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1

Passive neutron techniques for the nondestructive assay of nuclear material  

E-print Network

Three drums containing potentially contaminated lead bricks were assayed with the Segmented Gamma Scan Neutron Assay System (SGSNAS) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay Center. The assay system reported...

Mapili, Gabriel

2000-01-01

2

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of plutonium by passive neutron multiplicity counting  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay of plutonium in forms such as metal, oxide, scrap, residue, or waste using passive neutron multiplicity counting. This test method provides results that are usually more accurate than conventional neutron coincidence counting. The method can be applied to a large variety of plutonium items in various containers including cans, 208-L drums, or 1900-L Standard Waste Boxes. It has been used to assay items whose plutonium content ranges from 1 g to 1000s of g. 1.2 There are several electronics or mathematical approaches available for multiplicity analysis, including the multiplicity shift register, the Euratom Time Correlation Analyzer, and the List Mode Module, as described briefly in Ref. (1). 1.3 This test method is primarily intended to address the assay of 240Pu-effective by moments-based multiplicity analysis using shift register electronics (1, 2, 3) and high efficiency neutron counters specifically designed for multiplicity analysis. 1.4 This tes...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

3

Tomographic applications of wavelets in passive nondestructive assay of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economically reliable and technologically feasible methodology for assaying radioactive waste is essential for properly disposing of newly generated and legacy radioactive waste. The present research has investigated, developed, and integrated tomographic applications of wavelets into the present segmented gamma scanning (SGS) measurement methodology used for passive nondestructive assay of radioactive waste. The SGS measurement methodology was specifically developed to nondestructively measure the radionuclide content within only low-density, homogeneously drum-packaged scrap and waste using the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. A result of this research has been the Tomographic Segmented Gamma Scanner (TSGS) system. This TSGS system supplements a rotation-averaged SGS measurement system with tomographic gamma scanning (TGS) capability that can specifically take into account the effects of larger density and radionuclide distribution non-uniformities when present. This TSGS system allows the throughput to remain high with a less detailed but faster rotation-averaged segment measurement of homogenous radioactive waste, while the TGS capability provides a more detailed but slower spatial radionuclide measurement for assaying heterogeneous radionuclide waste as necessary. Within the experimental part of this research, (1) the tomographic experimental feasibility was established, (2) a TSGS system integrated calibration was designed, (3) collimation sampling problems were studied, (4) SGS and TGS modality-specific comparisons were shown, and finally, (5) the TSGS system precision was measured. An investigation of the applications of wavelets in computerized tomography has lead to the development of a radionuclide computerized tomography (RCT) algorithm able to accurately calculate the measured radionuclide content within heterogeneously packaged scrap and waste. Within the computational part of this research, (1) the optimization of a relaxation parameter that determines the iterative convergence rate within the RCT algorithm was investigated, (2) an efficient wavelet-interpolation method for refining the tomographic reconstruction resolution to allow accurate forward and back-projecting interpolation using simple nearest-neighbor grid-point assignment was developed, (3) the multiresolution analysis of tomographic image reconstructions with applications in wavelet filtering was studied, (4) an exploration of how Daubechies wavelets influence tomographic reconstructions was investigated, and finally, (5) simulated tomographic profile projection data using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System (MCNP) was successfully bench marked against experimental data.

Weems, Lance David

1998-07-01

4

Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

Simpson, A.; Pitts, M. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States)] [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States); Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Ave., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Ave., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Grando, C.J. [ELR Consulting, Inc., 15247 Wilbur Rd., La Conner, WA 98257 (United States)] [ELR Consulting, Inc., 15247 Wilbur Rd., La Conner, WA 98257 (United States); Haggard, D.L. [WorleyParsons Polestar, 601 Williams Blvd., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [WorleyParsons Polestar, 601 Williams Blvd., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01

5

Non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel using passive neutron Albedo reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) is one of fourteen techniques that has been researched and evaluated to form part of a comprehensive and integrated detection system for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. PNAR implemented with {sup 3}He tubes for neutron detection (PNAR-{sup 3}He) is the measurement of time correlated neutrons from a spent fuel assembly with and without a Cadmium (Cd) layer surrounding the assembly. PNAR utilizes the self-interrogation of the fuel via reflection of neutrons born in the fuel assembly back in to the fuel assembly. The neutrons originate primarily from spontaneous fission events within the fuel itself (Curium-244) but are amplified by multiplication. The presence and removal of the Cd provides two measurement conditions with different neutron energy spectra and therefore different interrogating neutron characteristics. Cd has a high cross-section of absorption for slow neutrons and therefore greatly reduces the low energy (thermal) neutron fluence rate returning. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are known as the Cd ratios, which are related to fissile content. A potential safeguards application for which PNAR-{sup 3}He is particularly suited is 'fingerprinting'. Fingerprinting could function as an alternative to plutonium (Pu) mass determination; providing confidence that material was not diverted during transport between sites. PNAR-{sup 3}He has six primary NDA signatures: Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates measured with two energy spectra at both shipping and receiving sites. This is to uniquely identify the fuel assembly, and confirm no changes have taken place during transport. Changes may indicate all attempt to divert material for example. Here, the physics of the PNAR-{sup 3}He concept will be explained, alongside a discussion on the development of a prototypical PNAR-{sup 3}He instrument using simulation. The capabilities and performance of the conceptual instrument will be summarized, in the context of (a) quantifying Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies and (b) detecting pin diversion (through a discrepancy between declared and measured properties of the fuel assembly) when the instrument is deployed. These quantitative capabilities are complementary to the 'fingerprinting' capability which is part of ensuring continuity of knowledge and custody of spent nuclear fuel.

Evans, L G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, M A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, S J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, M T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, H O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

6

Quantifying the passive gamma signal from spent nuclear fuel in support of determining the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel with nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

The objective of safeguarding nuclear material is to deter diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials by timely monitoring and detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel (SF), by means of nondestructive assay (NDA), in order to meet this goal. These motivations include the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguard nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from SF; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium in SF. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of 13 NDA techniques for characterizing Pu mass in spent fuel. This paper focuses on the development of a passive gamma measurement system in support the spent fuel assay system. Gamma ray detection for fresh nuclear fuel focuses on gamma ray emissions that directly coincide with the actinides of interest to the assay. For example, the 186-keV gamma ray is generally used for {sup 235}U assay and the 384-keV complex is generally used for assaying plutonium. In spent nuclear fuel, these signatures cannot be detected as the Compton continuum created from the fission products dominates the signal in this energy range. For SF, the measured gamma signatures from key fission products ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu) are used to ascertain burnup, cooling time, and fissile content information. In this paper the Monte Carlo modeling set-up for a passive gamma spent fuel assay system will be described. The set-up of the system includes a germanium detector and an ion chamber and will be used to gain passive gamma information that will be integrated into a system for determining Pu in SF. The passive gamma signal will be determined from a library of {approx} 100 assemblies that have been created to examine the capability of all 13 NDA techniques. Presented in this paper is a description of the passive gamma monitoring instrument, explanation of the work completed thus far involving the source set up methodology and the design optimization process, details of key fission product ratios of interest, limitations and key strengths of the measurement technique, and considerations for integrating this technique with other NDA techniques in order to develop a complete spent fuel assay strategy.

Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

7

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

8

Overview of the latest nondestructive assay technology  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques are an important tool for the safeguarding of nuclear materials. NDA techniques are used by inspectors from both domestic agencies and international agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as site level nuclear material management programs to verify that inventories of nuclear materials. This technology has been in development for over 40 years and significant improvements in detector capabilities, electronics processing and data analysis has lead to new detection capabilities and greatly improved quantification of nuclear materials. Many of the improvements over the last decade have resulted from improved computing power. This has lead to the ability to collect and analyze data in ways not possible only years ago. This poster will present some of the improvements of nondestructive assay technologies over the past several years and the implementation of these technologies in nuclear safeguards programs.

Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

9

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

10

Determining plutonium in spent fuel with nondestructive assay techniques  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in used (spent) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay including the following: shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories or fuel storage facilities. Twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is capable of determining the Pu mass in an assembly on its own. However, it is expected that the Pu mass can be quantified by combining a few of the techniques. Determining which techniques to combine and estimating the expected performance of such a system is the purpose of the research effort recently begun. The research presented here is a complimentarily experimental effort. This paper will focus on experimental results of one of the twelve non-destructive assay techniques - passive neutron albedo reactivity. The passive neutron albedo reactivity techniques work by changing the multiplication the pin experiences between two separate measurements. Since a single spent fuel pin has very little multiplication, this is a challenging measurement situation for the technique. Singles and Doubles neutron count rate were measured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for three different burnup pins to test the capability of the passive neutron albedo reactivity technique.

Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, A S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quiter, B J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rajasingam, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, M T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, S J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, W S [TEXAS A& M UNIV; Ehinger, M H [ORNL; Sandoval, N P [ORNL; Saavedra, S F [ORNL; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2009-01-01

11

Methods and techniques of NDA (nondestructive assay)  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) refers to techniques and instruments developed to measure nuclear materials in the many forms in which they occur throughout the fuel cycle. These techniques were first developed to support nuclear safeguards inspections and nuclear material accountability; they are also used extensively for process and quality control. Most accountability measurements are based on analytical chemistry and require that a sample be drawn and analyzed destructively. Destructive analysis can not be applied to many of the product materials found in the fuel cycle, such as fuel rods and assemblies, because of their high monetary value. Also, many waste and scrap materials can not be adequately sampled for destructive analysis because of their heterogenous nature. This situation led to the development of nondestructive analysis techniques. This paper presents an overview of the major NDA techniques and instrumentation in use today. The instrumentation described below is now used frequently by safeguards inspectors and facility operators alike. 19 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Reilly, T.D.

1988-01-01

12

Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials  

SciTech Connect

Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Helland, Carolyn A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Jay M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Michael M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scherer, Caroylnn P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vo, Duc T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-06-12

13

Precision estimates for tomographic nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

Requirements for effective safeguards during the transition to environmental management at nuclear material production facilities within the DOE complex are deriving improvements in the accuracy of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. An important aspect of the transition is the need for facilities to terminate safeguards on waste materials, thus reducing the cost for safeguards at the facility. Requirements for the termination of safeguards on candidate waste material have been established by DOE to minimize the potential for diversion or theft of nuclear material. Because heterogenous waste and residue materials are stored in large containers such as 208-L drums, conventional assay techniques such as segmented gamma scanning (SGS) that were developed to assay small samples cannot always provide accurate measurements. Consequently, facilities using the conventional NDA instrumentation may be limited in their ability to discard waste materials in compliance with DOE requirements. One technique being applied to improve the accuracy of assays of waste in large containers is computerized tomography (CT). Research on the application of CT to improve both neutron and gamma-ray assays of waste is being carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For example, tomographic gamma scanning (TGS) is a single-photon emission CT technique that corrects for attenuation of gamma rays emitted from the sample using attenuation images from transmission CT.

Prettyman, T.H.

1995-02-01

14

Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and procedures  

SciTech Connect

Report No. 4 is precursory to Report No. 5 {open_quotes}Determination of the Quantity and Locations of the Pu Currently Retained in the Cimarron Fuel Plant Systems{close_quotes} which will be presented upon completion of the decontamination of the Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility. This report presents the Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) procedures which were developed and used by Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (successor to Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation) to measure equipment hold-up of plutonium materials for inventory purposes during operation of the plant. These procedures are also used to measure plutonium contamination on the equipment removed from the Material Balance Areas (MBA`s) during final decontamination. Report No. 5 will compare the measurements taken during this final decontamination period to previous inventory hold-up measurements, the date will be statistically analyzed, and a long-term assessment of the performance of the NDA equipment will be described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

15

Challenges of Non-Destructive Assay Waste Measurement  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the Savannah River Site (SRS) routinely produced special nuclear material (SNM), which provided stable measurement conditions for the non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. However, the main mission of SRS has changed from the production of SNM to the processing of waste and material stabilization. Currently, the purpose of processing is to recover the SNM from the waste and stabilization materials, much of which is from other DOE facilities. These missions are usually of a short duration, but require non-destructive assay (NDA) accountability measurements on materials of varying composition and geometric configuration. These missions usually have cost and time constraints, which sometimes require re-application of existing NDA methods to waste measurements. Usually, each new material or re-application of the NDA method to a different SNM campaign requires new standards and timely re-calibration of the method. These constraints provide numerous challenges for the NDA methods, particularly in the area of measurement uncertainty. This paper will discuss the challenges of these situations, mainly from a measurement and statistical point of view and provide some possible solutions to the problems encountered. Specific examples will be discussed for the segmented gamma scanner (SGS), neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and passive neutron coincidence counter (PNCC), which are some of the most common NDA instruments at SRS.

Shull, A.H.

2003-06-17

16

Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

1981-11-01

17

Shuffler instruments for the nondestructive assay of fissile materials  

SciTech Connect

A shuffler is a nondestructive assay instrument used to determine the fissile content of materials. It places an isotopic source of neutrons near the material to induce fissions, withdraws the source, and counts the delayed neutrons. The source is shuffled until a sufficient number of delayed neutrons have been counted. The shuffler technique is generally applied to difficult assay cases. The amount of material present may be very small (a few milligrams), and thus it does not spontaneously emit neutrons of consequence; the amount of material is also below an active well counter's level of sensitivity. On the other hand, the fissile amount may be fairly large, but the rate of spontaneously emitted neutrons may still be low (so a passive neutron count will not work) or the highest assay precision may be desired (favoring a shuffler over an active well counter) even if the material is inhomogeneous (making it difficult to interrogate with thermal neutrons). In all these cases, gamma-ray backgrounds, self- shielding, or matrix effects can make gamma-ray assays impractical. Materials ranging from highly radioactive spent-fuel assemblies to low-level waste drums have been assayed with shufflers, as have leached hulls, various process materials, scrap, and waste. This report presents a theoretical background for shufflers and describes techniques for practical applications. Procedures for assaying mixtures of fissile isotopes, inhomogeneous materials, and flowing liquids are discussed. It is shown how the precision and limits of detection of a shuffler can be calculated for a given neutron background rate. A section on data analysis gives a stepwise procedure for converting the measured counts into an assay value, including random, systematic, and total uncertainties. 31 refs.

Rinard, P.M.

1991-05-01

18

The USDOE mobile non-destructive assay and examination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile system for non-destructive assay (NDA) and non-destructive examination (NDE), developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides accurate and sensitive determination of quantities of transuranic (TRU) isotopes contained in 208-\\/ell\\/ drums of wastes and furnishes images of the contents for further sorting purposes. The NDA unit consists of four major subsystems: an assay chamber, counting and digital electronics,

Dowdy

1988-01-01

19

Challenges of Non-Destructive Assay Waste Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the Savannah River Site (SRS) routinely produced special nuclear material (SNM), which provided stable measurement conditions for the non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. However, the main mission of SRS has changed from the production of SNM to the processing of waste and material stabilization. Currently, the purpose of processing is to recover the SNM from the waste and stabilization materials,

Shull

2003-01-01

20

Standard terminology of C26.10 nondestructive assay methods  

E-print Network

1.1 The terminology defined in this document is associated with nondestructive assay of nuclear material. 1.2 All of the definitions are associated with measurement techniques that measure nuclear emissions (that is, neutrons, gamma-rays, or heat) directly or indirectly. 1.3 definitions are relevant to any standards and guides written by subcommittee C26.10.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

21

Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries have more potential for this application and should be assessed quantitatively. The next set of techniques leverage scintillator detectors that are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation. The first is the BC-523A capture-gated organic liquid scintillator. The detector response from several different neutron energies has been characterized and is included in the study. The BC-523A has not yet been tested with UF{sub 6} cylinders, but the application appears to be well suited for this technology. The second detector type is a relatively new inorganic scintillator called CLYC. CLYC provides a complementary detection approach to the HEVA and PNEM systems that could be used to determine uranium enrichment in UF{sub 6} cylinders. In this section, the conceptual idea for an integrated CLYC-HEVA/PNEM system is explored that could yield more precision and robustness against systemic uncertainties than any one of the systems by itself. This is followed by a feasibility study on using alpha-particle-induced reaction gamma-rays as a way to estimate {sup 234}U abundance in UF{sub 6}. Until now, there has been no readily available estimate of the strength of these reaction gamma-rays. Thick target yields of the chief reaction gammas are computed and show that they are too weak for practical safeguards applications. In special circumstances where long count times are permissible, the 1,275 keV F({alpha},x{gamma}) is observable. Its strength could help verify an operator declaration provided other knowledge is available (especially the age). The other F({alpha},x{gamma}) lines are concealed by the dominant uranium line spectrum and associated continuum. Finally, the last section provides several ideas for electromagnetic and acoustic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. These can be used to measure cylinder wall thickness, which is a source of systematic uncertainty for gamma-ray-based NDA techniques; characterize the UF{sub 6} filling profile inside the cylinder, which is a source of systematic uncertainty for neutron-based NDA techniques; locate hidden objects inside the cylinder; a

Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02

22

Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities  

SciTech Connect

A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility`s nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities.

Smith, H.A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schillebeeckx, P. [European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy)

1997-08-01

23

Biophoton imaging: a nondestructive method for assaying R gene responses.  

PubMed

Plant disease resistance (R) proteins of the nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat class are responsible for pathogen recognition and activation of defense signaling networks leading to the hypersensitive response (HR). Genetically, R-protein signaling appears to be integrated through a limited set of common downstream components. However, the timing of development of visible HR is unique to individual R proteins. By utilizing the phenomena of ultraweak photon emission from leaves undergoing an incompatible interacttion, a powerful nondestructive and facile assay is described to compare timing of defense responses elicited by different R proteins. We demonstrate that ultraweak photon emission, or "biophoton generation," is demonstrated to be associated with hypersensitive cell death. Biophoton emission requires an intact R signaling network and increases in cytosolic calcium and nitric oxide, but elevated reactive oxygen species are not necessary. Importantly, the assay is robust and applicable to a range of incompatible interactions in various plant species. The ability to assay R responses nondestructively in real time and a chosen genetic background makes this technique amenable to subtle genetic dissection of plant defense responses. PMID:15720077

Bennett, Mark; Mehta, Monaz; Grant, Murray

2005-02-01

24

Design of standards for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) involves a variety of measurement techniques, instruments, and nuclear materials. High-quality measurements require well-characterized SNM standards that represent the expected range of mass, chemical composition, and physical properties of the SNM to be measured. Due to the very limited commercial availability of NDA standards, facilities must usually produce their own standards, both to meet their specific measurement needs and to comply with existing regulations. This paper will describe the current extent to which NDA standards are commercially available. The authors will further describe the types of NDA standards used to calibrate and verify the measurement techniques commonly used in the safeguards of SNM. Several types of NDA standards will be discussed in detail to illustrate the considerations that go into specifying and designing traceable, representative standards for materials accounting measurements.

Smith, H.A. Jr.; Stewart, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ruhter W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-05-01

25

Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

2006-03-01

26

Technical Cross-Cutting Issues for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project  

SciTech Connect

Ever since there has been spent fuel (SF), researchers have made nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of that fuel to learn about its content. In general these measurements have focused on the simplest signatures (passive photon and total neutron emission) and the analysis has often focused on diversion detection and on determining properties such as burnup (BU) and cooling time (CT). Because of shortcomings in current analysis methods, inspectorates and policy makers are interested in improving the state-of-the-art in SF NDA. For this reason the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), targeted the determination of elemental Pu mass in SF as a technical goal. As part of this research effort, 14 nondestructive assay techniques were studied . This wide range of techniques was selected to allow flexibility for the various needs of the safeguards inspectorates and to prepare for the likely integration of one or more techniques having complementary features. In the course of researching this broad range of NDA techniques, several cross-cutting issues were. This paper will describe some common issues and insights. In particular we will describe the following: (1) the role of neutron absorbers with emphasis on how these absorbers vary in SF as a function of initial enrichment, BU and CT; (2) the need to partition the measured signal among different isotopic sources; and (3) the importance of the “first generation” concept which indicates the spatial location from which the signal originates as well as the isotopic origins.

Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Blanc, P.; Burr, T.; Evans, L. G.; Favalli, A.; Fensin, M. L.; Freeman, C. R.; Galloway, J.; Gerhart, J.; Rajasingam, A.; Rauch, E.; Sandoval, N. P.; Trellue, H.; Ulrich, T. J.; Conlin, J. L.; Croft, S.; Hendricks, John; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Eigenbrodt, J. M.; Koehler, W. E.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, T. H.; Lafleur, A. M.; Schear, M. A.; Humphrey, M. A.; Smith, Leon E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Campbell, Luke W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Shaver, Mark W.; Misner, Alex C.; Amber, S. D.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Quiter, B.; Solodov, Alexander; Charlton, W.; Stafford, A.; Romano, C.; Cheatham, J.; Ehinger, Michael; Thompson, S. J.; Chichester, David; Sterbentz, James; Hu, Jianwei; Hunt, A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Richard, J. G.

2012-03-01

27

Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

1998-09-01

28

Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums  

SciTech Connect

Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R. [and others

1999-03-01

29

Non-destructive actinide assay of neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transuranic neutron sources were assayed using ?-spectrometry and neutron counting, with respect to revealing illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials. Source type and constituents were identified by ?-spectrometry. For determining the source strength of 244Cm, 252Cf, AmBe, AmLi and 238PuBe sources, a passive neutron coincidence collar was used with 3He counters in two moderator configurations. The electronics consist of independent channels of pulse amplifiers and discriminators as well as a shift register for coincidence counting. From the neutron output of the sources measured by gross neutron counting, the actinide content (or activity) can be assessed by adopting specific spontaneous fission and (?, n) reaction yields of individual isotopes from the literature. Various types of the sources can be characterized by the ratio of the real coincidence counts to total (singles) counts, R/ T. This quantity is a specific constant for different types of spontaneously fissioning sources, not depending on their strength, while exhibits a power function increasing with the strength of (?, n) sources. An individual source of the latter type can additionally be characterized by the ratio of R/ T to the product of detection efficiency and a factor taking into account coincidence loss, irrespective of the instrumental details (detector type and size, moderator thickness, etc.).

Lakosi, László; Nguyen, Cong Tam; Bagi, János

2006-06-01

30

Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL.

Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

1991-11-12

31

Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain

1999-02-01

32

Nondestructive assay of spent boiling-water-reactor fuel by active neutron interrogation  

SciTech Connect

Spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from Dresden I was assayed for total fissile mass, using the active neutron interrogation method. The nondestructive assay (NDA) system used has four Sb-Be sources for interrogation of the fuels; the induced fission neutrons from the fuel are counted by four lead-shielded methane-filled proportional counters biased above the energy of the source neutrons. Results agreed with results from the chemical analyses to within 2 to 3%. Similar agreement was obtained when two combinations of canned spent fuel were used as standards for the nondestructive assays.

Blakeman, E.D.; Ricker, C.W.; Ragan, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Slaughter, G.G.

1981-01-01

33

Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes  

SciTech Connect

Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

1982-04-01

34

Passive neutron assay of heterogeneous waste drums using the segmented Add-a-Source method  

SciTech Connect

We have developed passive neutron detectors that include the Add-a-Source (AS) technique to improve the accuracy of the nondestructive assay of plutonium in large waste containers. We have improved the AS by incorporating multiple positions for the {sup 252}Cf source on the exterior of a 200-L drum. The multiple positions give a better coverage of the drum and have the effect of segmenting the matrix as a function of fill height. We have applied the multiposition AS to the assay of drums with heterogeneous matrix combinations of concrete, polyethylene, wood, paper, and metal. The measurement errors caused by the matrix significantly reduced by the AS technique and anomalous shielding material in the drum can be flagged for more detailed investigation.

Menlove, H.O.

1995-07-01

35

Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

Gozani, Tsahi

1981-01-01

36

Evaluation of nondestructive assay characterization methods for pipe-over-pack containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of Transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) packed in Pipe-Over-Pack Containers or POC's exhibit a number of complexities. The POC is highly attenuating to both gamma rays and neutrons which presents a difficult waste matrix for correct quantification of material in the container. Also, chemical and matrix properties of the Pu contaminated waste

S. B. Stanfield; J. R. Wachter; D. L. Cramer

2007-01-01

37

Guidance on meeting DOE order requirements for traceable nondestructive assay measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this guide is to facilitate accuracy and precision of nondestructive assay measurements through improvement of the materials and process of traceability. This document provides DOE and its contractor facilities with guidance to establish traceability to the national measurement base for site-prepared NDA working reference materials.

Not Available

1994-05-01

38

A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay with a time-tagged 252Cf source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new facility for non-destructive assay using a time-tagged 252Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 15×20 cm2, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays.

Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Hao, Xin; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viesti, G.

2010-08-01

39

Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system  

SciTech Connect

A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft{sup 3} boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites.

Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

1995-12-01

40

Automated nondestructive assay of UF 6 cylinders: Detector characterization and initial measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) intended for this purpose and has developed a field prototype of the nondestructive assay (NDA) components of an ICVS. The nondestructive assay methods would combine the "traditional" enrichment-meter signature (i.e. 186-keV emission from U-235) as well as "nontraditional" high-energy photon signatures derived from neutrons produced primarily by F-19(?,n) reactions. This paper describes the design, calibration and characterization of the NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers utilized in the field prototype. An overview of a recent field measurement campaign is then provided, supported by example gamma-ray pulse-height spectra collected on cylinders of known enrichment.

Mace, E. K.; Smith, L. E.

2011-10-01

41

Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe automated and integrated nondestructive assay (NDA) systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the Department of Energy complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and mixed oxide fuel programs. These systems are typified by the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System NDA system which is under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system.

Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

1997-12-01

42

Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe automated and integrated NDA systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the DOE complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and MOX fuel programs. These systems are typified by the ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) nondestructive assay system which is under construction at Los Alamos to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system.

Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

1997-08-01

43

Nondestructive assay of spent boiling water reactor fuel by active neutron interrogation  

SciTech Connect

Spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from Dresden I was assayed for total fissile mass, using the active neutron interrogation method. The nondestructive assay (NDA) system used has four Sb-Be sources for interrogation of the fuels; the induced fission neutrons from the fuel are counted by four lead-shielded methane-filled proportional counters biased above the energy of the source neutrons. Spent fuel rods containing 9 kg of heavy metal were chopped into 5-cm segments and loaded into three 1-liter cans. The three cans were assayed in seven combinations of one, two, or three cans, enabling an evaluation of the precision and accuracy of the NDA system for different amounts of fissile material. The fissile mass in each combination was determined by comparing the induced-fission-neutron counts with the counts obtained from a known standard comprising chopped segments of unirradiated Dresden fuel. These masses were compared to the masses determined by chemical analyses of the spent fuel. The results from the nondestructive assays agreed with results from the chemical analyses to within 2 to 3%. Similar agreement was obtained when two combinations of canned spent fuel were used as standards for the nondesctuctive assays. The assay of BWR spent fuel served as a test of the NDA system which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the assay of spent liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel subassemblies at the heat-end of a reprocessing plant. Results of previous experiments and calculations reported earlier using simulated LMFBR fuel subassemblies indicated that the NDA system can measure the fissile masses of spent fuel subassemblies to within an accuracy of 3%. Results of the assays of spent BWR fuel reported herein support this conclusion.

Blakeman, E.D.; Ricker, C.W.; Ragan, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Slaughter, G.G.

