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Sample records for passive nondestructive assay

  1. Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.; Pitts, M.; Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P.; Grando, C.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

  2. Non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel using passive neutron Albedo reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L G; Schear, M A; Croft, S; Tobin, S J; Swinhoe, M T; Menlove, H O

    2010-01-01

    Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) is one of fourteen techniques that has been researched and evaluated to form part of a comprehensive and integrated detection system for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. PNAR implemented with {sup 3}He tubes for neutron detection (PNAR-{sup 3}He) is the measurement of time correlated neutrons from a spent fuel assembly with and without a Cadmium (Cd) layer surrounding the assembly. PNAR utilizes the self-interrogation of the fuel via reflection of neutrons born in the fuel assembly back in to the fuel assembly. The neutrons originate primarily from spontaneous fission events within the fuel itself (Curium-244) but are amplified by multiplication. The presence and removal of the Cd provides two measurement conditions with different neutron energy spectra and therefore different interrogating neutron characteristics. Cd has a high cross-section of absorption for slow neutrons and therefore greatly reduces the low energy (thermal) neutron fluence rate returning. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are known as the Cd ratios, which are related to fissile content. A potential safeguards application for which PNAR-{sup 3}He is particularly suited is 'fingerprinting'. Fingerprinting could function as an alternative to plutonium (Pu) mass determination; providing confidence that material was not diverted during transport between sites. PNAR-{sup 3}He has six primary NDA signatures: Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates measured with two energy spectra at both shipping and receiving sites. This is to uniquely identify the fuel assembly, and confirm no changes have taken place during transport. Changes may indicate all attempt to divert material for example. Here, the physics of the PNAR-{sup 3}He concept will be explained, alongside a discussion on the development of a prototypical PNAR-{sup 3}He instrument using simulation. The capabilities and performance of the conceptual instrument will be summarized, in the context of (a) quantifying Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies and (b) detecting pin diversion (through a discrepancy between declared and measured properties of the fuel assembly) when the instrument is deployed. These quantitative capabilities are complementary to the 'fingerprinting' capability which is part of ensuring continuity of knowledge and custody of spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Quantifying the passive gamma signal from spent nuclear fuel in support of determining the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel with nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, Michael L; Tobin, Steven J; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2009-01-01

    The objective of safeguarding nuclear material is to deter diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials by timely monitoring and detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel (SF), by means of nondestructive assay (NDA), in order to meet this goal. These motivations include the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguard nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from SF; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium in SF. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of 13 NDA techniques for characterizing Pu mass in spent fuel. This paper focuses on the development of a passive gamma measurement system in support the spent fuel assay system. Gamma ray detection for fresh nuclear fuel focuses on gamma ray emissions that directly coincide with the actinides of interest to the assay. For example, the 186-keV gamma ray is generally used for {sup 235}U assay and the 384-keV complex is generally used for assaying plutonium. In spent nuclear fuel, these signatures cannot be detected as the Compton continuum created from the fission products dominates the signal in this energy range. For SF, the measured gamma signatures from key fission products ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu) are used to ascertain burnup, cooling time, and fissile content information. In this paper the Monte Carlo modeling set-up for a passive gamma spent fuel assay system will be described. The set-up of the system includes a germanium detector and an ion chamber and will be used to gain passive gamma information that will be integrated into a system for determining Pu in SF. The passive gamma signal will be determined from a library of {approx} 100 assemblies that have been created to examine the capability of all 13 NDA techniques. Presented in this paper is a description of the passive gamma monitoring instrument, explanation of the work completed thus far involving the source set up methodology and the design optimization process, details of key fission product ratios of interest, limitations and key strengths of the measurement technique, and considerations for integrating this technique with other NDA techniques in order to develop a complete spent fuel assay strategy.

  4. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  5. Overview of the latest nondestructive assay technology

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H; Santi, Peter A; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques are an important tool for the safeguarding of nuclear materials. NDA techniques are used by inspectors from both domestic agencies and international agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as site level nuclear material management programs to verify that inventories of nuclear materials. This technology has been in development for over 40 years and significant improvements in detector capabilities, electronics processing and data analysis has lead to new detection capabilities and greatly improved quantification of nuclear materials. Many of the improvements over the last decade have resulted from improved computing power. This has lead to the ability to collect and analyze data in ways not possible only years ago. This poster will present some of the improvements of nondestructive assay technologies over the past several years and the implementation of these technologies in nuclear safeguards programs.

  6. Determining plutonium in spent fuel with nondestructive assay techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J; Charlton, William S; Fensin, Michael L; Menlove, Howard O; Hoover, A S; Quiter, B J; Rajasingam, A; Swinhoe, M T; Thompson, S J; Charlton, W S; Ehinger, M H; Sandoval, N P; Saavedra, S F; Strohmeyer, D

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in used (spent) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay including the following: shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories or fuel storage facilities. Twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is capable of determining the Pu mass in an assembly on its own. However, it is expected that the Pu mass can be quantified by combining a few of the techniques. Determining which techniques to combine and estimating the expected performance of such a system is the purpose of the research effort recently begun. The research presented here is a complimentarily experimental effort. This paper will focus on experimental results of one of the twelve non-destructive assay techniques - passive neutron albedo reactivity. The passive neutron albedo reactivity techniques work by changing the multiplication the pin experiences between two separate measurements. Since a single spent fuel pin has very little multiplication, this is a challenging measurement situation for the technique. Singles and Doubles neutron count rate were measured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for three different burnup pins to test the capability of the passive neutron albedo reactivity technique.

  7. Application of nondestructive assay techniques in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Butler, G.; Collins, M.

    1997-11-01

    As Kazakstan has transitioned from being part of the Soviet Union to a nonweapons state (Treaty of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons [NPT] signatory) under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, significant changes have been required. Some of these changes have occurred in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting at the four nuclear facility sites in the Republic of Kazakstan. Specifically, the Republic of Kazakstan has changed from relying primarily on a subset of physical protection methods to a graded safeguards approach using a balance of material control, material accounting, and physical protection. Once more intensive material control and accounting procedures and systems are in place, a necessary step is to supply the accounting systems with measured values of high quality. This need can be met with destructive and nondestructive methods. Material control systems can also use qualitative nondestructive assay information as input. This paper will discuss the nondestructive assay techniques and systems the US Department of Energy (DOE) is providing to Kazakstan under both DOE programs and the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act as part of the nuclear material control and accounting upgrades at four facilities in Kazakstan. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

    1984-06-01

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

  9. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J.; Jansson, Peter

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  10. Parametric effects on nondestructive-assay techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernatowicz, H.; Borgonovi, G.; Epperson, D.; Glancy, J.; Gozani, T.; Hagan, W.; Harlan, R.; Hope, E.; Horton, W.; McDaniel, T.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of parameters on nondestructive techniques used for the assay of nuclear material, firstly by an assessment of the current knowledge of parametric effects, and secondly by carrying out experiments on selected parameters. The techniques examined were passive gamma NDA, passive neutron NDA, active NDA, densitometry, and calorimetry. For each technique, operational, intrinsic, and external parameters were identified in a systematic way, and the need for experiments to provide additional information on the effect of selected parameters was also identified. In the area of passive gamma NDA, experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nonhomogeneity of nuclear material, and a theoretical approach for the description of the effect of nonhomogeneity was developed. The approach can be used as a corrective technique. In the area of passive neutron NDA, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of matrix having different moderating and absorbing characteristics. In the area of active NDA, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of matrix and spatial distribution on coincidence counting in a fission multiplicity detector, and to test methods for minimizing the effects.

  11. Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

  12. Nondestructive assay instrumentation for Savannah River Plant reprocessing accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Camp, D.C.; Gunnink, R.; Prindle, A.L.

    1985-06-21

    We have designed, developed, and calibrated three different types of nondestructive assay systems for the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These systems will be delivered to SRP in 1986 and become part of the nuclear material accounting instrumentation at one of SRP's reprocessing facilities. Among the various types of nondestructive assay systems to be implemented are a neutron counter (Los Alamos National Laboratory - LANL), a four-station calorimeter (Mound Laboratories), a waste solution assay system (LANL), two gamma-ray solution concentration assay systems (LLNL), two x-ray fluorescence analysis concentration assay systems (LLNL), and one 2-detector plutonium solids isotopics system (LLNL). Los Alamos also has the responsibility of combining the individual measurement systems into an integrated accountability capability. Each NDA instrument will report results to a central Instrument Control Computer (ICC). Figure 1 illustrates schematically the integrated system with each Laboratory's contribution shown by dotted lines.

  13. Kalman filter analysis of delayed neutron nondestructive assay measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S. E.

    1998-04-29

    The ability to nondestructively determine the presence and quantity of fissile and fertile nuclei in various matrices is important in several nuclear applications including international and domestics safeguards, radioactive waste characterization and nuclear facility operations. Material irradiation followed by delayed neutron counting is a well known and useful nondestructive assay technique used to determine the fissile-effective content of assay samples. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using Kalman filters to unfold individual isotopic contributions to delayed neutron measurements resulting from the assay of mixes of uranium and plutonium isotopes. However, the studies in question used simulated measurement data and idealized parameters. We present the results of the Kalman filter analysis of several measurements of U/Pu mixes taken using Argonne National Laboratory's delayed neutron nondestructive assay device. The results demonstrate the use of Kalman filters as a signal processing tool to determine the fissile and fertile isotopic content of an assay sample from the aggregate delayed neutron response following neutron irradiation.

  14. Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Fensin, M. L.; Lee, S. Y.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Menlovea, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Rajasingume, A.; Schearf, M. A.; Smith, L. E.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-06-30

    There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel such as independently verifying the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, making shipper/receiver mass declarations, and quantifying the input mass at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to determine the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. This research effort is anticipated to be a five year effort: the first part of which is a two years Monte Carlo modeling effort to integrate and down-select among 13 nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies, followed by one year for fabricating instruments and then two years for measuring spent fuel. This paper gives a brief overview of the approach being taken for the Monte Carlo research effort. In addition, preliminary results for the first NDA instrument studied in detail, delayed neutron detection, will be presented. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of several NDA techniques, an"assembly library" was created that contains a diverse range of pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future, diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options, spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. Integration is being designed into this study from the beginning since it is expected that the best performance will be obtained by combining a few NDA techniques. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library in three different media: air, water and borated water. In this paper the preliminary capability of delayed neutron detection will be quantified for the spent fuel library for all three media. The 13 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer, Neutron Multiplicity, Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, Passive Prompt Gamma, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry, Total Neutron (Gross Neutron), X-Ray Fluorescence, 252Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection.

  15. Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A.

    2012-05-02

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries have more potential for this application and should be assessed quantitatively. The next set of techniques leverage scintillator detectors that are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation. The first is the BC-523A capture-gated organic liquid scintillator. The detector response from several different neutron energies has been characterized and is included in the study. The BC-523A has not yet been tested with UF{sub 6} cylinders, but the application appears to be well suited for this technology. The second detector type is a relatively new inorganic scintillator called CLYC. CLYC provides a complementary detection approach to the HEVA and PNEM systems that could be used to determine uranium enrichment in UF{sub 6} cylinders. In this section, the conceptual idea for an integrated CLYC-HEVA/PNEM system is explored that could yield more precision and robustness against systemic uncertainties than any one of the systems by itself. This is followed by a feasibility study on using alpha-particle-induced reaction gamma-rays as a way to estimate {sup 234}U abundance in UF{sub 6}. Until now, there has been no readily available estimate of the strength of these reaction gamma-rays. Thick target yields of the chief reaction gammas are computed and show that they are too weak for practical safeguards applications. In special circumstances where long count times are permissible, the 1,275 keV F({alpha},x{gamma}) is observable. Its strength could help verify an operator declaration provided other knowledge is available (especially the age). The other F({alpha},x{gamma}) lines are concealed by the dominant uranium line spectrum and associated continuum. Finally, the last section provides several ideas for electromagnetic and acoustic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. These can be used to measure cylinder wall thickness, which is a source of systematic uncertainty for gamma-ray-based NDA techniques; characterize the UF{sub 6} filling profile inside the cylinder, which is a source of systematic uncertainty for neutron-based NDA techniques; locate hidden objects inside the cylinder; and provide a unique identification of cylinders. Acoustic and electromagnetic NDE techniques are complementary to NDA measurements, and may improve the accuracy and continuity of knowledge of UF{sub 6} measurements of interest to the IAEA. As concepts and approaches for enrichment plant safeguards continue to evolve to meet modern challenges, the conceptual ideas explored in this report, along with more traditional techniques, help define the toolkit of technologies available for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. Whether the application is an unattended cylinder verification station or an on-site inspection, the basic building blocks can be tailored to provide the best solution given competing constraints such as size and weight limitations, required precision, mechanical complexity, cost, stability, robustness, etc.

  16. Passive and active thermal nondestructive imaging of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Moropoulou, Antonia; Almond, Darryl P.

    2004-12-01

    Thermal non-destructive approaches, passive and active, are widely used due to the outstanding advantages that offer in a number of applications and particularly for the assessment of materials and structures. In this work, different applications, employing either MWIR or LWIR thermographic testing, as well as passive and/or active approaches, depending on the application, concerning the assessment of various materials are presented. In a few instances, thermal modelling is also discussed and compared with the outcome of experimental testing. The following applications are reviewed: × Emissivity measurements. × Moisture impact assessment in porous materials. × Evaluation of conservation interventions, concerning: - Consolidation interventions on porous stone. - Cleaning of architectural surfaces. × Assessment of airport pavements. × Investigation of repaired aircraft panels. × Through skin sensing assessment on aircraft composite structures. Real time monitoring of all features was obtained using passive imaging or transient thermographic analysis (active imaging). However, in the composite repairs and through skin imaging cases thermal modelling was also used with the intention of providing supplementary results, as well as to demonstrate the importance of thermal contact resistance between two surfaces (skin and strut in through skin sensing). Finally, in order to obtain useful information from the surveys, various properties (thermal, optical, physical) of the examined materials were taken into account.

  17. Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    1997-08-01

    A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility`s nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities.

  18. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues

    SciTech Connect

    Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

    1986-03-29

    To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted.

  19. Nondestructive assay tests of high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) for waste assay and possible diversion scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, D.R.; Menlove, H.O.; Pecos, J.M.

    1998-05-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter, the high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC), has been used to measure plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The HENC was designed with the {sup 252}Cf add-a-source (AS) feature to improve accuracy over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The current implementation allows for passive neutron coincidence counting, AS analysis, and multiplicity analysis. Passive neutron assay of typical waste containers is intrinsically more accurate than active neutron techniques because of the penetrability of the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from within the waste matrix. In addition, the HENC is designed as a slightly undermoderated detector to be less sensitive to low loading of hydrogen-bearing matrices. The following paper considers the applicability of three different nondestructive assay methods for analysis of waste drums and the flagging of possible diversions in waste drums. The {sup 252}Cf AS method, multiplicity counting, and a bounded-parameter multiplicity analysis are presented with areas of applicability.

  20. Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

    2006-03-01

    A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

  1. Design of standards for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Stewart, J.E.; Ruhter W.

    1997-05-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) involves a variety of measurement techniques, instruments, and nuclear materials. High-quality measurements require well-characterized SNM standards that represent the expected range of mass, chemical composition, and physical properties of the SNM to be measured. Due to the very limited commercial availability of NDA standards, facilities must usually produce their own standards, both to meet their specific measurement needs and to comply with existing regulations. This paper will describe the current extent to which NDA standards are commercially available. The authors will further describe the types of NDA standards used to calibrate and verify the measurement techniques commonly used in the safeguards of SNM. Several types of NDA standards will be discussed in detail to illustrate the considerations that go into specifying and designing traceable, representative standards for materials accounting measurements.

  2. Preparation of pure neptunium oxide for nondestructive assay standards

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Dunn, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.

    1991-03-01

    Accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, particularly with gamma spectrometry, require pure material standards. The purity of materials used as standards is verified by reliable chemical techniques, and these materials are then used to calibrate and certify NDA instruments. So that they can be used for this purpose, impure NpO{sub 2} and metal were each purified by a different procedure. The NpO{sub 2}, which contained more than 2500 ppm plutonium, was purified by a double peroxide precipitation, followed by ion exchange and oxalate precipitation of the eluate. All impurities, including plutonium, were below 10 ppm in the product. The metal, which contained more than 10,000 ppm of tantalum, was dissolved in 12 M HCl and then precipitated as the Np(4) oxalate. The final product was below 100 ppm of all impurities except calcium. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  3. Hydroponic Growth and the Nondestructive Assay for Dinitrogen Fixation 1

    PubMed Central

    Imsande, John; Ralston, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Hydroponic growth medium must be well buffered if it is to support sustained plant growth. Although 1.0 millimolar phosphate is commonly used as a buffer for hydroponic growth media, at that concentration it is generally toxic to a soybean plant that derives its nitrogen solely from dinitrogen fixation. On the other hand, we show that 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, pKa 6.1, has excellent buffering capacity, and it neither interferes with nor contributes nutritionally to soybean plant growth. Furthermore, it neither impedes nodulation nor the assay of dinitrogen fixation. Hence, soybean plants grown hydroponically on a medium supplemented with 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar phosphate achieve an excellent rate of growth and, in the absence of added fixed nitrogen, attain a very high rate of dinitrogen fixation. Combining the concept of hydroponic growth and the sensitive acetylene reduction technique, we have devised a simple, rapid, reproducible assay procedure whereby the rate of dinitrogen fixation by individual plants can be measured throughout the lifetime of those plants. The rate of dinitrogen fixation as measured by the nondestructive acetylene reduction procedure is shown to be approximately equal to the rate of total plant nitrogen accumulation as measured by Kjeldahl analysis. Because of the simplicity of the procedure, one investigator can readily assay 50 plants individually per day. PMID:16662112

  4. Technical Cross-Cutting Issues for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Blanc, P.; Burr, T.; Evans, L. G.; Favalli, A.; Fensin, M. L.; Freeman, C. R.; Galloway, J.; Gerhart, J.; Rajasingam, A.; Rauch, E.; Sandoval, N. P.; Trellue, H.; Ulrich, T. J.; Conlin, J. L.; Croft, S.; Hendricks, John; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Eigenbrodt, J. M.; Koehler, W. E.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, T. H.; Lafleur, A. M.; Schear, M. A.; Humphrey, M. A.; Smith, Leon E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Campbell, Luke W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Shaver, Mark W.; Misner, Alex C.; Amber, S. D.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Quiter, B.; Solodov, Alexander; Charlton, W.; Stafford, A.; Romano, C.; Cheatham, J.; Ehinger, Michael; Thompson, S. J.; Chichester, David; Sterbentz, James; Hu, Jianwei; Hunt, A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Richard, J. G.

    2012-03-01

    Ever since there has been spent fuel (SF), researchers have made nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of that fuel to learn about its content. In general these measurements have focused on the simplest signatures (passive photon and total neutron emission) and the analysis has often focused on diversion detection and on determining properties such as burnup (BU) and cooling time (CT). Because of shortcomings in current analysis methods, inspectorates and policy makers are interested in improving the state-of-the-art in SF NDA. For this reason the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), targeted the determination of elemental Pu mass in SF as a technical goal. As part of this research effort, 14 nondestructive assay techniques were studied . This wide range of techniques was selected to allow flexibility for the various needs of the safeguards inspectorates and to prepare for the likely integration of one or more techniques having complementary features. In the course of researching this broad range of NDA techniques, several cross-cutting issues were. This paper will describe some common issues and insights. In particular we will describe the following: (1) the role of neutron absorbers with emphasis on how these absorbers vary in SF as a function of initial enrichment, BU and CT; (2) the need to partition the measured signal among different isotopic sources; and (3) the importance of the “first generation” concept which indicates the spatial location from which the signal originates as well as the isotopic origins.

