed using infrared sensor. The microwave radiometric methods are now widely used in many other fields of applications, such as radio astronomy, remote sensing, medicine, pollution control, mine detection and other. All these methods are based on measurement of power of thermal noise radiated by hot surface. The usage of power-only information is usually not sufficient to discriminate between moving and stationary target. To sense the target movement different phenomena can be applied. The most fundamental one is Doppler shift of the spectrum of radiating thermal noise. To perform this task complex envelope of received signal must be recorded and Doppler processing must be applied. The Doppler and time correlations are widely used in radio astronomy, for sensing the weather and for high-resolution image creation, but up to now was not exploited for moving target indication, so important in ATC applications. The fundamental problem - distinction between stationary and moving targets is performed by calculating range-Doppler correlation between thermal signals obtained from different localization in multi-static radiometric antenna constellation. Further more, using correlation principles, it is possible to obtain high resolution images of the detected objects.

Kulpa, Krzysztof S.

2005-09-01

430

Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.  

PubMed

Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

2013-06-01

431

On-orbit Passive Thermography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 12, 2006, British-born astronaut Piers Sellers became the first person to conduct thermal nondestructive evaluation experiments in space, demonstrating the feasibility of a new tool for detecting damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) structures of the Shuttle. This new tool was an EVA (Extravehicular Activity, or spacewalk) compatible infrared camera developed by NASA engineers. Data was collected both on the wing leading edge of the Orbiter and on pre-damaged samples mounted in the Shuttle s cargo bay. A total of 10 infrared movies were collected during the EVA totaling over 250 megabytes of data. Images were downloaded from the orbiting Shuttle to Johnson Space Center for analysis and processing. Results are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory with the same type of camera and simulated solar heating. The EVA camera system detected flat-bottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 50% material loss from the back (hidden) surface in RCC during this first test of the EVA IR Camera. Data for the time history of the specimen temperature and the capability of the inspection system for imaging impact damage are presented.

Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott

2008-01-01

432

Passive tracking with sensors of opportunity using passive coherent location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive coherent location (PCL), which uses the commercial signals as illuminators of opportunity, is an emerging technology in air defense systems. The advantages of PCL are low cost, low vulnerability to electronic counter measures, early detection of stealthy targets and low-altitude detection. However, limitations of PCL include lack of control over illuminators, poor bearing accuracy, time-varying sensor parameters and limited observability. In this paper, multiple target tracking using PCL with high bearing error is considered. In this case, the challenge is to handle high nonlinearity due to high measurement error. In this paper, we implement the converted measurement Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter and particle filter based PHD filter for PCL radar measurements and compare their performances.

Subramaniam, Mahes; Tharmarasa, R.; McDonald, Mike; Kirubarajan, T.

2008-04-01

433

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation examines the measurement of nuclear resonance fluorescence gamma-rays as a technique to non-destructively determine isotopic compositions of target materials that are of interest… (more)

Quiter, Brian Joseph

2010-01-01

434

Nondestructive estimation of anthocyanins and chlorophylls in anthocyanic leaves.  

PubMed

The anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents in leaves provide valuable information about the physiological status of plants. Thus, there is a need for accurate, efficient, and practical methodologies to estimate these biochemical parameters of vegetation. In this study, we tested the performance and accuracy of several nondestructive, reflectance-based techniques for estimating anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents in leaves of four unrelated species, European hazel (Corylus avellana), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba =Swida alba), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), with widely variable pigment content and composition. An anthocyanin reflectance index, which uses reflectances in the green and red edge spectral bands, and a modified anthocyanin reflectance index, employing, in addition, the near-infrared (NIR) band, were able to accurately estimate leaf anthocyanin for all species taken together with no reparameterization of algorithms. Total chlorophyll content was accurately estimated by a red edge chlorophyll index that uses spectral bands in the red edge and the NIR. These approaches can be used to estimate anthocyanin and chlorophyll nondestructively and allow the development of simple handheld field instrumentation. PMID:21622307