1981-01-01

44

Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In

C. Bonner; M. Schanfein; R. Estep

1999-01-01

45

Non-destructive Assay Measurements Using the RPI Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The use of a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) is consid- ered as a possible option for non-destructive assay of fissile material of used nuclear fuel. The primary objective is to quantify the 239Pu and 235U fissile content via a direct measurement, distinguishing them through their characteristic fission spectra in the LSDS. In this pa- per, we present several assay measurements performed at the Rensse- laer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to demonstrate the feasibility of such a method and to provide benchmark experiments for Monte Carlo cal- culations of the assay system. A fresh UOX fuel rod from the RPI Criticality Research Facility, a 239PuBe source and several highly en- riched 235U discs were assayed in the LSDS. The characteristic fission spectra were measured with 238U and 232Th threshold fission cham- bers, which are only sensitive to fission neutron with energy above the threshold. Despite the constant neutron and gamma background from the PuBe source and the intense interrogation neutron flux, the LSDS system was able to measure the characteristic 235U and 239Pu responses. All measurements were compared to Monte Carlo simula- tions. It was shown that the available simulation tools and models are well suited to simulate the assay, and that it is possible to calculate the absolute count rate in all investigated cases.

Becker, Bjorn; Weltz, Adam; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Thompson, J. T.; Thompson, N.; Danon, Yaron

2013-10-01

46

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage.

None

1997-05-01

47

Gamma ray scanner systems for nondestructive assay of heterogeneous waste barrels  

SciTech Connect

Traditional gamma measurement errors are related to non-uniform measurement responses associated with unknown radioactive source and matrix material distributions. These errors can be reduced by application of tomographic techniques that measure these distributions. LLNL has developed two tomographic-based waste assay systems. They use external radioactive sources and tomography-protocol to map the attenuation within a waste barrel as a function of mono-energetic gamma-ray energy in waste containers. Passive tomography is used to localize and identify specific radioactive waste contents within the same waste containers. Reconstruction of the passive data via the active images allows internal waste radioactivities in a barrel to be corrected for any overlying heterogeneous materials, thus yielding an absolute assay of the waste radioactivities. Calibration of both systems requires only point source measurements and are independent of matrix materials.

Martz, H.E.; Roberson, G.P.; Decman, D.J.; Camp, D.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Levai, F. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Technical University of Budapest (Hungary)

1997-08-01

48

Application of Laser Compton Scattered gamma-ray beams to nondestructive detection and assay of nuclear material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of energy-tunable gamma-rays via Laser Compton Scattering is of great interest for scientific studies and applications of "MeV" photons which interact with nuclei. One of the promising applications of such energy-tunable gamma-rays is the nondestructive detection and assay of nuclides which are necessary for nuclear security and safeguards. We are developing technologies relevant to gamma-ray nondestructive detection and assay, which include a high-brightness gamma-ray source based on modern laser and accelerator technologies, and gamma-ray measurement methods optimized for highly radioactive samples.

Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Angell, C. T.; Nagai, R.; Nishimori, N.; Sawamura, M.; Matsuba, S.; Kosuge, A.; Mori, M.; Seya, M.

2014-05-01

49

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of radioactive material by tomographic gamma scanning  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma ray emitting radionuclides inside containers using tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify the radionuclides of interest. The attenuation of an external gamma ray transmission source is used to correct the measurement of the emission gamma rays from radionuclides to arrive at a quantitative determination of the radionuclides present in the item. 1.2 The TGS technique covered by the test method may be used to assay scrap or waste material in cans or drums in the 1 to 500 litre volume range. Other items may be assayed as well. 1.3 The test method will cover two implementations of the TGS procedure: (1) Isotope Specific Calibration that uses standards of known radionuclide masses (or activities) to determine system response in a mass (or activity) versus corrected count rate calibration, that applies to only those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Respo...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

50

Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations  

SciTech Connect

For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurement of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, we have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. We therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Stewart, J.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Sampson, T.E. [and others

1997-10-01

51

Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations  

SciTech Connect

For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards.

Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

1997-10-01

52

A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay with a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source  

SciTech Connect

A new facility for non-destructive assay using a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 15x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays.

Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao Xin [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, 1080 A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-08-04

53

Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and provide an overview of the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) approach.

Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

2011-08-07

54

Signatures and Methods for the Automated Nondestructive Assay of UF6 Cylinders at Uranium Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Such a station would use sensors that can be operated in an unattended mode at an industrial facility: medium-resolution scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy (e.g., NaI(Tl)) and moderated He-3 neutron detectors. This sensor combination allows the exploitation of additional, more-penetrating signatures beyond the traditional 185-keV emission from U-235: neutrons produced from F-19(?,n) reactions (spawned primarily from U 234 alpha emission) and high-energy gamma rays (extending up to 8 MeV) induced by neutrons interacting in the steel cylinder. This paper describes a study of these non-traditional signatures for the purposes of cylinder enrichment verification. The signatures and the radiation sensors designed to collect them are described, as are proof-of-principle cylinder measurements and analyses. Key sources of systematic uncertainty in the non-traditional signatures are discussed, and the potential benefits of utilizing these non-traditional signatures, in concert with an automated form of the traditional 185-keV-based assay, are discussed.

Smith, Leon E.; Mace, Emily K.; Misner, Alex C.; Shaver, Mark W.

2010-08-08

55

An integrated Tomographic Gamma Scanning system for non-destructive assay of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) technique is a relatively new method in the field of non-destructive assay (NDA) of radioactive waste. The TGS technique combines High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS) with Three-Dimensional (3-D) low spatial resolution transmission and emission image reconstruction techniques to achieve assay goals. When compared to the traditional methods such as Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS), the TGS technique can yield better accuracies for cases where the radionuclide is distributed non-uniformly in a heterogeneous matrix. The TGS technique is ideally suited for low-to-moderate density waste matrices, say 1.0 g cm -3 or below for 55 US gal. drums, although it can be extended to higher densities by using alternative approaches to the design or analyses. Recently Canberra Industries designed, built and characterized four such TGS systems for nuclear power plant applications. Many of the design features and the end application itself set these TGS systems apart from the others that had been built previously. The four TGS systems are the first commercial grade systems that could quantify radionuclides contained in nuclear power plant waste, using the TGS technique. The TGS systems featured two different combinations of collimator and source-detector distance; a "near" geometry with a collimator aperture of 50.8 mm and a "Far" geometry with a narrower collimator aperture of 40.6 mm. For assaying drums with matrix densities greater than 1.0 g cm -3 and/or dose rates greater than 6 mSv h -1 the system could be configured as a SGS. In the SGS mode, five different assay geometries could be configured using different collimator, source-to-detector distance and absorber combinations. During operation, the appropriate assay geometry was selected automatically based on the drum weight (density) and dose rate measurements. The characterization and performance of the one of the TGS systems are discussed in detail for both TGS and SGS modes of operation. Quantitative results are presented for point source and rod source nuclide distributions. Transmission and emission images obtained in the TGS assays will be presented.

Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Villani, Marcel; Croft, Stephen; McClay, Patricia; McElroy, Robert; Kane, Susan; Mueller, Wilhelm; Estep, Robert

2007-08-01

56

Destructive versus Nondestructive Assay Comparisons Using the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

In support of data quality objectives for the INEEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) a series of 208-liter (55-gallon) waste drums containing inorganic sludge have been sampled and destructively analyzed. The drums were non-destructively assayed by the SWEPP PAN system and the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) prior to sampling. This paper reports some of the conclusions from the destructive versus NDA comparisons, and additionally presents the results of an on-going effort to use the destructive analyses to validate absolute efficiency curves calculated using Monte-Carlo and analytical modeling for the SGRS. Destructive analysis results are available from radiochemical assay of 128 sludge-containing drums. The content codes represented are CC001 (42 items), CC002 (8), CC007 (48), CC800 (16), CC803 (3), and CC807 (11.) Each drum had two full-length vertical cores removed from designated radial positions. The entire length of each core was composited and submitted for analysis. All of the core composites were analyzed radiochemically for Am-241, Pu-239/240, and Pu-238, and by inductively-coupled mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for U-235 and U-238. Not only have the destructive analysis results been useful in documenting the performance of both the SGRS and the PAN system, but also have allowed the determination of certain absolute counting efficiency values for the SGRS. The values, in turn will allow us to validate SGRS counting efficiencies computed by MCNP and analytical modeling, and perhaps use the SGRS as an absolute assay technique.

E. W. Killian; J. K. Hartwell; W. Yoon; Y. D. Harker

1998-11-01

57

A passive-active neutron device for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

A combined passive-active neutron assay device was constructed for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste. A study of matrix and source position effects in active assays showed that a knowledge of the source position alone is not sufficient to correct for position-related errors in highly moderating or absorbing matrices. An alternate function for the active assay of solid fuel pellets was derived, although the efficacy of this approach remains to be established. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Estep, R.J.; Coop, K.L.; Deane, T.M.; Lujan, J.E.

1989-01-01

58

Development of a neutron measurement system in unified non-destructive assay for the PRIDE facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has made an effort to develop pyroprocessing technology to resolve an on-going problem in Korea, i.e., the management of spent nuclear fuels. To this end, a test-bed facility for pyroprocessing, called PRIDE (PyRoprocessing Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility), is being constructed at KAERI. The main objective of PRIDE is to evaluate the performance of the unit processes, remote operation, maintenance, and proliferation resistance. In addition, integrating all unit processes into a one-step process is also one of the main goals. PRIDE can also provide a good opportunity to test safeguards instrumentations for a pyroprocessing facility such as nuclear material accounting devices, surveillance systems, radiation monitoring systems, and process monitoring systems. In the present study, a non-destructive assay (NDA) system for the testing of nuclear material accountancy of PRIDE was designed by integrating three different NDA techniques, i.e., neutron, gamma-ray, and mass measurements. The developed neutron detection module consists of 56 3He tubes and 16 AMPTEK A111 signal processing circuits. The amplifiers were matched in terms of the gain and showed good uniformity after a gain-matching procedure (%RSD=0.37%). The axial and the radial efficiency distributions within the cavity were then measured using a 252Cf neutron source and were compared with the MCNPX calculation results. The measured efficiency distributions showed excellent agreement with the calculations, which confirmed the accuracy of the MCNPX model of the system.

Seo, Hee; Park, Se-Hwan; Won, Byung-Hee; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Shin, Hee-Sung; Na, Sang-Ho; Song, Dae-Yong; Kim, Ho-Dong; Lee, Seung Kyu

2013-12-01

59

Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities  

SciTech Connect

Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.

Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

1991-09-01

60

A New Facility For Non-Destructive Assay With A Time-Tagged {sup 252}Cf Source  

SciTech Connect

A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay based on a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source is now in operation at the Padova University. The system is designed to analyze samples with dimensions on the order of 20x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays as a function of energy.

Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao, Xin [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, 1080 A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2011-06-01

61

Non-destructive assay of drum package radioactive wastes utilizing tomographic gamma scanning  

SciTech Connect

A methodology for nondestructive assay of drum packaged radioactive waste materials is investigated using Emission Computed Tomography procedures. A requirement of this method is accurate gamma attenuation correction. This is accomplished by the use of a constant density distribution for the drum content, thereby requiring the need for a homogeneous medium. The current predominant NDA technique is the use of the Segmented Gamma Scanner. Tomographic Gamma Scanning improves upon this method by providing a low resolution three-dimensional image of the source distribution, yielding both spatial and activity information. Reconstruction of the source distribution is accomplished by utilization of algebraic techniques with a nine by six voxel model with detector information gathered over scanning intervals of ninety degrees. Construction of a linear system to describe the scenario was accomplished using a point-source response function methodology, where a 54 {times} 120 matrix contained the projected detector responses for each source-detector geometry. Entries in this matrix were calculated using the point-kernal shielding code QAD-CGGP. Validation was performed using the MCNP photon transport code. Solutions to the linear system were determined using the Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS) algorithm and the LSMOD algorithm. A series of four scans were performed, each reconstructing the source distribution of a mock-up waste package containing a single 73 mCi {sup 137}Cs point source. For each scan, the source was located in a different location. Results of the reconstruction routines accurately predict the location and activity of the source. The range of activity calculated using the NNLS routine is 0.2681 mCi with an average value of 77.7995 mCi. The range of values calculated using LSMOD is 5.1843 mCi with an average of 72.8018 mCi.

Ausbrooks, K.L.

1996-05-01

62

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The nuclear material type, mass and associated alpha activity of the NDA PDP radioactive standard sets have been specified and fabricated to allow assembly of PDP samples that simulate TRU alpha activity concentrations, radionuclidic/isotopic distributions and physical forms typical of the DOE TRU waste inventory. The PDP matrix drum waste matrix types were derived from an evaluation of information contained in the Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) to ensure representation of prevalent waste types and their associated matrix characteristics in NDA PDP testing. NDA drum analyses required by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) may only be performed by measurement facilities that comply with the performance criteria as set forth in the NDA PDP Plan. In this document, these analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the wastes on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP wastes.

Carlsbad Field Office

2005-08-03

63

The use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition.

Parker, J.L.

1986-11-01

64

Use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition. 17 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

Parker, J.L.

1984-08-01

65

Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge  

SciTech Connect

This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

2010-12-01

66

A state-of-the-art passive gamma-ray assay system  

SciTech Connect

We report details of the development of a high-accuracy, high-precision system for the non-destructive assay of /sup 235/U in solution. The system can measure samples with concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 500 g /sup 235/U/l using 200-ml samples at low concentrations, 30-ml samples at high concentrations, and 1000-s measurement times. The accuracy and precision goals of 0.1% were essentially attained for concentrations above 100 g/l. This at-line system, designed for a production plant environment, represents a significant improvement in the state of the art.

Sampson, T.E.; Parker, J.L.; Cowder, L.R.; Kern, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.; Ensslin, N.

1987-01-01

67

An integrated approach for determining plutonium mass in spent fuel assemblies with nondestructive assay  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel. Below, five motivations are listed: (1) To verify the Pu content of spent fuel without depending on unverified information from the facility, as requested by the IAEA ('independent verification'). New spent fuel measurement techniques have the potential to allow the IAEA to recover continuity of knowledge and to better detect diversion. (2) To assure regulators that all of the nuclear material of interest leaving a nuclear facility actually arrives at another nuclear facility ('shipper/receiver'). Given the large stockpile of nuclear fuel at reactor sites around the world, it is clear that in the coming decades, spent fuel will need to be moved to either reprocessing facilities or storage sites. Safeguarding this transportation is of significant interest. (3) To quantify the Pu in spent fuel that is not considered 'self-protecting.' Fuel is considered self-protecting by some regulatory bodies when the dose that the fuel emits is above a given level. If the fuel is not self-protecting, then the Pu content of the fuel needs to be determined and the Pu mass recorded in the facility's accounting system. This subject area is of particular interest to facilities that have research-reactor spent fuel or old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. It is also of interest to regulators considering changing the level at which fuel is considered self-protecting. (4) To determine the input accountability value at an electrochemical processing facility. It is not expected that an electrochemical reprocessing facility will have an input accountability tank, as is typical in an aqueous reprocessing facility. As such, one possible means of determining the input accountability value is to measure the Pu content in the spent fuel that arrives at the facility. (5) To fully understand the composition of the fuel in order to efficiently and safely pack spent fuel into a long-term repository. The NDA of spent fuel can be part of a system that cost-effectively meets the burnup credit needs of a repository. Behind each of these reasons is a regulatory structure with MC&A requirements. In the case of the IAEA, the accountable quantity is elemental plutonium. The material in spent fuel (fissile isotopes, fission products, etc.) emits signatures that provide information about the content and history of the fuel. A variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available to quantify these signatures. The effort presented in this paper is investigation of the capabilities of 12 NDA techniques. For these 12, none is conceptually capable of independently determining the Pu content in a spent fuel assembly while at the same time being able to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of rods. For this reason the authors are investigating the capability of 12 NDA techniques with the end goal of integrating a few techniques together into a system that is capable of measuring Pu mass in an assembly. The work described here is the beginning of what is anticipated to be a five year effort: (1) two years of modeling to select the best technologies, (2) one year fabricating instruments and (3) two years measuring spent fuel. This paper describes the first two years of this work. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of the 12 NDA techniques, an 'assembly library' was created. The library contains the following: (a) A diverse range of PWR spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future. (b) Diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options. (c) The spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. It is our intention to make this library available to other researchers in the field for inter-comparison purposes. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library for measurements in three different media: air, water and borated water. The 12 NDA te

Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Mike L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

68

Experience operating LANL`s passive/active neutron (PAN) assay system  

SciTech Connect

We present a summary of our operating experience with LANL`s mobile PAN assay system, which was acquired from the Carlsbad Area Office in 1994, refurbished, calibrated, and fielded for the first time on LANL`s TRU waste in the winter of 1996. It is functionally identical to other PAN systems throughout the DOE complex and its software is the same as at INEL. Since Jan. 1996, it has passed the first round of the Performance Demonstration Program and has been used to assay several hundred drums of LANL`s TRU waste. Difficulties in assaying homogeneous wastes with high ({alpha},n) neutron fluxes and experience in assaying debris waste in both active and passive PAN modes are reported on.

Taggart, D.P.; Betts, S.E.; Martinez, E.F.; Mendez, J.L.; Rael, C.D.; Vigil, J.J.

1997-01-01

69

Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(?, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 ?g g-1.

Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Ji?í; ?anda, Zden?k; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

2015-01-01

70

Technical note: The calibration of {sup 90}Y-labeled SIR-Spheresusing a nondestructive spectroscopic assay  

SciTech Connect

{sup 90}Y-labeled SIR-Spheres are currently used to treat patients with hepatic metastases secondary to colorectal adenocarcinoma. In general, the prescribed activity is based on empirical data collected during clinical trials. The activity of the source vial is labeled by the manufacturer as 3.0 GBq{+-}10% and is not independently verified by the end user. This technical note shows that the results of a nondestructive spectroscopic assay of a SIR-Spheressample was 26% higher than the activity stated by the manufacturer. This difference should not impact the current empirical prescription method but may be problematic for patient-specific dosimetry applications, such as image-based dosimetry.

Selwyn, R.; Micka, J.; DeWerd, L.; Nickles, R.; Thomadsen, B. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2008-04-15

71

PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[α] (about 50 μg Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective ²³⁹Pu

Christian Passard; Alain Mariani; Fanny Jallu; Jacques Romeyer-Dherbey; Herve Recroix; Michel Rodriguez; Joel Loridon; Caroline Denis; Herve Toubon

2002-01-01

72

Neutron-based measurements for nondestructive assay of minor actinides produced in nuclear power reactors  

SciTech Connect

Because of their impacts on long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste and their value as nuclear fuels, measurement and accounting of the minor actinides produced in nuclear power reactors are becoming significant issues. This paper briefly reviews the commercial nuclear fuel cycle with emphasis on reprocessing plants and key measurement points therein. Neutron signatures and characteristics are compared and contrasted for special nuclear materials (SNMs) and minor actinides (MAs). The paper focuses on application of neutron-based nondestructive analysis (NDA) methods that can be extended for verification of MAs. We describe current IAEA methods for NDA of SNMs and extension of these methods to satisfy accounting requirements for MAs in reprocessing plant dissolver solutions, separated products, and high-level waste. Recommendations for further systems studies and development of measurement methods are also included.

Stewart, J.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Cremers, T.L.; Foster, L.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Rinard, P.M.

1996-10-01

73

Production and radiometric measurements of the large particle plutonium oxide non-destructive assay standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Analytical Chemistry Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has produced several sets of working reference materials (WRMs) for the National TRU Waste Program (NTWP) NDA PDP(Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program). This paper describes the first example of production of traceable, certified standards containing plutonium oxide in large particle form for the DOE complex. Discussion of the production and

Denise L. Thronas; Amy S. Wong; Sandra L. Mecklenburg; Robert S. Marshall

2000-01-01

74

Mixed Waste Focus Area/Characterization Monitoring Sensor Technology Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project End-User Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) in conjunction with the Characterization Monitoring and Sensor Technology (CMST) crosscut program identified the need to objectively evaluate the capability of nondestructive waste assay (NDA) technologies. This was done because of a general lack of NDA technology performance data with respect to a representative cross section of waste form configurations comprising the Department of Energy (DOE) contact-handled alpha contaminated [e.g., transuranic (TRU) waste]. The overall objective of the Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was to establish a known and unbiased NDA data and information base that can be used to support end-user decisions with regards to technology system selection and to support technology development organizations in identifying technology system deficiencies. The primary performance parameters evaluated in the CEP were measurement bias and relative precision. The performance of a given NDA technology is a direct function of the attributes represented by the waste matrix configuration. Such attributes include matrix density, matrix elemental composition, radionuclidic composition, radionuclide mass loading, and the spatial variation of these components. Analyzing the manner in which bias and precision vary as a function of test sample attribute and NDA technology provides a foundation for deriving performance capability and limitation statements and determines which waste matrix attributes, or combinations of attributes, are compatible or incompatible with existing technologies. The CEP achieved the stated end-user objective. The data indicate that the nondestructive waste assay systems evaluated have a definite capability to perform assay of contact-handled TRU waste packaged in 55-gallon drums. There is, however, a performance envelope where this capability exists, an area near the envelope boundaries where it is questionable, and a realm outside the envelope where the technologies do not perform. Therefore, the end user must be aware of this envelope and ensure the appropriate technology is selected. This program provides the end user with waste type specific performance data to assist in the assessment and selection of a given waste NDA technology. Additionally, the CEP afforded the private sector participants the opportunity to evaluate system performance using National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable radioactive significant enhancements to their respective systems and supported all participants in attaining DOE-CAO certification. Ultimately, the DOE end users will benefit from these enhancements.

G. K. Becker; M. E. McIlwain; M. J. Connolly

1998-11-01

75

Feasability of using a graphite slowing-down-time spectrometer in the nondestructive assay of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A slowing-down-time spectrometer (SDTS), constructed for the study of nondestructive assay of fissile nuclear materials, is in its early stages of operation at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The spectrometer is made of a 101×105×122 cm 3 graphite rectangular parallelepiped and is based on injecting pulses of 14 MeV neutrons into the pile. The neutron source is a Texas Nuclear Corporation neutron generator that produces neutrons via the D-T reaction. Measurements and calculations have been conducted to study the time behavior of the neutrons and the assay capabilities of this spectrometer. A 3He detector covered with 0.8 mm of Cd was used to perform neutron die-away measurements in the graphite. A 4He detector was used to perform an assay of a fuel pin containing 13% by mass 239Pu. The calculations were made using the MCNP4B code, and a realistic 3-D mock-up of the experiment. Good agreement is found to exist between the measured time spectra and the ones predicted from the calculations. This included the experimental observation of a predicted rapid fall-off in the die-away spectrum due to the existence of the cadmium cover. Therefore, the time-energy coupling that is expected to hold in a SDTS is experimentally verified. In addition, the calculations and the measurements indicate that the interrogation of fissile materials is possible using a graphite SDTS. This is clear in the measured and calculated time signatures for the 239Pu sample, which include structure that reflects the two resonance groups and the 0.3 eV resonance peak observed in the 239Pu fission cross section.

Ibrahim Hawari, Ayman; Wehring, Bernard W.; Radulescu, Horia R.; Abdurrahman, Naeem M.

1999-02-01

76

The role of non-destructive assay in support of the exemption of solid waste from nuclear licensed sites  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Nuclear Site License Holders within the United Kingdom are increasingly re-examining the options available for disposal of solid waste produced during routine operations and decommissioning activities. The incentives to do so include: 'Compliance with the requirement to minimise radioactive waste, as stipulated in Disposal Authorisations issued by the Environment Agency' Reducing the burden on the UK Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR)' Achieving cost savings on waste management, by avoiding expensive conditioning, transport and disposal costs for certain wastes. Wastes may be exempted from regulation under the Radioactive Substances Act, 1993 (RSA 93) provided they comply with the conditions laid out in the relevant Exemption Orders. In effect, they may be legally disposed as if they were non-radioactive waste. A national Code of Practice on Clearance and Exemption Principles, Processes and Practices was introduced in 2005 to clarify the requirements of these Exemption Orders and provide guidance on their practical application. In order to demonstrate compliance with these Exemption Orders, it is essential to have good knowledge of the items' history and their potential for contamination. Monitoring is frequently used as definitive evidence that the radioactivity content of waste items does not exceed limits proscribed in the relevant Exemption Orders. The practicalities of monitoring require careful consideration in order to achieve meaningful results and be capable of achieving the low specific activity limits quoted in the Exemption Orders. The Cross Industry Assay Working Group is a national collection of non-destructive assay specialists from a range of companies, which meets regularly to discuss challenges relating to the assay of all categories of waste. In this paper, the Group presents examples of how NDA techniques are being used to support the exemption of waste items. (authors)

Fisher, Alan [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA, Harwell (United Kingdom); Adsley, Ian; Green, Tommy [NUKEM Ltd., Kelburn Court, Daten Park, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6TW (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

77

Nondestructive assay in complex, self-attenuating radioactive materials by gamma spectroscopy: A mathematical model and empirical determination of error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several years, portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectroscopy systems have been used with nondestructive assay techniques to characterize waste items at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Accurate quantification of the radionuclide contamination required that an analytical model be developed. The resulting model, based on a point kernel volumetric approach, is used to translate the raw spectral information into total activity for each detected radionuclide. Using uncollimated, in situ counting techniques, a relatively high-efficiency n-type HPGe detector, a portable laptop computer, and a multi-channel analyzer, the nondestructive assay system has superior detection limits with state of-the-art accuracy. Not only can the system be used to successfully count drums, but also large items such as 90 cubic foot boxes, gloveboxes and heavy machinery. Additionally, contaminated materials such as floors, walls, soil and water have been characterized with the same model. Because of the versatility of the model and the very low detection limits attainable, tremendous cost savings have been realized from low-level/TRU waste segregation activities, and free-release/low-level determinations. The model has been used to determine the activity in a number of contaminated and spiked items and matrices with both known and unknown quantities. In an extensive study to determine the empirical accuracy of the model, a number of measurements were made on sources of known activity. The results show that measurement errors of 20 to 50 percent are achieved, depending on item size, geometry and radionuclide contamination. For larger items, results were typically 30 to 50 percent from the known value. Measurements of smaller and homogeneously contaminated items showed that the measurement errors were the same order of magnitude as the uncertainty of the source (10 to 20 percent). Furthermore, although individual error sources are biased in either the positive or negative, no bias error is apparent in the data collected to date. This paper will present the model theory and algorithms, detail the methodology for acquiring and analyzing data, and present theoretical and measured errors of the analyses.

Soukup, James David

2001-12-01

78

Nondestructive assay of plutonium bearing scrap and waste with the advanced segmented gamma-ray scanner  

SciTech Connect

Assaying plutonium-bearing scrap and waste (S W) for plutonium content can be very difficult because of the heterogeneous nature of the items. We have characterized 25 S W items in three distinct S W categories to 2% or better. We used these items with fabricated calibration standards to evaluate the performance of the lump- corrected segmented gamma-ray scanner. We show that some difficult-to-measure S W samples can be assayed with less than 10% bias, but still suggest that each category of S W be individually evaluated for measurement bias. This paper describes the capability of the advanced segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS) to measure a wide variety of plutonium-bearing scrap and waste. Real samples were obtained from operating facilities and subsequently carefully characterized. The samples include low-density plutonium bearing ash, high-density plutonium oxide, sand-slag crucibles (SSC), and salts generated from the molten salt extraction (MSE) process. This paper demonstrates that some of these process samples can be measured quite well with the state-of-the-art techniques on the SGS. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Simmonds, S.M.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Hsue, S.-T.; Kellogg, M.P.