  5. Nondestructive Spent Fuel Assay Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Tobin, Steven

    2009-07-01

    Quantifying the isotopic composition of spent fuel is an important challenge and essential for many nuclear safeguards applications, such as independent verification of the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, shipper/receiver measurements, and quantifying isotopic input masses at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to investigate a variety of nondestructive methods for determining the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is one of the methods being investigated. First modeling studies have been performed to investigate the feasibility of assaying a single fuel pin using a bremsstrahlung photon source. MCNPX modeling results indicate that NRF signals are significantly more intense than the background due to scattered interrogation photons even for isotopes with concentrations below 1percent. However, the studies revealed that the dominant contribution to the background is elastic scattering, which is currently not simulated by MCNPX. Critical to this effort, we have added existing NRF data to the MCNPX photonuclear data files and are now able to incorporate NRF physics into MCNPX simulations. Addition of the non-resonant elastic scattering data to MCNPX is in progress. Assaying fuel assemblies with NRF poses additional challenges: photon penetration through the assembly is small and the spent fuel radioactive decay and neutron activity lead to significantly higher backgrounds. First modeling studies to evaluate the efficacy of NRF for assaying assemblies have been initiated using the spent fuel assembly library created at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  6. Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

  7. Unattended mode operation of specialized NDA (nondestructive assay) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klosterbuer, S.F.; Kern, E.A.; Painter, J.A.; Takahashi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay systems have been developed to allow data acquisition equipment to operate unattended in an automated mixed oxide facility, reducing inspector time in a facility and giving them time for other activities. Fewer inspector visits mean less impact on plant operators. Neutron detectors are located at key measurement points in the facility. Near each detector is located an electronics cabinet, which contains two JSR-11 shift registers, two COMPAQ Portable III computers, and a printer. The signal from the detector is split and sent to each shift register for redundancy and reliability. The software for unattended operation consists primarily of two programs, COLLECT and REVIEW. The COLLECT program runs on the computers in unattended operation; shift-register data are acquired each 60 s. The COLLECT program distinguishes between a normal background and a disconnected signal, between material moving near the detector and material in the detector, and whether the material in the detector is a sample or a californium normalization source. Depending on the type of assay, different data are stored on the hard disk. During an inspection, the inspector stops the current measurement campaign, examines the data from both computers briefly at the electronics cabinet, copies the campaign data to floppy disk, and starts another measurement campaign. These data are examined later in another location using the REVIEW program running on high performance microcomputers: a COMPAQ DeskPro 386/20 or equivalent. The REVIEW program uses graphical displays to enable the inspector to quickly search through the massive amounts of accumulated data to learn when samples were measured. Data from the desired measurements are then transferred to the International Atomic Energy Agency high-level neutron coincidence program for further analysis. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

    1991-11-12

    The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL.

  9. LANL`s mobile nondestructive assay and examination systems for radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Taggart, D.P. Betts, S.E.; Vigil, J.J.

    1996-04-09

    The ability to accurately and rapidly measure nuclear material within drums and examine their contents without having to unpack the drums saves time, reduces characterization costs and minimizes radiation exposure. Over the past two years, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and fielded a suite of mobile nondestructive assay and examination systems for use primarily on its own transuranic (TRU) waste but that also have application to low level, mixed and hazardous wastes. It has become obvious that systems like these are generally useful and have applications at other Department of Energy (DOE) production and environmental technology sites. Mobile capabilities present a potential cost savings where waste drums have to be transported to a fixed NDA facility. In other cases they fill a void where there is no fixed facility available because construction costs are prohibitive (as in the case of small quantity sites) or the available facilities may not meet current or evolving safety standards. Rather than bringing waste to a facility to be characterized, one can bring the characterization capability to the waste. The three systems described are: (1) mobile radiography system; (2) mobile segmented/tomographic gamma scanner; and (3) mobile passive/active neutron assay system.

  10. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain

    1999-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

  11. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  12. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.

    1982-04-01

    This is an interim report of a study concerning the potential application of nondestructive measurements on irradiated light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels at spent-fuel storage facilities. It describes nondestructive measurement techniques and instruments that can provide useful data for more effective in-plant nuclear materials management, better safeguards and criticality safety, and more efficient storage of spent LWR fuel. In particular, several nondestructive measurement devices are already available so that utilities can implement new fuel-management and storage technologies for better use of existing spent-fuel storage capacity. The design of an engineered prototype in-plant spent-fuel measurement system is approx. 80% complete. This system would support improved spent-fuel storage and also efficient fissile recovery if spent-fuel reprocessing becomes a reality.

  13. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

  14. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  15. Passive neutron assay of heterogeneous waste drums using the segmented Add-a-Source method

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed passive neutron detectors that include the Add-a-Source (AS) technique to improve the accuracy of the nondestructive assay of plutonium in large waste containers. We have improved the AS by incorporating multiple positions for the {sup 252}Cf source on the exterior of a 200-L drum. The multiple positions give a better coverage of the drum and have the effect of segmenting the matrix as a function of fill height. We have applied the multiposition AS to the assay of drums with heterogeneous matrix combinations of concrete, polyethylene, wood, paper, and metal. The measurement errors caused by the matrix significantly reduced by the AS technique and anomalous shielding material in the drum can be flagged for more detailed investigation.

  16. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  17. Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft{sup 3} boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites.

  18. RoboCal: An automated nondestructive assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Staley, H.C.; Hollen, R.M.; Bonner, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The manager of a facility handling special nuclear material (SNM) is caught in a squeeze between increased state and federal regulations and tighter funding. RoboCal uses a robot to manipulate canisters containing SNM to lower worker radiation exposure and to provide increased utilization of expensive assay equipment. In addition, it helps with accountability and material tracking. It consists of a hierarchical network of more than a dozen computers and provides a single point of contact for the user to accomplish multiple assays.

  19. MONTE CARLO ERROR ESTIMATION APPLIED TO NONDESTRUCTIVE ASSAY METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    R. ESTEP; ET AL

    2000-06-01

    Monte Carlo randomization of nuclear counting data into N replicate sets is the basis of a simple and effective method for estimating error propagation through complex analysis algorithms such as those using neural networks or tomographic image reconstructions. The error distributions of properly simulated replicate data sets mimic those of actual replicate measurements and can be used to estimate the std. dev. for an assay along with other statistical quantities. We have used this technique to estimate the standard deviation in radionuclide masses determined using the tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) and combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) methods. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison of our Monte Carlo error estimates with the error distributions in actual replicate measurements and simulations of measurements. We found that the std. dev. estimated this way quickly converges to an accurate value on average and has a predictable error distribution similar to N actual repeat measurements. The main drawback of the Monte Carlo method is that N additional analyses of the data are required, which may be prohibitively time consuming with slow analysis algorithms.

  20. Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-08-01

    The authors describe automated and integrated NDA systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the DOE complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and MOX fuel programs. These systems are typified by the ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) nondestructive assay system which is under construction at Los Alamos to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system.

  1. Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    The authors describe automated and integrated nondestructive assay (NDA) systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the Department of Energy complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and mixed oxide fuel programs. These systems are typified by the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System NDA system which is under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system.

  2. Passive nondestructive burnup monitoring of MNSR irradiated fuel by measuring photoneutrons produced within fission products.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Kh

    2009-10-01

    A passive nondestructive method for monitoring of Syrian miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) fuel burnup is introduced. The inner irradiation site design inside the Be reflector was exploited to measure the generated photoneutrons induced by fission products hard gamma radiation in the subcritical state. The photoneutron flux was measured using gold foils as a function of cooling time and operation power. For cooling time ranges between 10 and 25d, experiments show that (140)Ba is the extremely dominating inducer of photoneutrons and the measured flux is proportional to the accumulated (140)Ba. This result forms a new method base for MNSR fuel burnup monitoring. It might be used also as a safeguards technique to check the operator declared information. PMID:19620012

  3. Install active/passive neutron examination and assay (APNEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-04-01

    This document describes activities pertinent to the installation of the prototype Active/Passive Neutron Examination and Assay (APNEA) system built in Area 336 into its specially designed trailer. It also documents the basic theory of operation, design and protective features, basic personnel training, and the proposed characterization site location at Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Inc., (Specialty Components) with the estimated 10 mrem/year boundary. Additionally, the document includes the Preventive Change Analysis (PCA) form, and a checklist of items for verification prior to unrestricted system use.

  4. Development of Gamma-Ray Nondestructive Detection and Assay Systems for Nuclear Safeguards and Security at JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Nondestructive detection and assay of nuclide is one of the promising applications of energy-tunable gamma-rays from laser Compton scattering. In JAEA, we are developing technologies relevant to the gamma-ray non-destructive assay, which include a high-brightness gamma-ray source based on advanced laser and accelerator technologies and gamma-ray measurement techniques optimized for highly radioactive samples. In this paper, the status of the above R&D's is reviewed.

  5. Development of a tomographic instrument for gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Estep, R.J.; Sheppard, G.A.

    1993-08-01

    The most widely used Transmission-corrected gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments is the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) that was developed by the Los Alamos Nuclear Safeguards program in the early 1970s to determine the radioisotopic content of waste. SGS assays are accurate for low-density samples and also for high-density samples that are known to be uniform and homogeneous. However, for dense, heterogeneous samples, substantial bias is observed in SGS assays. To assay heterogeneous samples, knowledge of the distribution of emitting and attenuating materials is required. As a result we are developing a tomographic instrument to assay samples for which the assumptions of the SGS analysis are grossly violated. This instrument, known as the Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS), has the same basic components as the SGS, including a HPGE detector, a transmission source, and a mechanism to rotate and elevate the sample. However, an additional mechanical motion has been added that allows the detector to move in the direction transverse to the sample axis. This additional motion in combination with more stringent detector collimation enables the TGS to acquire, three-dimensional transmission and emission tomographic projection data from which the distributions of emitting and attenuating material can be determined. This spatial information provides a detailed correction for sample heterogeneities that results in more accurate assays. Our work on the development of the TGS has emphasized the role of the TGS as an NA instrument. Accurate determination of the quantity of emitting material is the primary goal. Precise determination of the distribution of emitting materials is a secondary and potentially conflicting objective. Consequently, desip considerations and analysis techniques differ from those of computerized tomography applied to medicine and nondestructive testing. An experimental TGS has been used to assay 208-{ell} drums containing plutonium.

  6. Nondestructive assay (NDA) of fissile material solutions in tanks at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fleissner, J.G.; Lamb, F.W.; Maul, M.R.

    1995-07-01

    Nondestructive assay of holdup in solution tanks at Rocky Flats has been performed to address criticality safety concerns since 1974. Destructive analysis techniques were used for quantification of the fissile material content of the tanks. With termination of operations in 1989, including sparging and sampling of tanks, a need arose for nondestructive assay of solutions in tanks to confirm previous inventory values. Gamma ray measurement methodologies were investigated and several techniques, including Poor Man`s Densitometry were implemented. These techniques have been applied to several different types of tanks including: annular, raschig ring filled, and pencil tanks. For the annular tanks ``Poor Man`s Densitometry`` is used, with the densities of the measured solutions normalized to the value of one ``accepted`` concentration tank. Measurement uncertainties for this technique has been better than was anticipated. Measurements are also performed at several levels to attempt to detect variations in density. For the current tank draining program, solution in tanks is assayed by the NDA gamma-ray technique before draining. Measurement results were obtained for plutonium, uranium, and mixtures of U/Pu solutions for concentrations ranging from less than 0.5 g/l to 150 g/l. Tanks with expected concentrations were used to establish a relationship between concentration and count rate. ``Bootstrapping`` calibration techniques were used in some cases to obtain quantitative results.

  7. Investigations of the performance and nondestructive assay applications of the EMR/Schlumberger neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Mahdavi, M.; Pfutzner, H.

    1993-08-01

    Los Alamos and EMR/Schlumberger, are jointly investigating nondestructive assay applications using the EMR neutron generator system. This system is based on the instrument fielded by Schlumberger for oil well logging. This technology has been adapted into a complete system and package, which is intended for a variety of above-ground applications such as basic research, nuclear waste assay, activation analysis, and nuclear material analysis in both field and laboratory. The system has certain features, which have made it attractive for applications in the Los Alamos safeguards program. We will describe the neutron generator system and the over-all experimental equipment that will be used to explore some of these applications. We will also describe the general performance and some specific performance tests conducted at Los Alamos.

  8. Gamma ray scanner systems for nondestructive assay of heterogeneous waste barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Roberson, G.P.; Decman, D.J.; Camp, D.C.; Levai, F.

    1997-08-01

    Traditional gamma measurement errors are related to non-uniform measurement responses associated with unknown radioactive source and matrix material distributions. These errors can be reduced by application of tomographic techniques that measure these distributions. LLNL has developed two tomographic-based waste assay systems. They use external radioactive sources and tomography-protocol to map the attenuation within a waste barrel as a function of mono-energetic gamma-ray energy in waste containers. Passive tomography is used to localize and identify specific radioactive waste contents within the same waste containers. Reconstruction of the passive data via the active images allows internal waste radioactivities in a barrel to be corrected for any overlying heterogeneous materials, thus yielding an absolute assay of the waste radioactivities. Calibration of both systems requires only point source measurements and are independent of matrix materials.

  9. Multi-isotopic transuranic waste interrogation using delayed neutron nondestructive assay and iterative quadratic programming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei

    1997-11-01

    Nuclear safeguards for Special Nuclear Materials is to protect the nuclear materials against malevolent use and to insure their peaceful usage. The nondestructive assay technique (NDA) offers an efficient and proliferation resistance method for nuclear safeguards technology. NDA techniques were investigated for multi-isotopic transuranic waste interrogation. This work was originally intended for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development at Argonne National Laboratory. One major feature of the IFR is its integral fuel cycle based on a pyrometallurgical process. More than 99% of transuranics produced in the fuel are returned to the makeup fuel and burned in the reactor. With the long-lived actinides removed from the waste stream, the waste produced will decay sufficiently in 300 years dropping below the cancer risk level of natural uranium ore and easing the perceived waste management problem. The feasibility of using nondestructive assay techniques for the IFR fuel cycle waste interrogation were studied. A special DNNDA experimental device was designed and analysis techniques were developed. The DNNDA technique uses the delayed neutrons emitted after the activation of a 14 MeV neutron source as the characteristic signature for each fissionable isotope. A tantalum/polyethylene filter was employed to enhance the discrimination between the fissile and the fissionable isotopes. Spontaneous fissions from 240Pu were also measured to assist the mass assay. A nonlinear overdetermined system was established based on the DNNDA measurements. An Iterative Quadratic Programming (IQP) method was applied to perform the estimates. The IQP method has several advantages over the linear least squares and Kalman filter methods, it has the flexibility of adding additional constraints, it has superlinear global convergence and it can be utilized for nonlinear problems. The results show that using the IQP method with the DNNDA technique is quite promising for multi-isotopic assay in the range of one gram to 50 grams. Sensitivity analyses show that the IQP method is very insensitive to the a priori. A 5% error of mass assay is achievable with one sigma of uncertainty for good calibration data and assay measurement statistics.

  10. The impact of gate width setting and gate utilization factors on plutonium assay in passive correlated neutron counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Santi, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  11. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving & Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Word Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOE/WIPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed.

  12. Design of ERL Spoke Cavity For Non-Destructive Assay Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, M.; Nagai, R.; Nishimori, N.; Hajima, R.

    2015-10-01

    We are proposing non-destructive assay system of nuclear materials with laser Compton scattering combined with an energy-recovery linac (ERL) and a laser. Since constructing accelerator system for nuclear safe guard and security requires small cavities, spoke cavities have many advantages such as shortening the distance between cavities, small frequency detune due to micro-phonics and easy adjustment of field distribution for strong cell coupling. Calculations of optimized cavity shape and HOM coupler shape have been performed and rf properties with aluminum spoke cavity model have been also measured. Considering refrigerator system required for superconducting accelerator, we are planning to develop 325MHz spoke cavity which can be practically operated with 4K liquid helium. We have started to fabricate the niobium one-spoke cavity.

  13. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurement of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, we have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. We therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  15. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  16. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards.

  17. An integrated approach for determining plutonium mass in spent fuel assemblies with nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, Stephen J; Fensin, Mike L; Menlove, Howard O

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel. Below, five motivations are listed: (1) To verify the Pu content of spent fuel without depending on unverified information from the facility, as requested by the IAEA ('independent verification'). New spent fuel measurement techniques have the potential to allow the IAEA to recover continuity of knowledge and to better detect diversion. (2) To assure regulators that all of the nuclear material of interest leaving a nuclear facility actually arrives at another nuclear facility ('shipper/receiver'). Given the large stockpile of nuclear fuel at reactor sites around the world, it is clear that in the coming decades, spent fuel will need to be moved to either reprocessing facilities or storage sites. Safeguarding this transportation is of significant interest. (3) To quantify the Pu in spent fuel that is not considered 'self-protecting.' Fuel is considered self-protecting by some regulatory bodies when the dose that the fuel emits is above a given level. If the fuel is not self-protecting, then the Pu content of the fuel needs to be determined and the Pu mass recorded in the facility's accounting system. This subject area is of particular interest to facilities that have research-reactor spent fuel or old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. It is also of interest to regulators considering changing the level at which fuel is considered self-protecting. (4) To determine the input accountability value at an electrochemical processing facility. It is not expected that an electrochemical reprocessing facility will have an input accountability tank, as is typical in an aqueous reprocessing facility. As such, one possible means of determining the input accountability value is to measure the Pu content in the spent fuel that arrives at the facility. (5) To fully understand the composition of the fuel in order to efficiently and safely pack spent fuel into a long-term repository. The NDA of spent fuel can be part of a system that cost-effectively meets the burnup credit needs of a repository. Behind each of these reasons is a regulatory structure with MC&A requirements. In the case of the IAEA, the accountable quantity is elemental plutonium. The material in spent fuel (fissile isotopes, fission products, etc.) emits signatures that provide information about the content and history of the fuel. A variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available to quantify these signatures. The effort presented in this paper is investigation of the capabilities of 12 NDA techniques. For these 12, none is conceptually capable of independently determining the Pu content in a spent fuel assembly while at the same time being able to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of rods. For this reason the authors are investigating the capability of 12 NDA techniques with the end goal of integrating a few techniques together into a system that is capable of measuring Pu mass in an assembly. The work described here is the beginning of what is anticipated to be a five year effort: (1) two years of modeling to select the best technologies, (2) one year fabricating instruments and (3) two years measuring spent fuel. This paper describes the first two years of this work. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of the 12 NDA techniques, an 'assembly library' was created. The library contains the following: (a) A diverse range of PWR spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future. (b) Diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options. (c) The spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. It is our intention to make this library available to other researchers in the field for inter-comparison purposes. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library for measurements in three different media: air, water and borated water. The 12 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer, Neutron Multiplicity, Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, Passive Prompt Gamma, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry, Total Neutron (Gross Neutron), X-Ray Fluorescence, {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection.

  18. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed andmore » achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.« less

  19. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed and achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.

  20. Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2012-05-02

    The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

  1. A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay with a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao Xin; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2010-08-04

    A new facility for non-destructive assay using a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 15x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays.

  2. Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

    2011-08-07

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and provide an overview of the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) approach.

  3. Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

    1991-09-01

    Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-10-20

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  5. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-05-22

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  6. A New Facility For Non-Destructive Assay With A Time-Tagged {sup 252}Cf Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao, Xin; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2011-06-01

    A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay based on a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source is now in operation at the Padova University. The system is designed to analyze samples with dimensions on the order of 20x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays as a function of energy.

  7. Non-destructive assay of drum package radioactive wastes utilizing tomographic gamma scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Ausbrooks, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for nondestructive assay of drum packaged radioactive waste materials is investigated using Emission Computed Tomography procedures. A requirement of this method is accurate gamma attenuation correction. This is accomplished by the use of a constant density distribution for the drum content, thereby requiring the need for a homogeneous medium. The current predominant NDA technique is the use of the Segmented Gamma Scanner. Tomographic Gamma Scanning improves upon this method by providing a low resolution three-dimensional image of the source distribution, yielding both spatial and activity information. Reconstruction of the source distribution is accomplished by utilization of algebraic techniques with a nine by six voxel model with detector information gathered over scanning intervals of ninety degrees. Construction of a linear system to describe the scenario was accomplished using a point-source response function methodology, where a 54 {times} 120 matrix contained the projected detector responses for each source-detector geometry. Entries in this matrix were calculated using the point-kernal shielding code QAD-CGGP. Validation was performed using the MCNP photon transport code. Solutions to the linear system were determined using the Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS) algorithm and the LSMOD algorithm. A series of four scans were performed, each reconstructing the source distribution of a mock-up waste package containing a single 73 mCi {sup 137}Cs point source. For each scan, the source was located in a different location. Results of the reconstruction routines accurately predict the location and activity of the source. The range of activity calculated using the NNLS routine is 0.2681 mCi with an average value of 77.7995 mCi. The range of values calculated using LSMOD is 5.1843 mCi with an average of 72.8018 mCi.

  8. Non-Destructive Detection of Rebar Buried in a Reinforced Concrete Wall with Wireless Passive SAW Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanping; Ji, Xiaojun; Cai, Ping; Lu, Qianhui

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the damage to the old reinforced concrete walls and work out the best construction scheme during the renovation of old buildings, it is often required to detect the position of rebar buried in concrete walls. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive method to detect the buried rebar by self-inductive sensor combined with surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR). The proposed method has the advantages of wireless, passive and convenient operations. In our new design, the sensing element of self-inductance coil was made as a component of SAWR matching network. The distribution of rebar could be measured according to the system resonant frequency, using a signal demodulation device set. The depth of buried rebar and the deviation of output resonant frequency from inherent frequency of SAWR have an inverse relation. Finally, the validity of the method was verified in theoretical calculation and simulation.