Gitelson, Anatoly A; Chivkunova, Olga B; Merzlyak, Mark N

2009-10-01

435

Nondestructive examination of the TRMM RCS propellant tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper assesses the feasibility of using eddy current nondestructive examination of determine flaw sizes in completely assembled hydrazine propellant tanks. The study was performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project to help determine whether existing propellant tanks could meet the fracture analysis requirements of the current pressure vessel specification, MIL-STD-1522A and, therefore be used on the TRMM spacecraft. After evaluating several nondestructive test methods, eddy current testing was selected as the most promising method for determining flaw sizes on external and internal surfaces of completely assembled tanks. Tests were conducted to confirm the detection capability of the eddy current NDE, procedures were developed to inspect two candidate tanks, and the test support equipment was designed. The non-spherical tank eddy current NDE test program was terminated when the decision was made to procure new tanks for the TRMM propulsion subsystem. The information on the development phase of this test program is presented in this paper as a reference for future investigation on the subject.

Free, James M.

1993-01-01

436

Optimal Cosmic-Ray Detection for Nondestructive Read Ramps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays are a known problem in astronomy, causing both loss of data and data inaccuracy. The problem becomes even more extreme when considering data from a high-radiation environment, such as in orbit around Earth or outside the Earth''s magnetic field altogether, unprotected, as will be the case for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). For JWST, all the instruments employ nondestructive readout schemes. The most common of these will be ""up the ramp"" sampling, where the detector is read out regularly during the ramp. We study three methods to correct for cosmic rays in these ramps: a two-point difference method, a deviation from the fit method, and a y-intercept method. We apply these methods to simulated nondestructive read ramps with single-sample groups and varying combinations of flux, number of samples, number of cosmic rays, cosmic-ray location in the exposure, and cosmic-ray strength. We show that the y-intercept method is the optimal detection method in the read-noise-dominated regime, while both the y-intercept method and the two-point difference method are best in the photon-noise-dominated regime, with the latter requiring fewer computations.

Anderson, Rachel E.; Gordon, Karl D.

2011-10-01

437

Acoustic wave generation by microwaves and applications to nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

Although acoustic wave generation by electromagnetic waves has been widely studied in the case of laser-generated ultrasounds, the literature on acoustic wave generation by thermal effects due to electromagnetic microwaves is very sparse. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the phenomenon of microwave generation, i.e. radiation pressure, electrostriction or thermal expansion. Now it is known that the main cause is the thermal expansion due to the microwave absorption. This paper will review the recent advances in the theory and experiments that introduce a new way to generate ultrasonic waves without contact for the purpose of nondestructive evaluation and control. The unidirectional theory based on Maxwell's equations, heat equation and thermoviscoelasticity predicts the generation of acoustic waves at interfaces and inside stratified materials. Acoustic waves are generated by a pulsed electromagnetic wave or a burst at a chosen frequency such that materials can be excited with a broad or narrow frequency range. Experiments show the generation of acoustic waves in water, viscoelastic polymers and composite materials shaped as rod and plates. From the computed and measured accelerations at interfaces, the viscoelastic and electromagnetic properties of materials such as polymers and composites can be evaluated (NDE). Preliminary examples of non-destructive testing applications are presented. PMID:12159977

Hosten, Bernard; Bacon, Christophe; Guilliorit, Emmanuel

2002-05-01

438

Holographic Nondestructive Testing: Review Of A Laser Inspection Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal has been written about holography, especially in the years since Gabor won the Nobel Prize (1971) for his "invention and development" of the method. While it is fairly safe to state that the movie and T.V. industries are not on the verge of a revolution as a result of the highly touted three-dimensional characteristics of the process, it can be said that holography may offer considerable scientific potential in such diverse areas as computer storage, display systems, correlation techniques, medical diagnostics (acoustical holography) and radar (microwave holography), to mention just a few. Another promising application of holography, and one that has been given considerable attention at United Technologies Corporation and other industrial laboratories, is nondestructive testing. Consideration shall be given to this subject in the present paper by starting with a very brief review of holography (The Basic Tool), followed by a description of interferometric hologra-phy (Preparing the Tool for Use), and how it can be employed to nondestructively identify defects (Applying the Tool). This sets the stage for two final topics which establish the holographic process as a viable NDT technique: pulsed holography (Adapting the Tool to the Industrial Environment) and special HNDT techniques (Simplifying and Diversifying Tool Application).