1990-01-01

79

Non-destructive assay of {sup 242}Pu by resonance neutron capture  

SciTech Connect

For the accurate assay of plutonium by neutron correlation measurements, especially for material derived from high-burnup reactor fuel, the content of {sup 242}Pu in a sample must be determined. Since {sup 242}Pu has a long half-life (387,000 yr) and decays to {sup 238}U by alpha particle emission with the accompanying emission of only weak, low-energy gamma rays, gamma-ray spectrometry methods which are ordinarily employed to determine the isotopic composition of a plutonium sample are not feasible for {sup 242}Pu. The existence of a resonance in the neutron capture cross section of {sup 242}Pu at an energy of 2.67 electron volts (eV) with a large (72, 000 barn) cross section affords the possibility for the quantitative assay of this isotope by epithermal neutron capture. Essential for this purpose is an appropriately designed geometry of neutron moderators and absorbers which will provide maximum flux in the eV region while suppressing thermal neutron capture by the fissile plutonium isotopes. Signatures for neutron capture in {sup 242}Pu include the decay of {sup 243}Pu (4.9 hr), prompt capture gamma rays (total energy 5.034 MeV), and the decay of an isomeric state (330 nanosecond). Experiments to determine the feasibility of this approach are currently in progress.

Kane, W.R.; Lu, Ming-Shih; Aronson, A.; Forman, L.; Vanier, P.E.

1995-08-01

80

Application of nondestructive assay technology in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's waste management program  

SciTech Connect

Waste characterization is the process whereby physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element of a waste certification program in that it provides information which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A and WIPP-DOE-069 list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content, fissile material content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual(s) who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which the major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.; Brandenburg, R.W.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Hensley, D.C.; Phoenix, L.B.

1990-01-01

81

Conceptual design for a receiving station for the nondestructive assay of PuO/sub 2/ at the fuels and materials examination facility  

SciTech Connect

We propose a conceptual design for a receiving station for input accountability measurements on PuO/sub 2/ received at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. Nondestructive assay techniques are proposed, including neutron coincidence counting, calorimetry, and isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectroscopy, in a versatile data acquisition system to perform input accountability measurements with precisions better than 1% at throughputs of up to 2 M.T./yr of PuO/sub 2/.

Sampson, T.E.; Speir, L.G.; Ensslin, N.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Bourret, S.; Parker, J.L.

1981-11-01

82

International Perspective on the Application of Non-Destructive Assay Technology Platforms for Sentencing and Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12113  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade, major technology improvements have been introduced in the field of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste in compliance with an evolving regulatory structure. For example in the United States, various NDA technologies have been successfully developed to meet the stringent characterization requirements of the Department of Energy. The use of this instrumentation, combined with the compliant operational processes and expertise levels that have emerged in parallel, have enabled over 75,000 m{sup 3} (or in excess of 145,000 containers) of contact and remote handled transuranic (TRU) waste to be sentenced to date to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant from 10 different consignor sites. Many of these techniques have applicability that transcends national borders and can be used for common characterization challenges in waste sentencing and disposal on an international basis. Applicable waste streams could include LLW, ILW, TRU and HLW. There are specific design aspects of assay equipment that must be tailored to meet the applicable regulatory requirements for detection and quantification of a set of nuclides of interest to a prescribed limit of detection and measurement uncertainty. Each host nation will have specific challenges in the form of matrix types and processes, availability of historical information, needs for portable versus fixed instruments and the requirement to measure all containers versus assay of a representative sample. Furthermore, the practice of load management (combining smaller packages into a larger package designed to meet the overall waste acceptance criteria for the bulk container) may not have universal acceptability. An evaluation has been performed on a sample of the most successful technologies that have recently emerged to understand their applicability in other countries. Two types of instrumentation 'suite' are considered for measurements on drums and larger boxes / crates: (i) High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence counting combined with gamma isotopic analysis (e.g. the SuperHENC), and (ii) Portable NDA using neutron slab counters and far field high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Target countries (outside the United States) for these applications are: China, Japan, UK, Sweden and Canada. Specific challenges in each country are addressed and the applicability of the technologies as 'universal platforms' is considered. (authors)

Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2532 Camino Entrada, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

2012-07-01

83

PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods  

SciTech Connect

The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[{alpha}] (about 50 {mu}g Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective {sup 239}Pu in total active neutron counting, and 0.08 mg of effective {sup 239}Pu coincident active neutron counting, may currently be detected (empty cavity, measurement time of 15 min, neutron generator emission of 1.6 x 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} [4{pi}]). The most limiting parameters in terms of performances are the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl...), its density, and its heterogeneity degree - and the localization and self-shielding properties of the contaminant.

Passard, Christian [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Mariani, Alain [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Jallu, Fanny [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Romeyer-Dherbey, Jacques [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Recroix, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Rodriguez, Michel [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Loridon, Joel [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Denis, Caroline [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Toubon, Herve [COGEMA (France)

2002-12-15

84

Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility  

SciTech Connect

A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed.

Schultz, F.J.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Haff, K.W.

1985-03-01

85

Passive and Active Neutron Matrix Correction for Heterogeneous Distributions Utilizing the Neutron Imaging Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) and Differential Die-Away (DDA) active neutron interrogation techniques [1, 2] are well suited for determining the gross matrix correction factors for homogenous mass distributions of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) within an interfering waste drum matrix. These measured passive and active matrix correction factors are crucial in quantifying the SNM mass, associated

Marcel F. Villani; Stephen Croft; Eloisa Alvarez; Colin G. Wilkins; Dave Stamp; John Fisher; Alessandro Ambrifi; Gianluca Simone; Ludovic C. Bourva

2008-01-01

86

Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

1984-02-01

87

Cryptosporidium antigen detection in human feces by reverse passive hemagglutination assay.  

PubMed Central

A reverse passive hemagglutination (RPH) assay was developed for Cryptosporidium oocyst antigen with an antioocyst monoclonal antibody (MAb; MAb-C1) coupled to stabilized sheep erythrocytes. RPH was compared with microscopy of auramine-phenol-stained smears of 56 oocyst-positive fecal samples, each of which was tested blindly by RPH with two oocyst-negative samples received on the same day (a total of 112 controls). Thirty-nine additional fecal samples from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody-positive patients with diarrhea (10 of which were positive in auramine-phenol-stained smears) were stored at -20 degrees C before testing. Thirty specimens with a variety of other fecal pathogens (all negative for oocysts) were also tested. Of the 237 samples tested, 69 were positive by one or both methods: 65 by RPH and 66 by microscopy. The kappa coefficient of agreement between the methods was very high at 0.926. The sensitivity of RPH was 93.9%, the specificity was 98.2%, the positive predictive value was 95.4%, and the negative predictive value was 97.7%. Visible oocyst numbers and RPH titers were measured after storage of fecal samples and oocyst concentrates for 8 days at 4 degrees C. Oocyst morphology was generally poor in specimens from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody-positive group, and it degenerated during the 8-day storage experiments. MAb-C1-reactive antigen eluted from oocysts to give progressively higher reciprocal titers during storage, and it was partially removed from the oocysts by concentration. RPH is a promising technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium antigen in human feces and may be useful when specimens are stored before testing. Studies of the sensitivity of Cryptosporidium immunoassays should take into account the possible release of antigen from oocysts. PMID:7852568

Farrington, M; Winters, S; Walker, C; Miller, R; Rubenstein, D

1994-01-01

88

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material holdup using Gamma-Ray spectroscopic methods  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes gamma-ray methods used to nondestructively measure the quantity of 235U, or 239Pu remaining as holdup in nuclear facilities. Holdup occurs in all facilities where nuclear material is processed, in process equipment, in exhaust ventilation systems and in building walls and floors. 1.2 This test method includes information useful for management, planning, selection of equipment, consideration of interferences, measurement program definition, and the utilization of resources (1, 2, 3, 4). 1.3 The measurement of nuclear material hold up in process equipment requires a scientific knowledge of radiation sources and detectors, transmission of radiation, calibration, facility operations and error analysis. It is subject to the constraints of the facility, management, budget, and schedule; plus health and safety requirements; as well as the laws of physics. The measurement process includes defining measurement uncertainties and is sensitive to the form and distribution of the material...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

89

Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in ? low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low ?-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating ? low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[?] per gram of crude waste (?50 ?g Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying the matrix components by using prompt gamma-rays following neutron capture. The method aims to refine the value of the adequate calibration coefficient used for ANI analysis. This paper presents the final results obtained for 118 l waste drums with low ?-activity and low density. This paper discusses the experimental and modelling studies and describes the development of correction abacuses based on gamma-ray spectrometry signals.

Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

2008-08-01

90

Stress-induced changes in optical properties, pigment and fatty acid content of Nannochloropsis sp.: implications for non-destructive assay of total fatty acids.  

PubMed

In order to develop a practical approach for fast and non-destructive assay of total fatty acid (TFA) and pigments in the biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. changes in TFA, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were monitored in parallel with the cell suspension absorbance. The experiments were conducted with the cultures grown under normal (complete nutrient f/2 medium at 75 ?mol PAR photons/(m(2)?s)) or stressful (nitrogen-lacking media at 350 ?mol PAR photons/(m(2)?s)) conditions. The reliable measurement of the cell suspension absorbance using a spectrophotometer without integrating sphere was achieved by deposition of cells on glass-fiber filters in the chlorophyll content range of 3-13 mg/L. Under stressful conditions, a 30-50% decline in biomass and chlorophyll, retention of carotenoids and a build-up of TFA (15-45 % of dry weight) were recorded. Spectral regions sensitive to widely ranging changes in carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio and correlated changes of TFA content were revealed. Employing the tight inter-correlation of stress-induced changes in lipid metabolism and rearrangement of the pigment apparatus, the spectral indices were constructed for non-destructive assessment of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio (range 0.3-0.6; root mean square error (RMSE)?=?0.03; r (2)?=?0.93) as well as TFA content of Nannochloropsis sp. biomass (range 5.0-45%; RMSE?=?3.23 %; r (2)?=?0.89) in the broad band 400-550 nm normalized to that in chlorophyll absorption band (centered at 678 nm). The findings are discussed in the context of real-time monitoring of the TFA accumulation by Nannochloropsis cultures under stressful conditions. PMID:20882331

Solovchenko, Alexei; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Recht, Lee; Boussiba, Sammy

2011-06-01

91

A technical review of non-destructive assay research for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies being conducted under the US DOE NGSI  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing belief that expansion of nuclear energy generation will be needed in the coming decades as part of a mixed supply chain to meet global energy demand. At stake is the health of the economic engine that delivers human prosperity. As a consequence renewed interest is being paid to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the plutonium it contains. In addition to being an economically valuable resource because it can be used to construct explosive devices, Pu must be placed on an inventory and handled securely. A multiinstitutional team of diverse specialists has been assembled under a project funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to address ways to nondestructively quantify the plutonium content of spent nuclear fuel assemblies, and to also detect the potential diversion of pins from those assemblies. Studies are underway using mostly Monte Carlo tools to assess the feasibility, individual and collective performance capability of some fourteen nondestructive assay methods. Some of the methods are familiar but are being applied in a new way against a challenging target which is being represented with a higher degree of realism in simulation space than has been done before, while other methods are novel. In this work we provide a brief review of the techniques being studied and highlight the main achievements to date. We also draw attention to the deficiencies identified in for example modeling capability and available basic nuclear data. We conclude that this is an exciting time to be working in the NDA field and that much work, both fundamental and applied, remains ahead if we are to advance the state of the practice to meet the challenges posed to domestic and international safeguards by the expansion of nuclear energy together with the emergence of alternative fuel cycles.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

92

High sensitivity assay of cement encapsulated spent nuclear fuel sludge using the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN) system  

SciTech Connect

A new technique has been developed for high sensitivity assay of grouted spent nuclear fuel (SNF) sludge waste in 208 liter drums. The method uses the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN{sup TM}) system to provide regulatory acceptable measurements. At the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility in Hanford, two IPAN{sup TM} systems have been successfully calibrated and validated for assay of SNF grouted sludge drums (encapsulated with a cement mixture). The systems have been demonstrated to be capable of performing low level waste (LLW) / transuranic (TRU) waste sorting even in the presence of high gamma radiation fields emitted by the fission and activation products associated with SNF. The active and passive modes of the IPAN{sup TM} provide a wide dynamic range of assay: from below the TRU/LLW sorting threshold (100 nCi/g or 3700 Bq/g) up to several hundred grams of Weapons Grade Pu Equivalent. A new calibration technique was developed that uses a radial weighted average method to define the imaging response matrix. This method provides the required sensitivity to the height distribution of special nuclear material within the 208 liter drum, and makes use of the uniform radial distribution that will occur for a distribution of a large population of small particles in a homogeneous matrix. Extensive validation and testing with specially designed surrogate grouted sludge drums and radioactive standards have resulted in regulatory acceptance of this technique, permitting ultimate disposal of the SNF sludge drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. (authors)

Simpson, A.P. [BIL Solutions Inc, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Abdurrahman, N.M. [Fluor Hanford, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

93

Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ Nondestructive Assay of Radioactive Materials. Some of the information that will be presented includes observations made during site visits, how information useful to all facilities using nondestructive assay to determine holdup material quantities will be disseminated, and preliminary results of a gap analysis performed on current in situ nondestructive assay holdup measurements.

Bracken, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamb, Frank W [UNWIN CORPORATION

2009-01-01

94

Nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

Martz, H.E.

1997-02-01

95

Los Alamos National Laboratory`s mobile PAN (Passive/Active Neutron) system for assay of TRU waste in 55 gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

We describe the refurbishment, reactivation and rough calibration of a mobile second generation Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system previously owned by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Lockheed Idaho Technology Center (INEL-LITC). This system was transferred to LANL a little over one year ago. After substantial refurbishment for operations, including installation of operating software developed at INEL-LITC, we have completed a rough calibration of the system in preparation for the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) expected to begin in the near future. We discuss compensation for the waste matrix neutron moderating and absorbing characteristics and present some data acquired during the calibration process which points out the possible waste matrix effects on the results of an assay. Future plans are also discussed.

Taggart, D.P.; Betts, S.E.; Martinez, E.F. [and others

1995-12-01

96

Non-destructive analysis of low-enriched and natural U samples by ?-spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive non-destructive assay methods were employed for quantitative analysis of low-enriched, natural, and depleted uranium-containing reactor fuel pellets of unknown origin and powder-form chemicals, using high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition and the amount of 238U were determined applying intrinsic calibration and attenuation correction methods, respectively. The 238U mass was measured by a relative method, using a certified reference set for calibration. After finding the total U-content, the matrix of the samples (UO 2, U 3O 8, uranyl-acetate, and uranyl-nitrate) was also identified for material without cladding.

Tam, N. C.; Zsigrai, J.; Lakosi, L.; József, E.; Sáfár, J.

2003-12-01

97

Nondestructive evaluations  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

Kulkarni, S.

1993-03-01

98

Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps  

SciTech Connect

Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step in enhancing the ability of NDA beyond present attended systems. The possibility of monitoring the feed, tails, and product header pipes in such a way as to gain safeguards relevant flow and enrichment information without compromising the intellectual property of the operator including proprietary equipment and operational parameters would be a huge step forward. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including such process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector measurements reducing the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GeEPs safeguards.

Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moran, Bruce W [IAEA; Lebrun, Alain [IAEA

2009-01-01

99

Depleted uranium waste assay at AWE  

SciTech Connect

The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston has recently conducted a Best Practical Means (BPM) study, for solid Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay, in order to satisfy key stakeholders that AWE is applying best practice. This study has identified portable passive High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS), combined with an analytical software package called Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform (SNAP), as the preferred option with the best balance between performance and costs. HRGS/SNAP performance has been assessed by monitoring 200 l DU waste drum standards and also heterogeneous, high density drums from DU firing trials. Accuracy was usually within 30 % with Detection Limits (DL) in the region of 10 g DU for short count times. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations have been used to confirm the shape of the calibration curve generated by the SNAP software procured from Eberline Services Inc. (authors)

Miller, T.J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, England, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

100

Argonne National Laboratory's Nondestructive  

E-print Network

and extensive track record of success in nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/ NDE) of critical componentsArgonne National Laboratory's Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies NDE #12;Over45yearsexperienceinNondestructiveEvaluation... Argonne National Laboratory's world-renowned researchers have a proven

Kemner, Ken

101

Applications Where Snap is BPM for Radioactive Waste Assay  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston in the United Kingdom (UK), has used a variety of assay techniques to measure the radioactive content of a diverse range of waste packages from decommissioning, operational and legacy sources. The regulator, the Environment Agency in the UK, places conditions and limits on AWE through an authorisation within the Radioactive Substances Act (RSA93). The conditions and limits require Best Practical Means (BPM) measurements to be used to demonstrate compliance with the authorisation. Hence, the assay technique employed needs to achieve a balance between risk of exposure, environmental considerations, technological considerations, health and safety considerations and cost effectiveness, without being grossly disproportionate in terms of money, time or trouble. Recently published work has concluded that the Spectral Non-destructive Assay Platform (SNAP) assay system is BPM for Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay at AWE (1) and low level plutonium in soft drummed waste, HEPA filters and soils (2-4). The purpose of this paper is to highlight other applications where SNAP represents BPM for radioactive waste assay. This has been done by intercomparison studies of SNAP with other assay techniques, such as Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and Passive Neutron Coincidence Counter (PNCC). It has been concluded that, for a large range of waste packages encountered at AWE, SNAP is BPM. (author)

Miller, T.J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

102

Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use  

SciTech Connect

Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.

Menlove, H.O.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Stewart, J.E.

1994-02-01

103

Quantitative measurements of cholera enterotoxin in cultures of toxinogenic wild-type and nontoxinogenic mutant strains of Vibrio cholerae by using a sensitive and specific reversed passive hemagglutination assay for cholera enerotoxin.  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific reversed passive hemagglutination (RPHA) assay for cholera enterotoxin has been developed. Equine anti-choleragenoid antibodies purified by immunoadsorption were covalently coupled to formalinized sheep erythrocytes, using bis-diazotized benzidine, and the antitoxin-sensitized erythrocytes were shown to agglutinate specifically in the presence of cholera enterotoxin. In a microtiter RPHA assay system, the smallest quantity of enterotoxin that caused hemagglutination was approximately 20 pg. A sensitive assay for antibodies to enterotoxin was also developed, based on inhibition of RPHA. Using such assays, we demonstrated that several nontoxinogenic (tox-) strains of Vibrio cholerae produced small but detectable yields of enterotoxin, 4 to 16 ng/ml, under conditions where the highly toxinogenic strain 569B Inaba produced approximately 16 microgram of enterotoxin per ml. The enterotoxin produced in small quantities by these tox- strains was found to be identical to the enterotoxin from V. cholerae 569B Inaba iv its immunological and biological activities. Strains of V. cholerae that produce intermediate yields of enterotoxin have been obtained by two techniques: (i) as less toxinogenic mutants derived from highly toxinogenic strains and (ii) as more toxinogenic mutants derived from tox- strains. Thus, the yield of enterotoxin in cultures of V. cholerae grown under standardized conditions is is a genetically controlled trait that can be altered by mutation. Images PMID:624584

Holmes, R K; Baine, W B; Vasil, M L

1978-01-01

104

DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

1991-08-01

105

[Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

Born, Martin

2010-01-01

106

Nondestructive quality control discussed  

SciTech Connect

The use of nondestructive methods of quality control is discussed. It is especially effective on all types of tansportation: railway, air and underground forms of transportation, etc. In the USSR successful use is being made of magnetic and ultrasound railway car defectoscopes, which move at a speed of up to 70 kilometers per hour. They make it possible to check the quality of the rails of all the railroads in the country several times a year. Evidence is provided of the level of development and application of nondestructive methods of quality control in the Soviet Union. And there is further evidence of this in the decision to hold the next international conference in the USSR.

Mikheyev, M.

1983-01-01

107

Concept of nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of nondestructive evaluation, a recently evolved basic testing philosophy, and some application of NDE are examined with emphasis on aerospace applications. The discussion covers the definition of NDE, chronological development, NDE methods and systems, the use of NDE for process control, NDE for ceramics and composites, NDE for fracture control in glass, and science aspects of NDE. Specific examples of NDE applications are given.

Chern, E. J.

1991-01-01

108

Nondestructive analysis and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

Moslehy, Faissal A.

1993-01-01

109

Passive Sonar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive sonar is a method for detecting acoustic signals in an underwater environment, usually the ocean. The difference between passive and active sonar is that a passive sonar system emits no signals; instead, its purpose is to detect the acoustic signals emanating from external sources. From an historical perspective, the main impetus for the research and development of passive sonar has been its military applications, in particular, the acoustic detection of submarines.

Maranda, Brian H.

110

A two-fold reduction in measurement time for neutron assay: Initial tests of a prototype dual-gated shift register  

SciTech Connect

Neutron coincidence counting (NCC) is used routinely around the world for nondestructive mass assay of uranium and plutonium in many forms, including waste. Compared with other methods, NCC is generally the most flexible, economic, and rapid. Many applications of NCC would benefit from a reduction in counting time required for a fixed random error. We have developed and tested the first prototype of a dual- gated, shift-register-based electronics unit that offers the potential of decreased measurement time for all passive and active NCC applications.

Stewart, J.E.; Bourret, S.C.; Krick, M.S.; Hansen, W.J.; Harker, W.C.

1996-09-01

111

Nondestructive testing with thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

2013-11-01

112

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 192.243 Section 192.243 Transportation...of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive testing. (a) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed by any...

2013-10-01

113

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 192.243 Section 192.243 Transportation...of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive testing. (a) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed by any...

2011-10-01

114

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 192.243 Section 192.243 Transportation...of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive testing. (a) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed by any...

2012-10-01

115

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 192.243 Section 192.243 Transportation...of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive testing. (a) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed by any...

2014-10-01

116

Nondestructive evaluation technique guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

Vary, A.

1973-01-01

117

A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen molten salt extraction residues were assayed by conventional and prototype nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to be compared with destructive chemical analysis in an effort to identify acceptable NDA measurement methods for this matrix. NDA results on seven samples and destructive results on four samples are presented.

Longmire, V.L.; Hurd, J.R.; Sedlacek, W.E.; Scarborough, A.M.

1987-01-01

118

Measurement of uranium and plutonium in solid waste by passive photon or neutron counting and isotopic neutron source interrogation  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the status and applicability of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for the measurement of uranium and plutonium in 55-gal barrels of solid waste is reported. The NDA techniques reviewed include passive gamma-ray and x-ray counting with scintillator, solid state, and proportional gas photon detectors, passive neutron counting, and active neutron interrogation with neutron and gamma-ray counting. The active neutron interrogation methods are limited to those employing isotopic neutron sources. Three generic neutron sources (alpha-n, photoneutron, and /sup 252/Cf) are considered. The neutron detectors reviewed for both prompt and delayed fission neutron detection with the above sources include thermal (/sup 3/He, /sup 10/BF/sub 3/) and recoil (/sup 4/He, CH/sub 4/) proportional gas detectors and liquid and plastic scintillator detectors. The instrument found to be best suited for low-level measurements (< 10 nCi/g) is the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler. The measurement technique consists of passive neutron counting followed by cyclic activation using a /sup 252/Cf source and delayed neutron counting with the source withdrawn. It is recommended that a waste assay station composed of a /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a gamma-ray scanner, and a screening station be tested and evaluated at a nuclear waste site. 34 figures, 15 tables.

Crane, T.W.

1980-03-01

119

Simple, nondestructive test identifies metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid, nondestructive test for identifying metals measures the characteristic potential difference produced by galvanic reaction between a reference electrode and the test metal. A drop of water is used as an electrolyte.

Dodds, D. J.

1966-01-01

120

Evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a series of experiments performed in the evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing of chip and wire bonds are presented. Semiconductor devices were subjected to time-temperature excursions, static-load life testing and multiple pre-stressing loads to determine the feasibility of a nondestructive tensile testing approach. The report emphasizes the importance of the breaking angle in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a wire bond, a factor not generally recognized nor implemented in such determinations.

Bowe, J. J.; Polcari, S. M.

1971-01-01

121

Passive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive sensing technologies constitute an integral and critical element of U.S. forces' antistealth-technology efforts. Multiband passive IR and electrooptic sensors can reduce the sensitivity of existing sensors to environmental and target-signature variations. A major U.S. Navy effort exists for the development of large-aperture, high-gain passive acoustic arrays capable of long-range detection of even the quietest adversary submarines. Fiber-optic sensors are under consideration for major ASW surveillance improvements and autonomous underwater-vehicle guidance. Attention is given to the development prospects for structurally embedded fiber-optic sensors and fiber-optic inertial guidance systems.

Luke, Theodore

122

Operational and Regulatory Performance of Waste Crate Assay Systems at RFETS  

SciTech Connect

As Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) approaches its closure target of 2006 emphasis for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) has shifted from small waste package assay systems towards larger systems that are designed to accommodate Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and larger Low Level Waste (LLW) containers. To this end, Kaiser Hill, with the support of BNFL Instruments, Inc. (BII) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), has recently deployed two new crate assay systems. These systems provide the capacity to meet the assay requirements associated with the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) at RFETS. The Super High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence Counting System (SuperHENC) was designed and fabricated as a collaborative effort between RFETS, LANL and BII. The purpose of this counter is to provide a WIPP certified assay capability for SWBs with a sensitivity that allows for TRU/LLW sorting. The SuperHENC has been in operation since early 2001. The BII Multi-Purpose Crate Counter (MPCC) is based on the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN) technology. This counter was designed to provide diverse capacity for WIPP certified assay of SWBs and to provide assay capability for larger LLW crates that are generated at RFETS. The MPCC has been in operation since early 2002. In order to meet the requirement for measurement of the WIPP tracked radionuclides, both systems incorporate a BII Gamma Energy Analysis sub-system. The unique Energy Times Attenuation (ETA) method is used to provide isotopic mass fractions for diverse waste streams. These systems were the first, and at this time the only, waste crate assay systems that have achieved WIPP certification. This represents a significant achievement given that the performance criteria applied to the measurements of large crates is identical to the criteria for 55-gallon (208 liter) drums. They are now both fully operational at RFETS and continue to successfully support the site closure mission.

Clapham, M. J.; Franco, J.; Simpson, A.; Santo, J.; Menlove, H. O.; Durel, F. M.

2003-02-27

123

Operational and regulatory performance of waste crate assay systems at RFETS.  

SciTech Connect

As Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) approaches its closure target of 2006 emphasis for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) has shifted from small waste package assay systems towards larger systems that are designed to accommodate Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and larger Low Level Waste (LLW) containers. To this end, Kaiser Hill, with the support of BNFL Instruments, Inc . (BIn) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), has recently deployed two new crate assay systems . These systems provide the capacity to meet the assay requirements associated with the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) at RFETS . The Super High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence Counting System (SuperHENC) was designed and fabricated as a collaborative effort between RFETS, LANL and BII. The purpose of this counter is to provide a WIPP certified assay capability for SWBs with a sensitivity that allows for TRU/LLW sorting. The SuperHENC has been in operation since early 2001 . The BII Mu1ti-Purpose Crate Counter (MPCC) is based on the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPANTM) technology. This counter was designed to provide diverse capacity for WIPP certified assay of SWBs and to provide assay capability for larger LLW crates that are generated at RFETS. The MPCC h as been in operation since early 2002 . In order to meet the requirement for measurement of the WIPP tracked radionuclides, both systems incorporate a BII Gamma Energy Analysis sub-system . The unique Energy Times . Attenuation (ETA) method is used to provide isotopic mass fractions for diverse wastes treams: These systems were the first, and at this time the only, waste crate assay systems that have achieved WIPP certification. This represents a significant achievement given that the performance criteria applied to the measurements of large crates is identical to the criteria for 55-gallon (208 liter) drums . They are now both fully operational at RFETS and continue to successfully support the site closure mission .