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-04-06

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage. Using removable PDP radioactive standards, isotopic activities in the simulated waste containers are varied to the extent possible over the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization situations. Manufactured matrices simulate expected waste matrix conditions and provide acceptable consistency in the sample preparation process at each measurement facility. Analyses that are required by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and that are included in the PDP may only be performed by measurement facilities that demonstrate acceptable performance in the PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the wastes on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP wastes in this document.

  10. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-01-31

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP for boxed waste assay systems. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO’s). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the boxed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a modified standard waste box (SWB) emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. An SWB is a waste box with ends designed specifically to fit the TRUPACT-II shipping container. SWB’s will be used to package a substantial volume of the TRU waste for disposal. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Box PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage. Using removable PDP radioactive standards, isotopic activities in the simulated waste containers are varied to the extent possible over the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization situations. Manufactured matrices simulate expected waste matrix configurations and provide acceptable consistency in the sample preparation process at each measurement facility. Analyses that are required by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and that are included in the PDP may only be performed by measurement facilities that demonstrate acceptable performance in the PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the wastes on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP wastes in this document.

  11. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The nuclear material type, mass and associated alpha activity of the NDA PDP radioactive standard sets have been specified and fabricated to allow assembly of PDP samples that simulate TRU alpha activity concentrations, radionuclidic/isotopic distributions and physical forms typical of the DOE TRU waste inventory. The PDP matrix drum waste matrix types were derived from an evaluation of information contained in the Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) to ensure representation of prevalent waste types and their associated matrix characteristics in NDA PDP testing. NDA drum analyses required by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) may only be performed by measurement facilities that comply with the performance criteria as set forth in the NDA PDP Plan. In this document, these analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the wastes on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP wastes.

  12. A weighted least-squares lump correction algorithm for transmission-corrected gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Sheppard, G.A.

    1993-08-01

    With transmission-corrected gamma-ray nondestructive assay instruments such as the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and the Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) that is currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the amount of gamma-ray emitting material can be underestimated for samples in which the emitting material consists of particles or lumps of highly attenuating material. This problem is encountered in the assay of uranium and plutonium-bearing samples. To correct for this source of bias, we have developed a least-squares algorithm that uses transmission-corrected assay results for several emitted energies and a weighting function to account for statistical uncertainties in the assay results. The variation of effective lump size in the fitted model is parameterized; this allows the correction to be performed for a wide range of lump-size distributions. It may be possible to use the reduced chi-squared value obtained in the fit to identify samples in which assay assumptions have been violated. We found that the algorithm significantly reduced bias in simulated assays and improved SGS assay results for plutonium-bearing samples. Further testing will be conducted with the TGS, which is expected to be less susceptible than the SGS to systematic source of bias.

  13. Droplet-interface-bilayer assays in microfluidic passive networks.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Bárbara; Zagnoni, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Basic biophysical studies and pharmacological processes can be investigated by mimicking the intracellular and extracellular environments across an artificial cell membrane construct. The ability to reproduce in vitro simplified scenarios found in live cell membranes in an automated manner has great potential for a variety of synthetic biology and compound screening applications. Here, we present a fully integrated microfluidic system for the production of artificial lipid bilayers based on the miniaturisation of droplet-interface-bilayer (DIB) techniques. The platform uses a microfluidic design that enables the controlled positioning and storage of phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets, leading successfully to the scalable and automated formation of arrays of DIBs to mimic cell membrane processes. To ensure robustness of operation, we have investigated how lipid concentration, immiscible phase flow velocities and the device geometrical parameters affect the system performance. Finally, we produced proof-of-concept data showing that diffusive transport of molecules and ions across on-chip DIBs can be studied and quantified using fluorescence-based assays. PMID:25909686

  14. Droplet-interface-bilayer assays in microfluidic passive networks

    PubMed Central

    Schlicht, Bárbara; Zagnoni, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Basic biophysical studies and pharmacological processes can be investigated by mimicking the intracellular and extracellular environments across an artificial cell membrane construct. The ability to reproduce in vitro simplified scenarios found in live cell membranes in an automated manner has great potential for a variety of synthetic biology and compound screening applications. Here, we present a fully integrated microfluidic system for the production of artificial lipid bilayers based on the miniaturisation of droplet-interface-bilayer (DIB) techniques. The platform uses a microfluidic design that enables the controlled positioning and storage of phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets, leading successfully to the scalable and automated formation of arrays of DIBs to mimic cell membrane processes. To ensure robustness of operation, we have investigated how lipid concentration, immiscible phase flow velocities and the device geometrical parameters affect the system performance. Finally, we produced proof-of-concept data showing that diffusive transport of molecules and ions across on-chip DIBs can be studied and quantified using fluorescence-based assays. PMID:25909686

  15. Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of {sup 235}U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for {sup 235}U with active assays and for {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted.

  16. Experimental verification of modeling results for a PGNAA system for nondestructive assay of RCRA metals in drums

    PubMed

    Dulloo; Ruddy; Congedo; Seidel; McIlwain

    2000-10-01

    The use of pulsed gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive assay of mercury, cadmium and lead in a concrete matrix has been demonstrated. Calculations have also been performed to study interference with PGNAA detection sensitivity resulting from the presence of 238U, 235U, and 239Pu at levels expected in mixed waste. Analyses based on transport calculations examined the effects of these nuclides on neutron kinetics, and the contribution from the capture, fission and decay gamma-rays emitted by the nuclides to the gamma-ray spectrum. These calculations predicted insignificant effects on the system's detection limits (115, 9 and 4400 ppm for Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, for a 2000 s assay). This paper describes verification measurements recently conducted using samples of 235U and 231U in the test drum geometry, which have provided experimental confirmation of the modeling results. PMID:11003484

  17. Non-destructive assay of fissile materials through active neutron interrogation technique using pulsed neutron (plasma focus) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, B. S.; Kaushik, T. C.; Andola, Sanjay; Ramniranjan; Rout, R. K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D. B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ramakumar, K. L.; Gupta, S. C.; Sinha, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed neutrons emitted from a plasma focus (PF) device have been used for the first time for the non-destructive assay of 235U content in different chemical forms (oxide and metal). The PF device generates (1.2±0.3)×109 D-D fusion neutrons per shot with a pulse width of 46±5 ns. The method involves the measurement of delayed neutrons from an irradiated sample 50 ms after exposure to the neutron pulse for a time of about 100 s in the multichannel scaling (MCS) mode. The calibration of the active interrogation delayed neutron counter (AIDNEC) system was carried out by irradiating U3O8 samples of varying amounts (0.1-40 g) containing enriched 235U (14.8%) in the device. The delayed neutrons were monitored using a bank of six 3He detectors. The sensitivity of the system was found to be about 100 counts/s/g over the accumulation time of 25 s per neutron pulse of ˜109. The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of 235U. The system can be suitably modified for applications toward non-destructive assay of fissile content in waste packets.

  18. Use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition. 17 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  19. The use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition.

  20. A state-of-the-art passive gamma-ray assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Parker, J.L.; Cowder, L.R.; Kern, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    We report details of the development of a high-accuracy, high-precision system for the non-destructive assay of /sup 235/U in solution. The system can measure samples with concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 500 g /sup 235/U/l using 200-ml samples at low concentrations, 30-ml samples at high concentrations, and 1000-s measurement times. The accuracy and precision goals of 0.1% were essentially attained for concentrations above 100 g/l. This at-line system, designed for a production plant environment, represents a significant improvement in the state of the art.

  1. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  2. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  3. Technical note: The calibration of {sup 90}Y-labeled SIR-Spheresusing a nondestructive spectroscopic assay

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, R.; Micka, J.; DeWerd, L.; Nickles, R.; Thomadsen, B.

    2008-04-15

    {sup 90}Y-labeled SIR-Spheres are currently used to treat patients with hepatic metastases secondary to colorectal adenocarcinoma. In general, the prescribed activity is based on empirical data collected during clinical trials. The activity of the source vial is labeled by the manufacturer as 3.0 GBq{+-}10% and is not independently verified by the end user. This technical note shows that the results of a nondestructive spectroscopic assay of a SIR-Spheressample was 26% higher than the activity stated by the manufacturer. This difference should not impact the current empirical prescription method but may be problematic for patient-specific dosimetry applications, such as image-based dosimetry.

  4. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Ji?í; ?anda, Zden?k; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(?, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 ?g g-1.

  5. Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Brackx, E.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200 l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the ?-activity of the waste. The determination of the alpha activity is the main objective of neutron measurements, in view to verify acceptance criteria in surface storage. Calibration experiments of the Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI) method lead to Detection Limit Masses (DLM) of about 1 mg of 239Pu eff in the total counting mode, and of about 10 mg of 239Pu eff in the coincidence counting mode, in case of a homogeneous Pu source and measurement times between one and two hours. Monte Carlo calculation results show a very satisfactory agreement between experimental values and calculated ones. Results of the application of passive and active neutron methods to control two real drums are presented in the last part of the paper. They show a good agreement between measured data and values declared by the waste producers. The main difficulties that had to be overcome are the low neutron signal in passive and active coincidence counting modes due to concrete, the analysis of the passive neutron signal in presence of 244Cm in the drum, which is a strong spontaneous fission neutron emitter, the variation of the active background with the concrete composition, and the analysis of the active prompt neutron signal due to the simultaneous presence of U and Pu in the drums.

  6. REBOCOL (Robotic Calorimetry): An automated NDA (Nondestructive assay) calorimetry and gamma isotopic system

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.; Bonner, C.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Phelan, P.F.; Powell, W.D.; Sheer, N.L.; Schneider, D.N.; Staley, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    ROBOCAL, which is presently being developed and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a full-scale, prototypical robotic system, for remote calorimetric and gamma-ray analysis of special nuclear materials. It integrates a fully automated, multi-drawer, vertical stacker-retriever system for staging unmeasured nuclear materials, and a fully automated gantry robot for computer-based selection and transfer of nuclear materials to calorimetric and gamma-ray measurement stations. Since ROBOCAL is designed for minimal operator intervention, a completely programmed user interface and data-base system are provided to interact with the automated mechanical and assay systems. The assay system is designed to completely integrate calorimetric and gamma-ray data acquisition and to perform state-of-the-art analyses on both homogeneous and heterogeneous distributions of nuclear materials in a wide variety of matrices. 10 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Production and radiometric measurements of the large particle plutonium oxide non-destructive assay standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronas, Denise L.; Wong, Amy S.; Mecklenburg, Sandra L.; Marshall, Robert S.

    2000-07-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has produced several sets of working reference materials (WRMs) for the National TRU Waste Program (NTWP) NDA PDP(Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program). This paper describes the first example of production of traceable, certified standards containing plutonium oxide in large particle form for the DOE complex. Discussion of the production and radiometric measurements of these NDA standards is included herein.

  8. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J; Conlin, Jeremy L; Evans, Louise G; Hu, Jianwei; Blanc, Pauline C; Lafleur, Adrienne M; Menlove, Howard O; Schear, Melissa A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Croft, Stephen; Fensin, Michael L; Freeman, Corey R; Koehler, William E; Mozin, V; Sandoval, N P; Lee, T H; Cambell, L W; Cheatham, J R; Gesh, C J; Hunt, A; Ludewigt, B A; Smith, L E; Sterbentz, J

    2010-09-15

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  9. The role of non-destructive assay in support of the exemption of solid waste from nuclear licensed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan; Adsley, Ian; Green, Tommy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Nuclear Site License Holders within the United Kingdom are increasingly re-examining the options available for disposal of solid waste produced during routine operations and decommissioning activities. The incentives to do so include: 'Compliance with the requirement to minimise radioactive waste, as stipulated in Disposal Authorisations issued by the Environment Agency' Reducing the burden on the UK Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR)' Achieving cost savings on waste management, by avoiding expensive conditioning, transport and disposal costs for certain wastes. Wastes may be exempted from regulation under the Radioactive Substances Act, 1993 (RSA 93) provided they comply with the conditions laid out in the relevant Exemption Orders. In effect, they may be legally disposed as if they were non-radioactive waste. A national Code of Practice on Clearance and Exemption Principles, Processes and Practices was introduced in 2005 to clarify the requirements of these Exemption Orders and provide guidance on their practical application. In order to demonstrate compliance with these Exemption Orders, it is essential to have good knowledge of the items' history and their potential for contamination. Monitoring is frequently used as definitive evidence that the radioactivity content of waste items does not exceed limits proscribed in the relevant Exemption Orders. The practicalities of monitoring require careful consideration in order to achieve meaningful results and be capable of achieving the low specific activity limits quoted in the Exemption Orders. The Cross Industry Assay Working Group is a national collection of non-destructive assay specialists from a range of companies, which meets regularly to discuss challenges relating to the assay of all categories of waste. In this paper, the Group presents examples of how NDA techniques are being used to support the exemption of waste items. (authors)

  10. Applications of Monte Carlo simulations of thermalization processes to the nondestructive assay of graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1999-10-01

    This work originated because of the need to measure (in situ and nondestructively) the degree of purity of the graphite of the Swiss critical facility Proteus. The comparison between measured and calculated values of the decay constant of a pulse of neutrons {lambda} was the chosen technique. The decay constant (in the absence of fissile materials) depends, mainly, on the purity of the graphite (via the absorption process) and leakage. The leakage factor depends on the thermalization process and the geometry of the system. Because it is very difficult to calculate in complex geometries like the Proteus cavity, Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of a pulse of neutrons were made with the MCNP code. Despite all the sophistication of MCNP, the ultimate accuracy of the calculations is dependent upon the quality of the nuclear data that describe the thermalization process in the graphite. A recent review of these data shows that very little has changed in the last 30 yr in the ENDF/B evaluation of the double-differential scattering cross section. The author decided then to benchmark the current state of the art to compute kinetics experiments in graphite (the MCNP code and the ENDF/B-VI cross-section set) against experimental data and other theoretical results for the analysis of the thermalization problem. Two classes of experiments were analyzed: (1) neutron wave propagation, where the observable is the complex relaxation length, and (2) pulsed neutron decay, where {lambda} is measured as a function of the dimensions of the graphite. Once the bias of the calculational technique was known, it was used to calculate the neutron decay constant of the Proteus cavity as a function of the {sup 10}B equivalent impurity concentration. A comparison with pulsed neutron decay experiments made at Proteus allowed the determination of the degree of purity of the graphite. In this last part, he took full advantage of the sophistication of the MCNP code to model many details of the facility quite accurately including room return effects.

  11. Non-destructive assay of {sup 242}Pu by resonance neutron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, W.R.; Lu, Ming-Shih; Aronson, A.; Forman, L.; Vanier, P.E.

    1995-08-01

    For the accurate assay of plutonium by neutron correlation measurements, especially for material derived from high-burnup reactor fuel, the content of {sup 242}Pu in a sample must be determined. Since {sup 242}Pu has a long half-life (387,000 yr) and decays to {sup 238}U by alpha particle emission with the accompanying emission of only weak, low-energy gamma rays, gamma-ray spectrometry methods which are ordinarily employed to determine the isotopic composition of a plutonium sample are not feasible for {sup 242}Pu. The existence of a resonance in the neutron capture cross section of {sup 242}Pu at an energy of 2.67 electron volts (eV) with a large (72, 000 barn) cross section affords the possibility for the quantitative assay of this isotope by epithermal neutron capture. Essential for this purpose is an appropriately designed geometry of neutron moderators and absorbers which will provide maximum flux in the eV region while suppressing thermal neutron capture by the fissile plutonium isotopes. Signatures for neutron capture in {sup 242}Pu include the decay of {sup 243}Pu (4.9 hr), prompt capture gamma rays (total energy 5.034 MeV), and the decay of an isomeric state (330 nanosecond). Experiments to determine the feasibility of this approach are currently in progress.

  12. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Alan W. Hunt; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather

    2015-06-01

    High-­energy, beta-delayed gamma-­ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-­destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-­neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-­energy delayed gamma rays from 235U, 239Pu, and 241Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239Pu. The 241Pu/239Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-­3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-­ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235U data set. De-­convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-­rate LaBr3 detectors was investigated as a potential alternative to HPGe detectors. Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-­specific assay concepts. A de-­convolution analysis of the delayed gamma-­ray response spectra modeled for spent fuel assemblies was performed using the same method that was applied to the experimental spectra.

  13. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Alan W. Hunt; Edward T. Reedy; Heather A. Seipel

    2015-06-01

    Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-specific assay concepts including simulation of measurements over many short irradiation/spectroscopy cycles. The code package was benchmarked against the data collected at the IAC for small targets and assembly-scale data collected at LANL. A study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards was performed for a variety of assemblies in the extensive NGSI spent fuel library. The modeling results indicate that delayed gamma-ray responses can be collected from spent fuel assemblies with statistical quality sufficient for analyzing their isotopic composition using a 1011 n/s neutron generator and COTS detector instrumentation.

  14. Compton suppressed LaBr3 detection system for use in nondestructive spent fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Heidrich, B.; Ünlü, K.

    2015-06-01

    Current methods for safeguarding and accounting for spent nuclear fuel in reprocessing facilities are extremely resource and time intensive. The incorporation of autonomous passive gamma-ray detectors into the procedure could make the process significantly less burdensome. In measured gamma-ray spectra from spent nuclear fuel, the Compton continuum from dominant fission product photopeaks obscure the lower energy lines from other isotopes. The application of Compton suppression to gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel may reduce this effect and allow other less intense, lower energy peaks to be detected, potentially improving the accuracy of multivariate analysis algorithms. Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel using HPGe, LaBr3, and NaI(Tl) primary detectors were performed. Irradiated fuel was measured in two configurations: as intact fuel elements viewed through a collimator and as feed solutions in a laboratory to simulate the measurement of a dissolved process stream. These two configurations allowed the direct assessment and quantification of the differences in measured gamma-ray spectra from the application of Compton suppression. In the first configuration, several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling times from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using the three collimated Compton suppression systems. In the second geometry, Compton suppressed measurements of two samples of Approved Test Material commercial fuel elements were recorded inside the guard detector annulus to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Compton suppression was found to improve measured gamma-ray spectra of spent fuel for multivariate analysis by notably lowering the Compton continuum from dominant photopeaks such as 137Cs and 140La, due to scattered interactions in the detector, which allowed more spectral features to be resolved. There was a significant advantage demonstrated when measurements were recorded using the beam source configuration as opposed to the standard, enclosed Compton suppression system geometry.

  15. Application of nondestructive assay technology in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.; Brandenburg, R.W.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Hensley, D.C.; Phoenix, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Waste characterization is the process whereby physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element of a waste certification program in that it provides information which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A and WIPP-DOE-069 list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content, fissile material content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual(s) who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which the major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    The safe and efficient operation of the next generation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) recycling / reprocessing facilities is dependent upon the availability of high performance real time Non- Destructive Assay (NDA) systems at key in-line points. A diverse variety of such special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned at reprocessing plants worldwide over the past fifty years.. The measurement purpose, technique and plant performance for selected key systems have been reviewed. Obsolescence issues and areas for development are identified in the context of the measurements needs of future recycling facilities and their associated waste treatment plants. Areas of concern include (i) Materials Accountancy and Safeguards, (ii) Head End process control and feed envelope verification, (iii) Real-time monitoring at the Product Finishing Stages, (iv) Criticality safety and (v) Radioactive waste characterization. Common characteristics of the traditional NDA systems in historical recycling facilities are (i) In-house development of bespoke instruments resulting in equipment that if often unique to a given facility and generally not commercially available, (ii) Use of 'novel' techniques - not widely deployed in other applications, (iii) Design features that are tailored to the specific plant requirements of the facility operator, (iv) Systems and software implementation that was not always carried out to modern industry standards and (v) A tendency to be overly complex - refined by on-plant operational usage and experience. Although these systems were 'validated in use' and are generally fit for purpose, there are a number of potential problems in transferring technology that was developed ten or more years ago to the new build SNF recycling facilities of the future. These issues include (i) Obsolescence of components - particularly with respect to computer hardware and data acquisition electronics, (ii) Availability of Intellectual Property and design drawings and documentation (iii) Lack of compatibility with modern computers, software, data transfer networks, digital protocols and electrical code standards, (iv) Non-compliance with current and future mandatory standards and regulations for nuclear facilities (v) Design focused on measurement and control points that may be specific to the facility process (vi) Lack of utilization of recent technological advances where better performing, less complex and more cost-effective options are now available. Key radiometric measurement drivers and control points for future recycling facilities have been determined and a review of the adequacy of existing instrumentation has been performed. Areas where recent technology improvements may be more effectively deployed and future technology development may be appropriate are identified. (author)

  17. Conceptual design for a receiving station for the nondestructive assay of PuO/sub 2/ at the fuels and materials examination facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Speir, L.G.; Ensslin, N.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Bourret, S.; Parker, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    We propose a conceptual design for a receiving station for input accountability measurements on PuO/sub 2/ received at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. Nondestructive assay techniques are proposed, including neutron coincidence counting, calorimetry, and isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectroscopy, in a versatile data acquisition system to perform input accountability measurements with precisions better than 1% at throughputs of up to 2 M.T./yr of PuO/sub 2/.