Erf, Robert K.

1982-10-01

439

Feedback control of coherent spin states using weak nondestructive measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the decoherence of a pseudospin ensemble under collective random rotations and study, both theoretically and experimentally, how a nondestructive measurement combined with real-time feedback correction can protect the state against such a decoherence process. We theoretically characterize the feedback efficiency with different parameters—coherence, entropy, fidelity—and show that a maximum efficiency is reached in the weak measurement regime, when the projection of the state induced by the measurement is negligible. This article presents in detail the experimental results published previously [T. Vanderbruggen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 210503 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.210503], where the feedback scheme stabilizes coherent spin states of trapped ultracold atoms and nondestructively probes them with dispersive optical detection. In addition, we study the influence of several parameters, such as atom number and rotation angle, on the performance of the method. We analyze the various decoherence sources limiting the feedback efficiency and propose a way to mitigate their effect. The results demonstrate the potential of the method for the real-time coherent control of atom interferometers.

Vanderbruggen, T.; Kohlhaas, R.; Bertoldi, A.; Cantin, E.; Landragin, A.; Bouyer, P.

2014-06-01

440

Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of two-phase materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of two phase engineering materials are described. The primary goal was to establish relationships between the nonlinearity parameter and the percentage of solid solution phase in two phase systems such as heat treatable aluminum alloys. The acoustoelastic constant was also measured on these alloys. A major advantage of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes the method more applicable to inservice nondestructive characterization. The results obtained on the heat treatable 7075 and the work hardenable 5086 and 5456 aluminum alloys show that both the acoustoelastic constant and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter change considerable with the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in these aluminum alloys. A mathematical model was also developed to relate the effective acoustic nonlinearity parameter to volume fraction of second phase precipitates in an alloy. The equation is approximated to within experimental error by a linear expression for volume fractions up to approx. 10%.

Salama, Kamel

1987-01-01

441

Nondestructive Detection of Cracks in Ceramics Using Vicinal Illumination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cracks and other defects in ceramic materials can be difficult or impossible to examine and photograph due to the extreme lack of contrast. A method for inspecting translucent ceramics using scattered light, also known as vicinal illumination, will be described. This method has been known in the ceramics industry for quite some time, but is not well known in the testing and failure analysis community. Electronics applications include substrates, packages, multilayer capacitors, and thin film resistors. Ceramic materials are used in electronic applications as microcircuit packages and substrates which carry signals and power between microcircuits. Fine cracks in ceramic materials can result in mechanical failures, electrical failures, and loss of hermeticity. Often, fine cracks are difficult or impossible to detect using standard nondestructive inspection techniques such as visual inspection, ultrasonic inspection, or vapor crack detection. Dye penetrant inspection is usually effective, but contaminates the part, which is unacceptable for space flight hardware. One effective nondestructive inspection method of detecting cracks involves examining the way in which light scatters through the ceramic material when viewed with a standard bright field reflected light microscope. This method, termed vicinal illumination, has been used for detecting cracks during failure analyses of several part types, and screening of space flight hardware. The technique has proven effective on several different types of ceramic materials as well. A related method for use with dark field equipment has also been used to successfully locate otherwise invisible cracks.

Hull, Scott M.