Clapham, M. (Martin); Franco, J. B. (Johnna B.); Simpson, A.; Santo, J.; Menlove, Howard O.; Durel, F. M.

2003-01-01

124

Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

1985-02-04

125

Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

Menlove, Howard O. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01

126

An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay  

SciTech Connect

Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

Becker, G.K.

1996-10-01

127

Nondestructive fissile material assay by induced fission neutron correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An NDA method and interpretation model for the determination of small fissile material masses, in radioactive waste, is elaborated. The method uses a pulsed neutron source to interrogate a waste item located in the sample cavity. The sample cavity is lined with graphite to yield a long thermal neutron lifetime. For each pulse of source neutrons, the slowed down neutron population causes thermal fission in the fissile material of the sample, resulting in the emission of fast neutrons from the sample. Some of these fast neutrons escape the cavity and the cavity liner, and are slowed down in an external polyethylene moderator, designed to yield a short thermal neutron lifetime, and are subsequently detected in incorporated thermal neutron detectors. Signal groups, representing the detection of fission neutrons, are recorded in several observation intervals after the pulse of source neutrons has died away in the polyethylene moderator. Following many pulses of source neutrons, the frequency of such signal groups is accumulated. The first, second, and third factorial moment of such frequency distributions are the estimated value of signal singlets, doublets and triplets, respectively. These multiplets are expressed as function of the fissile mass, the neutron detection probability, instrumental and nuclear parameters, and a stationary neutron signal background, thus permitting an absolute determination of the fissile mass of the sample.

Hage, Walter

2005-10-01

128

Nondestructive fissile material assay by induced fission neutron correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An NDA method and interpretation model for the determination of small fissile material masses, in radioactive waste, is elaborated. The method uses a pulsed neutron source to interrogate a waste item located in the sample cavity. The sample cavity is lined with graphite to yield a long thermal neutron lifetime. For each pulse of source neutrons, the slowed down neutron

Walter Hage

2005-01-01

129

Passive Curvaton  

E-print Network

We propose a class of curvaton models which we call passive curvaton. In this paper, two kinds of passive curvaton is considered. The first one is a pseudoscalar curvaton couples to a gauge field. Different from the inflaton case, the constraint from formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) is much weaker and large non-gaussianity (of the equiliteral type) can be produced. The second model is a dilaton-like scalar curvaton couples to a gauge field. We investigate the scale dependence of non-gaussianity in this model. In both models, the spectrum and non-Gaussianity are enhanced by the slow-roll parameter of the curvaton field. Other possible passive curvaton models are also mentioned.

Chia-Min Lin

2013-06-19

130

49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive...station, or by geographic feature, the number of girth welds made, the number nondestructively tested, the number rejected, and the disposition of...

2010-10-01

131

Philosophy for nondestructive testing of fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of a nondestructive testing philosophy for fiber composites is presented. The position is taken that the nondestructive test indications must be quantitatively correlated to the required engineering performance properties of the composite article. The currently unknown defect strcture in many fiber composites is discussed with respect to nondestructive testing. A few examples from the literature of the above

Hamstad

1977-01-01

132

EIGHTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING  

E-print Network

- L EIGHTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING H U I T I E M E CONFERENCE MONDIALE SUR LES of the results. tint I - I - I #12;Risø Risø-M-GED Title and authors) Computer control in nondestructive testing on Nondestructive Testing in Cannes, France. In our automatic tube inspection system data (acre than half a Billion

133

Sulforhodamine B assay and chemosensitivity.  

PubMed

The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was developed by Skehan and colleagues to measure drug-induced cytotoxicity and cell proliferation for large-scale drug-screening applications. Its principle is based on the ability of the protein dye sulforhodamine B to bind electrostatically and pH dependent on protein basic amino acid residues of trichloroacetic acid-fixed cells. Under mild acidic conditions it binds to and under mild basic conditions it can be extracted from cells and solubilized for measurement. Results of the SRB assay were linear with cell number and cellular protein measured at cellular densities ranging from 1 to 200% of confluence. Its sensitivity is comparable with that of several fluorescence assays and superior to that of Lowry or Bradford. The signal-to-noise ratio is favorable and the resolution is 1000-2000 cells/well. It performed similarly compared to other cytotoxicity assays such as MTT or clonogenic assay. The SRB assay possesses a colorimetric end point and is nondestructive and indefinitely stable. These practical advances make the SRB assay an appropriate and sensitive assay to measure drug-induced cytotoxicity even at large-scale application. PMID:15901925

Voigt, Wieland

2005-01-01

134

Nondestructive Evaluation of Pavements Ultrasonic  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Pavements Ð Ultrasonic Tomography Kyle Hoegh, Graduate Student Dr. Lev ­! The transducers act on the test object surface with oscillating piezoelectric elements for wave production from the specs (about 3 miles of testing in 50 ft intervals). Field Application ­ Atlanta Georgia

Minnesota, University of

135

Microwave holography for nondestructive testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic methods permit use of very large effective apertures so that weak signals can be collected over wide area and integrated to form image. Technique, modification of side-looking radar principle, can be used at very short ranges needed for nondestructive inspection of test specimens.

Cribbs, R. W.; Lamb, B. L.

1973-01-01

136

Passive and Active Neutron Matrix Correction for Heterogeneous Distributions Utilizing the Neutron Imaging Technique  

SciTech Connect

Classical Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) and Differential Die-Away (DDA) active neutron interrogation techniques [1, 2] are well suited for determining the gross matrix correction factors for homogenous mass distributions of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) within an interfering waste drum matrix. These measured passive and active matrix correction factors are crucial in quantifying the SNM mass, associated Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) within the drum. When heterogeneous SNM mass distributions are encountered, the measured SNM mass, TMU and MDA biases introduced may be 100%, or greater, especially for dense hydrogenous matrices. The standard matrix correction factors can be adjusted if a coarse spatial image of the SNM mass, relative to the matrix, is available. The image can then be analyzed to determine the spatially-adjusted, matrix correction factors case by case. This image analysis approach was accomplished by modifying the standard Passive-Active Neutron (PAN) counter design [3] to accommodate a unique data acquisition architecture that supports a newly developed image acquisition and analysis application called the Neutron Imaging Technique (NIT). The NIT functionality supports both PNCC and DDA acquisition and analysis modes and exploits the symmetry between a stored set of factory acquired NIT images with those from the unknown PAN assay. The NIT result is then an adjustment to the classical correction factor reducing, if not removing, the SNM mass bias and revealing the true TMU and MDA values. In this paper we describe the NIT for the PAN design from the software and algorithmic perspectives and how this technique accommodates waste matrix drums that are difficult, from the classical standpoint, if not impossible, to extract meaningful SNM mass, TMU and MDA results. (authors)

Villani, M.F.; Croft, St. [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT (United States); Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G.; Stamp, D.; Fisher, J. [Canberra Harwell, Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom); Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G. [Nucleco SpA, Casaccia (Italy); Bourva, L.C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Safeguards, Vienna (Australia)

2008-07-01

137

Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

2012-06-01

138

Nondestructive and continuous spectrophotometric measurement of cell respiration using a tetrazolium-formazan microemulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triton X-100 was incorporated into a tetrazolium dye reduction assay using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Triton X-100 combines with the insoluble formazan product to form a homogeneous dispersion, or microemulsion, which allows reliable spectrophotometric measurement. The combination of this nonionic detergent and dye allows respiration to be measured nondestructively and thus continuously. The assay combines MTT with phenazine methosulfate, the appropriate

Raymond P Stowe; David W Koenig; S. K Mishra; Duane L Pierson

1995-01-01

139

Passive Optical PassiveOpticalNetworks Contents  

E-print Network

Passive Optical Networks #12;PassiveOpticalNetworks Contents · Optical Access Networks ­ Passive Budget ­ Standards · APON/BPON · EPON · GPON · WDM-PONs ­ Proposed solutions #12;Passivex20 Mb/s TV-channels + VoD services Triple Play 10-50 Mb/s 2x5 Mb/s DVR #12;Passive

Mellia, Marco

140

Holographic system for nondestructive testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a holographic system for nondestructive testing. The system is comprised of a mirror which illuminates the test object surface; the mirror is positionable to direct illumination on an object at varying angles with respect to a line normal to the surface of the object. In this manner holograms may be produced with varying degrees of sensitivity enabling optimum observation of dimensions of deformation of an object occurring between test exposures.

Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

1975-01-01

141

Opsonophagocytic assay.  

PubMed

The opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay is used as a correlate for protection to measure the functional capacities of vaccine-candidate-raised antibodies. This in vitro assay aids selecting promising vaccines by demonstrating whether the vaccine-induced antibodies drive efficient complement deposition and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. Here, we describe two protocols for an OPK assay using either human-derived PMNs or cultured HL-60 cells. PMID:24218277

Dwyer, Markryan; Gadjeva, Mihaela

2014-01-01

142

Development of Non-Destructive Characterization Systems for Large Boxes Containing Transuranic Waste  

SciTech Connect

About 25% of the retrievably stored legacy transuranic (TRU) waste at DOE sites across the country consists of large boxes greater than about 120 x 120 x 150 cm. The TRU waste disposal program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was originally based on use of cylindrical shipping containers that are not compatible with this waste form geometry. DOE began design of a new shipping container to accommodate large boxes and simultaneously initiated a research and development program for characterization systems that could meet WIPP requirements. This paper describes R and D for non-destructive assay (NDA) and non-destructive examination (NDE) equipment that could be certified within the strict WIPP regulatory envelope for characterizing the contents of large boxes. These systems will allow the direct disposal of large boxes, and avoid the cost and potential worker exposure of repackaging into smaller containers. R and D for NDA led to a 2-part system with a passive neutron counter with an add-a-source matrix correction capability, and a physically separate gamma counter for isotopic characterization with a transmission correction capability. These very large nuclear counting systems are described. R and D for NDE led to a unique software-hardware machine design. A 3-MeV linear accelerator (Linatron{sup R}) generates highly collimated Bremsstrahlung photons directed through the large boxes. Two detectors are employed to digitally survey the entire box interior. A linear diode array scans by moving the box on an elevated table with three degrees of freedom (y,{theta},{phi}). Alternately, an area detector array images (real time) interior volumes with further beam collimation. The Linatron{sup R}) and area detector separation and box position are robotically synchronized to keep imaged objects centered at constant magnification during examination. Initially, the NDA and NDE systems are being installed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Acceptance testing and operation at SRS are planned for most of 2006. It is expected that experience gained in screening operations will allow these characterization systems to be fully certified under WIPP's regulatory framework in early 2007. (authors)

Nelson, R.A. [Carlsbad Field Office, U.S. Department of Energy, P.O. Box 3090, Carlsbad, NM 88221 (United States); De Gregory, J.; Nalezny, C. L. [Office of Environmental Management, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

2006-07-01

143

Lesson 58: Passive Verbs  

E-print Network

Lesson 58: Passive Verbs Passive Verbs [mnyambuliko wa vitenzi] A). Forming Passive Verbs WhenaSwahiliverbstemhasW suffixedtoit,anactiveverbbecomesa passiveone. Active Verbs Passive Verbs 1 [get] patwa [be got] #12;Sentences with Active verbs: Sentences with Passive verbs: 1. Ali

144

Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-18

145

49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section...LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be nondestructively tested by any...

2010-10-01

146

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97...Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2013-10-01

147

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97...Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2014-10-01

148

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97...Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2011-10-01

149

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97...Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2010-10-01

150

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97...Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2012-10-01

151

SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software design description  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. This program has been in operation since 1985 at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was originally used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. This program was originally developed at Los Alamos and extensively modified by a commercial vendor of PAN systems and by personnel at the INEL. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the program itself. The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 program in early 1994. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach and is documented in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. The new program incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional functionality and improvements include a graphical user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without program code modification, an `object model` design approach and other features for improved flexibility and maintainability.

East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.

1996-08-01

152

Cellulase Assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulose is a heterogeneous polysaccharide, and its enzymatic hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase), and ?-glucosidase to work together. We summarize the most commonly used assays for individual enzymes and cellulase mixture.

Zhang, Y. H. Percival; Hong, Jiong; Ye, Xinhao

153

Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Denison, Arthur B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

154

46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, radiographic examination, eddy current,...

2013-10-01

155

46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, radiographic examination, eddy current,...

2011-10-01

156

Nondestructive Imaging of Individual Biomolecules  

SciTech Connect

Radiation damage is considered to be the major problem that still prevents imaging an individual biological molecule for structural analysis. So far, all known mapping techniques using sufficient short wavelength radiation, be it x rays or high energy electrons, circumvent this problem by averaging over many molecules. Averaging, however, leaves conformational details uncovered. Even the anticipated use of ultrashort but extremely bright x-ray bursts of a free electron laser shall afford averaging over 10{sup 6} molecules to arrive at atomic resolution. Here, we present direct experimental evidence for nondestructive imaging of individual DNA molecules. In fact, we show that DNA withstands coherent low energy electron radiation with deBroglie wavelength in the Angstrom regime despite a vast dose of 10{sup 8} electrons/nm{sup 2} accumulated over more than one hour.

Germann, Matthias; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner [Institute of Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

2010-03-05

157

Non-Destructive Testing Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

1990-01-01

158

Passive solar technology  

SciTech Connect

The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

Watson, D

1981-04-01

159

Assay of heavy water in drums for safeguards purposes  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines several techniques for rapid nondestructive assay of drums of D/sub 2/O. Five methods have been examined: neutron capture in hydrogen, photodisintegration of deuterium, neutron transmission, neutron die-away time measurements, and acoustic velocity measurements.

Fainberg, A.; Zucker, M.S.; Lemley, J.R.; Weinstock, E.V.

1981-01-01

160

Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

1991-11-01

161

Use of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) technique to characterize the film for applications in transdermal drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the potential of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) technique for use in characterization of film for the application in transdermal drug delivery system. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and loratadine were selected as model matrix material and drug, respectively. Both blank and drug-loaded films were prepared using the solvent-evaporation method. The films were subjected to dimensional analysis, drug content assay

NorKhaizan Anuar; Wong Tin Wui; D. K. Ghodgaonkar; M. N. Taib

2005-01-01

162

29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and advisable to avoid disassembly of equipment, removal of pins, etc., examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be carried out, provided that the procedure followed is acceptable to the Assistant...

2014-07-01

163

29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and advisable to avoid disassembly of equipment, removal of pins, etc., examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be carried out, provided that the procedure followed is acceptable to the Assistant...

2010-07-01

164

29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and advisable to avoid disassembly of equipment, removal of pins, etc., examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be carried out, provided that the procedure followed is acceptable to the Assistant...

2011-07-01

165

NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

166

A non-destructive transformer oil tester  

E-print Network

A new non-destructive test of transformer oil dielectric strength is a promising technique to automate and make more reliable a diagnostic that presently involves intensive manual efforts. This thesis focuses some of the ...

Cargol, Timothy L. (Timothy Lawrence), 1976-

2000-01-01

167

Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams  

E-print Network

is also vital for a nation’s economy. Substantial sums of money may be saved upon detecting structural deterioration in a timely manner. Nondestructive damage evaluation (NDE) offers effective and economically feasible solutions to perform such tasks...

Dincal, Selcuk

2010-12-08

168

Instruction manuals for radiographic nondestructive testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six new handbooks on the fundamentals of nondestructive test techniques supply recent information for instructing inspectors and technicians, and can be used effectively in shops or laboratories, technical schools, or home study programs.

1971-01-01

169

Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not. Another approach, in addition to differentiation between various cure conditions, may even provide information with respect to the bond strength. Several technical papers were published during the course of this research and a summary is presented in the Ph.D. dissertation of Tobias P. Berndt, a graduate student financially supported by this NASA Grant.

2000-01-01

170

MGAHI: A plutonium gamma-ray isotopic analysis code for nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma-ray multigroup analysis (MGA) code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is widely used in the area of gamma-ray nondestructive plutonium assay. This plutonium isotopic analysis code deconvolutes the complicated, 100-keV X-ray and gamma-ray region to obtain ratios of the Pu isotopes. Calibration of the detector efficiency is not required but is determined intrinsically from the measured spectra. The

T. F. Wang; K. E. Raschke; W. D. Ruhter; S. A. Kreek

1999-01-01

171

Improved Ferroelectric Memories With Nondestructive Readout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferroelectric memories with enhanced photoresponse leading to improved nondestructive optoelectronic readout and lower power demand proposed. Memories improved versions of devices described in "Rapid, Nondestructive Readout From Ferroelectric Memory" (NPO-18551). In proposed application, array of nonvolatile ferroelectric memory cells fabricated by standard very-large-scale integrated-circuit techniques and flip-bonded onto similarly fabricated array of semiconductor lasers, {see "Optically Addressable, Ferroelectric Memory With NDRO" (NPO-18573)}.

Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil P.

1994-01-01

172

Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

2011-01-01

173

Passive sampling reversed: Coupling passive field sampling with passive lab dosing to assess the ecotoxicity of mixtures present in the marine environment.  

PubMed

This study presents a new approach in aquatic toxicity testing combining passive sampling and passive dosing. Polydimethylsiloxane sheets were used to sample contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. These sheets were subsequently transferred to ecotoxicological test medium in which the sampled contaminant mixtures were released through passive dosing. 4 out of 17 of these mixtures caused severe effects in a growth inhibition assay with a marine diatom. These effects could not be explained by the presence of compounds detected in the sampling area and were most likely attributable to unmeasured compounds absorbed to the passive samplers during field deployment. The findings of this study indicate that linking passive sampling in the field to passive dosing in laboratory ecotoxicity tests provides a practical and complimentary approach for assessing the toxicity of hydrophobic contaminant mixtures that mimics realistic environmental exposures. Limitations and opportunities for future improvements are presented. PMID:25752535

Claessens, Michiel; Monteyne, Els; Wille, Klaas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Roose, Patrick; Janssen, Colin R

2015-04-15

174

Hexosaminidase assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52) are lysosomal enzymes that remove terminal ?-glycosidically bound N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine residues from a number of glycoconjugates. Reliable assay systems are particularly important for the\\u000a diagnosis of a family of lysosomal storage disorders, the GM2 gangliosidoses that result from inherited ?-hexosaminidase deficiency.\\u000a More recently, aberrant hexosaminidase levels have also been found to be associated with a variety

Michaela Wendeler; Konrad Sandhoff

2009-01-01

175

An Improved Whole-Seed Assay for Screening Wheat Germplasm for Polyphenol Oxidase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

portant for consumer acceptance (Moss, 1971; Miskelly, 1984, 1996), while low L* values indicate undesirable Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) causes darkening and discoloration of discoloration or darkening of noodles. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods such as noodles. Consequently, a simple, nondestructive, quantitative assay for determining PPO on There is a need for a simple, quantitative assay for one to a few

James V. Anderson; Craig F. Morris

2001-01-01

176

Non-destructive measurement technologies for nuclear safeguards  

SciTech Connect

There are three aspects that need to be in place in order to maintain a valid safeguards system: (1) Physical protection; guarding the access to nuclear materials using physical protection and surveillance. (2) Accounting systems; computer based accounting systems that provide the current location of nuclear materials, quantities, and the uncertainty in the assayed values. (3) Measurement systems; detectors, data acquisition systems and data analysis methods that provide accurate assays of nuclear material quantities for the accounting system. The authors expand on this third aspect, measurement systems, by discussing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. NDA is defined as the quantitative or qualitative determination of the kind and/or amount of nuclear material in an item without alteration or invasion of the item. This is contrasted with destructive analysis which is the process of taking small samples from the item in question, analyzing those samples by chemical analysis, destroying the original nature of the samples in the process (hence the term destructive), and applying the results to the entire item. Over the past 30 years, numerous techniques, using the atomic and nuclear properties of the actinides, have been developed for reliable, rapid, accurate, and tamper-proof NDA of nuclear materials. The authors distinguish between two types of measurements: the first involving the detection of spontaneously emitted radiation, produced by the natural radioactive decay processes; the second involving the detection of induced radiation, produced by irradiating the sample with an external radiation source.

Gavron, A.

1998-04-01

177

From Reflexive to Passive  

E-print Network

Previous approaches to the passive development from a reflexive marking focus on how the former is similar to the latter semantically and syntactically. I show that the passive evolution is better understood by looking at ...

Sohn, Joong-Sun

1998-01-01

178

Immunizations: Active vs. Passive  

MedlinePLUS

... they’ve been exposed. For example, the passive rabies immunization (rabies immune globulin) is commonly used after a certain type of wild animal bites a child. Passive immunizations for hepatitis A (gamma globulin) may be helpful ...

179

Nondestructive Characterization of Aged Components  

SciTech Connect

It is known that high energy radiation can have numerous effects on materials. In metals and alloys, the effects include, but may not be limited to, mechanical property changes, physical property changes, compositional changes, phase changes, and dimensional changes. Metals and alloys which undergo high energy self-irradiation are also susceptible to these changes. One of the greatest concerns with irradiation of materials is the phenomenon of void swelling which has been observed in a wide variety of metals and alloys. Irradiation causes the formation of a high concentration point defects and microclusters of vacancies and interstitials. With the assistance of an inert atom such as helium, the vacancy-type defects can coalesce to form a stable bubble. This bubble will continue to grow through the net absorption of more vacancy-type defects and helium atoms, and upon reaching a certain critical size, the bubble will begin to grow at an accelerated rate without the assistance of inert atom absorption. The bubble is then said to be an unstably growing void. Depending on the alloy system and environment, swelling values can reach in excess of 50% !V/Vo where Vo is the initial volume of the material. Along with dimensional changes resulting from the formation of bubbles and voids comes changes in the macroscopically observed speed of sound, moduli, electrical resistivity, yield strength, and other properties. These effects can be detrimental to the designed operation of the aged components. In situations where irradiation has sufficient time to cause degradation to materials used in critical applications such as nuclear reactor core structural materials, it is advisable to regularly survey the material properties. It is common practice to use surveillance specimens, but this is not always possible. When surveillance materials are not available, other means for surveying the material properties must be utilized. Sometimes it is possible to core out a small sample which may be used for material properties measurements. A more appealing solution is to use nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

Panetta, Paul D.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Garner, Francis A.; Balachov, Iouri I.

2003-10-21

180

Nondestructive testing of electro thermal devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a recent investigation into 'thermal time constant' nondestructive testing of high reliability electrical fuses. The use of established nondestructive test technology for examining the quality and firing characteristics of electro-explosive devices has been successfully applied to the inspection and prediction of the functional performance of electrical fuses. The technique requires application of a low level current pulse to the electrical fuse with an oscilloscope display of the curve as generated by the temperature coefficient of resistance feedback. The heating curve of temperature vs time is composed of one predominant thermal time constant, which is the product of the test unit's thermal capacity and thermal resistance. It has been found that the quality of the individual electrical fuse, for instance, the relative condition of the critical internal weld or solder joint, can be examined nondestructively.

Earnest, J. E., Jr.; Murphy, A. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

181

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) OF DAMAGED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS  

SciTech Connect

A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H. [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 (United States)

2009-03-03

182

TOPOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS IN THE CONTEXT OF ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING  

E-print Network

TOPOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS IN THE CONTEXT OF ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING SAMUEL AMSTUTZ46. Key words and phrases. topological sensitivity, topological gradient, nondestructive testing. 1, their applications to inspection problems such as nondestruc- tive testing or medical imaging are today relatively

Samuel, Amstutz

183

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods David C. Dobson \\Lambda Department­93­1­0500 and grant F49620­95­1­0305. 1 #12; While this nondestructive evaluation method has been quite effective quantitative nondestructive evaluation using eddy current methods. The methods can be roughly separated

Santosa, Fadil

184

Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas  

E-print Network

and engineers at LANL. The new automated testing technology is called Nondestructive Laser Gas Sampling (NDLGS- 1 - Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas sampling June 8, 2012 New weapons assessment technology engineered: nondestructive laser welding process far less expensive

185

Visualizing Industrial CT Volume Data for Nondestructive Testing Applications  

E-print Network

Visualizing Industrial CT Volume Data for Nondestructive Testing Applications Runzhen Huang Kwan, interac- tive visualization, nondestructive testing and evaluation, sci- entific visualization, surface of a mechanical toy (512Ã?512Ã?2048 voxels). diagnosis and surgical planning, but also in nondestructive testing

Ma, Kwan-Liu

186

Featured Research Nondestructive Testing of Early Age Concrete  

E-print Network

Featured Research Nondestructive Testing of Early Age Concrete Thomas Voigt and Surendra P. Shah, Northwestern University Introduction The nondestructive, in-situ testing of early-age concrete properties. A nondestructive, ultrasonic technique, which measures the reflection coefficient of ultrasonic transverse waves

187

MULTIPLE SENSOR PERIODIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF A CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK  

E-print Network

results of periodically multiple sensor nondestructive testing of a reinforced concrete slab of nondestructive testing tools and methods that are suitable for an objective condition assessment of bridge nondestructive testing measurements have been successfully carried out for new construction or in

Huston, Dryver R.

188

Passive solar workbook  

SciTech Connect

After a case is presented for the use of solar energy, principles of solar kinetics, solar radiation and weather, and heat flow are reviewed and active, passive and hybrid systems are briefly discussed. Site planning, orientation, and landscaping and solar access are covered, as are the design and components of passive solar systems. Calculation methods are presented for determining building heating load profile, auxiliary load profile, and thermal storage capacity. Construction details are given for foundation, wall, and storage insulation, Trombe walls, movable insulation, and shading devices. Passive solar cooling is also covered. Interior applications for passive solar design are discussed and financial considerations are presented. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-08-01

189

Method for non-destructive testing  

DOEpatents

Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-30

190

Thermographic nondestructive evaluation: overview of recent progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of recent research activities carried out at our laboratory in the field of Infrared Thermography for Nondestructive Evaluation (TNDE). First, we explore the latest developments in signal improvement. We describe three approaches: multiple pulse stimulation; the use of Synthetic Data for de-noising of the signal; and a new approach derived from the Fourier diffusion equation

Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo; Francois Galmiche; Akbar Darabi; Mariacristina Pilla; Matthieu Klein; Adel Ziadi; Steve Vallerand; Jean-François Pelletier; Xavier P. Maldague

2003-01-01

191

Handbooks for nondestructive testing using ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four handbooks have been prepared for use in teaching metal parts inspectors and quality assurance technicians the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using ultrasonic detection methods. The handbooks may be used in the shop or laboratory, or as study texts in technical schools and in the home.

1969-01-01

192

An interdigital transducer for ultrasonic nondestructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for nondestructive testing of materials is described, which uses two arched interdigital transducers operating at a liquid-solid interface. The transducer has a frequency-dependent radiation angle. Two pairs of arched interdigital electrodes on the same surface of a piezoelectric substrate are not in contact with the liquid. Basic performance of the transducer and acoustic imaging results are presented.