  18. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  19. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. PMID:25180828

  1. A Paradigm for the Nondestructive Assay of Spent Fuel Assemblies and Similar Large Objects, with Emphasis on the Role of Photon-Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolind, Alan Michael

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials has, until now, been focused primarily (1) on smaller objects (2) with less fissile material and (3) with less self-generated radiation. The transition to the application of NDA to spent fuel assemblies and similar large objects violates these three conditions, thereby bringing the assumptions and paradigm of traditional NDA practice into question for the new applications. In this paper, a new paradigm for these new applications is presented which is based on the fundamental principles of nuclear engineering. It is shown that the NDA of spent fuel assemblies is mostly a three-dimensional problem that requires the integration of three independent NDA measurements in order to achieve a unique and accurate assay. The only NDA techniques that can avoid this requirement are those that analyze signals that are characteristic to specific isotopes (such as those caused by characteristic resonance interactions), and that are neither distorted nor overly attenuated by the other surrounding material. Some photon-based NDA techniques fall into this exceptional category. Such exceptional NDA techniques become essential to employ when assaying large objects that, unlike spent fuel assemblies, do not have a consistent geometry. With this new NDA paradigm, the advanced photon-based NDA techniques can be put into their proper context, and their development can thereby be properly motivated.

  2. A non-destructive in ovo assay to quantify EROD activity in embryo-larval Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.; Kuhn-Hines, A.; Coiro, L.; Munns, W.R. Jr.; Cooper, K.

    1995-12-31

    Sensitive embryo-larval estuarine fish exposed to organic contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) have been shown to demonstrate characteristic biochemical responses, and impaired development and reduced survival. One of the best studied of these biochemical responses is induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, e.g., CYP1A, frequently assessed as ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Standard methods to measure EROD activity in embryo-larval fish require destructive samples, composited from many embryos, precluding information on individual variation in EROD activity or concurrent observation of health effects. A novel method has been developed that employs the non-destructive observation in individual embryos of EROD activity, demonstrated by the production and accumulation in the embryonic bladder of the fluorescent product, resorufin. EROD activity in a living embryo is quantified by bladder fluorescence using microfluorometric instrumentation. Using this technique, the authors were able to follow individual fish throughout embryonic and early larval development making temporal observations of EROD activity as well as developmental progress, lesion characterization, hatch rate and success, and post-hatch growth and survival. Results were used to examine differential responsiveness to EROD-inducing organic contaminants of embryo-larval fish from parental populations inhabiting PHAH-contaminated or uncontaminated environments.

  3. Nondestructive assay of plutonium and minor actinide in spent fuel using nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser Compton scattering γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Hajima, Ryoichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Seya, Michio

    2010-09-01

    We propose a new nondestructive assay method for 235U, 239Pu, and minor actinides in spent nuclear fuel assembly in a water pool. Nuclear fuel materials are detected using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) with laser Compton scattering (LCS) γ-rays. The NRF assay can provide a finger print of each isotope since the NRF γ-ray energy is characteristic of a specific nuclide. We design a high-flux LCS γ-ray source, in which γ-rays are generated by collision of laser photons provided from Yb-doped fiber laser and electrons from energy recovery linac. This system has following advantages; this can detect isotopes of most elements behind heavy materials such as uranium of a thickness of several centimeters, and analyze the fuel assembly in a water pool. A simulation calculation shows that we can detect 1% fraction 239Pu in all the fuel rods with statistical error lower than 2% using the high flux LCS γ-ray source and the measurement time of 4000 s.

  4. A technical review of non-destructive assay research for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies being conducted under the US DOE NGSI

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-12-06

    There is a growing belief that expansion of nuclear energy generation will be needed in the coming decades as part of a mixed supply chain to meet global energy demand. At stake is the health of the economic engine that delivers human prosperity. As a consequence renewed interest is being paid to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the plutonium it contains. In addition to being an economically valuable resource because it can be used to construct explosive devices, Pu must be placed on an inventory and handled securely. A multiinstitutional team of diverse specialists has been assembled under a project funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to address ways to nondestructively quantify the plutonium content of spent nuclear fuel assemblies, and to also detect the potential diversion of pins from those assemblies. Studies are underway using mostly Monte Carlo tools to assess the feasibility, individual and collective performance capability of some fourteen nondestructive assay methods. Some of the methods are familiar but are being applied in a new way against a challenging target which is being represented with a higher degree of realism in simulation space than has been done before, while other methods are novel. In this work we provide a brief review of the techniques being studied and highlight the main achievements to date. We also draw attention to the deficiencies identified in for example modeling capability and available basic nuclear data. We conclude that this is an exciting time to be working in the NDA field and that much work, both fundamental and applied, remains ahead if we are to advance the state of the practice to meet the challenges posed to domestic and international safeguards by the expansion of nuclear energy together with the emergence of alternative fuel cycles.

  5. High sensitivity assay of cement encapsulated spent nuclear fuel sludge using the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN) system

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Abdurrahman, N.M.

    2007-07-01

    A new technique has been developed for high sensitivity assay of grouted spent nuclear fuel (SNF) sludge waste in 208 liter drums. The method uses the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN{sup TM}) system to provide regulatory acceptable measurements. At the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility in Hanford, two IPAN{sup TM} systems have been successfully calibrated and validated for assay of SNF grouted sludge drums (encapsulated with a cement mixture). The systems have been demonstrated to be capable of performing low level waste (LLW) / transuranic (TRU) waste sorting even in the presence of high gamma radiation fields emitted by the fission and activation products associated with SNF. The active and passive modes of the IPAN{sup TM} provide a wide dynamic range of assay: from below the TRU/LLW sorting threshold (100 nCi/g or 3700 Bq/g) up to several hundred grams of Weapons Grade Pu Equivalent. A new calibration technique was developed that uses a radial weighted average method to define the imaging response matrix. This method provides the required sensitivity to the height distribution of special nuclear material within the 208 liter drum, and makes use of the uniform radial distribution that will occur for a distribution of a large population of small particles in a homogeneous matrix. Extensive validation and testing with specially designed surrogate grouted sludge drums and radioactive standards have resulted in regulatory acceptance of this technique, permitting ultimate disposal of the SNF sludge drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. (authors)

  6. Development of a lentivirus vector-based assay for non-destructive monitoring of cell fusion activity.

    PubMed

    Neshati, Zeinab; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Guangqian; Schalij, Martin J; de Vries, Antoine A F

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell fusion can be quantified by endowing acceptor and donor cells with latent reporter genes/proteins and activators of these genes/proteins, respectively. One way to accomplish this goal is by using a bipartite lentivirus vector (LV)-based cell fusion assay system in which the cellular fusion partners are transduced with a flippase-activatable Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpLuc) expression unit (acceptor cells) or with a recombinant gene encoding FLPeNLS+, a nuclear-targeted and molecularly evolved version of flippase (donor cells). Fusion of both cell populations will lead to the FLPe-dependent generation of a functional PpLuc gene. PpLuc activity is typically measured in cell lysates, precluding consecutive analysis of one cell culture. Therefore, in this study the PpLuc-coding sequence was replaced by that of Gaussia princeps luciferase (GpLuc), a secretory protein allowing repeated analysis of the same cell culture. In myotubes the spread of FLPeNLS+ may be limited due to its nuclear localization signal (NLS) causing low signal outputs. To test this hypothesis, myoblasts were transduced with LVs encoding either FLPeNLS+ or an NLS-less version of FLPe (FLPeNLS-) and subsequently co-cultured in different ratios with myoblasts containing the FLPe-activatable GpLuc expression cassette. At different times after induction of cell-to-cell fusion the GpLuc activity in the culture medium was determined. FLPeNLS+ and FLPeNLS- both activated the latent GpLuc gene but when the percentage of FLPe-expressing myoblasts was limiting, FLPeNLS+ generally yielded slightly higher signals than FLPeNLS- while at low acceptor-to-donor cell ratios FLPeNLS- was usually superior. The ability of FLPeNLS+ to spread through myofibers and to induce reporter gene expression is thus not limited by its NLS. However, at high FLPe concentrations the presence of the NLS negatively affected reporter gene expression. In summary, a rapid and simple chemiluminescence assay for quantifying cell-to-cell fusion progression based on GpLuc has been developed. PMID:25028973

  7. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, David S; Lamb, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ Nondestructive Assay of Radioactive Materials. Some of the information that will be presented includes observations made during site visits, how information useful to all facilities using nondestructive assay to determine holdup material quantities will be disseminated, and preliminary results of a gap analysis performed on current in situ nondestructive assay holdup measurements.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  9. PANWAS: A Passive/Active Neutron Waste Assay System for the Radiological Characterization of Waste Packages at the Nucleco Facility at Casaccia

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G.; Croft, S.; Villani, M.F.; Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G.

    2006-07-01

    CANBERRA has recently supplied Nucleco SpA with a new Passive/Active Neutron Waste Assay System (PANWAS) for use at their waste management facility at Casaccia in Italy. The system complements two existing CANBERRA high-resolution gamma spectrometry waste assay systems. The three waste assay systems have been integrated into a combined facility for the radiological characterization of the waste managed by Nucleco in order to provide the information required to: - Determine the physical inventory of the nuclear material present for Safeguards purposes, - Segregate the waste into different categories, - Allow transportation to and storage in the final repository for the waste. This paper describes the main characteristics of the PANWAS, how it is used (in conjunction with the two gamma monitoring systems) to determine the radionuclide inventory of the waste and how the system was calibrated and characterized for use in this application. (authors)

  10. An ELISA-based method for measurement of food-specific IgE antibody in mouse serum: an alternative to the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Neil; Payankaulam, Sandhya; Thanesvorakul, Sirinart; Stefura, Bill; HayGlass, Kent; Gangur, Venu

    2003-04-01

    Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay has been a gold standard method to measure allergen-specific IgE antibody (ASIgE Ab) levels in allergy mouse models. Many factors including stringent guidelines for laboratory animal use make PCA a difficult choice. Therefore, alternative methods are needed that can be readily applied for measurement of specific IgE antibody levels in mouse serum. Herein we describe a novel ELISA-based method that is more sensitive in comparison to PCA, IgE isotype-specific (because it has little cross-reactivity with IgG1 or IgG2a isotype) and highly reproducible (<10% inter- or intra-assay variation). Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of this assay to measure specific IgE Ab against a variety of food extracts including chicken egg, peanut, almond, filbert/hazelnut and sweet potato. These findings are of particular interest to those who are seeking (i) to measure food-extract-specific IgE antibody in animal models and (ii) an alternative to the animal-based PCA method to measure mouse IgE antibodies. PMID:12667673

  11. Nondestructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

  12. A new in vitro system for evaluation of passive intestinal drug absorption: establishment of a double artificial membrane permeation assay.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Makoto; Tsuneishi, Saki; Maeda, Yukako; Masaoka, Yoshie; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this present study was to establish a new in vitro assay, double artificial membrane permeation assay (DAMPA), to evaluate the human intestinal permeability of drugs. A double artificial membrane with an intracellular compartment was constructed in side-by-side chambers by sandwiching a filter containing buffer solution with impregnated lipophilic filters with dodecane containing 2w/v% phosphatidylcholine. Permeation data of ionic compounds clearly indicated that not only the pH value of the apical solution but also that of the intracellular compartment affected the permeability across the double artificial membrane. DAMPA was performed with 20 compounds at physiological pH (apical; 6.5, intracellular and basal; 7.4). Paracellular and transcellular permeabilities of compounds in human epithelium were estimated based on the characteristics of the paracellular pathway using physicochemical properties of compounds with the Renkin function and the area factor i.e. the difference in the effective surface area between human epithelium and the double artificial membrane, respectively. The human intestinal permeability of each compound was predicted by the sum of estimated transcellular and paracellular permeabilities. Predicted human intestinal permeability was significantly correlated with the fraction of absorbed dose in humans, indicating that DAMPA has the potential to predict oral absorption of drugs in humans. PMID:25304077

  13. Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Moran, Bruce W; Lebrun, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step in enhancing the ability of NDA beyond present attended systems. The possibility of monitoring the feed, tails, and product header pipes in such a way as to gain safeguards relevant flow and enrichment information without compromising the intellectual property of the operator including proprietary equipment and operational parameters would be a huge step forward. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including such process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector measurements reducing the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GeEPs safeguards.

  14. Depleted uranium waste assay at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.J.

    2007-07-01

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston has recently conducted a Best Practical Means (BPM) study, for solid Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay, in order to satisfy key stakeholders that AWE is applying best practice. This study has identified portable passive High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS), combined with an analytical software package called Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform (SNAP), as the preferred option with the best balance between performance and costs. HRGS/SNAP performance has been assessed by monitoring 200 l DU waste drum standards and also heterogeneous, high density drums from DU firing trials. Accuracy was usually within 30 % with Detection Limits (DL) in the region of 10 g DU for short count times. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations have been used to confirm the shape of the calibration curve generated by the SNAP software procured from Eberline Services Inc. (authors)

  15. Technologies for sorting, assaying, classifying, and certifying transuranic waste within the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, D.G. )

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) was developed to provide nondestructive examination and assay techniques for examining and certifying TRU wastes without opening the waste container. This technology was developed, primarily for stored TRU waste, to evaluate waste package compliance with Waste Disposal Acceptance Criteria and Transportation requirements prior to shipment. These techniques include real-time x-ray radiography, passive and active neutron assay, and ultrasonic container integrity examination. These techniques provide the necessary information to ensure safe transportation, handling, and disposal of the waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 1 ref., 3 figs.

  16. Nondestructive biomarkers in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fossi, M C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to attempt a concise review of the state of the art of the nondestructive biomarkers approach in vertebrates, establishing a consensus on the most useful and sensitive nondestructive biomarker techniques, and proposing research priorities for the development and validation of this promising methodology. The following topics are discussed: the advantages of the use of nondestructive strategies in biomonitoring programs and the research fields in which nondestructive biomarkers can be applied; the biological materials suitable for nondestructive biomarkers and residue analysis in vertebrates; which biomarkers lend themselves to noninvasive techniques; and the validation and implementation strategy of the nondestructive biomarker approach. Examples of applications of this methodology in the hazard assessment of endangered species are also presented. Images Figure 1. C PMID:7713034

  17. Nondestructive Tests for Weed Seedbank Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed conditions and burial fates are usually unknown at the onset of experiments because viability and germinability are determined through destructive assays. We hypothesized that conductivity of seed steep can be used to nondestructively differentiate germinable, dormant, and dead seeds within see...

  18. Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.

  19. Applications Where Snap is BPM for Radioactive Waste Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.J.

    2008-07-01

    Historically, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston in the United Kingdom (UK), has used a variety of assay techniques to measure the radioactive content of a diverse range of waste packages from decommissioning, operational and legacy sources. The regulator, the Environment Agency in the UK, places conditions and limits on AWE through an authorisation within the Radioactive Substances Act (RSA93). The conditions and limits require Best Practical Means (BPM) measurements to be used to demonstrate compliance with the authorisation. Hence, the assay technique employed needs to achieve a balance between risk of exposure, environmental considerations, technological considerations, health and safety considerations and cost effectiveness, without being grossly disproportionate in terms of money, time or trouble. Recently published work has concluded that the Spectral Non-destructive Assay Platform (SNAP) assay system is BPM for Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay at AWE (1) and low level plutonium in soft drummed waste, HEPA filters and soils (2-4). The purpose of this paper is to highlight other applications where SNAP represents BPM for radioactive waste assay. This has been done by intercomparison studies of SNAP with other assay techniques, such as Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and Passive Neutron Coincidence Counter (PNCC). It has been concluded that, for a large range of waste packages encountered at AWE, SNAP is BPM. (author)

  20. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  1. Passive Sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranda, Brian H.

    Passive sonar is a method for detecting acoustic signals in an underwater environment, usually the ocean. The difference between passive and active sonar is that a passive sonar system emits no signals; instead, its purpose is to detect the acoustic signals emanating from external sources. From an historical perspective, the main impetus for the research and development of passive sonar has been its military applications, in particular, the acoustic detection of submarines.

  2. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J. ); Caldwell, J.T. )

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Nondestructive analysis and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

  4. Nondestructive equipment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Identification of existing nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) methods that could be used in a low Earth orbit environment; evaluation of each method with respect to the set of criteria called out in the statement of work; selection of the most promising NDE methods for further evaluation; use of selected NDE methods to test samples of pressure vessel materials in a vacuum; pressure testing of a complex monolythic pressure vessel with known flaws using acoustic emissions in a vacuum; and recommendations for further studies based on analysis and testing are covered.

  5. /sup 125/I-Fibrin deposition in contact sensitivity reactions in the mouse. Sensitivity of the assay for quantitating reactions after active or passive sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Mekori, Y.A.; Dvorak, H.F.; Galli, S.J.

    1986-03-15

    The clotting associated with delayed hypersensitivity (DH) responses in the mouse by sensitizing the animals to the contactant oxazolone (Ox), and then administering /sup 125/I-guinea pig fibrinogen i.v. 10 to 30 min before antigen challenge 5 days later. Early (4 to 8 hr) contact sensitivity (CS) responses in immunized mice were barely detectable by three conventional measures of CS, but the total /sup 125/I-cpm in ears challenged with hapten was 3.6 to 4.5 x that in control ears challenged with vehicle alone; moreover, the amount of urea-insoluble cpm (cross-linked /sup 125/I-fibrin-associated cpm) in the reactions to Ox was 6.5-fold to 8.2-fold that present in the control reactions. In 24 hr reactions that were near peak intensity by measurements of ear swelling, ear weight ratios, and ratios of /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled leukocyte infiltration, the cpm in antigen-challenged ears exceeded that in control ears by 13-fold to 53-fold. In addition, antigen-challenged ears contained 27 to 300 x the urea-insoluble cpm present in control ears. /sup 125/I-Fibrin deposition was not a specific characteristic of CS reactions, because a small amount of urea-insoluble reactivity was also detected in some reactions to Ox in native mice. Nevertheless, the assay was exquisitely sensitive and readily detected quantitative differences between the immunologically specific and nonspecific reactions at very early intervals after challenge or with suboptimal doses of antigen.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  7. Nondestructive characterization of low-level transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barna, B.A.; Reinhardt, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    The use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is proposed for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These NDE methods include real-time x-ray radiography, real-time neutron radiography, x-ray and neutron computed tomography, thermal imaging, container weighing, visual examination, and acoustic measurements. An integrated NDE system is proposed for characterization and certification of TRU waste destined for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Methods for automating both the classification waste and control of a complete nondestructive evaluation/nondestructive assay system are presented. Feasibility testing of the different NDE methods, including real-time x-ray radiography, and development of automated waste classification techniques are covered as part of a five year effort designed to yield a production waste characterization system.

  8. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Ammirato, F.V.; Walker, S.M.; Nottingham, L.D.; Stephens, H.; Shankar, R.; Krzywosz, K.; Gothard, M. Applied Research Co., Charlotte, NC )

    1991-09-01

    Utility executives and upper level managers often make decisions based on inspection data and opinions of inspection personnel regarding inservice inspections of critical components such as pressure vessels, piping, steam generators, and turbine-generator rotors. Few utility executives and upper level managers, however, are well versed in the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technology that is applied in their nuclear plants. The capabilities and limitations of NDE technology, even though well established and documented for many applications, are not well known at the upper management level. The purpose of this sourcebook is to provide utility upper management and executives with information that explains how NDE is performed in their plants, how the NDE data is used, what training and qualifications are required for NDE personnel, and where and how to get more information. The sourcebook is not intended as an NDE textbook or training manual; its main objective, rather, is to provide an overview of NDE and to give the reader access to the wide selection of available, detailed information on NDE and its application in nuclear plants. Although the sourcebook addresses mainly nuclear plant NDE, much of the information is applicable to fossil plants. 6 refs.