1999-01-01

442

Optimal Cosmic-Ray Detection for Nondestructive Read Ramps  

E-print Network

Cosmic rays are a known problem in astronomy, causing both loss of data and data inaccuracy. The problem becomes even more extreme when considering data from a high-radiation environment, such as in orbit around Earth or outside the Earth's magnetic field altogether, unprotected, as will be the case for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). For JWST, all the instruments employ nondestructive readout schemes. The most common of these will be "up the ramp" sampling, where the detector is read out regularly during the ramp. We study three methods to correct for cosmic rays in these ramps: a two-point difference method, a deviation from the fit method, and a y-intercept method. We apply these methods to simulated nondestructive read ramps with single-sample groups and varying combinations of flux, number of samples, number of cosmic rays, cosmic-ray location in the exposure, and cosmic-ray strength. We show that the y-intercept method is the optimal detection method in the read-noise-dominated regime, while both...

Anderson, Rachel E

2011-01-01

443

Feedback control of coherent spin states using weak nondestructive measurements  

E-print Network

We consider the decoherence of a pseudo-spin ensemble under collective random rotations, and study, both theoretically and experimentally, how a nondestructive measurement combined with real-time feedback correction can protect the state against such a decoherence process. We theoretically characterize the feedback efficiency with different parameters --- coherence, entropy, fidelity --- and show that a maximum efficiency is reached in the weak measurement regime, when the projection of the state induced by the measurement is negligible. This article presents in detail the experimental results published in [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{110}, 210503 (2013)], where the feedback scheme stabilizes coherent spin states of trapped ultra-cold atoms, and nondestructively probed with a dispersive optical detection. In addition, we study the influence of several parameters, such as atom number and rotation angle, on the performance of the method. We analyze the various decoherence sources limiting the feedback efficiency and propose how to mitigate their effect. The results demonstrate the potential of the method for the real-time coherent control of atom interferometers.

Thomas Vanderbruggen; Ralf Kohlhaas; Andrea Bertoldi; Etienne Cantin; Arnaud Landragin; Philippe Bouyer

2014-05-19

444

Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

2013-11-01

445

PathogenMip Assay: A Multiplex Pathogen Detection Assay  

PubMed Central

The Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) assay has been previously applied to a large-scale human SNP detection. Here we describe the PathogenMip Assay, a complete protocol for probe production and applied approaches to pathogen detection. We have demonstrated the utility of this assay with an initial set of 24 probes targeting the most clinically relevant HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. Probe construction was based on a novel, cost-effective, ligase-based protocol. The assay was validated by performing pyrosequencing and Microarray chip detection in parallel experiments. HPV plasmids were used to validate sensitivity and selectivity of the assay. In addition, 20 genomic DNA extracts from primary tumors were genotyped with the PathogenMip Assay results and were in 100% agreement with conventional sequencing using an L1-based HPV genotyping protocol. The PathogenMip Assay is a widely accessible protocol for producing and using highly discriminating probes, with experimentally validated results in pathogen genotyping, which could potentially be applied to the detection and characterization of any microbe. PMID:17311101

Akhras, Michael S.; Thiyagarajan, Sreedevi; Villablanca, Andrea C.; Davis, Ronald W.; Nyrén, Pål; Pourmand, Nader

2007-01-01

446

Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces  

E-print Network

Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces D. Bodlaki, H. Yamamoto, D sulfidation or alkylation of Ge surfaces, SHG appears far less sensitive to H and Cl passivation of germanium surfaces than to silicon surfaces. Investigation of the stability of chemically modified germanium surfaces

Borguet, Eric

447

PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION UNDER SEISMIC CONDITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of passive resistance and its distribution behind the rigid retaining walls under both static and dynamic conditions are important for designing retaining walls, anchors, foundations etc. In this paper, a method of horizontal slices has been suggested for obtaining seismic passive earth pressure distribution by considering seismic forces in a pseudo-static manner. Only planar rupture surfaces have been considered