Toda, Kohji; Hayama, Masaru; Moriizumi, Toyosaka; Yasuda, Tsutomu

1982-11-01

193

Non-destructive testing of divertor components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This task within the EU R&D for ITER had two main objectives: (1) qualification of inspection procedures for plasma facing components (PFC), (2) assessment of the behaviour of calibrated defects under high heat flux (HHF) cyclic loading. The ultimate goal of this work was to demonstrate that the reliable identification of fatal defects by the chosen non-destructive testing (NDT) methods

M Merola; P Chappuis; F Escourbiac; M Grattarola; H Jeskanen; P Kauppinen; L Plöchl; B Schedler; J Schlosser; I Smid; S Tähtinen; R Vesprini; E Visca; A Zabernig

2002-01-01

194

Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Using Guided Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with two applications of guided waves in quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE): the detection of cracks in beams and the determination of elastic material constants of filament-wound cylindrical composite shells. As an alternative to the use of bulk waves, the reflection characteristics of guided waves having a wavelength much larger than the size of a defect are used

J. Dual

1992-01-01

195

49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells of storage tanks with...193.2013), except that 100 percent of welds that are both longitudinal (or meridional...psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers must comply with...

2010-10-01

196

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a

Roger H. L. Chen; Alejandro Kiriakidis

1999-01-01

197

Instruction manuals for liquid penetrant nondestructive testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manuals provide quality control and test personnel with basic information on liquid penetrant testing. Topics covered include scope of application, equipment and materials used, test procedures, safety precautions, quality control, and comparison of liquid penetrant testing with other nondestructive testing processes.

1969-01-01

198

Nondestructive testing of brazed rocket engine components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report details study made of nondestructive radiographic, ultrasonic, thermographic, and leak test methods used to inspect and evaluate the quality of the various brazed joints in liquid-propellant rocket engine components and assemblies. Descriptions of some of the unique equipment and methods developed are included.

Adams, C. J.; Hagemaier, D. J.; Meyer, J. A.

1968-01-01

199

Passive Solar Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to passive solar design for buildings — an approach that uses the sun's energy and the surrounding climate to provide natural heating and cooling. They learn about some of the disadvantages of conventional heating and cooling and how engineers incorporate passive solar designs into our buildings for improved efficiency.

2014-09-18

200

Coordinated passivation designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two-input (or multi-input) nonlinear systems it may be possible to achieve feedback passivation of a chosen input using the second input (other inputs) to improve the stability properties of the 5rst input's zero dynamics. This 'coordinated passivation' approach is illustratedon a simpli5edmod el of a turbochargedd iesel engine. ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Michael Larsen; Mrdjan Jankovic; Petar V. Kokotovic

2003-01-01

201

Passive walking with knees  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that passive dynamic walking, a phenomenon originally described for bipeds having straight legs, also works with knees. Thus, giving only a downhill slope as a source of energy, a human-like pair of legs will settle into a natural gait generated by the passive interaction of gravity and inertia. No muscular input is required. The physics is much

T. McGeer

1990-01-01

202

Passive Cryogenic Sampler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sampling is the key step in any analysis regime. Gaseous systems only magnify the critical nature of the sampling step. The Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler provides a proven, cost-effective way to obtain high-quality samples. This report specifies some advantages and design specifications of the Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler.

203

Passive solar building design  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the basic principles of passive solar design and offers quantitative design aids in the form of microcomputer programs to stimulate innovative passive designs. These programs are unlike most others, which focus on conventional designs. The volume also covers landscaping, energy conservation and aesthetics.

Carter, C.; De Villiers, J.

1987-01-01

204

Passive magnetic bearing configurations  

DOEpatents

A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2011-01-25

205

Passive solar construction handbook  

SciTech Connect

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-08-01

206

Delayed gamma technique for fissile material assay  

SciTech Connect

Research sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative are investigating several non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of fissile plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. AppHcation of the delayed gamma signatures is investigated in this context. The objective of the research is to assess whether the delayed gamma assay instrument can provide sufficient sensitivity, isotope specificity and accuracy as required in nuclear material safeguards. This effort includes theoretical and experimental components for the optimal combination of interrogation parameters. A new modeling algorithm offering a high level of detail was developed specifically for this purpose and was validated in series of benchmark experiments. Preliminary modeling of the delayed gamma response from spent fuel assemblies was accomplished offering a future direction for the design process.

Mozin, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vujie, Jasmina [UC BERKELEY; Hunt, Alan [IDAHO ACCELERATOR CENTER

2010-01-01

207

Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

1994-01-01

208

Nondestructive evaluation by acousto-ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acousto-ultrasonics is an ultrasonic technique that was originally devised to cope with the particular problems associated with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber/polymer composite structures. The fiber/polymer composites are more attenuating to ultrasound than any other material presently of interest. This limits the applicability of high-frequency ultrasonics. A common use of ultrasound is the imaging of flaws internal to a structure by scattering from the interface with the flaw. However, structural features of composites can scatter ultrasound internally, thus obscuring the flaws. A need relative to composites is to be able to nondestructively measure the strength of laminar boundaries in order to assess the integrity of a structure. Acousto-ultrasonics has exhibited the ability to use the internal scattering to provide information for determining the strength of laminar boundaries. Analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals by the wave ray paths that compose it leads to waveform partitioning that enhances the sensitivity to mechanical strength parameters.

Kautz, Harold E.

1988-01-01

209

Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.

Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.

2015-05-01

210

Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

1978-01-01

211

Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

1999-02-16

212

Nondestructive imaging of an ultracold lattice gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the nondestructive imaging of a lattice gas of ultracold bosons. Atomic fluorescence is induced in the simultaneous presence of degenerate Raman sideband cooling. The combined influence of these processes controllably cycles an atom between a dark state and a fluorescing state while eliminating heating and loss. Through spatially resolved sideband spectroscopy following the imaging sequence, we demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging technique in various regimes of lattice depth and fluorescence acquisition rate. Our work provides an important extension of quantum gas imaging to the nondestructive detection, control, and manipulation of atoms in optical lattices. In addition, our technique can also be extended to atomic species that are less amenable to molasses-based lattice imaging.

Patil, Y. S.; Chakram, S.; Aycock, L. M.; Vengalattore, M.

2014-09-01

213

Interrelationship of nondestructive testing to fault determination.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several nondestructive test techniques have been developed for electroexplosive devices. The bridgewire will respond, when pulsed with a safe level current, by generating a characteristic heating curve. The response is indicative of the electrothermal behavior of the bridgewire-explosive interface. Bridgewires which deviate from the characteristic heating curve have been dissected and examined to determine the cause for the abnormality. Deliberate faults have been fabricated into squibs. The relationship of the specific abnormality and the fault associated with it is discussed.

Menichelli, V. J.; Rosenthal, L. A.

1971-01-01

214

Coercive force measurements in nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers applications of coercive force meters with external electromagnets to nondestructive measurements of strength,\\u000a plastic, and viscous properties of rolled high-carbon and low-alloyed steels, characterization of annealed high-carbon, predominantly\\u000a chromium-doped, steels, testing of the quality of quenched and tempered steels, measurements of the depth and hardness of\\u000a surface hardened layers on metallic components, and their use in sorting

G. V. Bida; A. P. Nichipuruk

2000-01-01

215

Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

1997-01-01

216

Assay of uranium in U-bearing waste produced at natural uranium metal fuel fabrication plants by gamma-ray spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passive gamma measurement technique is investigated for the assay of U-bearing wastes generated at the Natural Uranium Metal Fuel Fabrication Plants. A 3 in. × 3 in. NaI(Tl) detector was used in conjunction with a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The observed count rate of the 1 MeV ?-ray from the 238U in the sample was corrected for sample self-absorption and for absorption in the walls of the sample container. These correction factors were determined using one reference standard and from a knowledge of the sample weight, composition and the geometry of the sample container made of pure aluminium. The amount of 238U in the samples were measured by comparing the corrected area under the 1 MeV gamma ray peak of the known reference standard with the corresponding corrected peak areas of the samples to be measured. To compare the nondestructive assay (NDA) results with another independent method, chemical analysis of all the U-bearing waste samples was also carried out. The NDA results were found to agree within ±15% with the chemical analysis results. To make the method cost-effective, rapid and useful for plant operation on a routine basis, all the measurements were repeated using a single channel analyzer (SCA) also. The NDA results obtained with SCA agree within ±30% with the chemical analysis results.

Kalsi, P. C.; Pandey, A. K.; Iyer, R. H.

1994-01-01

217

SWEPP assay system software: An update  

SciTech Connect

The development of a new software package to control data acquisition and perform data analysis for a Passive/Active Neutron Assay system was reported at this conference in 1994. The software has undergone additional development including improvements to the user interface, additional data integrity checks and support for a shift register coincidence analyzer. An overview of this additional work is presented in this report.

East, L.V.

1997-01-01

218

Nondestructive determination of lead-210 and radium-226 in sediments by direct photon analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the non-destructive determination of210Pb and226Ra in sediments. The procedure is based on the direct counting of the 46.5-keV -ray of210Pb and the 351.9-keV -emission of214Pb. The self-absorption of the 46.5-KeV -ray is corrected using a technique involving direct gamma transmission measurements on sample and efficiency calibration standard. Several reference materials when assayed by the described

S. R. Joshi

1987-01-01

219

Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

1974-01-01

220

Acquisition of the Passive  

E-print Network

This single-subject pilot study, modeled after de Villiers' 1973, investigates the subject's acquisition of the passive construction (i.e., 'The boy was hit by the girl', as opposed to The girl hit the boy'). The purposes ...

Hill, Francine

1998-01-01

221

Passive microfluidic interconnects  

E-print Network

Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

2005-01-01

222

Hood River Passive House  

SciTech Connect

The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

Hales, D.

2013-03-01

223

Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

1998-12-04

224

Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components – Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Suter, Jonathan D.

2014-09-12

225

Direct fissile assay of highly enriched UF/sub 6/ using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response  

SciTech Connect

A new nondestructive method for direct assay of /sup 235/U mass contained in Model 5A uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) product storage cylinders has been successfully tested in the laboratory and under field conditions. The technique employs passive neutron self-interrogation and uses the ratio of coincidences-to-totals counts as a measure of bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1 sigma) based on field measurements of 44 Model 5A cylinders, 11 of which were either only partially filled or contained reactor return material. The cylinders contained UF/sub 6/ with enrichments from 5.96% to 97.6%. Count times were 3 to 6 min depending on /sup 235/U mass. Samples ranged from below 1 kg to over 16 kg of /sup 235/U. Because the method relies primarily on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place. This feature alleviates inhomogeneity problems and offers increased assurance of the presence of stated amounts of bulk fissile material as compared with current verification methods.

Stewart, J.E.; Menlove, H.O.

1983-01-01

226

46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, radiographic examination, eddy current, and acoustic emission. [CGD 85-061, 54 FR 50965, Dec. 11,...

2014-10-01

227

46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, radiographic examination, eddy current, and acoustic emission. [CGD 85-061, 54 FR 50965, Dec. 11,...

2010-10-01

228

46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, radiographic examination, eddy current, and acoustic emission. [CGD 85-061, 54 FR 50965, Dec. 11,...

2012-10-01

229

A liquid scintillator neutron multiplicity counter for assaying special nuclear material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3-He detectors to infer the mass of a fissioning source from the statistical properties of the neutron multiplicity distribution is a mature technology. We describe a new neutron multiplicity counter using the fast timing of liquid scintillators for the non-destructive assay of special nuclear materials (SNM). A liquid scintillator multiplicity counter (LSMC) that detects fast fission neutrons

Steven Sheets; A. M. Glenn; P. L. Kerr; K. S. Kim; L. F. Nakae; R. J. Newby; M. K. Prasad; N. J. Snyderman; J. M. Verbeke; R. E. Wurtz

2010-01-01

230

Feynman variance-to-mean in the context of passive neutron coincidence counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) based on shift register autocorrelation time analysis of the detected neutron pulse train is an important Nondestructive Assay (NDA) method. It is used extensively in the quantification of plutonium and other spontaneously fissile materials for purposes of nuclear materials accountancy. In addition to the totals count rate, which is also referred to as the singles, gross or trigger rate, a quantity known as the reals coincidence rate, also called the pairs or doubles, is obtained from the difference between the measured neutron multiplicities in two measurement gates triggered by the incoming events on the pulse train. The reals rate is a measure of the number of time correlated pairs present on the pulse train and this can be related to the fission rates (and hence material mass) since fissions emit neutrons in bursts which are also detected in characteristic clusters. A closely related measurement objective is the determination of the reactivity of systems as they approach criticality. In this field an alternative autocorrelation signature is popular, the so called Feynman variance-to-mean technique which makes use of the multiplicity histogram formed the periodic, or clock-triggered opening of a coincidence gate. Workers in these two application areas share common challenges and improvement opportunities but are often separated by tradition, problem focus and technical language. The purpose of this paper is to recognize the close link between the Feynman variance-to-mean metric and traditional PNCC using shift register logic applied to correlated pulse trains. We, show using relationships for the late-gate (or accidentals) histogram recorded using a multiplicity shift register, how the Feynman Y-statistic, defined as the excess variance-to-mean ratio, can be expressed in terms of the singles and doubles rates familiar to the safeguards and waste assay communities. These two specialisms now have a direct bridge between them and we anticipate fruitful cross fertilization, for example on assay algorithms, including corrections for measurement item perturbation factors, and on data acquisition systems.

Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Hauck, D. K.; Henzlova, D.; Santi, P. A.

2012-09-01

231

Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

Smith, Barry T.

1991-01-01

232

Automation for nondestructive inspection of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss the motivation and an architectural framework for using small mobile robots as automated aids to operators of nondestructive inspection (NDI) equipment. We review the need for aircraft skin inspection, and identify the constraints in commercial airlines operations that make small mobile robots the most attractive alternative for automated aids for NDI procedures. We describe the design and performance of the robot (ANDI) that we designed, built, and are testing for deployment of eddy current probes in prescribed commercial aircraft inspections. We discuss recent work aimed at also providing robotic aids for visual inspection.

Siegel, M. W.

1994-01-01

233

Nondestructive characterization and modeling of impact damage  

SciTech Connect

A computational model has been developed which can be used to determine the residual compressive strength of an impact-damaged composite laminate. The model requires detailed characteristics of impact damage as inputs which must be determined using nondestructive inspection methods. The ultrasonic time-of-flight C-scan and the penetrant-enhanced X-ray methods have been successfully applied to determine the impact damage state in three dimensions. The predicted strengths have been found to correlate well with test results.

Poon, C.; Fahr, A.; Xiong, Y. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Straznicky, P.V.; Vietinghoff, H.; Harrison, T. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1995-10-01

234

Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2011-03-15

235

Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

2014-03-01

236

46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section...and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2014-10-01

237

46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section...and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2012-10-01

238

46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section...and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2013-10-01

239

46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section...and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2010-10-01

240

On the role of interface imperfections in thermoelectric nondestructive materials characterization  

E-print Network

in nondestructive testing applications that require sensitive materials discrimination, for example, to sort metals treatments, hardening, texture, fatigue, etc., which can be further exploited for nondestructive testingOn the role of interface imperfections in thermoelectric nondestructive materials characterization

Nagy, Peter B.

241

46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section...and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2011-10-01

242

Physical Model Assisted Probability of Detection in Nondestructive Evaluation for Detecting of Flaws in Titanium  

E-print Network

, Mixed effects, Titanium forging, Ultrasonic testing. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Nondestructive1 Physical Model Assisted Probability of Detection in Nondestructive Evaluation for Detecting for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 R. Bruce Thompson Department of Aerospace

243

Passive research and practice  

SciTech Connect

Passive-solar applications in buildings are described and examples are given to illustrate how research in the field has been approached. The major emphasis of the research has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both various design parameters and the weather on system performance. Results from both test modules and monitored buildings are given. Simulation analysis, the development of simplified methods, and systems analysis are outlined. Passive-solar practice is described and the key elements that have led to successful passive-solar applications are discussed.

Balcomb, J.D.

1983-01-01

244

Use of calorimetric assay for operational and accountability measurements of pure plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium pure metal products (PMP) are high purity plutonium metal items produced by electrorefining. The plutonium metal is produced as an approximately 3-kg ring. Accountability measurements for the electro-refining runs are typically balance/weight factor (incoming impure metal), chemistry (pure metal rings), and calorimetric assay or neutron counting of the crucibles and other wastes. The PMP items are qualified for their end use by extensive chemical assay. After PMP materials are made they are often sent to the vault for storage before being sent to the casting process, the next step in the production chain. The chemical assay of PMP items often takes a few weeks; however, before the metal items are allowed into the vault they must be measured. Non-destructive assay personnel measure the metals either by multiplicity neutron counting or calorimetric assay, depending on which instrument is available, thus generating comparisons between non-destructive assay and chemical assay. The suite of measurements, calorimetric assay, chemical assay, and neutron mUltiplicity counting is compared for a large group of PMP items.

Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

245

Applications of aerospace technology in industry: A technology transfer profile, nondestructive testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of nondestructive testing procedures by NASA and the transfer of nondestructive testing to technology to civilian industry are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) an overview of the nondestructive testing field, (2) NASA contributions to the field of nondestructive testing, (3) dissemination of NASA contributions, and (4) a transfer profile. Attachments are included which provide a brief description of common nondestructive testing methods and summarize the technology transfer reports involving NASA generated nondestructive testing technology.

1972-01-01

246

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

2011-07-01

247

Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

2011-06-01

248

Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of engineering materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of engineering material is described. The method utilizes the nonlinearity parameter measurement which describes the anharmonic behavior of the solid through measurements of amplitudes of the fundamental and of the generated second harmonic ultrasonic waves. The nonlinearity parameter is also directly related to the acoustoelastic constant of the solid which can be determined by measuring the linear dependence of ultrasonic velocity on stress. A major advantage of measurements of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes it more applicable for in-service nondestructive characterization. The relationships between the nonlinearity parameter of second-harmonic generation and the percentage of solid solution phase in engineering materials such as heat treatable aluminum alloys was established. The acoustoelastic constants are measured on these alloys for comparison and confirmation. A linear relationship between the nonlinearity parameter and the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in the alloys is indicated.

Salama, K.

1985-01-01

249

Passive solar retrofit guidebook  

SciTech Connect

The steps involved in retrofitting an existing building for passive solar heating are discussed, and include: conservation measures (increasing insulation and furnace efficiency and decreasing infiltration); site analysis for orientation, declination, and shading; glazing (including night insulation and overhangs); and thermal mass. A retrofit analysis is discussed along with details on each of four retrofit types - direct gain, thermal storage walls (Trombe walls and water walls), sunspaces, and thermosiphon air panel. Methods of calculating heat loss and solar retrofit performance are given and illustrated, as are methods of financial analysis, including payback period. Sources of financing are discussed. Marketing of passive solar retrofits is discussed and illustrated by a case study. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-01-01

250

Using modern nondestructive testing techniques for plant reliability; Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive testing techniques are increasingly applied to equipment, systems, and components to ensure the continued safety and performance reliability of operating chemical plants and refineries. The various nondestructive examinations used include not only the conventional methods such as ultrasonic, radiographic, magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant examinations, but also techniques such as eddy current testing, pipe crawlers for internal visual pipe

H. Thielsch; F. Cone

1994-01-01

251

Diagnoses of AC Generator Insulation Condition by Nondestructive Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented from comparison of nondestructive and destructive tests on several synchronous generator stators ranging from 800 to 33,000 kva. It is shown that the breakdown voltage of the weakest point in a winding can be forecast nondestructively by insulation resistance tests at increasing voltages. A new method of stating dielectric-absorption effect is suggested and its value as a

A. W. W. Cameron

1952-01-01

252

Nondestructive dynamic testing of apples for firmness evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two nondestructive dynamic test methods, low-mass impact and acoustic response, were tested and compared with destructive compression and penetration tests to evaluate apple firmness. The purpose of the study was to analyze the performance of the impact test methods for nondestructive firmness evaluation, and to assess whether the acoustic tests could add sorting capacity to low-mass impact testing in apples.

I Shmulevich; N Galili; M. S Howarth

2003-01-01

253

Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of solid objects Tadeusz Stepinski  

E-print Network

Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of solid objects Tadeusz Stepinski Signals and Systems, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, ts@signal.uu.se Abstract. Ultrasonic testing (UT) has been used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials for more than half a cen- tury. A number of NDE techniques have been

254

Optimal Source Control and Resolution in Nondestructive Testing  

E-print Network

Optimal Source Control and Resolution in Nondestructive Testing Elena Cherkaeva Department on the amount of damaged material. Key words: nondestructive testing, generalized eigenvalue problem, res of damage detection arising in nondestruc­ tive testing. A conclusion about a presence of damage inside

Cherkaev, Elena

255

Test and evaluation of a high-sensitivity assay system for bulk transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, we tested and evaluated the performance of an assay system that accommodates 55-gal drums of transuranic waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This neutron assay system provides a routine assay of fissile transuranic isotopes to the 1-mg sensitivity level with a pulsed active neutron interrogation based on the differential dieaway technique. A highly sensitive passive neutron measurement determines the content of spontaneous fission transuranic isotopes in each drum as well as an upper-bound estimate of the total alpha activity. All components of the combined, pulsed active and passive neutron assay system performed well on a routine basis during the test-and-evaluation period. We performed more than 400 combined passive and active assay measurements of waste drums at Oak Ridge. One-fifth of the initial set of waste drums measured contain less than 100 nCi/g of total transuranic isotopes and thus qualify legally as nontransuranic waste.

Caldwell, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Haff, K.W.; Schultz, F.J.

1983-01-01

256

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS  

E-print Network

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

257

Full depth profile of passive films on 316L stainless steel based on high resolution HAXPES in combination with ARXPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depth profiles of the passive films on stainless steel were based on analysis with the non-destructive hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) technique in combination with the angular resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The analysis depth with ARXPS is within the passive film thickness, while the HAXPES technique uses higher excitation energies (between 2 and 12 keV) also non-destructively probing the chemical content underneath the film. Depth profiles were done within and underneath the passive film of 316L polarized in acidic solution. The passive film thickness was estimated to 2.6 nm for a sample that was polarized at 0.6 V and the main component in the passive film is, as expected, chromium. From the high resolution HAXPES spectra we suggest chromium in three different oxidation states present. Also for iron three oxides were detected. Gradients of chromium and iron concentrations and oxidation states within the film and an enrichment of nickel within a 0.5 nm layer directly underneath the passive film are some of the results discussed.

Fredriksson, W.; Malmgren, S.; Gustafsson, T.; Gorgoi, M.; Edström, K.

2012-05-01

258

Moving to passive designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events at Fukushima Daiichi have greatly renewed the public focus on the safety of the existing fleet of nuclear reactors, especially as many US reactors share the same fundamental design—and safety systems—as the affected Japanese reactors. The authors explore the proposition that a transition to increasingly passive safety features in new advanced reactor designs— supplementing, and in some cases

Robert Rosner; Rebecca Lordan; Stephen Goldberg

2011-01-01

259

Hood River Passive House  

SciTech Connect

The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

Hales, D.

2014-01-01

260

Passive solar ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the twenty first Century approaches, more emphasis is given to energy conservation and passive systems in order to maintain a clean environment. New strategies showed the necessity of reviewing some design elements and their evaluation techniques. Architects should seek to increase their understanding of the correlation between the natural and the built environment.In the recent years, many architectural styles

I. F. Hamdy; M. A. Fikry

1998-01-01

261

DC Protein Assay Instruction  

E-print Network

DC Protein Assay Instruction Manual For Technical Service Call Your Local Bio-Rad Office and Principle The Bio-Rad DC Protein Assay is a colorimetric assay for protein concen- tration following preparation Spectrophotometer set to 750 nm 1 #12;Vortex mixer Plastic or glass cuvettes with 1 cm path length

Lebendiker, Mario

262

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or excessive back pulsing conditions and high temperature transient) could be reflected from the shift of vibration frequencies. These shifts are due to changes in structural properties such as stiffness, which are directly related to the Young's modulus of the candle filters. Further studies are necessary in implementing and verifying the applicability of dynamic NDE characterization methods for actual in-situ conditions, and in establishing a systematic testing procedure for field applications. Also investigations on the filter's natural frequency due to the effect of dust cake or due to the change of boundary conditions may provide insight as to how the filter will perform in the field.

Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

1999-09-01

263

Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

1983-01-01

264

PRELIMINARY VALEN MODELING OF PASSIVE  

E-print Network

PRELIMINARY VALEN MODELING OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE CONTROL OF RWM IN FIRE J. Bialek Columbia;VALEN Model of FIRE Passive & Active Stabilization 43210 -2 -1 0 1 2 z Z-vv Data from "dcon.FIRE.01" r z structure is computed w/o FIRE conducting wall. #12;VALEN Model of FIRE Passive Stabilization 1 0 0 1 0 - 1

265

Preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the space shuttle. [preliminary nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements are presented for some 134 potential fracture-critical structural areas identified, for the entire space shuttle vehicle system, as those possibly needing inspection during refurbishment/turnaround and prelaunch operations. The requirements include critical area and defect descriptions, access factors, recommended NDE techniques, and descriptive artwork. Requirements discussed include: Orbiter structure, external tank, solid rocket booster, and thermal protection system (development area).

Pless, W. M.

1974-01-01

266

Projection Registration Applied to Nondestructive Testing  

SciTech Connect

Registration of radiographic and computed tomography (CT) data has the potential to allow automated metrology and defect detection. While registration of the three-dimensional reconstructed data is a common task in the medical industry for registration of data sets from multiple detection systems, registration of projection sets has only seen development in the area of tomotherapy. Efforts in projection registration have employed a method named Fourier phase matching (FPM). This work discusses implementation and results for the application of the FPM method to industrial applications for the nondestructive testing (NDT) community. The FPM method has been implemented and modified for industrial application. Testing with simulated and experimental x-ray CT data shows excellent performance with respect to the resolution of the imaging system.

Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Arrowood, Lloyd [Y-12 National Security Complex

2010-01-01

267

Projection registration applied to nondestructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Registration of radiographic and computed tomography (CT) data has the potential to allow automated metrology and defect detection. While registration of the three-dimensional reconstructed data is a common task in the medical industry for registration of data sets from multiple detection systems, registration of projection sets has only seen development in the area of tomotherapy. Efforts in projection registration have employed a method named Fourier phase matching (FPM). This work discusses implementation and results for the application of the FPM method to industrial applications for the nondestructive testing (NDT) community. The FPM method has been implemented and modified for industrial application. Testing with simulated and experimental x-ray CT data shows excellent performance with respect to the resolution of the imaging system.

Bingham, Philip; Arrowood, Lloyd

2010-07-01

268

Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

Heyman, Joseph S.

1991-01-01

269

Non-destructive testing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-10-04

270

Passive retrofit handbook: solar applications for residences  

SciTech Connect

The Handbook covers the following subjects: retrofit, passive solar, the passive solar window, the passive solar wall, the passive solar space, and materials and resources. Detailed construction drawings are included. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-01-01

271

Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the {sup 239}Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a {sup 239}Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in {sup 239}Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of {sup 239}Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U. This large difference allows small changes in the {sup 239}Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and {sup 239}Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the {sup 239}Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of {sup 239}Pu up to approximately two weight percent.

Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

1998-09-11

272

QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the various QAOs. A brief description of each test and any significant conclusions is included. Variables which may have affected test outcomes are examined. This report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

WILLS, C.E.