  10. Evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, J. J.; Polcari, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments performed in the evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing of chip and wire bonds are presented. Semiconductor devices were subjected to time-temperature excursions, static-load life testing and multiple pre-stressing loads to determine the feasibility of a nondestructive tensile testing approach. The report emphasizes the importance of the breaking angle in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a wire bond, a factor not generally recognized nor implemented in such determinations.

  11. Measurement of uranium and plutonium in solid waste by passive photon or neutron counting and isotopic neutron source interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, T.W.

    1980-03-01

    A summary of the status and applicability of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for the measurement of uranium and plutonium in 55-gal barrels of solid waste is reported. The NDA techniques reviewed include passive gamma-ray and x-ray counting with scintillator, solid state, and proportional gas photon detectors, passive neutron counting, and active neutron interrogation with neutron and gamma-ray counting. The active neutron interrogation methods are limited to those employing isotopic neutron sources. Three generic neutron sources (alpha-n, photoneutron, and /sup 252/Cf) are considered. The neutron detectors reviewed for both prompt and delayed fission neutron detection with the above sources include thermal (/sup 3/He, /sup 10/BF/sub 3/) and recoil (/sup 4/He, CH/sub 4/) proportional gas detectors and liquid and plastic scintillator detectors. The instrument found to be best suited for low-level measurements (< 10 nCi/g) is the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler. The measurement technique consists of passive neutron counting followed by cyclic activation using a /sup 252/Cf source and delayed neutron counting with the source withdrawn. It is recommended that a waste assay station composed of a /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a gamma-ray scanner, and a screening station be tested and evaluated at a nuclear waste site. 34 figures, 15 tables.

  12. Nondestructive assay holdup measurements with the Ortec detective

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc; Wenz, Tracy; Bracken, David

    2009-01-01

    Wing 4 of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to be downgraded from a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility to a Hazard Category 3 Radiological Facility. Survey and holdup measurements are used to ensure that the total contamination levels present in the facility do not contribute enough activity to go above the Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities. Additionally, the measurement information provides an understanding of the cleanup and the equipment removal needs for the next step of decontaminating and decommissioning of the site. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) facility has been housing the research and experimental activities for analytical chemistry, plutonium and uranium chemistry, and metallurgy since the start of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is currently being replaced by the new Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement facilities. As a result, the CMR is gradually closing and/or downgrading to a nonnuclear facility. In 2008, the Safeguards Science and Technology group, N-1, was assigned the task of doing survey and holdup measurements of Wing 4 of the CMR. The goal of the measurements is to provide defensible measurement data for Wing 4 of the CMR Building to be downgraded from a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility to below a Hazard Category 3 Radiological Facility. In addition, the measurement information would provide an understanding of the cleanup and the equipment removal needs for the next step of decontaminating and decommissioning the site. The large areal olume of the site and the high intensity of the high-energy gamma rays of thorium, either from the background or the contaminated objects in the measured room or the adjacent rooms, present some challenges in the holdup measurements. Typical holdup techniques of point source, line, or area measurement do not work well. In order to speed up the measurement time and to accuralely account for all the isotopes present in the facility, we used a new technique that we tentatively named 'Room Holdup Measurement' to do holdup measurements of the site. This technique uses the portable, electric-cooled high-purity germanium detectors from Ortec (the Detectives) to measure the activities of the isotopes.

  13. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

  14. Capacity based nondestructive readout for complementary resistive switches.

    PubMed

    Tappertzhofen, S; Linn, E; Nielen, L; Rosezin, R; Lentz, F; Bruchhaus, R; Valov, I; Böttger, U; Waser, R

    2011-09-30

    Complementary resistive switches (CRS) were recently suggested to solve the sneak path problem of larger passive memory arrays. CRS cells consist of an antiserial setup of two bipolar resistive switching cells. The conventional destructive readout for CRS cells is based on a current measurement which makes a considerable call on the switching endurance. Here, we report a new approach for a nondestructive readout (NDRO) based on a capacity measurement. We suggest a concept of an alternative setup of a CRS cell in which both resistive switching cells have similar switching properties but are distinguishable by different capacities. The new approach has the potential of an energy saving and fast readout procedure without decreasing cycling performance and is not limited by the switching kinetics for integrated passive memory arrays. PMID:21891857

  15. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  16. Microwave holography for nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribbs, R. W.; Lamb, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic methods permit use of very large effective apertures so that weak signals can be collected over wide area and integrated to form image. Technique, modification of side-looking radar principle, can be used at very short ranges needed for nondestructive inspection of test specimens.

  17. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor... Nondestructive examinations. (a) Wherever it is considered necessary by the accredited person or his authorized...., examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be...

  18. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Stewart, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  20. Passive and Active Neutron Matrix Correction for Heterogeneous Distributions Utilizing the Neutron Imaging Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Villani, M.F.; Croft, St.; Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G.; Stamp, D.; Fisher, J.; Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G.; Bourva, L.C.

    2008-07-01

    Classical Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) and Differential Die-Away (DDA) active neutron interrogation techniques [1, 2] are well suited for determining the gross matrix correction factors for homogenous mass distributions of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) within an interfering waste drum matrix. These measured passive and active matrix correction factors are crucial in quantifying the SNM mass, associated Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) within the drum. When heterogeneous SNM mass distributions are encountered, the measured SNM mass, TMU and MDA biases introduced may be 100%, or greater, especially for dense hydrogenous matrices. The standard matrix correction factors can be adjusted if a coarse spatial image of the SNM mass, relative to the matrix, is available. The image can then be analyzed to determine the spatially-adjusted, matrix correction factors case by case. This image analysis approach was accomplished by modifying the standard Passive-Active Neutron (PAN) counter design [3] to accommodate a unique data acquisition architecture that supports a newly developed image acquisition and analysis application called the Neutron Imaging Technique (NIT). The NIT functionality supports both PNCC and DDA acquisition and analysis modes and exploits the symmetry between a stored set of factory acquired NIT images with those from the unknown PAN assay. The NIT result is then an adjustment to the classical correction factor reducing, if not removing, the SNM mass bias and revealing the true TMU and MDA values. In this paper we describe the NIT for the PAN design from the software and algorithmic perspectives and how this technique accommodates waste matrix drums that are difficult, from the classical standpoint, if not impossible, to extract meaningful SNM mass, TMU and MDA results. (authors)

  1. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  2. Holographic system for nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a holographic system for nondestructive testing. The system is comprised of a mirror which illuminates the test object surface; the mirror is positionable to direct illumination on an object at varying angles with respect to a line normal to the surface of the object. In this manner holograms may be produced with varying degrees of sensitivity enabling optimum observation of dimensions of deformation of an object occurring between test exposures.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A review is presented of Lewis Research Center efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation techniques for characterizing advanced ceramic materials. Various approaches involved the use of analytical ultrasonics to characterize monolythic ceramic microstructures, acousto-ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic matrix composites, damage monitoring in impact specimens by microfocus X-ray radiography and scanning ultrasonics, and high resolution computed X-ray tomography to identify structural features in fiber reinforced ceramics.

  4. Application of nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques for the safeguarding of irradiated fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Lee, D.M.; Beach, S.E.; Bement, T.R.; Dermendjiev, E.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kaieda, K.; Medina, E.G.

    1980-05-01

    Nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques were used to characterize the irradiation exposures of irradiated fuel assemblies. Techniques for the rapid measurement of the axial-activity profiles of fuel assemblies have been developed using ion chambers and Be(..gamma..,n) detectors. Detailed measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and passive neutron techniques were correlated with operator-declared values of cooling times and burnup.

  5. Passive solar technology

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  6. Nondestructive evaluation of electrodeposited chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todaro, Mark E.

    1992-11-01

    Benet Laboratories is pursuing methods for nondestructively evaluating the quality and adhesion of electrodeposited chromium coatings on the bore of large caliber gun tubes. The Army currently has no suitable means for testing such coatings nondestructively. A poor quality or poorly adherent coating shows up only when several test rounds are fired through the tube, removing portions of the coating and exposing the steel underneath. Recent in-house work has investigated both photothermal and ultrasonic methods. The photothermal method involves briefly heating the surface of the chromium with a laser pulse. After the initial heating, the surface temperature decreases as heat diffuses into the coating and substrate. The characteristics of the coating, interface, and substrate affect the surface temperature profile in distinct ways. The temperature of the surface can be measured by observing the emitted infrared radiation with a focused detector or an infrared scanner. Although no experimental data using the photothermal technique has been obtained yet, a one-dimensional finite difference algorithm was used to model temperature changes on the surface of a chromium coating on steel due to an incident energy pulse. The model verifies that with a suitable choice of laser pulse width, one could measure the thermal characteristics of the coating and detect the presence of a thermal discontinuity at the interface.

  7. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006). PMID:19045633

  8. Nondestructive Material Testing Using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, D.

    The fact that optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides information on internal structures of scattering tissue in a noninvasive way has led to a broad acceptance of OCT for dedicated biomedical imaging and diagnostics applications. Outside the biomedical field, an irreversible alteration of an object under investigation by the characterization method itself is likewise undesirable, especially in the case that such an object has to be further used with its original state maintained. For this purpose, a variety of so-called nondestructive testing (NDT) methods is nowadays at hand,with OCT as novel technique exhibiting a huge potential to add valuable contributions to nondestructive testing and evaluation of semitransparent, scattering materials with structural features on the micron scale. Therefore, within this chapter, a broad range of applications for OCT in NDT is presented, ranging from examples of industrial quality control over classification and authentication tasks to the evaluation of materials in research and development.The individual applications are listed according to the category of information obtained from the individual measurements, starting with the evaluation of the pure surface structure, proceeding to thickness measurements of layered systems, to imaging of internal 3D structures and finally leading to the determination of functional information.

  9. Simulation of Rate-Related (Dead-Time) Losses In Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.G.; Norman, P.I.; Leadbeater, T.W.; Croft, S.; Philips, S.

    2008-07-01

    Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting (PNMC) based on Multiplicity Shift Register (MSR) electronics (a form of time correlation analysis) is a widely used non-destructive assay technique for quantifying spontaneously fissile materials such as Pu. At high event rates, dead-time losses perturb the count rates with the Singles, Doubles and Triples being increasingly affected. Without correction these perturbations are a major source of inaccuracy in the measured count rates and assay values derived from them. This paper presents the simulation of dead-time losses and investigates the effect of applying different dead-time models on the observed MSR data. Monte Carlo methods have been used to simulate neutron pulse trains for a variety of source intensities and with ideal detection geometry, providing an event by event record of the time distribution of neutron captures within the detection system. The action of the MSR electronics was modelled in software to analyse these pulse trains. Stored pulse trains were perturbed in software to apply the effects of dead-time according to the chosen physical process; for example, the ideal paralysable (extending) and non-paralysable models with an arbitrary dead-time parameter. Results of the simulations demonstrate the change in the observed MSR data when the system dead-time parameter is varied. In addition, the paralysable and non-paralysable models of deadtime are compared. These results form part of a larger study to evaluate existing dead-time corrections and to extend their application to correlated sources. (authors)

  10. Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

    2012-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

  11. Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Denison, Arthur B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

  12. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive tests. 193.2321 Section 193.2321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  13. Topoisomerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

  14. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-18

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  15. The Nuclear Renaissance — Implications on Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2007-03-01

    The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not even have access to electricity. With this increased energy demand and the high and volatile price of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is experiencing resurgence. This so-called nuclear renaissance is broad based, reaching across Asia, the United States, Europe, as well as selected countries in Africa and South America. Some countries, such as Italy, that have actually turned away from nuclear energy are reconsidering the advisability of this design. This renaissance provides the opportunity to deploy more advanced reactor designs that are operating today, with improved safety, economy, and operations. In this keynote address, I will briefly present three such advanced reactor designs in whose development Westinghouse is participating. These designs include the advanced passive PWR, AP1000, which recently received design certification for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the Pebble Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) which is being demonstrated in South Africa; and the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), which was showcased in the US Department of Energy's recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), program. The salient features of these designs that impact future requirements on quantitative nondestructive evaluations will be discussed. Such features as reactor vessel materials, operating temperature regimes, and new geometric configurations will be described, and mention will be made of the impact on quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches.

  16. The Nuclear Renaissance - Implications on Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2007-03-21

    The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not even have access to electricity. With this increased energy demand and the high and volatile price of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is experiencing resurgence. This so-called nuclear renaissance is broad based, reaching across Asia, the United States, Europe, as well as selected countries in Africa and South America. Some countries, such as Italy, that have actually turned away from nuclear energy are reconsidering the advisability of this design. This renaissance provides the opportunity to deploy more advanced reactor designs that are operating today, with improved safety, economy, and operations. In this keynote address, I will briefly present three such advanced reactor designs in whose development Westinghouse is participating. These designs include the advanced passive PWR, AP1000, which recently received design certification for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the Pebble Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) which is being demonstrated in South Africa; and the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), which was showcased in the US Department of Energy's recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), program. The salient features of these designs that impact future requirements on quantitative nondestructive evaluations will be discussed. Such features as reactor vessel materials, operating temperature regimes, and new geometric configurations will be described, and mention will be made of the impact on quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches.

  17. Forty years with nondestructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoru, George

    1999-12-01

    The author takes the opportunity to strike the balance of his activity. He was the first establishing the qualitative and quantitative influence of curing conditions of concrete on the relations between nondestructively measured values, ultrasonic pulse velocity or attenuation and rebound indices (V,A,R) and its compressive strength. Since 1969 he had been behind a new approach for simultaneous use of concrete. The advantage of this multiple correlation concept (an off-spring of an original method for statistical quality analysis for the control of concrete quality) have been already well documented. The author established also a new criterium for the frost resistance of concrete, based on the variation of the logarithmic decrement of the vibrations (both free or forced). His activity as an expert led to the foundation of the "Engineering Society Cologne." He was entrusted with its presidency. Further examples shall inform about different field investigations carried out.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

  19. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  20. PREFACE: III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing (SibTest 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to the research and studies presented at the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing SibTest. The conference was held in Altai, Russia, on 27-31 July 2015. The conference brought together experts from different countries and organizations who had a great opportunity to share knowledge during oral and poster presentations and to initiate discussions on topics that are of interest to the conference attendees. The conference aimed to discuss innovative methods and the application of advanced technologies in non-destructive testing. The conference also attempted to bring together university, academic and industrial science, to expand the co-operation of scientists from different countries in research and development and the commercialization of innovative technologies in non-destructive testing. The key themes of the conference were: ultrasonic and acoustic testing; electromagnetic and thermal testing; various types of radiation non-destructive testing; passive and active testing techniques. The conference organizers are the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, with the assistance of the Russian Society for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Tomsk State University, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation.

  1. Interlanguage Passive Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simargool, Nirada

    2008-01-01

    Because the appearance of the passive construction varies cross linguistically, differences exist in the interlanguage (IL) passives attempted by learners of English. One such difference is the widely studied IL pseudo passive, as in "*new cars must keep inside" produced by Chinese speakers. The belief that this is a reflection of L1 language…

  2. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not. Another approach, in addition to differentiation between various cure conditions, may even provide information with respect to the bond strength. Several technical papers were published during the course of this research and a summary is presented in the Ph.D. dissertation of Tobias P. Berndt, a graduate student financially supported by this NASA Grant.

  3. SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software design description

    SciTech Connect

    East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. This program has been in operation since 1985 at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was originally used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. This program was originally developed at Los Alamos and extensively modified by a commercial vendor of PAN systems and by personnel at the INEL. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the program itself. The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 program in early 1994. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach and is documented in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. The new program incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional functionality and improvements include a graphical user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without program code modification, an `object model` design approach and other features for improved flexibility and maintainability.

  4. [Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    We developed and experimentally tested physical models for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models are ``point defect models,`` in which the growth and breakdown are described in terms of movement of anion and cation vacancies. The work during the past 5 years resulted in: theory of growth and breakdown of passive films, theory of corrosion-resistant alloys, electronic structure of passive films, and estimation of damage functions for energy systems. Proposals are give for the five ongoing tasks. 10 figs.

  5. Instruction manuals for radiographic nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Six new handbooks on the fundamentals of nondestructive test techniques supply recent information for instructing inspectors and technicians, and can be used effectively in shops or laboratories, technical schools, or home study programs.

  6. NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

  7. RAS Assays

    Cancer.gov

    The proportion of oncogenic mutants of KRAS proteins that are in the "active" (GTP-bound) form is far higher than that of wild-type RAS proteins. Scientists at the National Lab are developing high-throughput in vitro assays to measure interactions of GTP-loaded KRAS and effectors, such as CRAF and calmodulin, as well as imaging assays that can detect oncogenic KRAS interactions inside cells.

  8. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. Improved Ferroelectric Memories With Nondestructive Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1994-01-01

    Ferroelectric memories with enhanced photoresponse leading to improved nondestructive optoelectronic readout and lower power demand proposed. Memories improved versions of devices described in "Rapid, Nondestructive Readout From Ferroelectric Memory" (NPO-18551). In proposed application, array of nonvolatile ferroelectric memory cells fabricated by standard very-large-scale integrated-circuit techniques and flip-bonded onto similarly fabricated array of semiconductor lasers, {see "Optically Addressable, Ferroelectric Memory With NDRO" (NPO-18573)}.

  11. Nondestructive Characterization of Aged Components

    SciTech Connect

    Panetta, Paul D.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Garner, Francis A.; Balachov, Iouri I.

    2003-10-21

    It is known that high energy radiation can have numerous effects on materials. In metals and alloys, the effects include, but may not be limited to, mechanical property changes, physical property changes, compositional changes, phase changes, and dimensional changes. Metals and alloys which undergo high energy self-irradiation are also susceptible to these changes. One of the greatest concerns with irradiation of materials is the phenomenon of void swelling which has been observed in a wide variety of metals and alloys. Irradiation causes the formation of a high concentration point defects and microclusters of vacancies and interstitials. With the assistance of an inert atom such as helium, the vacancy-type defects can coalesce to form a stable bubble. This bubble will continue to grow through the net absorption of more vacancy-type defects and helium atoms, and upon reaching a certain critical size, the bubble will begin to grow at an accelerated rate without the assistance of inert atom absorption. The bubble is then said to be an unstably growing void. Depending on the alloy system and environment, swelling values can reach in excess of 50% !V/Vo where Vo is the initial volume of the material. Along with dimensional changes resulting from the formation of bubbles and voids comes changes in the macroscopically observed speed of sound, moduli, electrical resistivity, yield strength, and other properties. These effects can be detrimental to the designed operation of the aged components. In situations where irradiation has sufficient time to cause degradation to materials used in critical applications such as nuclear reactor core structural materials, it is advisable to regularly survey the material properties. It is common practice to use surveillance specimens, but this is not always possible. When surveillance materials are not available, other means for surveying the material properties must be utilized. Sometimes it is possible to core out a small sample which may be used for material properties measurements. A more appealing solution is to use nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods.

  12. Assay of heavy water in drums for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Fainberg, A.; Zucker, M.S.; Lemley, J.R.; Weinstock, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines several techniques for rapid nondestructive assay of drums of D/sub 2/O. Five methods have been examined: neutron capture in hydrogen, photodisintegration of deuterium, neutron transmission, neutron die-away time measurements, and acoustic velocity measurements.

  13. Nondestructive testing of electro thermal devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earnest, J. E., Jr.; Murphy, A. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a recent investigation into 'thermal time constant' nondestructive testing of high reliability electrical fuses. The use of established nondestructive test technology for examining the quality and firing characteristics of electro-explosive devices has been successfully applied to the inspection and prediction of the functional performance of electrical fuses. The technique requires application of a low level current pulse to the electrical fuse with an oscilloscope display of the curve as generated by the temperature coefficient of resistance feedback. The heating curve of temperature vs time is composed of one predominant thermal time constant, which is the product of the test unit's thermal capacity and thermal resistance. It has been found that the quality of the individual electrical fuse, for instance, the relative condition of the critical internal weld or solder joint, can be examined nondestructively.

  14. Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.; Randall, M. D.; Mitchell, D. K.; Williams, L. P.; Pattee, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to fabricate design critical and man-rated aerospace structures using materials near the limits of their capabilities requires a comprehensive and dependable assurance program. The quality assurance program must rely heavily on nondestructive testing methods for thorough inspection to assess properties and quality of hardware items. A survey of nondestructive testing methods is presented to provide space program managers, supervisors and engineers who are unfamiliar with this technical area with appropriate insight into the commonly accepted nondestructive testing methods available, their interrelationships, used, advantages and limitations. Primary emphasis is placed on the most common methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonics and eddy current. A number of the newer test techniques including thermal, acoustic emission, holography, microwaves, eddy-sonic and exo-electron emission, which are beginning to be used in applications of interest to NASA, are also discussed briefly.