Deepankar Choudhury; K. S. Subba Rao; Sanghamitro Ghosh

448

The passivity of natural admittance control implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural Admittance Control (NAC) has been proposed as a means of implementing responsive force control that is both gentle and rapid while maintaining an end-effector admittance that is passive. Practical implementations, however, must deviate from the ideal NAC formulation, impacting the passivity of the manipulator. Issues arise particularly in the case where NAC is retrofitted to an existing industrial robot

Mark E. Dohring; Wyatt S. Newman

2003-01-01

449

SAW devices as wireless passive sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio sensors make it possible to read measurement values from a remote location. The decisive advantage of these SAW sensors lies in their passive operation with no need for a separate power supply, and in the possibility of wireless installation at particularly inaccessible locations. The passive SAW sensors are maintenance free. The physical or chemical properties

L. Reindl; G. Scholl; T. Ostertag; C. C. W. Ruppel; W.-E. Bulst; F. Seifert

1996-01-01

450

Wide band passive repeaters: Design and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of a wideband passive repeater including two broadband antennas and a coaxial line are analyzed both from full-wave electromagnetic simulations and measurement data over 1.6 GHz bandwidth centered at 4 GHz. For carrier signal level lower than the detection threshold, the use of passive repeater can significantly improve the reliability of the wireless link.

A. Ali; A. Coustou; H. Aubert

2009-01-01

451

Cues for Understanding the Passive Voice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted on the use and combination of three cues that differentiate active from passive verbs: a form of the auxiliary "be," the morphology of the passive participle of the verb, and the case-making preposition "by." In the first experiment, 59 children aged 2.9 to 5.10 years were asked to interpret sentences with one, two,…

Stromswold, Karin; And Others

1985-01-01

452

PsychophysicsIs subliminal learning really passive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptual learning can occur as a result of exposure to a subliminal stimulus, without the subject having to pay attention and without relevance to the particular task in hand - but is this type of learning purely passive? Here we show that perceptual learning is not passive, but instead results from reinforcement by an independent task. As this learning occurred

Aaron R. Seitz; Takeo Watanabe

2003-01-01

453

Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

454

The German Passive: Analysis and Teaching Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an analysis of German passive based upon internal structure rather than translation conventions from Latin and Greek. Claims that this approach leads to a description of the perfect participle as an adjectival complement, which eliminates the classification of a passive voice for German and simplifies the learning task. (MES)

Griffen, T. D.

1981-01-01

455

Integrated bias removal in passive radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive coherent location (PCL) system exploits the ambient FM radio or television signals from powerful local transmitters, which makes it ideal for covert tracking. In a passive radar system, also known as PCL system, a variety of measurements can be used to estimate target states such as direction of arrival (DOA), time difference of arrival (TDOA) or Doppler shift.

M. Subramaniam; K. Punithakumar; M. McDonald; T. Kirubarajan

2008-01-01

456

Experimental electro-thermal method for nondestructively testing welds in stainless steel pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welds in austenitic stainless steel pipes are notoriously difficult to nondestructively examine using conventional ultrasonic and eddy current methods. Survace irregularities and microscopic variations in magnetic permeability cause false eddy current signal variations. Ultrasonic methods have been developed which use computer processing of the data to overcome some of the problems. Electro-thermal nondestructive testing shows promise for detecting flaws that

1979-01-01

457

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application and interpretation of specific ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques are studied. The Kramers-Kronig or generalized dispersion relationships are applied to nondestructive techniques. Progress was made on an improved determination of material properties of composites inferred from elastic constant measurements.

Miller, J. G.