2000-01-27

273

Gamma ray scanner systems for nondestructive assay of heterogeneous waste barrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional gamma safeguards measurements have usually been performed using a segmented gamma scanning (SGS) system. The accuracy of this technique relies on the assumption that the sample matrix and the activity are both uniform for a segment. Waste barrels are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of composition and matrix type. The primary sources of error are all directly

H. E. Martz; B. J. Decman; G. P. Roberson; F. Levai

1997-01-01

274

QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the various QAOs. A brief description of each test and any significant conclusions is included. Variables which may have affected test outcomes are examined. This report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

WILLS, C.E.

1999-09-15

275

The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

2009-05-26

276

Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

1984-01-01

277

Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

1983-08-01

278

Asymmetric passive dynamic walker.  

PubMed

The objective of this research is to better understand the dynamics of gait asymmetry in humans with central nervous system damage, such as stroke, by using a model of a passive dynamic walker (PDW). By changing the mass, mass location, knee location, and leg length of one leg while leaving the parameters of the other leg unchanged, we show that stable asymmetric walking patterns exist for PDW models. The asymmetric PDW model shows several stable walking patterns that have a single, double, and quadruple repeat pattern where the step lengths between the two legs differ by over 15%. This model will allow an analysis of the passive dynamics of walking separate from the cognitive control in asymmetric human walking to test different gait rehabilitation hypotheses. PMID:22275663

Honeycutt, Craig; Sushko, John; Reed, Kyle B

2011-01-01

279

Passivated niobium cavities  

DOEpatents

A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA); Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin (Lagga Arby, SE); Ciovati, Gianluigi (Newport News, VA)

2006-12-19

280

Passive dynamic quadrupedal walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that a suitably designed biped will walk passively, i.e., without actuation or control, down a shallow slope. This paper extends the concept from bipedal to quadrupedal locomotion. A simple rimless-wheel model is analyzed first to provide a few basic insights, followed by a more complex model with freely-swinging legs. The gaits found for the quadruped are

Adam C. Smith; Matthew D. Berkemeier

1997-01-01

281

Passive fetal monitoring sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

Zuckerwar, Allan J. (inventor); Hall, Earl T. (inventor); Baker, Donald A. (inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

282

Test procedure for boxed waste assay system  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

Wachter, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-12-07

283

Adaptation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to the avian system.  

PubMed Central

A microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect chicken anti-rovirus antibodies. Studies of the parameters which affect the outcome of the assay with avian serum revealed two aspects for a successful assay. First, enzyme-antibody conjugates prepared by the periodate oxidation technique were found to have retained far more immunological activity than conjugates produced by a glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Second, the results indicated an unusually high affinity of chicken immunoglobulin for the microplate plastic which was mostly eliminated by a pretreatment technique with fixed fetal calf serum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared favorably with the latex passive agglutination test, yielding a titration endpoint of 1:511,000, or approximately 1,300 times more sensitive than the latex passive agglutination assay. The assay proved not only to be sensitive to less than 1 ng of specific antibody, but also to have low to moderate variance and high reliability. PMID:120876

Slaght, S S; Yang, T J; van der Heide, L

1979-01-01

284

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOEpatents

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-05-15

285

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.  

SciTech Connect

Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

BERNDT,M.L.

2001-03-23

286

Assay for Lipolytic and Proteolytic Activity Using Marine Substrates  

PubMed Central

Nondestructive assay procedures for determining microbial lipolytic and proteolytic activity on marine substrates were developed and tested with 287 isolates of bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts. A definite substrate specificity was noted when the enzymatic activities on marine and nonmarine substrates was compared. Of 170 lipolytic isolates, 14 were only active on menhaden oil, 11 could hydrolyze menhaden oil and Tween 80 and/or tributyrin, and 145 isolates could only hydrolyze one or both of the nonmarine lipids. Of the 198 proteolytic isolates, 10 were specific for codfish extract, 152 were active against the marine substrate plus casein and/or gelatin, and 36 were specific for nonmarine substrates. PMID:1167775

Tom, Raymond A.; Crisan, Eli V.

1975-01-01

287

Plutonium assay for safeguards purposes: Material heterogeneity and the application of calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative assays of plutonium materials are required for place operations and domestic and international nuclear material accounting. These assays have typically been made using destructive analysis techniques (weighing and chemical and isotopic concentration measurements). However,, nondestructive assay techniques based on combined gamma isotopic and calorimeter measurements have appear because they are rapid (compared with sampling and destructive analysis), accurate, and require no sampling. In addition, the nondestructive techniques reduce contamination risks, waste generation, and radiological dose. Measurement variabilities for destructive analysis and nondestructive assay techniques have been compiled for some pure and scrap plutonium oxide items. These items are under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards in the Plutonium Finishing Plant operated for the US Department of Energy by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. Measurement variabilities of International Atomic Energy Agency and Westinghouse Hanford Company destructive analysis methods were compared with Westinghouse Hanford Company calorimeter variability. Total measurement variabilities for calorimetry were comparable with the combined sampling and analytical variabilities of chemical analyses for pure materials and were lower for heterogeneous scrap.

Welsh, T.L.; Delegard, C.H.; Hamilton, R.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

288

Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ``point defects models`` (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

1991-11-01

289

Nondestructive methods to assess dental implant stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The robustness and reliability of two nondestructive evaluation methods to assess dental prostheses stability is presented. The study aims at addressing an increasing need in the biomedical area where robust, reliable, and noninvasive methods to assess the bone-interface of dental and orthopedic implants are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. The methods are based on the electromechanical impedance method and on the propagation of solitary waves. Nobel Biocare® 4.3 x 13 mm implants were entrenched inside bovine rib bones that were immersed inside Normal Saline for 24 hours before test in order to avoid dehydration and simulating physiologic osmolarity of the corticocancellous bone and plasma. Afterwards the bones were immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation, inversely simulating a bone-healing process. This process was monitored by bonding a Piezoceramic Transducer (PZT) to the abutment and measuring the electrical admittance of the PZT over time. On the other hand the bones calcium loss was calculated after immersing in acid by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy over time for comparison. Moreover a novel transducer based on the generation and detection of highly nonlinear solitary waves was used to assess the stiffness of the abutment-implant bone. In these experiments it was found that the PZT's conductance and some of the solitary waves parameters are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and was correlated to the bone calcium loss over time.

Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Tabrizi, Aydin; Berhanu, Bruk; Ochs, Mark W.

2012-04-01

290

MIMO array imaging for ultrasonic nondestructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic sensor arrays continue to be broadly applied for nondestructive material testing. Generally, conventional beamforming techniques have been the favorite approach to generate images from the sensor array data. In this paper, we examine the use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) ultrasonic processing technique for imaging internal structures of materials. The goal is to identify and locate potential defects and anomalies. The imaging technique is comprised of excitation of transmitting sensors with sequential or orthogonal wideband signals, matched filtering, and adaptive weighting. The weighting of the signals at the receiver takes into account the transducer ultrasound radiation patterns. The MIMO technique is particularly attractive for ultrasonic imaging, as the different bistatic combinations of transmit and receive sensor pairs allows effective and simple formations of virtual arrays with extended apertures and denser spatial sampling. As such, high-resolution images can be generated with fewer or available transducers. The performance of this technique is experimentally examined using test specimens with artificially drilled small size flat bottom holes that simulate defects. One-dimensional and two-dimensional array configurations are used to form desired virtual arrays and their respective imaging capabilities are evaluated and compared.

Demirli, Ramazan; Rivenq, Xavier; Zhang, Yimin D.; Ioana, Cornel; Amin, Moeness G.

2011-04-01

291

Modeling for quantitative non-destructive evaluation.  

PubMed

A quantitative approach to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) must be based on models of the measurement processes. A model's purpose is to predict, from first principles, the measurement system's response to material properties and anomalies in a material or structure. For the ultrasonic case a measurement model should include modeling of the generation, propagation and reception of ultrasonic signals, and the ultrasonic interactions that generate the system's response function. A measurement model has many benefits, which are discussed in the paper. Three examples of the productive use of quantitative modeling in conjunction with measured data are presented: the detection and sizing of fatigue cracks which emanate from weep holes in the risers of wing panels in the interior of an aircraft wing by the use of ultrasound generated on the exterior surface of the wing, the determination of the elastic constants of anisotropic thin films deposited on a substrate, and the detection and sizing of surface-breaking cracks by the use of the laser-source scanning technique for laser generated and detected ultrasound. PMID:12159913

Achenbach, Jan D

2002-05-01

292

Nondestructive electromagnetic characterization of uniaxial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, a method for the simultaneous non-destructive extraction of the permittivity and permeability of a dielectric magnetic uniaxial anisotropic media is developed and several key contributions are demonstrated. The method utilizes a single fixture in which the MUT is clamped between two rectangular waveguides with 6" x 6" PEC flanges. The transmission and reflection coefficients are measured, then compared with theoretically calculated coefficients to find a least squares solution to the minimization problem. One of the key contributions of this work is the development of the total parallel plate spectral-domain Green's function by two independent methods. The Green's function is thereby shown to be correct in form and in physical meaning. A second significant contribution of this work to the scientific community is the evaluation of one of the inverse Fourier transform integrals in the complex plane. This significantly enhances the efficiency of the extraction code. A third significant contribution is the measurement of a number of uniaxial anisotropic materials, many of which were envisioned, designed and constructed in-house using 3D printing technology. The results are shown to be good in the transverse dimension, but mildly unstable in the longitudinal dimension. A secondary contribution of this work that warrants mention is the inclusion of a flexible, complete, working code for the extraction process. Although such codes have been written before, they have not been published in the literature for broader use.

Rogers, Neil G.

293

Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactive Powder Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has been introduced as a structural material for civil engineering applications. The material consists of a finely graded combination of cement, sand, ground quartz and silica fume which combined with water form a cement paste. Small steel fibers measuring approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length are distributed throughout the cement matrix and the combined material has very high compressive strength and toughness. The material is proposed for use in the primary load bearing members in bridges, and as such nondestructive evaluation technologies are needed to evaluate material quality and monitor in-service condition. This paper reports on research to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing for determining the elastic properties of RPC. Comparison between static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic modulus measurements is presented. A system for determining elastic moduli as a quality control tool is discussed. The effect of curing conditions on ultrasonic velocities and resulting calculated moduli values is presented and compared with traditional measurement methods.

Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Graybeal, Benjamin; Rezaizadeh, Ali

2004-02-01

294

Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

2012-05-01

295

Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

1991-09-01

296

Nondestructive visual inspection of aging aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-flight structural failure of an Aloha Airlines 737-200 in April of 1988 brought international attention to the aging aircraft issue and prompted operators to improve inspection and maintenance procedures for their fleets. The use of nondestructive visual inspection equipment such as borescopes, fiberscopes, and videoimagescopes allow maintenance personnel to inspect internal aircraft structure for corrosion and fatigue without costly and time consuming disassembly. Some special purpose scopes have been designed for ultra violet applications using dye penetrant or even grinding and blending of corrosion from a remote location. These devices, coupled with sophisticated digital image processors, provide a permanent visual record of the inspection while allowing for three dimensional defect measurement, trend analysis, image enhancement, and video telephone link-ups. The use of this equipment can enhance and in some cases replace existing maintenance procedures, providing the most reliable and cost effective approach to aging aircraft program implementation. In cooperation with Dr. Richard Shagam of Sandia National Laboratories, sample inspections were accomplished at the Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 23 - 27, 1993. This paper provides the results of the testing along with detailed descriptions of each inspection procedure. Additional applications for visual inspection in aging fleet programs are seemingly endless and should be thoroughly investigated by program administrators throughout the industry.

Samsonov, Peter

1995-07-01

297

Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing  

E-print Network

1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

298

Immunochromatographic assay on thread.  

PubMed

Lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays are low-cost, simple-to-use, rapid tests for point-of-care screening of infectious diseases, drugs of abuse, and pregnancy. However, lateral flow assays are generally not quantitative, give a yes/no answer, and lack multiplexing. Threads have recently been proposed as a support for transporting and mixing liquids in lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays, but their use for quantitative high-sensitivity immunoassays has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we introduce the immunochromatographic assay on thread (ICAT) in a cartridge format that is suitable for multiplexing. The ICAT is a sandwich assay performed on a cotton thread knotted to a nylon fiber bundle, both of which are precoated with recognition antibodies against one target analyte. Upon sample application, the assay results become visible to the eye within a few minutes and are quantified using a flatbed scanner. Assay conditions were optimized, the binding curves for C-reactive protein (CRP) in buffer and diluted serum were established and a limit of detection of 377 pM was obtained. The possibility of multiplexing was demonstrated using three knotted threads coated with antibodies against CRP, osteopontin, and leptin proteins. The performance of the ICAT was compared with that of the paper-based and conventional assays. The results suggest that thread is a suitable support for making low-cost, sensitive, simple-to-use, and multiplexed diagnostic tests. PMID:22889381

Zhou, Gina; Mao, Xun; Juncker, David

2012-09-18

299

Passive solar design handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume Three updates Volume Two by presenting extensive new data on the optimum mix of conservation and solar direct gain, sunspaces, thermal storage walls, and solar radiation. The direct gain, thermal storage wall, and solar radiation data are greatly expanded relative to the Volume 2 coverage. The needed flexibility to analyze a variety of system designs is accommodated by the large number of reference designs to be encompassed - 94 in contrast to 6 in Volume two - and the large amount of sensitivity data for direct gain and sunspace systems - approximately 1100 separate curves.

Jones, R.W.

1981-01-01

300

Passive orbital disconnect strut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and test results with a third generation passive orbital disconnect strut (PODS) for space-based cryogenic He dewars are presented. Three pairs of PODS struts support a tank and change lengths in response to gas and temperature changes. A thin wall fiberglass tube is used on the cold disconnect end, which can be operated on the ground or in space. Tests were performed to characterize heat flows across the cold end to a liquid He sink and subsequent vacuum pressure within the He tank. Heat transfer was lower than predicted, suggesting that longer dewar in-orbit lifetimes can be expected with the new PODS.

Parmley, R. T.; Kittel, P.

1984-01-01

301

Optimizing Passive Quantum Clocks  

E-print Network

We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

Michael Mullan; Emanuel Knill

2014-04-15

302

Optimizing passive quantum clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel

2014-10-01

303

Rapid mercury assays  

SciTech Connect

We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

304

Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report  

SciTech Connect

Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

2011-08-30

305

Passive films on magnesium anodes in primary batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the passive films over Mg anodes, which essentially govern the voltage delay of the latter, have been determined nondestructively from an analysis of the transient and steady-state response of the electrode potential to low amplitude galvanostatic polarization under various experimental conditions viz., with different corrosion inhibitor coatings on Mg, after various periods of ageing of anode in solutions containing corrosion inhibitors, at various low temperatures etc. Using these parameters, the kinetics of film build-up or dissolution under these conditions have been monitored. The morphology of the anode film has been verified with scanning electron microscopy. Similar transients at low temperatures point out a steep rise in the film resistivity which is essentially responsible for the severe voltage delay. Finally, possible application of this technique in secondary Li batteries to improve cycling characteristics of the Li anode has been pointed out.

Ratnakumar, B. V.

1988-01-01

306

Nondestructive detection of hidden chemical compounds with laser Compton-scattering gamma rays.  

PubMed

A nondestructive assay method for measuring a shielded chemical compound has been proposed. The chemical compound is measured by using a nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurement technique with an energy tunable laser Compton-scattering (LCS) gamma-ray source. This method has an advantage that hidden materials can be detected through heavy shields such as iron plates of a thickness of several centimeters. A detection of a chemical compound of melamine, C(3)H(6)N(6), shielded by 15-mm-thick iron and 4-mm-thick lead plates is demonstrated. The NRF gamma-rays of (12)C and (14)N of the melamine are measured by using the LCS gamma-rays of the energies of up to 5.0 MeV. The observed ratio ((12)C/(14)N)(exp)=0.39+/-0.12 is consistent with (C/N)(melamine)=0.5. PMID:19405694

Hayakawa, Takehito; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Minehara, Eisuke; Kii, Toshiteru; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki

2009-04-01

307

Advanced analysis techniques for uranium assay  

SciTech Connect

Uranium has a negligible passive neutron emission rate making its assay practicable only with an active interrogation method. The active interrogation uses external neutron sources to induce fission events in the uranium in order to determine the mass. This technique requires careful calibration with standards that are representative of the items to be assayed. The samples to be measured are not always well represented by the available standards which often leads to large biases. A technique of active multiplicity counting is being developed to reduce some of these assay difficulties. Active multiplicity counting uses the measured doubles and triples count rates to determine the neutron multiplication (f4) and the product of the source-sample coupling ( C ) and the 235U mass (m). Since the 35U mass always appears in the multiplicity equations as the product of Cm, the coupling needs to be determined before the mass can be known. A relationship has been developed that relates the coupling to the neutron multiplication. The relationship is based on both an analytical derivation and also on empirical observations. To determine a scaling constant present in this relationship, known standards must be used. Evaluation of experimental data revealed an improvement over the traditional calibration curve analysis method of fitting the doubles count rate to the 235Um ass. Active multiplicity assay appears to relax the requirement that the calibration standards and unknown items have the same chemical form and geometry.

Geist, W. H. (William H.); Ensslin, Norbert; Carrillo, L. A. (Louis A.); Beard, C. A. (Carl A.)

2001-01-01

308

Passive-solar construction handbook  

SciTech Connect

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-02-01

309

Passive-solar construction handbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An identification and explanation of pertinent considerations in the construction of passively solar heated buildings are presented. Toward that end, the handbook discusses solar design principles, site planning and access, system components, construction details, financial considerations and other items which are essential considerations in passive solar design. The handbook was designed for a multitude of uses: as an instructional tool in workshops and seminars; as a compendium of passive solar design elements; and, as a reference guide to building trade professionals entering passive solar construction.

1981-09-01

310

CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays  

SciTech Connect

To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

2014-06-27

311

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOEpatents

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14

312

Mechanical passive logic module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nothing from nothing gives simple simile, but something from nothing is an interesting and challenging task. Adolf Lohmann once proposed 'do nothing machine' in optics, which only copies input to output. Passive logic module (PALM) is a special type of 'do nothing machine' which can converts inputs into one of 16 possible binary outputs. This logic module is not like the conventional irreversible one. It is a simple type of reversible Turing machine. In this manuscript we discussed and demonstrated PALM using mechanical movement of plane mirrors. Also we discussed the theoretical model of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) based PALM in this manuscript. It may have several valuable properties such as passive operation (no need for nonlinear elements as other logic device require) and modular logic (one device implementing any Boolean logic function with simple internal changes). The result is obtained from the demonstration by only looking up the output. No calculation is required to get the result. Not only that, PALM is a simple type of the famous 'billiard ball machine', which also discussed in this manuscript.

Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Caulfield, H. John

2015-02-01

313

Commentary on "Capturing the Evasive Passive"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Passives has been the focus of much research in language acquisition since the 1970s. It has been clear from this research that young children seldom produce passives spontaneously, particularly "long" or "full" passives with a by-phrase; and they usually perform poorly on experimental tests of the comprehension of passives, especially passives of…

Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

2009-01-01

314

Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

Arens, Ellen

2010-01-01

315

Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis. PMID:18238584

Rose, J L

2000-01-01

316

Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.

Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

1999-01-01

317

Laser speckle photometry: contactless nondestructive testing technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Speckle Photometry (LSP) is a newly developed contactless, fast and completely optical nondestructive testing method based on the detection and analysis of thermally or mechanically activated characteristic speckle dynamics. The heat propagation or tension process causes locally different degrees of thermal/mechanical expansion, which generates local and time-dependent strain fields, resulting in a local displacement of material surface. During this process, the normal surface slope and absolute height of the microscopic and mesoscopic surface segments, especially at rough sample surfaces, is transformed. These spatiotemporal changes include information about the material structure and conditions. Therefore, the proposed measurement technique includes a pulsed heating source for sample activation, a temperature detection of the sample at the measurement location in a distance from the heading point, a continuous wave laser for sample irradiation and activation of speckle patterns at the measurement point, and in addition, a fast CCD camera for the detection of the speckle movement during heat propagation at the measurement location. Laser Speckle Photometry can be used for evaluating material properties, such as hardness and porosity. The approach is based on the estimation of the "Speckle Thermal Diffusivity" parameter K, that can be determined using the thermal diffusion equation and the modified correlation function from the pixel intensity of the speckle image variations during thermal activation. After testing, the correlation between parameter K and hardness, and porosity respectively, was found. Furthermore, mechanical material stress changes, also at elevated operating temperatures, can be estimated by the presented technique using the calculated parameter K. In this case, the thermal excitation will be partially replaced by mechanical activation, such as the tension process. The technique of LSP and the results of calibration experiments are presented in this paper.

Cikalova, Ulana; Nicolai, Juergen; Bendjus, Beatrice; Schreiber, Juergen

2012-10-01

318

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01

319

Robust passive piezoelectric shunt dampener  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new multiple mode passive piezoelectric shunt damping technique. The robust passive piezoelectric shunt controller is capable of damping multiple structural modes and maybe less susceptible to variations in environmental conditions that can severely effect the performance of other controllers. The proposed control scheme is validated experimentally on a piezoelectric laminated plate structure.

Sam Behrens; Andrew J. Fleming; S. O. R. Moheimani

2003-01-01

320

Passive solar heating for buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of passive solar heating experience is presented. Design approaches reviewed include: (1) direct gain, (2) thermal storage wall, (3) attached sun space, (4) thermal storage loops, and (5) convective loop. Consideration is also given to generic categories: (a) direct, (b) indirect, and (c) isolated. Data is given showing that passive heating can be successful in regions such as

J. D. Balcomb

1979-01-01

321

Assays without Borders  

Cancer.gov

CPTAC researchers partner with international labs to demonstrate the ability of Targeted mass spectrometry–based assays to reproducibly quantify Human proteins across labs, countries and continents in a recently published journal article.

322

CHAPTER 9CHAPTER 9CHAPTER 9:CHAPTER 9: Active and PassiveActive and Passive  

E-print Network

1 CHAPTER 9CHAPTER 9CHAPTER 9:CHAPTER 9: Active and PassiveActive and Passive Microwave RSMicrowave Hall Passive Remote SensingPassive Remote Sensing Passive remote sensing systems record electromagnetic infrared energy) from the surface of the E hEarth. #12;2 SSM/I Passive Microwave Radiometer Image of

Gilbes, Fernando

323

Passive magnetic bearing system  

DOEpatents

An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

Post, Richard F.

2014-09-02

324

Passive Ball Capture Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive ball capture joint has a sleeve with a plurality of bores distributed about a circumference thereof and formed therethrough at an acute angle relative to the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A spring-loaded retainer is slidingly fitted in each bore and is biased such that, if allowed, will extend at least partially into the sleeve to retain a ball therein. A ring, rotatably mounted about the bores, has an interior wall defining a plurality of shaped races that bear against the spring-loaded retainers. A mechanized rotational force producer is coupled to the ring. The ring can be rotated from a first position (that presses the retainers into the sleeve to lock the ball in place) to a second position (that allows the retainers to springback out of the sleeve to release the ball).

Cloyd, Richard A. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

325

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

326

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

327

Passive Optical Networks (PONs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee. In this podcast, Mike and Gordon take a look at modern day fiber optics delivery systems. The conversation focuses on innovations in the fiber optics industry. Some of these include passive optical networks, fiber P2P networks, and centralized/distributed/cascading splitting choices. The podcast concludes with a question whether or not technicians are â??typically terminating fiber in the field.â? In addition to this, the authors provide a question by question transcript and references to enhance the experience. Running time for the show is 24:24.

Qaissaunee, Michael

328

Doped colorimetric assay liposomes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Stevens, Raymond C. (Albany, CA)

2001-01-01

329

Microfluidic DNA hybridization assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA hybridization is one of the most powerful techniques applied in diagnostic assays. Microfluidics provides a promising\\u000a means to analyse small sample volumes, reduce reagent consumption and cost, shorten processing time as well as develop fast,\\u000a sensitive and portable diagnostic tools. By coupling with the microfluidic technology, DNA hybridization assay can achieve\\u000a high sensitivity, enhance hybridization kinetics and decrease the

Xuan WengHai; Hai Jiang; Dongqing Li

330

Standardization of portable assay instrumentation: the neutron-coincidence tree  

SciTech Connect

Standardization of portable neutron assay instrumentation has been achieved by using the neutron coincidence technique as a common basis for a wide range of instruments and applications. The electronics originally developed for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter has been adapted to both passive- and active-assay instrumentation for field verification of bulk plutonium, inventory samples, pellets, powders, nitrates, high-enriched uranium, and materials-testing-reactor, light-water-reactor, and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. The family of detectors developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their performance under in-field conditions are described. 16 figures, 3 tables.

Menlove, H.O.

1983-01-01

331

NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil-carbon analysis; however, these also are invasive and destructive techniques. The INS approach permits quantification in a relatively large volume of soil without disrupting the measurement site. The technique is very fast and provides nearly instantaneous results thereby reducing the cost, and speeding up the rate of analysis. It also has the potential to cover large areas in a mobile scanning mode. These capabilities will significantly advance the tracking carbon sequestration and offer a tool for research in agronomy, forestry, soil ecology and biogeochemistry.

WIELOPOLSKI,L.MITRA,S.HENDREY,G.ORION,I.ROGERS,H.TORBERT,A.PRIOR,S.RUNION,B.

2004-02-01

332

Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of armor ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic materials have been incorporated into armor systems to reduce their weight while providing high hardness, strength, and elastic response to stress. However, the presence of defects and flaws in armor ceramics can lead to ballistic failure. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been studied to locate and characterize defects and inhomogeneities in these materials. High frequency ultrasound NDE has been explored for detecting and locating micron-range defects and identifying microstructural changes in dense armor ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC). Ultrasound parameters such as transducer frequency have been analyzed to determine system conditions necessary for obtaining C-scan image maps based on differences in intensity of the collected ultrasound signals (reflected signal amplitudes) or transit time of ultrasound energy through materials (time-of-flight TOF). While TOF has have been used to evaluate changes in thickness, velocity, density, and acoustic impedance, reflected signal amplitude has been used to analyze attenuation, or loss, through a test specimen. Reflected signal amplitude and TOF C-scan imaging have been useful for identifying and locating isolated defects and microstructural differences. Elastic property maps have been developed to plot differences in Poisson's ratio, elastic modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus. Quantitative analysis techniques have been used to evaluate cumulative effects of reflected signal amplitude and TOF changes over scanned regions and their distributions over selected areas. Amplitude and TOF histogram curves, which have been characterized by area-under-the-curve values, full-width at half-maximum values, and critical tail regions, have provided a valuable means of sample comparison. Generally, more narrow distributions of amplitude and TOF values have corresponded to high density armor-grade samples, while broad distributions have indicated defects or inhomogeneous regions in the samples. In addition to developing techniques for determining individual defect size distributions within a bulk specimen, histogram simulations have been explored to study amplitude and TOF distribution trends by analyzing how the addition of defects of varying size, quantity, and acoustic impedance affect histogram characteristics. These data have been utilized to establish a representative materials fingerprint that provides defect input data which can be further quantified and applied to property, design, and performance modeling of armor ceramic materials.

Brennan, Raymond Edwin, IV

333

Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis  

DOEpatents

A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01

334

Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis  

DOEpatents

A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electrolyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polarographically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods. 6 figs.

Greenbaum, E.