  15. Second harmonic generation for contactless non-destructive characterization of silicon on insulator wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damianos, D.; Pirro, L.; Soylu, G.; Ionica, I.; Nguyen, V.; Vitrant, G.; Kaminski, A.; Blanc-Pelissier, D.; Onestas, L.; Changala, J.; Kryger, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate a non-invasive, non-destructive characterization technique for monitoring the quality of film, oxide and interfaces in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. This technique is based on optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). The principles of SHG and the experimental setup will be thoroughly described. The experimental parameters best suited for testing SOI wafers with SHG are identified. SOI geometry, as well as the passivation of the top surface, both have an impact on the observed SHG signal. The back-gate bias applied on the substrate is shown to modulate the SHG signal.

  16. Passive Cryogenic Sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampling is the key step in any analysis regime. Gaseous systems only magnify the critical nature of the sampling step. The Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler provides a proven, cost-effective way to obtain high-quality samples. This report specifies some advantages and design specifications of the Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler.

  17. Passive Cryogenic Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Sampling is the key step in any analysis regime. Gaseous systems only magnify the critical nature of the sampling step. The Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler provides a proven, cost-effective way to obtain high-quality samples. This report specifies some advantages and design specifications of the Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler.

  18. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  19. LASL passive program

    SciTech Connect

    Neeper, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent accomplishments are outlined on the following tasks: (1) solar load ratio for sunspaces; (2) thermal performance of components and buildings; (3) convective loop test; (4) similarity study of interzone convection; (5) evaluation of phase-change thermal storage; (6) off-peak electrical auxiliary heating; (7) passive solar design handbook; (8) program support to DOE; and (9) passive cooling for residences. (WHK)

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation (nde) of Damaged Structural Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H.

    2009-03-01

    A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

  1. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) OF DAMAGED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H.

    2009-03-03

    A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

  2. Advancing technologies and applications in nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, C.

    1997-12-01

    The methods used to inspect and evaluate materials, decides, and products are now based on imaging systems that collect digital data and process and interpret them through specially developed computer algorithms. Lawrence Livermore`s Nondestructive and Materials Evaluation Section has been developing a wide range of imaging systems, implementing them through a range of technologies, including digital radiography, computed tomography, machine vision, ultrasonics, and infrared computer thermography. Applications of these various technologies are described in the article. They demonstrate the range and increasing flexibility of the concept of nondestructive evaluation.

  3. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  4. Passive solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claridge, David E.; Mowris, Robert J.

    1985-11-01

    Buildings have been designed to use solar gains for winter heating for several millenia, but the quantitative basis for passive solar design has only been developed in the last decade. A simplified lumped capacitance model is used to provide insight into the physics of passive building behavior. Three passive design methods are described: the Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method based on correlations to simulation results; the Gordon/Zarmi closed form analytical mode;; and the ``unutilizability'' model of Monsen and Klein. Model predictions are compared with measured results; agreement is good if measured building characteristics are used. Numerous passive houses use less than 2 Btu/ft2-DD for auxiliary heating and consensus is developing that modest levels of passive glazing combined with superinsulation techniques can provide the best feature of both approaches.

  5. Passive Diffusion of Transdermal Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kanjananimmanont, Sunsanee; Ge, Xudong; Mupparapu, KarunaSri; Rao, Govind; Potts, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The motivation for this study was to determine if a statistically significant correlation exists between blood glucose (BG) and transdermal glucose (TG) collected by passive diffusion. A positive outcome will indicate that noninvasive passive TG diffusion is a painless alternative to collecting blood through a break on the skin. Sampling involves placing a small volume of buffer solution on the surface of membrane or skin for 5 minutes. The sample is then assayed with fluorescent GBP. In vitro testing was done on regenerated cellulose and a porcine skin model to determine diffusion of standard glucose solutions. In vivo testing was done on a healthy subject and a subject with type 2 diabetes. Glucose diffused readily through the regenerated cellulose membrane with good correlation between surface and internal glucose concentrations (R 2 = .997). But the porcine skin model required a surface prewash to achieve the same good correlation R 2 = .943). Based on this, an optimum prewash step was determined for the in vivo studies. The resulting correlation coefficients between TG and BG after a 15-minute prewash in a healthy subject and type 2 subject were .87 and .93, respectively. Removal of the extraneous glucose in the skin by prewashing was an important step in achieving good correlation between TG and BG. The results suggest that passive collection of TG is a noninvasive alternative to current practice of breaking the skin. Further studies are under way to determine the lag time between TG and BG and for the sampling protocol to be more amenable to point-of-care application. PMID:24876581

  6. Assaying mechanosensation*

    PubMed Central

    Chalfie, Martin; Hart, Anne C.; Rankin, Catharine H.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans detect and respond to diverse mechanical stimuli using neuronal circuitry that has been defined by decades of work by C. elegans researchers. In this WormMethods chapter, we review and comment on the techniques currently used to assess mechanosensory response. This methods review is intended both as an introduction for those new to the field and a convenient compendium for the expert. A brief discussion of commonly used mechanosensory assays is provided, along with a discussion of the neural circuits involved, consideration of critical protocol details, and references to the primary literature. PMID:25093996

  7. Handbooks for nondestructive testing using ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Four handbooks have been prepared for use in teaching metal parts inspectors and quality assurance technicians the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using ultrasonic detection methods. The handbooks may be used in the shop or laboratory, or as study texts in technical schools and in the home.

  8. Instruction manuals for liquid penetrant nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Manuals provide quality control and test personnel with basic information on liquid penetrant testing. Topics covered include scope of application, equipment and materials used, test procedures, safety precautions, quality control, and comparison of liquid penetrant testing with other nondestructive testing processes.

  9. Nondestructive testing of brazed rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, C. J.; Hagemaier, D. J.; Meyer, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Report details study made of nondestructive radiographic, ultrasonic, thermographic, and leak test methods used to inspect and evaluate the quality of the various brazed joints in liquid-propellant rocket engine components and assemblies. Descriptions of some of the unique equipment and methods developed are included.

  10. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  11. Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.R.

    1991-08-21

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques.

  12. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  13. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  14. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  15. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  16. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive... § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the... welder whose work is isolated from the principal welding activity, a sample of each welder's work...

  17. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive... § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the... welder whose work is isolated from the principal welding activity, a sample of each welder's work...

  18. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive... § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the... welder whose work is isolated from the principal welding activity, a sample of each welder's work...

  19. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive... § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the... welder whose work is isolated from the principal welding activity, a sample of each welder's work...

  20. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive... § 192.241(b), the following percentages of each day's field butt welds, selected at random by the... welder whose work is isolated from the principal welding activity, a sample of each welder's work...

  1. 49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be... weld. (b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be performed— (1) In accordance with a written...

  2. 49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be... weld. (b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be performed— (1) In accordance with a written...

  3. 49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be... weld. (b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be performed— (1) In accordance with a written...

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.03-38 Section 151.03-38... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic...

  5. 46 CFR 151.04-7 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.04-7 Section 151.04-7... testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 151.04-5 (d) and (l), the owner... that— (1) The proposal is followed; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel...

  6. 49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be... weld. (b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be performed— (1) In accordance with a written...

  7. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.03-38 Section 151.03-38... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic...

  8. 46 CFR 151.04-7 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.04-7 Section 151.04-7... testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 151.04-5 (d) and (l), the owner... that— (1) The proposal is followed; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel...

  9. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.03-38 Section 151.03-38... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic...

  10. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.03-38 Section 151.03-38... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic...

  11. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.03-38 Section 151.03-38... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic...

  12. 46 CFR 151.04-7 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.04-7 Section 151.04-7... testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 151.04-5 (d) and (l), the owner... that— (1) The proposal is followed; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel...

  13. 46 CFR 151.04-7 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.04-7 Section 151.04-7... testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 151.04-5 (d) and (l), the owner... that— (1) The proposal is followed; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel...

  14. 49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be... weld. (b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be performed— (1) In accordance with a written...

  15. 46 CFR 151.04-7 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.04-7 Section 151.04-7... testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 151.04-5 (d) and (l), the owner... that— (1) The proposal is followed; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel...

  16. Most energetic passive states.

    PubMed

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Tura, Jordi; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. Here we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite-dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios. PMID:26565208

  17. Most energetic passive states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Tura, Jordi; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. Here we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite-dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.

  18. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis. PMID:26608294

  19. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  20. Passive solar design handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. S.

    1985-04-01

    A basic introduction to solar energy is provided in this manual. The most common passive solar heating designs are described very briefly. The designs presented fall under three passive heating classifications: direct gain, indirect gain, and isolated gain. Design considerations for buildings are included along with considerations for: thermal storage walls, thermal storage roofs, attached sunspaces, and convectiv loops. A glossary of solar energy related terms is included.

  1. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Passive Solar Construction Handbook provides a reference for adapting standard building methods and materials to passive solar applications. The core of the Handbook is a collection of hundreds of illustrated and labeled details and construction notes for the essential passive solar systems that singly or in combination form the basis of every passive solar building. These systems - direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, and convective loop - are broken down for more detailed discussion into the major components in each system: collector, absorber, storage, distribution, and control. Accompanying case studies show how many of these details have been integrated into existing passive solar houses throughout the United States. Extensive cross-referencing leads readers through all appropriate detail options and to specific passive solar materials that are most suitable for each solar application. Specifications and thermal performance information on materials listed aid in final material selection. Introductory sections include passive solar design basics and rules of thumb, an energy-use analysis for choosing and sizing collection systems and components, and an economic analysis for evaluating alternative investment strategies. The appendix contains valuable energy information in chart and table format on the energy performance of specific construction materials. The Load Collector Ratio presented here is a fast technique for estimating the efficiency of an initial design and fine tuning it during the entire design process. The last section of the appendix contains information concerning the availability and uses of common solar analysis tools: computer software, manual programs, models, and handbooks. A glossary of important terms and a bibliography complete the book.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation by acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonics is an ultrasonic technique that was originally devised to cope with the particular problems associated with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber/polymer composite structures. The fiber/polymer composites are more attenuating to ultrasound than any other material presently of interest. This limits the applicability of high-frequency ultrasonics. A common use of ultrasound is the imaging of flaws internal to a structure by scattering from the interface with the flaw. However, structural features of composites can scatter ultrasound internally, thus obscuring the flaws. A need relative to composites is to be able to nondestructively measure the strength of laminar boundaries in order to assess the integrity of a structure. Acousto-ultrasonics has exhibited the ability to use the internal scattering to provide information for determining the strength of laminar boundaries. Analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals by the wave ray paths that compose it leads to waveform partitioning that enhances the sensitivity to mechanical strength parameters.

  4. Continuous Nondestructive Detection of Individual Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Kristin; Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Chen, Wenlan; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2015-05-01

    The nondestructive detection of optical photons is an enabling technology with applications in quantum information, simulation and communication. We present a detection scheme that continuously detects photons without destroying them. Photons to be measured (signal photons) are sent through an ensemble of 133Cs atoms, where they travel as slow-light polaritons that are, in turn, coupled to a high finesse optical cavity. The atomic component of the polariton rotates the polarization of light that is transmitted through the cavity, which we detect. We show that the system is capable of non-destructively detecting individual signal photons by measuring a second-order correlation function between the signal and detection paths of g2(0) > 5 .

  5. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  6. Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.

  7. Nondestructive technique for detecting diseased poultry carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yud-Ren

    1993-04-01

    In response to the need of the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, the Agriculture Research Service has undertaken a project to develop an accurate, reliable, and nondestructive sensor for detecting poultry diseased carcasses on-line at poultry processing plants. This paper presents some results of a study on the development of a nondestructive technique for the detection of abnormal poultry carcasses based on the spectroscopy of the carcasses. A diode array spectrophotometer equipped with a fiber optic probe was used to obtain optical spectra of the breasts of normal, septicemic, and cadaver poultry carcasses in visible and near-infrared regions (500 - 1100 nm). Optimal wavelengths of reflectance and interactance in the range of 500 to 850 nm were obtained for classifying the carcasses into normal and abnormal (septicemic and cadaver) classes. A back-propagation neural network model was used to develop classifiers for the classification of poultry carcasses into normal, septicemic, and cadaver classes.

  8. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  9. Interrelationship of nondestructive testing to fault determination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J.; Rosenthal, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    Several nondestructive test techniques have been developed for electroexplosive devices. The bridgewire will respond, when pulsed with a safe level current, by generating a characteristic heating curve. The response is indicative of the electrothermal behavior of the bridgewire-explosive interface. Bridgewires which deviate from the characteristic heating curve have been dissected and examined to determine the cause for the abnormality. Deliberate faults have been fabricated into squibs. The relationship of the specific abnormality and the fault associated with it is discussed.

  10. Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Bart M; Defraeye, Thijs; De Ketelaere, Bart; Herremans, Els; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Saeys, Wouter; Torricelli, Alessandro; Vandendriessche, Thomas; Verboven, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We review nondestructive techniques for measuring internal and external quality attributes of fruit and vegetables, such as color, size and shape, flavor, texture, and absence of defects. The different techniques are organized according to their physical measurement principle. We first describe each technique and then list some examples. As many of these techniques rely on mathematical models and particular data processing methods, we discuss these where needed. We pay particular attention to techniques that can be implemented online in grading lines. PMID:24387604

  11. Testing Physical Models of Passive Membrane Permeation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Siegfried S. F.; Mijalkovic, Jona; Borrelli, Kenneth; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    The biophysical basis of passive membrane permeability is well understood, but most methods for predicting membrane permeability in the context of drug design are based on statistical relationships that indirectly capture the key physical aspects. Here, we investigate molecular mechanics-based models of passive membrane permeability and evaluate their performance against different types of experimental data, including parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA), cell-based assays, in vivo measurements, and other in silico predictions. The experimental data sets we use in these tests are diverse, including peptidomimetics, congeneric series, and diverse FDA approved drugs. The physical models are not specifically trained for any of these data sets; rather, input parameters are based on standard molecular mechanics force fields, such as partial charges, and an implicit solvent model. A systematic approach is taken to analyze the contribution from each component in the physics-based permeability model. A primary factor in determining rates of passive membrane permeation is the conformation-dependent free energy of desolvating the molecule, and this measure alone provides good agreement with experimental permeability measurements in many cases. Other factors that improve agreement with experimental data include deionization and estimates of entropy losses of the ligand and the membrane, which lead to size-dependence of the permeation rate. PMID:22621168

  12. Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, S.

    1991-09-23

    The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

  14. Trends in nondestructive imaging of IC packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. M.; Hartfield, C. D.

    1998-11-01

    Since the industry-wide conversion to surface mount packages in the mid-1980's, nondestructive imaging of moisture induced delaminations and cracks in plastic packaged ICs by scanning acoustic microscopy has been a critically important capability. Subsurface imaging and phase analysis of echoes has allowed scanning acoustic microscopy to become the primary nondestructive technique for component level inspection of packaged ICs and is sensitive to defects that are undetectable by real time x-ray inspection. It has become the preferred method for evaluating moisture sensitivity, and for many package processes, provides more reliable detection of wire bond degradation than physical cross sectioning or conventional electrical testing. However, the introduction of new technologies such as ball grid array (BGA) and flip chip packages demands improvements in acoustic inspection techniques. Echoes from the laminated substrates in BGA packages produce interference problems. Phase inversion detection is an important advantage of pulse-echo imaging of molded surface mount packages. However, phase inversion is not always helpful for delamination detection in these new packages, due to the properties of the materials involved. The requirement to nondestructively inspect flip chip interconnect bumps has arisen. Alternative approaches such as through-transmission screening of BGAs and high frequency (>200 MHz) pulse-echo inspection of flip chip bumps are addressing these new issues. As the acoustic frequency approaches the limits dictated by attenuation, new methods of frequency-domain signal analysis will become important for routine inspection and may give acoustic microscopy a predictive capability.

  15. A passive Florida house

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction details, and first year performance of a passive solar home recently built in southwest Florida. The objective was to achieve maximum comfort with minimum energy use by combining proven passive solar cooling techniques with the latest state-of-the-art passive cooling developments such as radiant barriers and vent skin walls and roof. The home is designed around a three-level central core area that induces a ''stack effect'' to create an artificial breeze throughout the house for summer cooling. A galvanized metal roof with a 4-ft (1.2-m) overhang provides shading for walls and windows and incorporates a vent skin and radiant barrier system. The east and west walls, mostly unprotected by the roof overhang, contain a vent skin design along with the radiant barrier system.

  16. Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

  17. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  18. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  19. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  20. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  2. Passive Neutron Dosemeter Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Ferrerio, Ana María; Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René

    2002-08-01

    A passive neutron dosemeter was designed to be used in mixed radiation fields. The design was carried out using Monte Carlo method. The dosemeter model was a 25.4 cmdiameter polyethylene sphere with a thermoluminescent dosemeter, TLD600, located at the sphere center. This model was irradiated with 50 monoenergetic neutron sources with energies from 10-8 to 20 MeV. A 506.71 cm2-area disk was used to model the source term whose center was located at 100 cm from polyethylene sphere's center. The dosemeter response was compared with the responses of SNOOPY, Harwell 95/0075 and PNR-4. With these responses it was calculated the dosemeter responses for 252Cf, 252Cf/D2O and 239PuBe neutron sources. The passive dosemeter relative response has the same shape of SNOOPY, Harwell 95/0075 and PNR-4 dosemeters. Due to the type of thermal neutron detector used in the passive dosemeter the absolute response per unit fluence, is lower than the absolute response of SNOOPY, Harwell 95/0075 and PNR-4 dosemeters. However the passive dosemeter response in function of the average neutron energy of the 252Cf, 252Cf/D2O and 239PuBe neutron energy was more linear.

  3. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  4. Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nondestructive Isotopic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir; Haefner, Andrew; Quiter, Brian

    2010-07-14

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) has been studied as one of the nondestructive analysis (NDA) techniques currently being investigated by a multi-laboratory collaboration for the determination of Pu mass in spent fuel. In NRF measurements specific isotopes are identified by their characteristic lines in recorded gamma spectra. The concentration of an isotope in a material can be determined from measured NRF signal intensities if NRF cross sections and assay geometries are known. The potential of NRF to quantify isotopic content and Pu mass in spent fuel has been studied. The addition of NRF data to MCNPX and an improved treatment of the elastic photon scattering at backward angles has enabled us to more accurately simulate NRF measurements on spent fuel assemblies. Using assembly models from the spent fuel assembly library generated at LANL, NRF measurements are simulated to find the best measurement configurations, and to determine measurement sensitivities and times, and photon source and gamma detector requirements. A first proof-of-principal measurement on a mock-up assembly with a bremsstrahlung photon source demonstrated isotopic sensitivity to approximately 1% limited by counting statistics. Data collection rates are likely a limiting factor of NRF-based measurements of fuel assemblies but new technological advances may lead to drastic improvements.

  5. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  6. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  7. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  8. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R(2), 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  9. Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2011-03-15

    We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

  10. Nondestructive photolithography of conducting polymer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. R.; Huang, X. Q.; Song, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We have demonstrated a nondestructive method using ultraviolet (UV) photolithography to fabricate micrometer-sized conducting polymer structures. By coating a polymer film on patterned photoresist and then performing liftoff, UV exposure to the conducting polymer film was prevented throughout the lithography processes. We created features down to 1 ?m with high yield. Such complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible microfabrication can be applied generally to various organic films, and may allow the speed of organic electronics to be improved. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the active material, and typical OTFT characteristics were obtained.

  11. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

  12. Automation for nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the motivation and an architectural framework for using small mobile robots as automated aids to operators of nondestructive inspection (NDI) equipment. We review the need for aircraft skin inspection, and identify the constraints in commercial airlines operations that make small mobile robots the most attractive alternative for automated aids for NDI procedures. We describe the design and performance of the robot (ANDI) that we designed, built, and are testing for deployment of eddy current probes in prescribed commercial aircraft inspections. We discuss recent work aimed at also providing robotic aids for visual inspection.

  13. Nondestructive approaches for 3-D materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauridsen, E. M.; Dey, S. R.; Fonda, R. W.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2006-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) microstructural characterization has proven to be indispensable for the thorough understanding of the often highly complex microstructures studied in materials science. However, most 3-D characterization techniques of opaque materials such as metals and ceramics are destructive and therefore prohibit 3-D studies of the dynamic microstructural evolution processes. In this paper we describe two complimentary techniques capable of nondestructive 3-D characterization and provide examples of the application of these techniques to investigate microstructural evolution processes in metallic systems.