1986-01-01

458

Nondestructive examination of irradiated fuel rods by pulsed eddy current techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of fuel rods and unfueled zircaloy cladding tubes which had been irradiated in the Saxton reactor have undergone extensive nondestructive and corroborative destructive examinations by Aerojet Nuclear Company as part of the Water Reactor Safety Research Program, Irradiation Effects Test Series. This report discusses the pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive examinations on the fuel rods and tubing and

W. C. Francis; W. J. Quapp; M. R. Martin; G. W. Gibson

1976-01-01

459

First Nondestructive Measurements of Power MOSFET Single Event Burnout Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique to nondestructively measure single event burnout cross sections for N-channel power MOSFETs is presented. Previous measurements of power MOSFET burnout susceptibility have been destructive and thus not conducive to providing statistically meaningful burnout probabilities. The nondestructive technique and data for various device types taken at several accelerators, including the LBL Bevalac, are documented. Several new phenomena are

Dennis L. Oberg; Jerry L. Wert

1987-01-01

460

Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-6, Radiography Inspection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sixth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains radiographic inspection as a means of nondestructively examining components, assemblies, structures, and fabricated piping. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

461

Nondestructive Test Methods for Rapid Assessment of Flexible Base Performance in Transportation Infrastructures  

E-print Network

NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF FLEXIBLE BASE PERFORMANCE IN TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURES A Dissertation by HAKAN SAHIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... ........................................................................ 167 9.5 Closure ......................................................................................................... 173 10. A FIELD VERIFICATION BY USING NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS .............. 175 10.1 Introduction...

Sahin, Hakan

2014-08-14

462

Smart Structures and Materials & Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring; 17th Annual International symposium, 7-11 March 2010; San Diego, California USA  

E-print Network

Smart Structures and Materials & Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring; 17th Annual noninvasive types of health monitoring or nondestructive techniques to detect hidden flaws and mini cracks

Oza, Nikunj C.

463

Passive optical lane position monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory prototype of a passive optical lane position monitor has been designed, built, and tested. The sensor head is simple and consists of two parts: a cylindrical lens, and a position sensitive detector. The amplifier/processing electronics which provides the position signal is compact and lightweight. No complex software or computer is needed. Sensor performance was validated both in the laboratory and in the field. The prototype was tested in sunlight over a range of solar angles from dawn to dusk. It was even tested at night with illumination provided by headlights. The bottom line is that, for such a simple system, the sensor worked quite well. This opens up possibilities for its use as a practical tool in vehicle/highway management.

Geary, Joseph M.

1997-02-01

464

A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

2002-01-01

465

Passive phase noise cancellation scheme.  

PubMed

We introduce a new method for reducing phase noise in oscillators, thereby improving their frequency precision. The noise reduction is realized by a passive device consisting of a pair of coupled nonlinear resonating elements that are driven parametrically by the output of a conventional oscillator at a frequency close to the sum of the linear mode frequencies. Above the threshold for parametric instability, the coupled resonators exhibit self-oscillations which arise as a response to the parametric driving, rather than by application of active feedback. We find operating points of the device for which this periodic signal is immune to frequency noise in the driving oscillator, providing a way to clean its phase noise. We present results for the effect of thermal noise to advance a broader understanding of the overall noise sensitivity and the fundamental operating limits. PMID:23004985

Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M C; Lifshitz, Ron; Karabalin, R B; Villanueva, L G; Matheny, M H; Roukes, M L

2012-06-29

466

A phaseguided passive batch microfluidic mixing chamber for isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

With a view to developing a rapid pathogen detection system utilizing isothermal nucleic acid amplification, the necessary micro-mixing step is innovatively implemented on a chip. Passive laminar flow mixing of two 6.5 ?l batches differing in viscosity is performed within a microfluidic chamber. This is achieved with a novel chip space-saving phaseguide design which allows, for the first time, the complete integration of a passive mixing structure into a target chamber. Sequential filling of batches prior to mixing is demonstrated. Simulation predicts a reduction of diffusive mixing time from hours down to one minute. A simple and low-cost fabrication method is used which combines dry film resist technology and direct wafer bonding. Finally, an isothermal nucleic acid detection assay is successfully implemented where fluorescence results are measured directly from the chip after a one minute mixing sequence. In combination with our previous work, this opens up the way towards a fully integrated pathogen detection system in a lab-on-a-chip format. PMID:22952055