1988-02-22

335

Non-destructive evaluation and quality control of surface treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect and quantify beneficial surface and subsurface residual stresses, and operational damage in aerospace materials/structures in a reliable and efficient manner presents significant challenges to existing nondestructive inspection technologies. Induced Positron Analysis (IPA) has demonstrated the ability to nondestructively quantify shot peening/surface treatments and relaxation effects in single crystal superalloys, steels, titanium and aluminum with a single measurement as part of a National Science Foundation SBIR program and in projects with commercial companies. IPA measurement of surface treatment effects provides a demonstrated ability to quantitatively measure initial treatment effectiveness along with the effect of operationally induced changes over the life of the treated component. Use of IPA to nondestructively quantify surface and subsurface residual stresses in turbine engine materials and components has the potential to significantly improve the understanding at the microscale level the effects of surface coatings and treatments on the durability and fatigue life of critical components.

Rideout, Curtis A.; Ritchie, Scott J.

2007-04-01

336

Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing  

PubMed Central

Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be made for hydrophobic chemicals using passive dosing. PMID:22125776

Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

2011-01-01

337

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into the nondestructive evaluation of advanced reinforced composite laminates is summarized. The applicability of the Framers-Kronig equations to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials is described.

Miller, James G.

1987-01-01

338

NONDESTRUCTIVE DAMAGE EVALUATION OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPONENTS USING A HYBRID,  

E-print Network

NONDESTRUCTIVE DAMAGE EVALUATION OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPONENTS USING A HYBRID, COMPUTATIONAL. This, in turn, indicates a need for effective quantitative testing methodologies. In this paper, a novel hybridized use of nondestructive, noninvasive, remote, full field of view, quantitative opto

Furlong, Cosme

339

Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source) and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field. 7 figures.

Cole, J.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Greenwood, R.C.

1995-01-03

340

Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field.

Cole, Jerald D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Aryaeinejad, Rahmat (Idaho Falls, ID); Greenwood, Reginald C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01

341

The most energetic passive states  

E-print Network

Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. In this article we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.

Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Marcus Huber; Paul Skrzypczyk; Jordi Tura; Antonio Acín

2015-02-25

342

Mechanical Properties of Trabecular Bone by a Non-Destructive Compression Testing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize non-destructive mechanical testing of trabecular bone specimens, different techniques were analysed, and correlations were established between properties derived from such non-destructive testings and those derived from destructive testing. Non-destructive testing to a fixed percentage of predicted ultimate stress was hampered by inaccuracy of this prediction. Simulation of non-destructive testing conducted to the linear' part of the

Frank Linde; Charlotte Buch Gøosthgen; Ivan Hvid; Buntoeng Pongsoipetch; Søosren Bentzen

1988-01-01

343

Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

344

New passive helicopter detector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia has developed a new helicopter detector. The device relies on the correlation between the acoustic wave from the helicopter and the resulting coupled seismic wave. A significant feature of this approach is that the detector is completely passive; there is no radio frequency radiation. Intended for deployment as a perimeter sensor around a site, the unit offers a low nuisance/false alarm rate and a high probability of detection for a wide range of helicopters. Reliable detection occurs when the target is at high altitude and also very near the earth's surface. Detection ranges start at one kilometer for the small, four-place, civilian helicopter and approach five kilometers for heavier, military types. The system has two parts: a transducer package containing a microphone and a geophone and a digital processor. Development is underway for a model which will be AC powered and well suited to permanent facilities. A prototype unit using a lightweight, battery powered processor is being constructed for rapid-deployment applications. 6 figs.

Elliott, G.R.

1985-01-01

345

Passive magnetic screening.  

PubMed

It is shown that a passive magnetic shield for a 1.5-T whole-body magnet requires about 20 tons of iron. Moreover, to first order, the amount of shielding material is independent of the radius of the shield. The choice between a thick shield fitting tightly round the magnet and a thinner shield of larger radius is determined by considerations of available space and the need for the highest uniformity of field in the bore. Very high permeability materials such as mu-metal are useful only in special circumstances. Multiple shields are valuable if a high degree of shielding is required, but the spacing between the shields needs careful attention. Although exact reciprocity of internal and external shielding is not found in the general case, the degree of shielding will be of the same order in both cases. The complete behavior of cylindrical shields around superconducting magnets can be determined by analytical solution of Maxwell's equations; for less regular shapes, solutions may be determined numerically by computer. PMID:2067396

Andrew, E R

1991-01-01

346

Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

347

Assaying hematopoiesis using zebrafish.  

PubMed

The zebrafish has become a commonly used model for studying hematopoiesis as a result of its unique attributes. Zebrafish are highly suitable for large-scale genetic and chemical screens compared to other vertebrate systems. It is now possible to analyze hematopoietic lineages in zebrafish and validate cell function via transplantation assays. Here, we review advancements over the past decade in forward genetic screens, chemical screens, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and transplantation assays. Integrating these approaches enables new chemical and genetic screens that assay cell function within the hematopoietic system. Studies in zebrafish will continue to contribute and expand our knowledge about hematopoiesis, and develop novel treatments for clinical applications. PMID:23916372

Boatman, Sonja; Barrett, Francesca; Satishchandran, Sruthi; Jing, Lili; Shestopalov, Ilya; Zon, Leonard I

2013-12-01

348

Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

2003-01-01

349

Clonogenic Assay: Adherent Cells  

PubMed Central

The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 19561. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture1. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811)2. Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant formulation. PMID:21445039

Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T.; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C.

2011-01-01

350

Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.  

PubMed

The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant formulation. PMID:21445039

Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

2011-01-01

351

Sidewall passivation layer thickness and composition profiles of etched silicon patterns from angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a technique to analyze side wall passivation layers formed on silicon sidewalls after plasma processing. The thickness and chemical composition are derived from angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is a non-destructive, quasi in situ method to determine profiles of the thickness and the chemical composition of passivation layers in trenches up to an aspect ratio of about 3. The performance of this technique to quantify the passivation layer thickness is compared to a standard technique using secondary electron microscopy images with respect to two different samples and is found to be at least equivalent. The possible uncertainties and limitations of this technique are discussed as well.

Haass, Moritz; Darnon, Maxime; Joubert, Olivier

2012-06-01

352

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOEpatents

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08

353

CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-20

354

Application of time reverse modeling on ultrasonic non-destructive testing of concrete  

E-print Network

Application of time reverse modeling on ultrasonic non-destructive testing of concrete Erik H-differences Wave propagation Source localization Non-destructive testing a b s t r a c t Time reverse modeling (TRM is to transform a method within exploration geo- physics to non-destructive testing. In contrast to previous time

355

The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement-based  

E-print Network

The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement for Nondestructive Testing of Cement-Based Materials at Early Ages An Experimental and Numerical Analysis by Dr for Nondestructive Testing of Cement-Based Materials at Early Ages ­ An Experi- mental and Numerical Analysis ist

356

High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging for nondestructive  

E-print Network

.4290) Nondestructive testing. References and links 1. W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, IHigh-speed terahertz reflection three- dimensional imaging for nondestructive evaluation Kyong Hwan of the imaging system to nondestructive evaluation, a THz reflection 3D image of an artificially made sample

357

Porosity evaluation of PoSi wafer using a nondestructive ultrasonic technic  

E-print Network

travelling through it, ultrasonic non-destructive testing can be a good way to measure these parameters [9Porosity evaluation of PoSi wafer using a nondestructive ultrasonic technic J. Bustilloa , J measurement methods of PoSi are currently destructive. Therefore in this study a nondestructive ultrasonic

Boyer, Edmond

358

Passive Solar Is Common Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A checklist of concepts concerning passive solar energy techniques. Many can be applied immediately to existing buildings, while others should be brought into the initial planning of buildings. (Author/MLF)

Robison, Rita

1979-01-01

359

Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

360

Non-Destructive Damage Evaluation Based on Element Strain Energies  

E-print Network

should apply to 1-D as well as 2-D and 3-D structures with single or multiple damage locations. To achieve the objectives listed above, the following four tasks are addressed: (1) the development of the theoretical foundations of the nondestructive...

Li, Ran

2013-05-01

361

Case study of nonlinear inverse problems: mammography and nondestructive evaluation  

E-print Network

Case study of non­linear inverse problems: mammography and non­destructive evaluation O. Kosheleva, e.g., that the actual image is non­negative). In most real­life problems, this linear description into consideration non­linear terms. This may be a minor improvement for normal image processing, but these non­linear

Kreinovich, Vladik

362

An Instructional Program for Training Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the second portion of a two-part study, is designed to provide a guide for the formal training of technicians for nondestructive testing and inspection. Information in the guide is based on results of the industrial survey discussed in Part I. The subject matter is intended to be both flexible and comprehensive, and instructional…

Stokes, Vernon L.

363

Nondestructive evaluation of low carbon steel by magnetic adaptive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three series of low carbon steel samples, plastically deformed by cold rolling to five consecutive stages of deformation, were investigated by the method of magnetic adaptive testing (MAT), typical by its low required magnetisation of samples. Samples in one series were magnetically closed; those in the other two series were magnetically open. Results of the nondestructive magnetic tests were compared

Gabor Vertesy; Ivan Tomas; Satoru Kobayashi

2010-01-01

364

Nondestructive detection experimental research on prestressed concrete beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prestressed concrete beams are increasingly widely used in bridges, large span building structures, so old prestressed structural safety of the performance testing is increasingly important. Because nondestructive detection testing do not damage the structure itself, it is one of the best detection methods. Through the five prestressed concrete beams static load test, measured the deflection and strain. The results

Su Jian; Sun Zhong-guang

2010-01-01

365

Nondestructive spectroscopic characterisation of visible resonant cavity light emitting diode  

E-print Network

of an active region containing quantum wells (QWs) embedded in a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator, defined by twoNondestructive spectroscopic characterisation of visible resonant cavity light emitting diode temperature on bare as-grown wafers of GaInP/AlGaInP/AlGaAs resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED

Ghosh, Sandip

366

Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

367

Non-destructive Inspection of Adhesively-bonded Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of any system of non-destructively examining an adhesive joint must be to obtain a direct correlation between the strength of the joint and some mechanical, physical or chemical parameter which can readily be measured without causing damage. Faults or defects are defined as anything which adversely affect the short or long term strength of a joint. There are

R. D. Adams; P. Cawley; C. C. H. Guyott

1987-01-01

368

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to mark out two scopes of non-destructive testing which are most important and specific to nuclear power. • The testing of nuclear fuel elements (NFE) and nuclear fuel assemblies (NFA) in process of their production; • Material engineering researches of NFE and NFA before and after their using in reactor. Significant growth of NFE and NFA production

N. R. Kuzelev

369

Research program plan. Non-destructive examination. Volume 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive examination\\/evaluation (NDE) of nuclear reactor components is required during fabrication, before service, and at regularly scheduled shutdowns for periodic inservice inspection (ISI). Any flaws produced during fabrication should be detected by the fabrication and preservice baseline examinations and components containing rejectable flaws should be repaired before the reactor enters service. The purpose of ISI is to ensure that any

Muscara

1985-01-01

370

A focused-field eddy current sensor for nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original structure of an eddy current sensor meant for nondestructive testing of electrically conducting materials is presented. The basic physical principles of the sensors are recalled, and the fact that it is generally impossible to design a sensor with good spatial resolution and good range detection is discussed. An original idea is proposed, which consists of exploiting the good

Dominique Placko; Isabelle Dufour

1993-01-01

371

Nondestructive evaluation of new coiled tubing and pipe  

SciTech Connect

The nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE) of coiled tubing and pipe during manufacture has not previously been described. This paper outlines the NDE methods employed during the production of such material, along with flaw removal criteria. This paper describes coiled tubing and pipe up to 3.5 inches diameter for both downhole and line pipe use.

Stanley, R.K. [Quality Tubing Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

372

Developing robotics for nondestructive testing in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to perform remote nondestructive testing in high radiation areas is becoming increasingly attractive as a means of minimizing radiation exposure to personnel. Robots could be used in nuclear power plants where NDT technicians are currently exposed to high levels of radiation. In developing robotics technology for this purpose, several key factors must be considered: (1) End-of-arm tooling for

Scheer

1984-01-01

373

Nondestructive test determines overload destruction characteristics of current limiter fuses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive test predicts the time required for current limiters to blow /open the circuit/ when subjected to a given overload. The test method is based on an empirical relationship between the voltage rise across a current limiter for a fixed time interval and the time to blow.

Swartz, G. A.

1968-01-01

374

Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

375

Backscattering grain noise modelling in ultrasonic non-destructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many materials present an internal grain microstructure. When these materials are subjected to ultrasonic non-destructive testing, the grains behave like scattering centres producing unwanted backscattered noise that can make the detection of true defects difficult. This paper is devoted to the modelling of the probability density and the spacetime correlation functions of the grain noise complex envelope. Assuming statistical independence

Luis Vergara-Dominguez; J. Manuel Paez-Borrallo

1991-01-01

376

Training manuals for nondestructive testing using magnetic particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training manuals containing the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using magnetic particle as detection media are used by metal parts inspectors and quality assurance specialists. Magnetic particle testing involves magnetization of the test specimen, application of the magnetic particle and interpretation of the patterns formed.

1968-01-01

377

Pulsed eddy-current nondestructive testing of ferromagnetic tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sinusoidal eddy-current (EC) nondestructive testing (NDT) of thick ferromagnetic tubes, such as oil-well casings, average wall thickness is measured with an exciter coil and a detector coil displaced by more than two tube diameters [remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique]. Since RFEC cannot differentiate outer from inner defects, the average tube inner diameter is determined at higher frequency with

Darko Vasic; Vedran Bilas; Davorin Ambrus

2004-01-01

378

Disposable PVDF ultrasonic transducers for nondestructive testing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable ultrasonic contact transducers have been constructed with inexpensive PVDF films for nondestructive testing (NDT) applications. This paper reports the temperature-dependent ultrasonic performance of commercial polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films and PVDF sensors. PVDF film was evaluated for its material properties of interest for ultrasonic transducer performance including the relative dielectric constant εr, dielectric loss tangent tan ?e , electromechanical coupling

Lewis F. Brown; J. L. Mason

1996-01-01

379

Fuzzy logic in nondestructive testing of aerospace structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nondestructive testing, to locate the faults, we send an ultrasonic signal and measure the resulting vibration at different points. To describe and combine the uncertainty corresponding to different measurements and fuzzy estimates, we used fuzzy logic. As a result, we get reasonably simple computational models which lead to as good fault detection as the known more complicated models

Murali Krishna; Vladik Kreinovich; Roberto Osegueda

1999-01-01

380

Blind deconvolution of ultrasonic signals in nondestructive testing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced nondestructive testing techniques use a laser to generate ultrasonic waves at the surface of a test material. An air-coupled transducer receives the ultrasound that is the convolution of the signal leaving the test material and the distortion function. Blind deconvolution methods are applied to estimate the signal leaving the material

A. K. Nandi; D. Mampel; B. Roscher

1997-01-01

381

Nondestructive testing method of concrete using impact acoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nondestructive testing method for concrete using impact acoustics is investigated. Impact acoustics, which has a strong relation with the vibration of a concrete surface, can offer important information about the physical properties of concrete structures such as shapes, material properties and defects. In this paper, the relation between impact acoustics and vibration at the same surface of the

Y. Ito; T. Uomoto

1997-01-01

382

Genetic algorithms for nondestructive testing in crack identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to identify the nature of a crack on the surface of a region using nondestructive testing (NDT) and inverse problem methodology is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) based approach, which involves a global search to avoid local minima, is presented and applied to solve the inverse problem of identifying the position, shape and the orientation of a surface

A. A. Arkadan; T. Sareen; S. Subramaniam

1994-01-01

383

Time reversal techniques in ultrasonic nondestructive testing of scattering media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time reversal techniques are adaptive methods that can be used in nondestructive evaluation to improve flaw detection through inhomogeneous and scattering media. Two techniques are presented: the iterative time reversal process and the DORT (French acronym for decomposition of the time reversal operator) method. In pulse echo mode, iterative time reversal mirrors allow one to accurately control wave propagation and

Claire Prada; Estelle Kerbrat; Didier Cassereau; Mathias Fink

2002-01-01

384

A measurement system based on magnetic sensors for nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a measurement system based on a low-cost eddy current probe for nondestructive testing (NDT) on conducting materials aimed at reconstructing the shape and position of thin cracks. The magnetic probe is characterized, highlighting good repeatability, linearity, and overall accuracy. A number of different measurement approaches are investigated, in order to choose the most appropriate for NDT

Andrea Bernieri; Giovanni Betta; Guglielmo Rubinacci; Fabio Villone

2000-01-01

385

Evaluation of methods for nondestructive testing of brazed joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of nondestructive methods of testing brazed joints reveals that ultrasonic testing is effective in the detection of nonbonds in diffusion bonded samples. Radiography provides excellent resolutions of void or inclusion defects, and the neutron radiographic technique shows particular advantage for brazing materials containing cadmium.

Kanno, A.

1968-01-01

386

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-06-30

387

Passive advection in nonlinear medium Michael Chertkov  

E-print Network

Passive advection in nonlinear medium Michael Chertkov Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Received 23 September 1998; accepted 15 April 1999 Forced advection of passive on velocity, in com- parison with those of advection and nonlinearity, is called passive. The passiveness does

Chertkov, Mikhael

388

Passive Infinite-Dimensional Descriptor Systems  

E-print Network

Passive Infinite-Dimensional Descriptor Systems Timo Reis Birgit Jacob 1 Introduction We consider models [12]. In this work, the concept of input-output-passivity (io-passivity) is considered for systems of type (1). Io-passivity means that U = Y and that the real part of the Lebesgue inner product of input

Reis, Timo

389

Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

Pierson, Duane L. (inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (inventor); Koeing, David W. (inventor)

1992-01-01

390

Passive liquid dispensing in capillary-based bio-adhesion Research teams Microfluidics Lab, GRASP (ULg)  

E-print Network

Passive liquid dispensing in capillary-based bio-adhesion Research teams Microfluidics Lab, GRASP-81 (2010) #12;Coalescence strategies in droplet microfluidic systems Research team Microfluidics Lab, GRASP, mechanics) Droplet microfluidics is a new technology that aims at miniaturizing assays in life science (Lab

Wolper, Pierre

391

Active and Passive Voice Recognizing the Active and the Passive Voice  

E-print Network

Active and Passive Voice Recognizing the Active and the Passive Voice "Voice" is the part to be in the "passive voice." Here are some examples: Active voice: He served us. Passive voice: We were served by him. Active voice: The dog chased the cat. Passive voice: The cat was chased by the dog. · It is generally

deYoung, Brad

392

PASSIVITY AND PASSIVITY BASED CONTROLLER DESIGN OF A CLASS OF SWITCHED CONTROL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notions of passivity for a class of switched control systems (SCS) are developed flrst in this article. We then study the following problems: 1) When is an SCS passive? 2) Does passivity imply Lyapunov stability as in the classical passive systems? 3) How to use passivity as a tool to design controllers to stabilize an SCS? For Problem 1), we

Weitian Chen; Mehrdad Saif

393

New colorimetric cytotoxicity assay for anticancer-drug screening.  

PubMed

We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive method for measuring the cellular protein content of adherent and suspension cultures in 96-well microtiter plates. The method is suitable for ordinary laboratory purposes and for very large-scale applications, such as the National Cancer Institute's disease-oriented in vitro anticancer-drug discovery screen, which requires the use of several million culture wells per year. Cultures fixed with trichloroacetic acid were stained for 30 minutes with 0.4% (wt/vol) sulforhodamine B (SRB) dissolved in 1% acetic acid. Unbound dye was removed by four washes with 1% acetic acid, and protein-bound dye was extracted with 10 mM unbuffered Tris base [tris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane] for determination of optical density in a computer-interfaced, 96-well microtiter plate reader. The SRB assay results were linear with the number of cells and with values for cellular protein measured by both the Lowry and Bradford assays at densities ranging from sparse subconfluence to multilayered supraconfluence. The signal-to-noise ratio at 564 nm was approximately 1.5 with 1,000 cells per well. The sensitivity of the SRB assay compared favorably with sensitivities of several fluorescence assays and was superior to those of both the Lowry and Bradford assays and to those of 20 other visible dyes. The SRB assay provides a colorimetric end point that is nondestructive, indefinitely stable, and visible to the naked eye. It provides a sensitive measure of drug-induced cytotoxicity, is useful in quantitating clonogenicity, and is well suited to high-volume, automated drug screening. SRB fluoresces strongly with laser excitation at 488 nm and can be measured quantitatively at the single-cell level by static fluorescence cytometry. PMID:2359136

Skehan, P; Storeng, R; Scudiero, D; Monks, A; McMahon, J; Vistica, D; Warren, J T; Bokesch, H; Kenney, S; Boyd, M R

1990-07-01

394

Passive Wake Vortex Control  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

Ortega, J M

2001-10-18

395

Microgravity Passive Phase Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface area of the separating screen. Additionally, there are no moving parts, and there are no failure modes that involve fluid loss. A patent application has been filed.

Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

396

Performance assessment of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry for spent nuclear fuel assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is one of several nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques being integrated into systems to measure spent fuel as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Spent Fuel Project. The NGSI Spent Fuel Project is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration to measure plutonium in, and detect diversion of fuel pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies. SINRD shows promising capability in determining the 239Pu and 235U content in spent fuel. SINRD is a relatively low-cost and lightweight instrument, and it is easy to implement in the field. The technique makes use of the passive neutron source existing in a spent fuel assembly, and it uses ratios between the count rates collected in fission chambers that are covered with different absorbing materials. These ratios are correlated to key attributes of the spent fuel assembly, such as the total mass of 239Pu and 235U. Using count rate ratios instead of absolute count rates makes SINRD less vulnerable to systematic uncertainties. Building upon the previous research, this work focuses on the underlying physics of the SINRD technique: quantifying the individual impacts on the count rate ratios of a few important nuclides using the perturbation method; examining new correlations between count rate ratio and mass quantities based on the results of the perturbation study; quantifying the impacts on the energy windows of the filtering materials that cover the fission chambers by tallying the neutron spectra before and after the neutrons go through the filters; and identifying the most important nuclides that cause cooling-time variations in the count rate ratios. The results of these studies show that 235U content has a major impact on the SINRD signal in addition to the 239Pu content. Plutonium-241 and 241Am are the two main nuclides responsible for the variation in the count rate ratio with cooling time. In short, this work provides insights into some of the main factors that affect the performance of SINRD, and it should help improve the hardware design and the algorithm used to interpret the signal for the SINRD technique. In addition, the modeling and simulation techniques used in this work can be easily adopted for analysis of other NDA systems, especially when complex systems like spent nuclear fuel are involved. These studies were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J.; LaFleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

2013-11-01

397

Multiplexed Elispot assay.  

PubMed

Micron scale latex beads are well established as highly biocompatible reagents. Imbibing two fluorescent dyes into the interior of the beads enables the creation of a family of combinatorially colored labels. Previous use of such beads, in flow cytometry for example, has focused on beads of approximately 5 microm diameter. We show here that 280 nm combinatorially labeled particles can be used to create ELISA-style assays in 200 microm scale virtual wells, using digital microscopy as the readout. The utility of this technique is illustrated by profiling the secreted cytokine footprints of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a multiparametric version of the popular Elispot assay. Doing so reveals noncanonical classes of T lymphocytes. We further show that the secreting cell type can be concurrently identified by surface staining with a cell type specific antibody conjugated to the same multiplexed beads. PMID:19084532

Harriman, William D; Collarini, Ellen J; Cromer, Remy G; Dutta, April; Strandh, Magnus; Zhang, Fen; Kauvar, Lawrence M

2009-02-28

398

Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

1993-01-01

399

Non-destructive investigations at the Dionisiac Frieze in the Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Villa of Mysteries with its Dionisiac Frieze is one of the well-known buildings of ancient Pompeii. It has been excavated in the early 20th century. Since then many initiatives have been taken for its preservation. Currently, the Frieze is investigated in detail and tests have been made to clean the wall paintings. Non-destructive investigations as infrared thermography (IR), Ground penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic measurements have been performed in order to test if these methods are well suited to reveal the walls' and paintings' structure and to identify the detachments or cracks. IR, GPR and ultrasonic measurements have different penetration capabilities and resolution in depths. So, using these three methods simultaneously can improve the knowledge of the investigated structures at several depths from millimetres and centimetres to metres. It has been tested if detachments of the paintings, cracks, or alterations of the paintings can be detected by passive and active IR measurements. 6 passive and 3 active measurements have been conducted on the Dionisiac Frieze. Lateral temperature differences present at the Frieze are mapped by passive measurements. Here, we show that temperature differences up to about 0.3°C are present and detectable. These small changes in temperature may be related to detachments, cracks, or wet areas. By active IR measurements the paintings are artificially heated by about 1°C and the cooling to normal temperature is observed and analyzed. Lateral differences in the heating and cooling behavior are related to variability in the heat absorption properties and in thermal conductivity. It is shown that detachments as well as restorative treatments are associated with changes in the thermal behavior. In order to image the construction and the condition of the investigated walls, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was measured with a 2 GHz antenna. Each profile was 1.2 m long, the spacing cross-line was 3 cm and in-line 1 mm. The vertical sections contain reflection horizons of the plaster layer, the second wall layer and the back wall. Additional diffractions of objects with high differences in electrical properties i.e. bricks, cavities, cracks enables to estimate the travelling velocity of electromagnetic waves and the deep penetration. In addition, calculated time slices show areas with concentrated high and low reflection energy of different depth layers of the wall inside structure, which can related to changes in the composition and the water saturation. Ultrasonic experiments with frequencies between about 5 kHz and 500 kHz may be applied to non-destructive testing of structures made of natural stone for example facades, engineering structures, Usually, traveltimes of first-arriving P-waves are measured in ultrasonic transmission experiments. The resolution for changes of uppermost structures in transmission configuration is however limited. Therefore, we firstly perform surface measurements and secondly the full waveform is investigated. That means source and receiver are coupled to nearly plane parts of the object's surface and the receiver is moved along profiles with lengths between about 10 cm to 30 cm. These measurements are simple to perform because the object under consideration has to be accessible only from one side and the source and receiver configuration is easier to control. In this configuration, P-waves show generally very low signal-to-noise ratios but surface waves propagating along the free surface - here Rayleigh waves - show large amplitudes and are well suited for the investigation of superficial layering. Furthermore, surface wave dispersion is sensitive also to gradual changes of the structure with depth as usually present in real structures. This is another advantage of ultrasonic surface wave studies as body waves are not reflected by gradual internal changes in the structure and methods based on reflected body waves may not be applied in these cases. Here, we show examples for ultrasonic surface measurements that are generally of high quality. Forward mo

Cristiano, Luigia; Erkul, Ercan; Jepsen, Kalle; Meier, Thomas; Vanacore, Stefano; Stefani, Grete

2014-05-01

400

Passive wireless ultrasonic transducer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling both offer simple solutions to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such system in the context of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Firstly, the physical principles and construction of an inductively coupled transducer system (ICTS) and a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) are introduced. Then the development of a transmission line model with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate for both systems is described. The models are validated experimentally. Several applications of CCTS are presented, such CCTS for the underwater and through-composite testing.