  14. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  15. Nondestructive Technique To Assess Embrittlement In Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent research at NASA Langley Research Center led to identification of nondestructive technique for detection of temper embrittlement in HY80 steel. Measures magnetoacoustic emission associated with reversible motion of domain walls at low magnetic fields. Of interest to engineers responsible for reliability and safety of various dynamically loaded and/or thermally cycled steel parts. Applications include testing of landing gears, naval vessels, and parts subjected to heat, such as those found in steam-pipe fittings, boilers, turbine rotors, and nuclear pressure vessels.

  16. Delayed gamma technique for fissile material assay

    SciTech Connect

    Mozin, Vladimir; Tobin, Stephen; Vujie, Jasmina; Hunt, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative are investigating several non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of fissile plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. AppHcation of the delayed gamma signatures is investigated in this context. The objective of the research is to assess whether the delayed gamma assay instrument can provide sufficient sensitivity, isotope specificity and accuracy as required in nuclear material safeguards. This effort includes theoretical and experimental components for the optimal combination of interrogation parameters. A new modeling algorithm offering a high level of detail was developed specifically for this purpose and was validated in series of benchmark experiments. Preliminary modeling of the delayed gamma response from spent fuel assemblies was accomplished offering a future direction for the design process.

  17. "Get"-Passives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    Tests claims regarding "get"-passives in English via interrogation of a set of written and spoken corpora. The data suggest that "get"-passives are often associated with two types of pragmatic implicature. Finally, the corpus provides evidence of three types of variation with 'get'-passives: regional, stylistic, and diachronic. (13 references)…

  18. Feynman variance-to-mean in the context of passive neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Hauck, D. K.; Henzlova, D.; Santi, P. A.

    2012-09-01

    Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) based on shift register autocorrelation time analysis of the detected neutron pulse train is an important Nondestructive Assay (NDA) method. It is used extensively in the quantification of plutonium and other spontaneously fissile materials for purposes of nuclear materials accountancy. In addition to the totals count rate, which is also referred to as the singles, gross or trigger rate, a quantity known as the reals coincidence rate, also called the pairs or doubles, is obtained from the difference between the measured neutron multiplicities in two measurement gates triggered by the incoming events on the pulse train. The reals rate is a measure of the number of time correlated pairs present on the pulse train and this can be related to the fission rates (and hence material mass) since fissions emit neutrons in bursts which are also detected in characteristic clusters. A closely related measurement objective is the determination of the reactivity of systems as they approach criticality. In this field an alternative autocorrelation signature is popular, the so called Feynman variance-to-mean technique which makes use of the multiplicity histogram formed the periodic, or clock-triggered opening of a coincidence gate. Workers in these two application areas share common challenges and improvement opportunities but are often separated by tradition, problem focus and technical language. The purpose of this paper is to recognize the close link between the Feynman variance-to-mean metric and traditional PNCC using shift register logic applied to correlated pulse trains. We, show using relationships for the late-gate (or accidentals) histogram recorded using a multiplicity shift register, how the Feynman Y-statistic, defined as the excess variance-to-mean ratio, can be expressed in terms of the singles and doubles rates familiar to the safeguards and waste assay communities. These two specialisms now have a direct bridge between them and we anticipate fruitful cross fertilization, for example on assay algorithms, including corrections for measurement item perturbation factors, and on data acquisition systems.

  19. Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-07-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

  20. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  1. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of engineering material is described. The method utilizes the nonlinearity parameter measurement which describes the anharmonic behavior of the solid through measurements of amplitudes of the fundamental and of the generated second harmonic ultrasonic waves. The nonlinearity parameter is also directly related to the acoustoelastic constant of the solid which can be determined by measuring the linear dependence of ultrasonic velocity on stress. A major advantage of measurements of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes it more applicable for in-service nondestructive characterization. The relationships between the nonlinearity parameter of second-harmonic generation and the percentage of solid solution phase in engineering materials such as heat treatable aluminum alloys was established. The acoustoelastic constants are measured on these alloys for comparison and confirmation. A linear relationship between the nonlinearity parameter and the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in the alloys is indicated.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of thick concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight A.

    2015-03-01

    Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) due to three primary properties: its low cost, structural strength, and ability to shield radiation. Examples of concrete structures important to the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants include the containment building, spent fuel pool, and cooling towers. Use in these structures has made concrete's long-term performance crucial for the safe operation of commercial NPPs. Extending LWR operating period to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of known forms of degradation. New mechanisms of materials degradation are also possible. This creates the need to be able to nondestructively evaluate the current subsurface concrete condition of aging concrete material in NPP structures. The size and complexity of NPP containment structures and heterogeneity of Portland cement concrete make characterization of the degradation extent a difficult task. Specially designed and fabricated test specimens can provide realistic flaws that are similar to actual flaws in terms of how they interact with a particular nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique. Artificial test blocks allow the isolation of certain testing problems as well as the variation of certain parameters. Representative large heavily reinforced concrete specimens would allow for comparative testing to evaluate the state-of-the-art NDE in this area and to identify additional developments necessary to address the challenges potentially found in NPPs.

  3. Passivated niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  4. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Hall, Earl T. (Inventor); Baker, Donald A. (Inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  5. Applications of aerospace technology in industry: A technology transfer profile, nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of nondestructive testing procedures by NASA and the transfer of nondestructive testing to technology to civilian industry are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) an overview of the nondestructive testing field, (2) NASA contributions to the field of nondestructive testing, (3) dissemination of NASA contributions, and (4) a transfer profile. Attachments are included which provide a brief description of common nondestructive testing methods and summarize the technology transfer reports involving NASA generated nondestructive testing technology.

  6. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, neutron flux distribution. The validation of the measurements simulations with Mont-Carlo transport codes for the design, optimization and data analysis of further P&DGNAA facilities is performed in collaboration with LMN CEA Cadarache. The performance of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive determination of actinides in small samples is investigated. The quantitative determination of actinides relies on the precise knowledge of partial neutron capture cross sections. Up to today these cross sections are not very accurate for analytical purpose. The goal of the TANDEM (Trans-uranium Actinides' Nuclear Data - Evaluation and Measurement) Collaboration is the evaluation of these cross sections. Cross sections are measured using prompt gamma activation analysis facilities in Budapest and Munich. Geant4 is used to optimally design the detection system with Compton suppression. Furthermore, for the evaluation of the cross sections it is strongly needed to correct the results to the self-attenuation of the prompt gammas within the sample. In the framework of cooperation RWTH Aachen University, Forschungszentrum Jülich and the Siemens AG will study the feasibility of a compact Neutron Imaging System for Radioactive waste Analysis (NISRA). The system is based on a 14 MeV neutron source and an advanced detector system (a-Si flat panel) linked to an exclusive converter/scintillator for fast neutrons. For shielding and radioprotection studies the codes MCNPX and Geant4 were used. The two codes were benchmarked in processing time and accuracy in the neutron and gamma fluxes. Also the detector response was simulated with Geant4 to optimize components of the system.

  7. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or excessive back pulsing conditions and high temperature transient) could be reflected from the shift of vibration frequencies. These shifts are due to changes in structural properties such as stiffness, which are directly related to the Young's modulus of the candle filters. Further studies are necessary in implementing and verifying the applicability of dynamic NDE characterization methods for actual in-situ conditions, and in establishing a systematic testing procedure for field applications. Also investigations on the filter's natural frequency due to the effect of dust cake or due to the change of boundary conditions may provide insight as to how the filter will perform in the field.

  8. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  9. Nondestructive characterization of nanoscale layered samples.

    PubMed

    Baake, Olaf; Hoffmann, Peter S; Flege, Stefan; Ortner, Hugo M; Gottschalk, Sebastian; Berky, Wolfram; Balogh, Adam G; Ensinger, Wolfgang; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Kolbe, Michael; Gerlach, Martin; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Weser, Jan; Ulm, Gerhard; Haschke, Michael; Blokhina, Elena; Peter, Markus; Porta, Dominique; Heck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Multilayered samples consisting of Al, Co and Ni nanolayers were produced by MBE and characterized nondestructively by means of SRXRF, mu-XRF, WDXRF, RBS, XRR, and destructively with SIMS. The main aims were to identify the elements, to determine their purity and their sequence, and also to examine the roughness, density, homogeneity and thickness of each layer. Most of these important properties could be determined by XRF methods, e.g., on commercial devices. For the thickness, it was found that all of the results obtained via XRR, RBS, SIMS and various XRF methods (SRXRF, mu-XRF, WDXRF) agreed with each other within the limits of uncertainty, and a constant deviation from the presets used in the MBE production method was observed. Some serious preliminary discrepancies in the results from the XRF methods were examined, but all deviations could be explained by introducing various corrections into the evaluation methods and/or redetermining some fundamental parameters. PMID:18998118

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-17

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  11. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  12. Projection Registration Applied to Nondestructive Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Arrowood, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Registration of radiographic and computed tomography (CT) data has the potential to allow automated metrology and defect detection. While registration of the three-dimensional reconstructed data is a common task in the medical industry for registration of data sets from multiple detection systems, registration of projection sets has only seen development in the area of tomotherapy. Efforts in projection registration have employed a method named Fourier phase matching (FPM). This work discusses implementation and results for the application of the FPM method to industrial applications for the nondestructive testing (NDT) community. The FPM method has been implemented and modified for industrial application. Testing with simulated and experimental x-ray CT data shows excellent performance with respect to the resolution of the imaging system.

  13. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  14. Nondestructive detection and measurement of hydrogen embrittlement

    DOEpatents

    Alex, Franklin; Byrne, Joseph Gerald

    1977-01-01

    A nondestructive system and method for the determination of the presence and extent of hydrogen embrittlement in metals, alloys, and other crystalline structures subject thereto. Positron annihilation characteristics of the positron-electron annihilation within the tested material provide unique energy distribution curves for each type of material tested at each respective stage of hydrogen embrittlement. Gamma radiation resulting from such annihilation events is detected and statistically summarized by appropriate instrumentation to reveal the variations of electron activity within the tested material caused by hydrogen embrittlement therein. Such data from controlled tests provides a direct indication of the relative stages of hydrogen embrittlement in the form of unique energy distribution curves which may be utilized as calibration curves for future comparison with field tests to give on-site indication of progressive stages of hydrogen embrittlement.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation of Trunnion Bearing Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, B.; Fry, G. T.; Hurlebaus, S.

    2010-02-01

    Currently, there are several issues plaguing the bridge infrastructure in the United States. These structures are aging and reaching the end of their original design life while simultaneously experiencing increases in train speed, axle load, and train length. As a result of reaching the end of their original design lives, special attention must be given to evaluate the effects of deterioration such as corrosion and fatigue. This research project investigates the integrity of trunnion bearing pins using ultrasonic techniques that (1) minimize disassembling of the bearing, (2) minimize the lock time of the bridge, and (3) are nondestructive. The proposed technique uses an ultrasonic probe to inspect the bearing pin from the center hole as well as an ultrasonic transducer to inspect the pins from their faces. The results of this project show that the proposed method is capable of detecting discontinuities in the bearing pin such as the keyholes.

  16. Cylindrical polarization symmetry for nondestructive nanocharacterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Qiwen

    2003-07-01

    Recently there is an increasing interest in laser beams with radial symmetry in polarization. Due to the cylindrical symmetry in polarization, these beams have unique focusing properties, which may find wide applications in a variety of nanometer scale applications, including high-resolution metrology, high-density data storage, and multi-functional optical microtool. In this paper, simple method of generating cylindrically polarized beams is presented and their potential applications to nondestructive nano-characterization are discussed. A high resolution surface plasmon microscope and a surface plasmon enhanced apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope are proposed. An automatic scanning microellipsometer that uses the cylindrical symmetry to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio in high-spatial-resolution ellipsometric measurement will also be presented.

  17. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

  18. Preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the space shuttle. [preliminary nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements are presented for some 134 potential fracture-critical structural areas identified, for the entire space shuttle vehicle system, as those possibly needing inspection during refurbishment/turnaround and prelaunch operations. The requirements include critical area and defect descriptions, access factors, recommended NDE techniques, and descriptive artwork. Requirements discussed include: Orbiter structure, external tank, solid rocket booster, and thermal protection system (development area).

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of fatigue in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Roesner, H.; Meyendorf, N.; Sathish, S.; Matikas, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    Dissipated heat has been measured by thermographic technique during fatigue experiments on Ti-6Al-4V. Surface temperature of the specimen was found sensitive to the amount of fatigue damage accumulated in the material. An increased heat dissipation due to fatigue can be related to continuous change in the microstructure (increased dislocation density, stacking faults, etc.) of the material. A method based on passive thermography can be proposed to monitor damage accumulation in Ti-6Al-4V due to cyclic loading.

  20. Passive Smoke Exposure and Circulating Carotenoids in the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Widome, Rachel; Jacobs, David R.; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sijtsma, Femke; Gross, Myron; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Our objective was to assess associations between passive smoke exposure in various venues and serum carotenoid concentrations. Methods CARDIA is an ongoing longitudinal study of the risk factors for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease. At baseline in 1985/1986, serum carotenoids were assayed and passive smoke exposure inside and outside of the home and diet were assessed by self-report. Our analytic sample consisted of 2,633 black and white non-smoking adults aged 18–30 years. Results Greater total passive smoke exposure was associated with lower levels of the sum of the three provitamin A carotenoids, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and ?-cryptoxanthin (–0.048 nmol/l per hour of passive smoke exposure, p = 0.001), unassociated with lutein/zeaxanthin, and associated with higher levels of lycopene (0.027 nmol/l per hour of passive smoke exposure, p = 0.010) after adjustment for demographics, diet, lipid profile, and supplement use. Exposure in both home and non-home spaces was also associated with lower levels of the provitamin A carotenoid index. Conclusion Cross-sectionally, in 1985/86, passive smoke exposure in various venues was associated with reduced levels of provitamin A serum carotenoids. PMID:20110671

  1. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ``point defects models`` (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

  2. Mechanical passive logic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Caulfield, H. John

    2015-02-01

    Nothing from nothing gives simple simile, but something from nothing is an interesting and challenging task. Adolf Lohmann once proposed 'do nothing machine' in optics, which only copies input to output. Passive logic module (PALM) is a special type of 'do nothing machine' which can converts inputs into one of 16 possible binary outputs. This logic module is not like the conventional irreversible one. It is a simple type of reversible Turing machine. In this manuscript we discussed and demonstrated PALM using mechanical movement of plane mirrors. Also we discussed the theoretical model of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) based PALM in this manuscript. It may have several valuable properties such as passive operation (no need for nonlinear elements as other logic device require) and modular logic (one device implementing any Boolean logic function with simple internal changes). The result is obtained from the demonstration by only looking up the output. No calculation is required to get the result. Not only that, PALM is a simple type of the famous 'billiard ball machine', which also discussed in this manuscript.

  3. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  4. Simulated Performance of the Integrated Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity and Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry Detector Designed for Spent Fuel Measurement at the Fugen Reactor in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Timothy J. II; Lafleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Seya, Michio; Bolind, Alan M.

    2012-07-16

    An integrated nondestructive assay instrument, which combined the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) techniques, is the research focus for a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative. We will quantify the anticipated performance of this experimental system in two physical environments: (1) At LANL we will measure fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) assemblies for which the average enrichment can be varied from 0.2% to 3.2% and for which Gd laced rods will be included. (2) At Fugen we will measure spent Mixed Oxide (MOX-B) and LEU spent fuel assemblies from the heavy water moderated Fugen reactor. The MOX-B assemblies will vary in burnup from {approx}3 GWd/tHM to {approx}20 GWd/tHM while the LEU assemblies ({approx}1.9% initial enrichment) will vary from {approx}2 GWd/tHM to {approx}7 GWd/tHM. The estimated count rates will be calculated using MCNPX. These preliminary results will help the finalization of the hardware design and also serve a guide for the experiment. The hardware of the detector is expected to be fabricated in 2012 with measurements expected to take place in 2012 and 2013. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  5. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourva, L. C.-A.; Croft, S.

    1999-07-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM, has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM, or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this basis, previously published analytical results for the double exponential case are thought to be in error. As derived analytically, the numerical calculations have been found to be both independent of the detector's efficiency and of the spontaneous fission neutron multiplicity distribution used in the Monte Carlo calculations. Extension of the MCF calculations to multiplicity counting, and in particular to triple coincidence counting, confirmed that, for a single exponential die-away profile, the triple gate utilisation factor is equal to the square of the real gate utilisation factor. For other profiles this relation no longer holds. An analytical expression is given for the case of a double exponential profile. Comparison of the MCF results with earlier calculated estimates of the gate utilisation factor for the on-site laboratory neutron coincidence chamber showed a significant difference. Use of the MCF results led to much better agreement between the observed and calculated specific reals coincidence rate of the on-site laboratory counter for the assay of plutonium samples. Moreover, the present work constitutes a further step towards the improvement of the accuracy of absolute Monte Carlo calculations for active or passive neutron measurements of nuclear materials.

  6. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  7. Active/Passive Infrared Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, J. E.; Fox, C. S.; Rohde, R. S.; Buser, R. G.

    1989-12-01

    An active/passive CO2 laser radar target acquisition sensor has been developed through cooperation of the United States Army, Navy and Air Force. The Tri-Service Laser Radar (TSLR) produces pixel-registered range, velocity, active signal intensity and passive thermal emission data. Fusion of the active and passive information allows for improved characterization and discrimination between manmade objects and natural background clutter. Simple feature synergy of the pixel-registered active and passive infor-mation also provides robust cues for wire detection algorithms.

  8. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Peter A. . E-mail: peter_graf@nrel.gov; Kim, Kwiseon; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2007-06-10

    We describe a systematic and efficient method of determining pseudo-atom positions and potentials for use in nanostructure calculations based on bulk empirical pseudopotentials (EPMs). Given a bulk EPM for binary semiconductor X, we produce parameters for pseudo-atoms necessary to passivate a nanostructure of X in preparation for quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations. These passivants are based on the quality of the wave functions of a set of small test structures that include the passivants. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. It enables and/or streamlines surface passivation for empirical pseudopotential calculations.

  9. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

  11. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claytor, T. M.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). The state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete is reviewed. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  12. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Hunt, Alan W.; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather A.

    2015-09-28

    This project has been a collaborative effort of researchers from four National Laboratories, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Idaho State University’s (ISU) Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). Experimental measurements at the Oregon State University (OSU) were also supported. The research included two key components, a strong experimental campaign to characterize the delayed gamma-ray signatures of the isotopes of interests and of combined targets, and a closely linked modeling effort to assess system designs and applications. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Detailed signature knowledge is essential for analyzing the capabilities of the delayed gamma technique, optimizing measurement parameters, and specifying neutron source and gamma-ray detection system requirements. The research was divided into three tasks: experimental measurements, characterization of fission yields, and development of analysis methods (task 1), modeling in support of experiment design and analysis and for the assessment of applications (task 2), and high-rate gamma-ray detector studies (task 3).

  13. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-09-11

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the {sup 239}Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a {sup 239}Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in {sup 239}Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of {sup 239}Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U. This large difference allows small changes in the {sup 239}Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and {sup 239}Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the {sup 239}Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of {sup 239}Pu up to approximately two weight percent.

  14. The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

    2009-05-26

    This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

  15. A prototype of radioactive waste drum monitor by non-destructive assays using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Trang, Hoang Thi Kieu; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Nguyen, Vo Hoang; Tran, Le Bao; Tam, Hoang Duc; Tao, Chau Van

    2016-03-01

    In this work, segmented gamma scanning and the gamma emission tomography were used to locate unknown sources in a radioactive waste drum. The simulated detector response function and full energy peak efficiency are compared to corresponding experimental data and show about 5.3% difference for an energy ranging from 81keV to 1332.5keV for point sources. Computation of the corresponding activity is in good agreement with the true values. PMID:26717796

  16. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    1999-12-06

    This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

  17. Non-destructive assay of mechanical components using gamma-rays and thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Erica Silvani; de Almeida, Gevaldo L.; Souza, Maria Ines S.; Avelino, Mila R.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents the results obtained in the inspection of several mechanical components through neutron and gamma-ray transmission radiography. The 4.46 × 105 n.cm-2.s-1 thermal neutron flux available at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear has been used as source for the neutron radiographic imaging. The 412 keV ?-ray emitted by 198Au, also produced in that reactor, has been used as interrogation agent for the gamma radiography. Imaging Plates - IP specifically designed to operate with thermal neutrons or with X-rays have been employed as detectors and storage devices for each of these radiations.

  18. Non-destructive assay of mechanical components using gamma-rays and thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Erica Silvani; Avelino, Mila R.