Hakenberg, Sydney; Hügle, Matthias; Weidmann, Manfred; Hufert, Frank; Dame, Gregory; Urban, Gerald A

2012-11-01

467

Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method  

PubMed Central

The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

2014-01-01

468

Determine the compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks by combined nondestructive method.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

Brozovsky, Jiri

2014-01-01

469

A Fiber-Optic-Based Imaging System for Nondestructive Assessment of Cell-Seeded Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds  

E-print Network

A Fiber-Optic-Based Imaging System for Nondestructive Assessment of Cell-Seeded Tissue-Engineered.D.1 A major limitation in tissue engineering is the lack of nondestructive methods that assess integration. This method will enable the nondestructive monitoring of ECs seeded on the lumen of a tissue-engineered

Wang, Ge

470

Nondestructive Mass Selection of Small van der Waals Clusters Author(s): Wieland Schllkopf and J. Peter Toennies  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Mass Selection of Small van der Waals Clusters Author(s): Wieland Schöllkopf and J 2013 20:12:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions #12;ARTICLES Nondestructive that lightfragile clusters of He, H2,and D2can be selected and identified nondestructively by diffraction from

471

Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium 2004, Pisa, Italy, March 28 -31 Development of Time-Domain Models for Nondestructive Testing  

E-print Network

of Time-Domain Models for Nondestructive Testing N. Ida The University of Akron Electrical and Computer in Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is described. The spatial resolution of the proposed model is better than a tenth nondestructive testing (3.5MHz ­ 20GHz). The sample results provided here for ultrasonic and microwave testing

Ida, Nathan

472

Confocal X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Microscopy: A New Technique for the Nondestructive Compositional Depth Profiling of Paintings  

E-print Network

#12;Confocal X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Microscopy: A New Technique for the Nondestructive for sampling. For over 30 years, nondestructive characterization of buried paint layers has been carried out. Recently, researchers have attempted to extend the use of traditional, non-destructive characterization

Gruner, Sol M.

473

Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 23, No. 3, September 2004 ( C 2004) Eddy Current Assessment of Near-Surface Residual  

E-print Network

Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 23, No. 3, September 2004 ( C 2004) Eddy Current for nondestructive residual stress assessment of subsurface residual stresses. It has been found that the primary stress considerations are incorporated into the life prediction methodology. Nondestructive inspection

Nagy, Peter B.

474

J Nondestruct Eval (2011) 30:225236 DOI 10.1007/s10921-011-0111-y  

E-print Network

J Nondestruct Eval (2011) 30:225­236 DOI 10.1007/s10921-011-0111-y Ultrasonic Non-destructive on the re- flection coefficient for ultrasound normally incident on a #12;226 J Nondestruct Eval (2011) 30

Nagy, Peter B.

475

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 063408 (2013) Nondestructive light-shift measurements of single atoms in optical dipole traps  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 063408 (2013) Nondestructive light-shift measurements of single atoms atoms using a nondestructive detection technique that allows us to measure the fluorescent signal of one of single atoms [4], cooling [5,6], nondestructive state measurement [7,8], multidimensional atomic

Chapman, Michael

476

From Antenna to Assay  

PubMed Central

Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ?60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. To efficiently sensitize Eu(III) emission, we have used the 1-hydroxypyridin-2-one (1,2-HOPO) chelate to create remarkable ligands that combine excellent photophysical properties and exceptional aqueous stabilities. A more complete understanding of this chromophore has been achieved by combining low-temperature phosphorescence measurements with the same TD-DFT approach used with the IAM system. Eu(III) complexes with strong CPL activity have also been obtained with chiral 1,2-HOPO ligands. We have also undertaken the kinetic analysis of radiative and non-radiative decay pathways for a series of Eu(III) complexes; the importance of the metal ion symmetry on the ensuing photophysical properties is clear. Lastly, we describe a Tb(III)-IAM compound—now carried through to commercial availability—that offers improved performance in the common HTRF platform and has the potential to vastly improve sensitivity. PMID:19323456

Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

477

Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

2009-01-01

478

Integration of TGS and CTEN assays using the CTEN{_}FIT analysis and databasing program  

SciTech Connect

The CTEN{_}FIT program, written for Windows 9x/NT in C++, performs databasing and analysis of combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) passive and active neutron assay data and integrates that with isotopics results and gamma-ray data from methods such as tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). The binary database is reflected in a companion Excel database that allows extensive customization via Visual Basic for Applications macros. Automated analysis options make the analysis of the data transparent to the assay system operator. Various record browsers and information displays simplified record keeping tasks.

Estep, R. [and others

2000-05-01

479

Doug Berndt Evaluated Bacterial Assay  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS microbiology technician evaluates a bacterial assay to determine the cause of a wildlife mortality. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease....

480

Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

Barty, C. P. J.

2015-10-01

481

Functional Assays for Ricin Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review, we provide background information on ricin structure, present available functional assays for other toxins that are potential biothreat agents, and finish by describing the functional assay of ricin itself. Using appropriate sample preparation and optimized detection based on N-glycosidase activity, we demonstrate that specific detection of whole ricin at a level of around 0.1 ng/mL is possible and applicable to environmental samples.

Ezan, Eric; Duriez, Elodie; Fenaille, François; Becher, François

482

Rapid nonchromatographic assay for aminopropyltransferases  

SciTech Connect

Aminopropyltransferases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. A procedure is described for assaying these enzymes be differential charcoal adsorption of /sup 14/C-labeled decarboxylated adenosylmethionine substrate from the labeled polyamine product. This assay is linear with time and enzyme concentration, and is suitable for use with a variety of amine acceptors. This procedure has the advantage, over those previously used, that it is extremely rapid yet very sensitive.

Anton, D.L.

1986-01-01

483

Remote monitoring and nondestructive evaluation of wind turbine towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbine towers are in need of condition monitoring so as to lower the cost of unexpected maintenance. Wind loading from turbulence and gusts can cause damage in horizontal axis wind turbines even the supporting towers. Monitoring of wind turbines in service using embedded data sensor arrays usually is not targeted at the turbine-tower interaction from the perspective of structural dynamics. In this study the remote monitoring of the tower supporting a horizontal-axis wind turbine was attempted using a microwave interferometer. The dominant frequency of one tower was found to be decreased by more than 20% in 16 months. Numerical modeling using spectral finite elements is in progress and should provide further information regarding frequency shift due to stiffness variation and added mass. Expected outcome will contribute to remote monitoring procedures and nondestructive evaluation techniques for local wind turbine structures during operation.

Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Ke, Ying-Tzu; Shih, Yi-Ru

2014-03-01

484

Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

2014-10-21

485

Nondestructive identification of engineering properties of metal fibre composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroscopic homogeneity of metal fibre composites, namely those used for building structures, characterized by constant volume fraction of randomly oriented fibre particles, as well as their isotropy, or, alternatively, prescribed orientation of fibres, determines their mechanical, thermal, etc. properties, consequently their long-time behaviour, reliability and range of user applications. Destructive tests are available under laboratory conditions, but frequently impossible in situ, thus the development of reliable nondestructive approaches is required. This paper presents the physical and mathematical background of two classes of such tests, based i) on the planar radiographic images, analyzed with help of the fast Fourier transform, ii) on the magnetic properties of materials, using the Hall effect and properties of solutions of the Laplace equation. Practical results with fibre concrete samples from Brno University of Technology demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of both approaches and sketch the possibilities of their future generalization.

Vala, J.; Horák, M.

2012-09-01

486

Induction thermography for non-destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesive bonding is widely used in automotive industry in the recent times. One of the major problems with adhesive bonds is the lack of a suitable non-destructive evaluation technique