Zhong, C. H.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

2014-02-01

401

HIGH ENERGY DELAYED GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY FOR PLUTONIUM ASSAY OF SPENT REACTOR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear safeguards requires accountancy of plutonium present in spent reactor fuels. Current non-destructive methods do not directly measure plutonium content but instead rely on indirect measurements that require operator declarations of the fuel history. Delayed gamma spectroscopy is one method being investigated which can overcome these limitations. Delayed gamma rays from fission depend on the isotopic fission yield of the fissile isotope, and thus can be used to fingerprint the isotopes undergoing fission. However, difficulties arise because of the intense background due to long lived fission radionuclides already present in the fuel. We report on progress on simulated measurements of the delayed gamma spectrum in the presence of this background, using neutrons from a D-T source thermalized in an interrogation chamber slipped over a fuel assembly. By focusing on delayed gammas in the 3 to 4 MeV range, the passive spectrum becomes negligible, while allowing the preferential attenuation of the passive background to acceptable levels.

Campbell, Luke W.; Smith, L. E.; Misner, Alex C.

2011-07-18

402

PathogenMip Assay: A Multiplex Pathogen Detection Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) assay has been previously applied to a large-scale human SNP detection. Here we describe the PathogenMip Assay, a complete protocol for probe production and applied approaches to pathogen detection. We have demonstrated the utility of this assay with an initial set of 24 probes targeting the most clinically relevant HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer

Michael S. Akhras; Sreedevi Thiyagarajan; Andrea C. Villablanca; Ronald W. Davis; Pål Nyrén; Nader Pourmand; Sheila Bowyer

2007-01-01

403

Passive Evolution of Galaxy Clustering  

E-print Network

We present a numerical study of the evolution of galaxy clustering when galaxies flow passively from high redshift, respecting the continuity equation throughout. While passive flow is a special case of galaxy evolution, it allows a well-defined study of galaxy ancestry and serves as an interesting limit to be compared to non-passive cases. We use dissipationless N-body simulations, assign galaxies to massive halos at z=1 and z=2 using various HOD models, and trace these galaxy particles to lower redshift while conserving their number. We find that passive flow results in an asymptotic convergence at low redshift in the HOD and in galaxy clustering on scales above ~3Mpc/h for a wide range of initial HODs. As galaxies become less biased with respect to mass asymptotically with time, the HOD parameters evolve such that M1/Mm decreases while alpha converges toward unity, where Mm is the characteristic halo mass to host a central galaxy, M1 is the halo mass to host one satellite galaxy, and alpha is the power-law index in the halo-mass dependence of the average number of satellites per halo. The satellite populations converge toward the Poisson distribution at low redshift. The convergence is robust for different number densities and is enhanced when galaxies evolve from higher redshift. We compare our results with the observed LRG sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey that has the same number density. We claim that if LRGs have experienced a strict passive flow, their should be close to a power law with an index of unity in halo mass. Discrepancies could be due to dry galaxy merging or new members arising between the initial and the final redshifts. The spatial distribution of passively flowing galaxies within halos appears on average more concentrated than the halo mass profile at low redshift. (abridged)

Hee-Jong Seo; Daniel J. Eisenstein; Idit Zehavi

2007-12-11

404

Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

Donath, Edwin

2009-04-01

405

All-Passive Nonreciprocal Metasurface  

E-print Network

We introduce a systematic approach to design all-passive subwavelength high performance metasurfaces that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover we build upon those findings and propose a new paradigm for a quasi-2D metasurface that mimic the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices.

Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Engheta, Nader

2014-01-01

406

Passivation of high temperature superconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

Vasquez, Richard P. (inventor)

1991-01-01

407

Dynamics of Passive-Scalar Turbulence  

E-print Network

We present the first study of the dynamic scaling or multiscaling of passive-scalar and passive-vector turbulence. For the Kraichnan version of passive-scalar and passive-vector turbulence we show analytically, in both Eulerian and quasi-Lagrangian frameworks, that simple dynamic scaling is obtained but with different dynamic exponents. By developing the multifractal model we show that dynamic multiscaling occurs in passive-scalar turbulence only if the advecting velocity field is itself multifractal. We substantiate our results by detailed numerical simulations in shell models of passive-scalar advection.

Dhrubaditya Mitra; Rahul Pandit

2005-10-03

408

Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

2014-04-01

409

Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

2011-06-01

410

Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing  

PubMed Central

The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

2014-01-01

411

An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

Taylor, T.T.

1993-05-01

412

Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.

Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Haggag, F.M. [Advanced Technology Corp. (United States)

1997-12-31

413

Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Schaschl, Leslie

2011-01-01

414

Nondestructive Characterization Techniques Used for Ceramic Matrix Composite Life Determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results indicate that the specific damping capacity and resonant frequency measurements taken periodically during a component's lifetime is able to quantify the mechanical fatigue of CMCS. This gives hope for the potential of determining the actual and residual life of CMC materials using a combination of nondestructive techniques. If successful, then this new paradigm for life prediction of CMCs could revolutionize the approach for designing and servicing CMC components, thereby significantly reducing costs for design, development, health monitoring, and maintenance of CMC components and systems. The Nondestructive Characterization (NDC) life prediction approach would complement life prediction using micromechanics and continuum finite element models. This paper reports on the initial concept of NDC life prediction, a review of the C/SiC blisk damping data, and how changes in the specific damping capacity & ultrasonic elastic modulus data have established the concept as a possibility.

Effinger, Michael; Koenig, John; Ellingson, Bill; Spohnholtz, Todd

2000-01-01

415

Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications  

PubMed Central

Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

416

Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels  

SciTech Connect

Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

2011-06-23

417

Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing  

PubMed Central

Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

2011-01-01

418

On passive adaptive mechanism in passive dynamic walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we point out that these results imply that the passive dynamic walker includes a kind of adaptive mechanism implicitly in its dynamics. Furthermore, we show some simulation results which show the existence of specific routes in adaptive and learning phenomenon. We claim that these results support the validity of a concept of canalization known in the field

Koihci Osuka

2007-01-01

419

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Composite Reinforcement Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of light-weight, high-strength composite materials in motors, generators, and energy storage devices has become common as a means to maximize energy density. To ensure reliability, non-destructive and destructive evaluation techniques have been employed to measure the mechanical properties of fabricated components. In carbon fiber-reinforced, polymer matrix composites, mechanical strength is primarily derived from the fiber volume fraction. Due

D. J. Dorsey; R. Hebner; W. S. Charlton

2004-01-01

420

Magnetic nondestructive technology for detection of tempered martensite embrittlement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nondestructive eddy current technique is used to evaluate tempered martensite embrittlement in 4340 AISI steels after quench and tempering in the range 240-550 °C. A relation between the responses of the magnetic induction (normalized impedance of the coil) and destructive Charpy impact test results has been established. The study shows that the eddy current method could be used to separate brittle parts due to the microstructure changes.

Kashefi, Mehrdad; Rafsanjani, Ali; Kahrobaee, Saeed; Alaee, Moeen

2012-11-01

421

Non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of quarantined Mars Returned Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In preparation for the upcoming International Mars Sample Return mission (MSR), returning samples containing potential biohazards, we have implemented a hyperspec-tral method of in-situ analysis of grains performed in BSL4 quarantine conditions, by combining several non-destructive imaging diagnostics. This allows sample transportation on optimized experimental setups, while monitoring the sample quarantine conditions. Our hyperspectral methodology was tested during analyses

Alexandre Simionovici; Michel Viso; Pierre Beck; Laurence Lemelle; Andrew Westphal; Laszlo Vincze; Tom Schoonjans; Francois Fihman; Pascale Chazalnoel; Tristan Ferroir; Vicente Armando Solé; R. Tucoulou

2010-01-01

422

Nondestructive readout mode static induction transistor (SIT) photo sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nondestructive readout (NDRO) performance of two static induction transistor (SIT) photosensors, a 40×40 pixel area array and a 140-b linear array, is examined. NDRO operation in the SIT sensors is demonstrated by imaging with the area array and by examining the output waveform of the linear array. The charge lost per NDRO cycle in the linear array was 0.014%

Jun-ichi Nakamura; Yu-ichi Gomi; M. Uni; H. Hayashi

1993-01-01

423

Nondestructive diagnostics for relativistic picosecond bunched electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duration and form of relativistic picosecond electron bunches in the Duke University Mark III free-electron laser have been nondestructively measured by monitoring the submillimeter radiation produced by the bunches as they pass by or through a rectangular waveguide. Unlike other methods, our technique produces negligible electron bunch perturbation and allows real-time beam diagnostics to be performed simultaneously with free-electron

J. C. Swartz; B. D. Guenther; F. C. de Lucia; Wei Guo; C. R. Jones; H. Kosai; J. M. Dutta

1995-01-01

424

Fault determinations in electroexplosive devices by nondestructive techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several nondestructive test techniques were developed for electroexplosive devices. The bridgewire responds, when pulsed with a safe level current, by generating a characteristic heating curve. The response is indicative of the electrothermal behavior of the bridgewire-explosive interface. Bridgewires which deviate from the characteristic heating curve were dissected and examined to determine the cause of the abnormality. Deliberate faults were fabricated into squibs. The relationship of the specific abnormality and the fault associated with it is demonstrated.

Menichelli, V. J.; Rosenthal, L. A.

1972-01-01

425

Brighter Screens for Nondestructive Digital X-ray Radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine resolution, bright X-ray screens are needed for digital radiography and material characterization at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Current technology is simply not adequate for transferring high-energy X-ray images to visible light for demanding digital applications. Low energy radiography and especially emerging tomographic technologies are severely hampered for Y-12 nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications by dim screens with poor

Miller Jr. A. C; Z. W. Bell; D. A. Carpenter

2003-01-01

426

The Effects of Stress Mitigation on Nondestructive Examination  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic volumetric and eddy current and visual profile surface inspections of the completed weld securing the outer lid of the Yucca Mountain waste package are required after stress mitigation. However, the technique implemented may affect the ability of the different evaluation techniques to properly characterize the completed weld. An evaluation was performed to determine the extent the nondestructive evaluation techniques are affected by two candidate mitigation processes: controlled plasticity burnishing and laser peening. This report describes the work performed and summarizes the results.

Dennis C. Kunerth; Eric D. Larsen; Timothy R. Mcjunkin; Arthur D. Watkins

2004-08-01

427

Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Response  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at the development of an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to predict the remaining useful life of a ceramic candle filter during a power plant's annual maintenance shutdown. The objective of the present on-going study is to establish the vibration signatures of ceramic candle filters at varying degradation levels due to different operating hours, and to study the various factors involving the establishment of the signatures.

Chen, Roger H. L.; Kiriakidis, Alejandro C.; Peng, Steve W.

1997-07-01

428

Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

1987-02-01

429

Non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using ultrasound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite-laminates is summarized. Indices derived from the measurement of fundamental acoustic parameters are used in order to quantitatively estimate the local material properties of the laminate. The following sections describe ongoing studies of phase insensitive attenuation measurements, and discuss several phenomena which influences the previously reported technique of polar backscatter. A simple and effective programmable gate circuit designed for use in estimating attenuation from backscatter is described.

Miller, J. G.

1984-01-01

430

Non-destructive ultrasonic measurements of case depth. [in steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two ultrasonic methods for nondestructive measurements of the depth of a case-hardened layer in steel are described. One method involves analysis of ultrasonic waves diffused back from the bulk of the workpiece. The other method involves finding the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves launched on the surface of the work. Procedures followed in the two methods for measuring case depth are described.

Flambard, C.; Lambert, A.

1978-01-01

431

Numerical simulation of pulsed eddy-current nondestructive testing phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general-purpose hybrid finite-element and finite-difference computational model developed for the prediction of pulsed eddy-current distribution in metals for nondestructive testing purposes is discussed. The numerical model uses an axisymmetric formulation to study coil configurations suspended over a metallic specimen. As a driving function, a pulsed Maxwell-distributed current density is applied. Resulting eddy-current distributions are discussed as a function of

X.-W. Dai; R. Ludwig; R. Palanisamy

1990-01-01

432

NASA CR-2120 - Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a familiarization report of nondestructive testing (ndt) prepared by staff of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories on a NASA contract. There is a short introduction, a chapter on applicability of ndt which is illustrated with examples of typical defects and includes tables comparing the characteristics, interrelationships, and costs of the different techniques. There are chapters dealing with penetrants, magnetic particle radiography, ultrasonics, and eddy currents. New techniques are described.

Meister, R. P.

1974-01-01

433

Visualizing Industrial CT Volume Data for Nondestructive Testing Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a set of techniques developed for the visualization of high-resolution volume data generated from industrial computed tomography for nondestructive testing (NDT)applications. Because the data are typically noisy and contain fine features, direct volume rendering methods do not always give us satisfactory results. We have coupled region growing techniques and a 2D histogram interface to facilitate volumetric feature

Runzhen Huang; Kwan-Liu Ma; Patrick S. McCormick; William Ward

2003-01-01

434

Physical basis for nondestructive tests of MOS radiation hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that the 1\\/f noise and channel resistance of unirradiated nMOS transistors from a single lot with various gate-oxide splits closely correlate with the oxide-trap and interface trap charge, respectively, following irradiation. The 1\\/f noise is explained by scattering from interface-trap precursor defects. It appears that both noise and channel mobility measurements may be useful in defining nondestructive

John H. Scofield; D. M. Fleetwood

1991-01-01

435

TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

436

Nondestructive Evaluation of Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of a bimodal technique integrating time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM) for nondestructive detection of changes in the biochemical, structural, and mechanical properties of self-assembled engineered articular cartilage constructs. The cartilage constructs were treated with three chemical agents (collagenase, chondroitinase-ABC, and ribose) to induce changes in biochemical content (collagen and glycosaminoglycan [GAG]) of matured constructs (4 weeks); and to subsequently alter the mechanical properties of the construct. The biochemical changes were evaluated using TRFS. The microstructure and the thickness of the engineered cartilage samples were characterized by UBM. The optical and ultrasound results were validated against those acquired via conventional techniques including collagen and GAG quantification and measurement of construct stiffness. Current results demonstrated that a set of optical parameters (e.g., average fluorescence lifetime and decay constants) showed significant correlation (p<0.05) with biochemical and mechanical data. The high-resolution ultrasound images provided complementary cross-section information of the cartilage samples morphology. Therefore, the technique was capable of nondestructively evaluating the composition of extracellular matrix and the microstructure of engineered tissue, demonstrating great potential as an alternative to traditional destructive assays. PMID:22010819

Responte, Donald; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

2012-01-01

437

Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay  

SciTech Connect

High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is investigated as a non-destructive assay technique for the determination of plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel. This approach exploits the unique isotope-specific signatures contained in the delayed gamma-ray emission spectra detected following active interrogation with an external neutron source. A high fidelity modeling approach is described that couples radiation transport, analytical decay/depletion, and a newly developed gamma-ray emission source reconstruction code. Initially simulated and analyzed was a “one-pass” delayed gamma-ray assay that focused on the long-lived signatures. Also presented are the results of an independent study that investigated “pulsed mode” measurements, to capture the more isotope-specific, short-lived signatures. Initial modeling results outlined in this paper suggest that delayed gamma-ray assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies can be accomplished with a neutron generator of sufficient strength and currently available gamma-ray detectors.

Campbell, Luke W.; Hunt, Alan W.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.

2012-04-01

438

SWEPP assay system version 2.0 software requirements specification  

SciTech Connect

The INEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other DOE sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to WIPP, SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of Pu and other transuranic isotopes present. The code NEUT2 was originally used to perform data acquisition and reduction; the SWEPP Assay System (SAS) code replaced NEUT2 in early 1994. This document specifies the requirements for the SAS software as installed at INEL and was written to comply with RWMC (INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex) quality requirements.

Matthews, S.D.; East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.; Ferguson, J.J.

1996-06-01

439

SEPIC converter passive components design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method for the design of passive components for battery powered SEPIC dc-dc switching regulators. The method is based on use of Acceptability Boundary Regions (ABR), which determine an area, in the space of parameters, corresponding to commercial components which ensure acceptable voltage ripples, fulfillment of maximum allowed power dissipation, and non pulsating source current absorption.

A. DeNardo; N. Femia; F. Forrisi; M. Granato

2008-01-01

440

Myths in passive solar design  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years passive solar design principles have been perpetuated without being reexamined or questioned regarding their relevance in the context of new materials and constructions. Rarely does an architect get quantitative feedback on system or concept performance after the building is built. The result has been the perpetuation of beliefs among conference papers, text books and popular articles, all too

S. Robert Hastings

1995-01-01

441

Passive smoking damages children's health.  

PubMed

Passive smoking in children accounts for an estimated 300,000 general practice consultations in the UK each year, the majority of which are for middle ear disease. There are also more than 100,000 asthma consultations in children attributable to passive smoking. Active maternal smoking causes up to about 5,000 miscarriages, 300 perinatal deaths, and 2,200 premature singleton births in the UK each year. Living in a household in which one or more people smoke more than doubles the risk of sudden infant death. Smoking by the mother increases the riskof lower respiratory infections by about 60%, and smoking by any household member by more than 50%. Passive smoking increases the risk of wheezing at all ages. The effect is strongest for smoking by the mother, with increases in risk of 65% to 77% according to the age of the child. It also increases the risk of asthma, with the risk increased by household smoking by about 50%, in school-aged children, and for middle ear disease, the risk is increased by about 35%. The simplest way to prevent passive exposure of children to tobacco smoke is to encourage and support their parents to quit smoking. PMID:20564879

Britton, John

2010-05-01

442

Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

Miller, Stephen W.

2007-01-01

443

Passive solar, country-style  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a 2170 ft{sup 2} (202 m{sup 2}) custom-designed passive solar home in rural Burlington, North Carolina. The architectural style elegantly combines pleasing aesthetics with practical attention to energy conservation. Included in the article are details of the construction, energy efficient materials and design, energy performance, cost performance.

Miller, B.

1996-07-01

444

Monitored passive-solar buildings  

SciTech Connect

Selected performance results from six monitored passive and hybrid solar heated buildings are presented. These employ: a two-story Trombe wall; a thermosyphoning solar air heater with rock bin storage; a greenhouse; a composite concrete-and-water Trombe wall; two-story sunspace; and, for a mobile/modular home, direct gain and roof pond. (LEW)

Jones, R.W. (comp.)

1982-06-01

445

The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

Whitson, Signe

2013-01-01

446

Assays for ?-synuclein aggregation.  

PubMed

This review describes different ways to achieve and monitor reproducible aggregation of ?-synuclein, a key protein in the development of Parkinson's disease. For most globular proteins, aggregation is promoted by partially denaturing conditions which compromise the native state without destabilizing the intermolecular contacts required for accumulation of regular amyloid structure. As a natively disordered protein, ?-synuclein can fibrillate under physiological conditions and this process is actually stimulated by conditions that promote structure formation, such as low pH, ions, polyamines, anionic surfactants, fluorinated alcohols and agitation. Reproducibility is a critical issue since ?-synuclein shows erratic fibrillation behavior on its own. Agitation in combination with glass beads significantly reduces the variability of aggregation time curves, but the most reproducible aggregation is achieved by sub-micellar concentrations of SDS, which promote the rapid formation of small clusters of ?-synuclein around shared micelles. Although the fibrils produced this way have a different appearance and secondary structure, they are rich in cross-? structure and are amenable to high-throughput screening assays. Although such assays at best provide a very simplistic recapitulation of physiological conditions, they allow the investigator to focus on well-defined molecular events and may provide the opportunity to identify, e.g. small molecule inhibitors of aggregation that affect these steps. Subsequent experiments in more complex cellular and whole-organism environments can then validate whether there is any relation between these molecular interactions and the broader biological context. PMID:21163351

Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel E

2011-03-01

447

HCI gesture tracking using wearable passive tags  

E-print Network

In this thesis. a wearable system is developed to track hand gestures with passive RFID sensor tags. This system was composed of an ultra-high frequency reader and small, passive, finger-worn tags powered by scavenged RFID ...

Bainbridge, Rachel M

2010-01-01

448

235U enrichment or UF 6 mass determination on UF 6 cylinders with non-destructive analysis methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the 235U enrichment and the mass of UF 6 in 30B and 48Y transit cylinders are important safeguards verification tasks of IAEA. In the framework of a project aiming to establish an unattended measurement station at isotope enrichment facilities (Lebrun, 2007) [1], a study was carried out to describe the state-of-the-art of non-destructive assay methods applicable to UF 6 cylinders. The objective of the present work is to provide a feasibility assessment study of all known NDA techniques applicable to the quantitative verification of all uranium categories involved in an enrichment processing plant. Based on this investigation, the most appropriate techniques were then investigated for suitability of use in an unattended measurement station.

Berndt, R.; Franke, E.; Mortreau, P.

2010-01-01

449

How to Make Theoretically Passive Reduced-Order Models Passive in Practice  

E-print Network

1 How to Make Theoretically Passive Reduced-Order Models Passive in Practice Zhaojun Bai Peter- stable and non-passive models even when such outcomes are theoretically proven to be impossibleMPVL that, even in practice, is guaranteedto produce stable and passive models for all the circuits

Bai, Zhaojun

450

Passive dynamic walking with elastic energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents passive dynamic walking with elastic energy. We propose a new type of passive dynamic walking robot. by adding elastic materials such as spring or rubber between a supporting leg and a swing leg of the robot By utilizing restoring force of spring or rubber, we can make the passive dynamic walking robot easily walk since the crotch

Masahiro Mizuno; Hiroshi Ohtake; Kazuo Tanaka; Hua O. Wang

2008-01-01

451

PASSIVE FEEDFORWARD APPROACH TO BILATERAL TELEOPERATED MANIPULATORS  

E-print Network

PASSIVE FEEDFORWARD APPROACH TO BILATERAL TELEOPERATED MANIPULATORS #3; Perry Y. Li + and Dongjun bilateral teleoperated manipulator system which ensures that the closed loop system is energetically passive, and that the coupling between the system and any strictly passive environment is stable. The control objective

Li, Perry Y.

452

Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

2010-01-01

453

Imaging passive seismic data Brad Artman  

E-print Network

Imaging passive seismic data Brad Artman brad@sep.stanford.edu Submitted to Geophysics March 2005, CA 94305-2215 ABSTRACT Passive seismic imaging is the process of synthesizing the wealth to produce a subsurface image. For passively acquired data, migration is even more important than for active

454

Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region  

E-print Network

Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region V. V. Lebedev Landau Institute for Theoretical investigate the passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) evolution in the random (turbulent stages of the passive scalar homogenization (decay). There are some peculiarities of the decay related

Fominov, Yakov

455

Passivity Motivated Controller Design for Flexible Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

When actuators and sensors on a controlled mechanical structure form naturally passive pairs, which usually requires physical collocation, very robust stabilizing controllers can be constructed. If the number of such naturally passive pairs is small, the closed loop performance may not be satisfactory. This motivates the incorporation of additional sensors in the control design. However, the passivity property no longer

Declan Hughes; John T. Wen

1993-01-01

456

Mechanical Computation for Passive Force Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force control implemented by a passive mechanical device (perhaps a wrist) has inherent advantages over active implementations. A passive mechanical device can regain some of the versatility of its active counterpart if it incorporates mechanical elements with programmable parameters, e.g. damping coefficients or spring stiffnesses. We wish to characterize the range of accommodation matrices that a passive device may be

Ambarish Goswami; Michael A. Peshkin

1993-01-01

457

User evaluation study of passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

Towle, S.

1980-03-01

458

Cholesterol Efflux Assay  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol content of cells must be maintained within the very tight limits, too much or too little cholesterol in a cell results in disruption of cellular membranes, apoptosis and necrosis 1. Cells can source cholesterol from intracellular synthesis and from plasma lipoproteins, both sources are sufficient to fully satisfy cells' requirements for cholesterol. The processes of cholesterol synthesis and uptake are tightly regulated and deficiencies of cholesterol are rare 2. Excessive cholesterol is more common problem 3. With the exception of hepatocytes and to some degree adrenocortical cells, cells are unable to degrade cholesterol. Cells have two options to reduce their cholesterol content: to convert cholesterol into cholesteryl esters, an option with limited capacity as overloading cells with cholesteryl esters is also toxic, and cholesterol efflux, an option with potentially unlimited capacity. Cholesterol efflux is a specific process that is regulated by a number of intracellular transporters, such as ATP binding cassette transporter proteins A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) and scavenger receptor type B1. The natural acceptor of cholesterol in plasma is high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I. The cholesterol efflux assay is designed to quantitate the rate of cholesterol efflux from cultured cells. It measures the capacity of cells to maintain cholesterol efflux and/or the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol released from cells. The assay consists of the following steps. Step 1: labelling cellular cholesterol by adding labelled cholesterol to serum-containing medium and incubating with cells for 24-48 h. This step may be combined with loading of cells with cholesterol. Step 2: incubation of cells in serum-free medium to equilibrate labelled cholesterol among all intracellular cholesterol pools. This stage may be combined with activation of cellular cholesterol transporters. Step 3: incubation of cells with extracellular acceptor and quantitation of movement of labelled cholesterol from cells to the acceptor. If cholesterol precursors were used to label newly synthesized cholesterol, a fourth step, purification of cholesterol, may be required. The assay delivers the following information: (i) how a particular treatment (a mutation, a knock-down, an overexpression or a treatment) affects the capacity of cell to efflux cholesterol and (ii) how the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol is affected by a disease or a treatment. This method is often used in context of cardiovascular research, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders, infectious and reproductive diseases. PMID:22414908

Low, Hann; Hoang, Anh; Sviridov, Dmitri

2012-01-01

459

Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis  

SciTech Connect

Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

1982-07-01

460

Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

1994-02-21

461

Adipose Tissue Angiogenesis Assay  

PubMed Central

Changes in adipose tissue mass must be accompanied by parallel changes in microcirculation. Investigating the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue angiogenesis could lead to better understanding of adipose tissue function and reveal new potential therapeutic strategies. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new capillaries from existing microvessels. This process can be recapitulated in vitro, by incubation of tissue in extracellular matrix components in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors. Here, we describe a method to study angiogenesis from adipose tissue fragments obtained from mouse and human tissue. This assay can be used to define effects of diverse factors added in vitro, as well as the role of endogenously produced factors on angiogenesis. We also describe approaches to quantify angiogenic potential for the purpose of enabling comparisons between subjects, thus providing information on the role of physiological conditions of the donor on adipose tissue angiogenic potential. PMID:24480342

Rojas-Rodriguez, Raziel; Gealekman, Olga; Kruse, Maxwell E.; Rosenthal, Brittany; Rao, Kishore; Min, SoYun; Bellve, Karl D.; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Corvera, Silvia

2015-01-01

462

Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

Ludewigt, Bernhard A

2010-12-30

463

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non-destructive technique originally developed for evaluating  

E-print Network

RUS Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non- destructive technique originally developed measurement results. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non-destructive material characterisation

464

Life extension of structural components via an improved nondestructive testing methodology  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to determine the flaw detection sensitivity of advanced nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques with respect to structural applications. The techniques analyzed exemplify the incorporation ...

Hohmann, Brian P. (Brian Patrick)

2010-01-01

465

Exploratory loading techniques. [in holographic nondestructive testing of flat metal plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interferometric holographic nondestructive testing of aluminum, copper, and steel flat plates is reported. Structural weaknesses under positive pressure, negative pressure, heating, and cooling are discussed.

Martin, A. M., III

1976-01-01

466

26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases...Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits...

2011-04-01

467

26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases...Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits...

2012-04-01

468

26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases...Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits...

2014-04-01

469

26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases...Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits...

2010-04-01

470

26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases...Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits...

2013-04-01

471

Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

2014-11-01

472

Interior design for passive solar homes  

SciTech Connect

The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

Breen, J. C.

1981-07-01