    2013-05-06

    This work presents the results obtained in the inspection of several mechanical components through neutron and gamma-ray transmission radiography. The 4.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} thermal neutron flux available at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear has been used as source for the neutron radiographic imaging. The 412 keV {gamma}-ray emitted by {sup 198}Au, also produced in that reactor, has been used as interrogation agent for the gamma radiography. Imaging Plates - IP specifically designed to operate with thermal neutrons or with X-rays have been employed as detectors and storage devices for each of these radiations.

  19. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    2000-01-27

    This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the various QAOs. A brief description of each test and any significant conclusions is included. Variables which may have affected test outcomes are examined. This report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

  20. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1999-01-01

    Adhesives and adhesive joints are widely used in various industrial applications to reduce weight and costs, and to increase reliability. For example, advances in aerospace technology have been made possible, in part, through the use of lightweight materials and weight-saving structural designs. Joints, in particular, have been and continue to be areas in which weight can be trimmed from an airframe through the use of novel attachment techniques. In order to save weight over traditional riveted designs, to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations associated with rivet holes, and to take full advantage of advanced composite materials, engineers and designers have been specifying an ever-increasing number of adhesively bonded joints for use on airframes. Nondestructive characterization for quality control and remaining life prediction has been a key enabling technology for the effective use of adhesive joints. Conventional linear ultrasonic techniques generally can only detect flaws (delamination, cracks, voids, etc) in the joint assembly. However, more important to structural reliability is the bond strength. Although strength, in principle, cannot be measured nondestructively, a slight change in material nonlinearity may indicate the onset of failure. Furthermore, microstructural variations due to aging or under-curing may also cause changes in the third order elastic constants, which are related to the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of the polymer adhesive. It is therefore reasonable to anticipate a correlation between changes in the ultrasonic nonlinear acoustic parameter and the remaining bond strength. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasonic wave passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such nonlinearity can be effectively used to characterize bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect. Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear interface binding force, a quantitative method was presented. Recently, a comparison between the experimental and simulated results based on a similar theoretical model was presented. A through-transmission setup for water immersion mode-converted shear waves was used to analyze the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of an adhesive bond. In addition, ultrasonic guided waves have been used to analyze adhesive or diffusion bonded joints. In this paper, the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is used to characterize the curing state of a polymer/aluminum adhesive joint. Ultrasonic through-transmission tests were conducted on samples cured under various conditions. The magnitude of the second order harmonic was measured and the corresponding ultrasonic nonlinear parameter was evaluated. A fairly good correlation between the curing condition and the nonlinear parameter is observed. The results show that the nonlinear parameter might be used as a good indicator of the cure state for adhesive joints.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of compacted clayey soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inci, Gokhan

    Compacted clayey soils are analyzed using nondestructive testing methods. Ultrasonic testing and image analysis are used as nondestructive testing techniques. Tests were conducted on three clayey soils with low to high plasticities. The soils are compacted and then allowed to dry or subjected to wetting and drying cycles subsequent to compaction. Ultrasonic tests are performed to determine small strain elastic properties of soils during drying. Image analysis techniques are used to determine large strains and cracking behavior of soils during wetting and drying cycles. Finally, numerical methods are used to simulate large and small strain soil behavior. Ultrasonic testing can be used effectively to determine compaction characteristics of soils. Through transmission can be applicable in the laboratory or on recovered field samples while surface transmission can be used in the field. Variation of P-wave velocity is similar to variation of dry density for the test soils. Increasing compactive effort cause increases in measured wave velocity. Variations of elastic parameters during drying are investigated. More variation was observed for soils compacted with low compaction effort and high water contents. Five elastic parameters of cross-anisotropy are calculated from wave velocity measurements on cubical samples with oblique cuts. Constrained, Young's, and shear moduli increase, while Poisson's ratios decrease during drying. Starting with isotropy assumption, empirical formulas are used to calculate the shear moduli and results are compared with experimental shear modulus values obtained using the theory of elasticity. A new formulation is developed to compute shear modulus variation with saturation. Behavior of compacted clayey soils during wetting and drying was also investigated. High plasticity-fine grained soils tend to shrink and crack more during drying. Cracks of these soils tend to heal and close during wetting cycles. Cracking and healing are less for medium and low plasticity soils. Cracking is observed at relatively low suction levels for all soil types. Cracking is quantified using image analysis techniques. Finite element models are successfully used to make predictions on small strainwave propagation and fracture potential of soils. Transducer size has significant effect on surface arrangement arrival times and water content profile has significant effect on fracture potential.

  2. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3... and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be...; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel meeting ASNT “Recommended Practice No....

  3. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3... and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be...; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel meeting ASNT “Recommended Practice No....

  4. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3... and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be...; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel meeting ASNT “Recommended Practice No....

  5. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3... and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be...; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel meeting ASNT “Recommended Practice No....

  6. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  7. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  8. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  9. Passive seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

    1972-01-01

    The design, deployment, and operation of the Apollo 16 passive seismic experiment (PSE) are discussed. Since activation, all elements of the PSE have operated as planned, with the exception of the sensor thermal control system. Significant progress in the measurement of meteoroid flux in near-earth space has been made, along with dilineation of active moonquake source regions. The data obtained indicate that moonquakes are concentrated at great depth (800 to 1000 km) and that the apparent disparity between meteoroid flux estimtes based on lunar crater counts and those from earth-based observations can be resolved by seismic measurements in favor of the lower flux indicated by the crater count method. The results obtained from the PSE are summarized and their significance is discussed in detail.

  10. Passive films on magnesium anodes in primary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the passive films over Mg anodes, which essentially govern the voltage delay of the latter, have been determined nondestructively from an analysis of the transient and steady-state response of the electrode potential to low amplitude galvanostatic polarization under various experimental conditions viz., with different corrosion inhibitor coatings on Mg, after various periods of ageing of anode in solutions containing corrosion inhibitors, at various low temperatures etc. Using these parameters, the kinetics of film build-up or dissolution under these conditions have been monitored. The morphology of the anode film has been verified with scanning electron microscopy. Similar transients at low temperatures point out a steep rise in the film resistivity which is essentially responsible for the severe voltage delay. Finally, possible application of this technique in secondary Li batteries to improve cycling characteristics of the Li anode has been pointed out.

  11. Instrument performs nondestructive chemical analysis, data can be telemetered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A.

    1965-01-01

    Instrument automatically performs a nondestructive chemical analysis of surfaces and transmits the data in the form of electronic signals. It employs solid-state nuclear particle detectors with a charged nuclear particle source and an electronic pulse-height analyzer.

  12. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  13. 12. VIEW OF THE NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO DETECT FLAWS IN FABRICATED COMPONENTS. (6/76) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Partially Nondestructive Continuous Detection of Individual Traveling Optical Photons.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Beck, Kristin M; Duan, Yiheng; Chen, Wenlan; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2016-01-22

    We report the continuous and partially nondestructive measurement of optical photons. For a weak light pulse traveling through a slow-light optical medium (signal), the associated atomic-excitation component is detected by another light beam (probe) with the aid of an optical cavity. We observe strong correlations of g_{sp}^{(2)}=4.4(5) between the transmitted signal and probe photons. The observed (intrinsic) conditional nondestructive quantum efficiency ranges between 13% and 1% (65% and 5%) for a signal transmission range of 2% to 35%, at a typical time resolution of 2.5???s. The maximal observed (intrinsic) device nondestructive quantum efficiency, defined as the product of the conditional nondestructive quantum efficiency and the signal transmission, is 0.5% (2.4%). The normalized cross-correlation function violates the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, confirming the nonclassical character of the correlations. PMID:26849595

  15. Ultrasonic recording scanner used for nondestructive weld inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Portable ultrasonic recording scanner is used for nondestructive inspection of welds. It is adaptable to continuous operation in one direction while maintaining oscillatory motion at a right angle to this direction. The scanning speed and oscillation frequency are independently adjustable.

  16. Partially Nondestructive Continuous Detection of Individual Traveling Optical Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Beck, Kristin M.; Duan, Yiheng; Chen, Wenlan; Vuletić, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    We report the continuous and partially nondestructive measurement of optical photons. For a weak light pulse traveling through a slow-light optical medium (signal), the associated atomic-excitation component is detected by another light beam (probe) with the aid of an optical cavity. We observe strong correlations of gsp (2 )=4.4 (5 ) between the transmitted signal and probe photons. The observed (intrinsic) conditional nondestructive quantum efficiency ranges between 13% and 1% (65% and 5%) for a signal transmission range of 2% to 35%, at a typical time resolution of 2.5 μ s . The maximal observed (intrinsic) device nondestructive quantum efficiency, defined as the product of the conditional nondestructive quantum efficiency and the signal transmission, is 0.5% (2.4%). The normalized cross-correlation function violates the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, confirming the nonclassical character of the correlations.

  17. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  18. Passive retrofits for Navy housing

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbert, R.; Miles, C.; Jones, R.; Peck, C.; Anderson, J.; Jacobson, V.; Dale, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.

  19. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  20. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  1. Nondestructive characterization of fatigue damage with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesner, Henrik; Sathish, Shamachary; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2001-08-01

    A thermal imaging NDE method has been developed for nondestructive characterization of early stages of fatigue damage. The method is based on evaluation of the thermal effects induced in a material by a short-term mechanical loading. The mechanical loading causes in addition to thermoelastic temperature change, an increase due to heat dissipation that depends upon the microstructure of the material in a characteristic manner. The origin of this heat dissipation is the mechanical damping process. Utilizing the initial temperature rise due to a short-term mechanical loading, the dissipated energy per cycle was evaluated as a thermal parameter. This new thermal NDE parameter allows a quantitative characterization of the mechanical hysteresis, without the need for calibration to eliminate influences of thermal boundary conditions. The measurement of the thermal NDE parameters has been performed on Ti-6Al-4V dog-bone specimens, fatigued in low cycle fatigue (LCF) as well as in high cycle fatigue (HCF) experiments. Characteristic dependence of the NDE parameters on the already accumulated fatigue damage has been observed. The advantage of the thermal method is the applicability to components under service conditions because of simplicity, rapid measurements (a few seconds) and the ability of locally resolved evaluations.

  2. Nondestructive electromagnetic characterization of uniaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Neil G.

    In this dissertation, a method for the simultaneous non-destructive extraction of the permittivity and permeability of a dielectric magnetic uniaxial anisotropic media is developed and several key contributions are demonstrated. The method utilizes a single fixture in which the MUT is clamped between two rectangular waveguides with 6" x 6" PEC flanges. The transmission and reflection coefficients are measured, then compared with theoretically calculated coefficients to find a least squares solution to the minimization problem. One of the key contributions of this work is the development of the total parallel plate spectral-domain Green's function by two independent methods. The Green's function is thereby shown to be correct in form and in physical meaning. A second significant contribution of this work to the scientific community is the evaluation of one of the inverse Fourier transform integrals in the complex plane. This significantly enhances the efficiency of the extraction code. A third significant contribution is the measurement of a number of uniaxial anisotropic materials, many of which were envisioned, designed and constructed in-house using 3D printing technology. The results are shown to be good in the transverse dimension, but mildly unstable in the longitudinal dimension. A secondary contribution of this work that warrants mention is the inclusion of a flexible, complete, working code for the extraction process. Although such codes have been written before, they have not been published in the literature for broader use.

  3. Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

    2012-05-01

    Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactive Powder Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Graybeal, Benjamin; Rezaizadeh, Ali

    2004-02-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has been introduced as a structural material for civil engineering applications. The material consists of a finely graded combination of cement, sand, ground quartz and silica fume which combined with water form a cement paste. Small steel fibers measuring approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length are distributed throughout the cement matrix and the combined material has very high compressive strength and toughness. The material is proposed for use in the primary load bearing members in bridges, and as such nondestructive evaluation technologies are needed to evaluate material quality and monitor in-service condition. This paper reports on research to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing for determining the elastic properties of RPC. Comparison between static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic modulus measurements is presented. A system for determining elastic moduli as a quality control tool is discussed. The effect of curing conditions on ultrasonic velocities and resulting calculated moduli values is presented and compared with traditional measurement methods.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation development for process control

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Holloway, D.L.; Sivers, E.A.; Ling, J.; Pollinger, J.P.; Yeh, H.C.

    1991-12-31

    A joint project between Garrett Ceramic Components (GCC) of Allied Signal Aerospace Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is ongoing to evaluate nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods to detect and measure process-induced variations in ceramic materials. The process methods of current focus on slip-casting and injection molding and the NDC methods being evaluated are microfocus X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and nuclear magnetic resonance computed tomography (MRCT). As part of this work, SiC whisker reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GCC`s GN-10 material) has been pressure slip-cast at two casting pressures, 15 and 40 psi; and at length/diameter ratios of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.0 with whisker contents of 20, 23, 27 and 30 wt %. Three-dimensional microfocus XCT has been used to study density variations in billets produced by different process conditions. Destructive measurement of density variation has been compared to the XCT measurements and correlations established. XCT has been shown to be able to detect <5% variations in as-cast density and these were destructively verified.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation development for process control

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Holloway, D.L.; Sivers, E.A. ); Ling, J. . Inst. for Ceramics); Pollinger, J.P.; Yeh, H.C. . Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

    1991-01-01

    A joint project between Garrett Ceramic Components (GCC) of Allied Signal Aerospace Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is ongoing to evaluate nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods to detect and measure process-induced variations in ceramic materials. The process methods of current focus on slip-casting and injection molding and the NDC methods being evaluated are microfocus X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and nuclear magnetic resonance computed tomography (MRCT). As part of this work, SiC whisker reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GCC's GN-10 material) has been pressure slip-cast at two casting pressures, 15 and 40 psi; and at length/diameter ratios of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.0 with whisker contents of 20, 23, 27 and 30 wt %. Three-dimensional microfocus XCT has been used to study density variations in billets produced by different process conditions. Destructive measurement of density variation has been compared to the XCT measurements and correlations established. XCT has been shown to be able to detect <5% variations in as-cast density and these were destructively verified.

  7. A Review of Non-destructive Detection for Fruit Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Zhu, Fengmei; Cai, Jinxing

    An overview of non-destructive detection in quality of post-harvest fruit was presented in this paper, and the research and application were discussed. This paper elaborated the fruit quality detection methods which were based on one of the following properties: optical properties, sonic vibration, machine vision technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electronic noses, electrical properties, computed tomography. At last, the main problems of non-destructive detection in application were also explained.

  8. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-08-30

    Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

  9. Confocal imaging to quantify passive transport across biomimetic lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Hu, Peichi; Malmstadt, Noah

    2010-01-01

    The ability of a molecule to pass through the plasma membrane without the aid of any active cellular mechanisms is central to that molecule’s pharmaceutical characteristics. Passive transport has been understood in the context of Overton’s rule, which states that more lipophilic molecules cross membrane lipid bilayers more readily. Existing techniques for measuring passive transport lack reproducibility and are hampered by the presence of an unstirred layer (USL) that dominates transport across the bilayer. This report describes assays based on spinning-disk confocal microscopy (SDCM) of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) that allow for the detailed investigation of passive transport processes and mechanisms. This approach allows the concentration field to be directly observed, allowing membrane permeability to be determined easily from the transient concentration profile data. A series of molecules of increasing hydrophilicity was constructed and the transport of these molecules into GUVs was observed. The observed permeability trend is consistent with Overton’s rule. However, the values measured depart from the simple partition-diffusion proportionality model of passive transport. This technique is easy to implement and has great promise as an approach to measure membrane transport. It is optimally suited to precise quantitative measurements of the dependence of passive transport on membrane properties. PMID:20722391

  10. A Nondestructive Method of Grain Microstructure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.

    2004-09-03

    Customarily, a material has been sectioned to study its internal grain microstructure and thus in the process is destroyed. Using x-rays, however, there are two nondestructive methods of determining the sources of diffraction spots and hence the internal grain microstructure of a sample. One technique consists of placing a wire in the path of a diffracted ray so that its image is prevented from appearing on the detector screen. Ray-tracing is then done to locate the source within the sample from whence the rays emanate. In this experiment, we investigate the other technique of determining source location by recording diffraction patterns at ten equally-spaced detector distances and then graphing the data with reasonable-fit lines using the least-squares fitting routine. We then perform a ray-tracing triangulation technique to pinpoint the location of the source from which the rays are coming. Cluster analyses are employed and plots of ray number versus pixel position of certain points at some particular detector distances are created. An error propagation analysis is then carried out as a check to the cluster analyses and graphs of error deviation along the detector path versus ray number are constructed. With statistical error analyses and construction of error boxes using chosen pixel error deviations and delta z error values, the best error measurement using the detector method was found to be plus/minus 100 microns. In this study, it was found that the detector method provided a much poorer resolution than the traditional wire technique of which there is a source size precision of within 1-5 microns. The detector method, though, is sufficient for large-grain material studies.

  11. Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rose, J L

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis. PMID:18238584

  12. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  13. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  14. Passive magnetic screening.

    PubMed

    Andrew, E R

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that a passive magnetic shield for a 1.5-T whole-body magnet requires about 20 tons of iron. Moreover, to first order, the amount of shielding material is independent of the radius of the shield. The choice between a thick shield fitting tightly round the magnet and a thinner shield of larger radius is determined by considerations of available space and the need for the highest uniformity of field in the bore. Very high permeability materials such as mu-metal are useful only in special circumstances. Multiple shields are valuable if a high degree of shielding is required, but the spacing between the shields needs careful attention. Although exact reciprocity of internal and external shielding is not found in the general case, the degree of shielding will be of the same order in both cases. The complete behavior of cylindrical shields around superconducting magnets can be determined by analytical solution of Maxwell's equations; for less regular shapes, solutions may be determined numerically by computer. PMID:2067396

  15. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  16. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  17. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  18. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  19. New passive helicopter detector

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sandia has developed a new helicopter detector. The device relies on the correlation between the acoustic wave from the helicopter and the resulting coupled seismic wave. A significant feature of this approach is that the detector is completely passive; there is no radio frequency radiation. Intended for deployment as a perimeter sensor around a site, the unit offers a low nuisance/false alarm rate and a high probability of detection for a wide range of helicopters. Reliable detection occurs when the target is at high altitude and also very near the earth's surface. Detection ranges start at one kilometer for the small, four-place, civilian helicopter and approach five kilometers for heavier, military types. The system has two parts: a transducer package containing a microphone and a geophone and a digital processor. Development is underway for a model which will be AC powered and well suited to permanent facilities. A prototype unit using a lightweight, battery powered processor is being constructed for rapid-deployment applications. 6 figs.

  20. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  1. Passive Solar Is Common Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    A checklist of concepts concerning passive solar energy techniques. Many can be applied immediately to existing buildings, while others should be brought into the initial planning of buildings. (Author/MLF)

  2. Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ningli

    2011-12-01

    Wave propagation in porous media is studied in a wide range of technological applications. In the manufacturing industry, determining porosity of materials in the manufacturing process is required for strict quality control. In the oil industry, acoustic signals and seismic surveys are used broadly to determine the physical properties of the reservoir rock which is a porous media filled with oil or gas. In porous noise control materials, a precise prediction of sound absorption with frequency and evaluation of tortuosity are necessary. Ultrasonic nondestructive methods are a very important tool for characterization of porous materials. The dissertation deals with two types of porous media: materials with relatively low and closed porosity and materials with comparatively high and open porosity. Numerical modeling, Finite Element simulations and experimental characterization are all discussed in this dissertation. First, ultrasonic scattering is used to determine the porosity in porous media with closed pores. In order get a relationship between the porosity in porous materials and ultrasonic scattering independently and to increase the sensitivity to obtain scattering information, ultrasonic imaging methods are applied and acoustic waves are focused by an acoustic lens. To verify the technique, engineered porous acrylic plates with varying porosity are measured by ultrasonic scanning and ultrasonic array sensors. Secondly, a laser based ultrasonic technique is explored for predicting the mechanical integrity and durability of cementitious materials. The technique used involves the measurement of the phase velocity of fast and slow longitudinal waves in water saturated cement paste. The slow wave velocity is related to the specimen's tortuosity. The fast wave speed is dependent on the elastic properties of porous solid. Experimental results detailing the generation and detection of fast and slow wave waves in freshly prepared and aged water-saturated cement samples with varying water-to-cement ratios are presented in the dissertation. The third part concerns the ultrasonic characterization of air-saturated porous materials. Using airborne reflected and transmitted ultrasonic experimental data, the open porosity and tortuosity value of a porous acrylic plate with graded void content and a polyimide foam are determined simultaneously. Experimental and numerical results of the method are presented.

  6. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil-carbon analysis; however, these also are invasive and destructive techniques. The INS approach permits quantification in a relatively large volume of soil without disrupting the measurement site. The technique is very fast and provides nearly instantaneous results thereby reducing the cost, and speeding up the rate of analysis. It also has the potential to cover large areas in a mobile scanning mode. These capabilities will significantly advance the tracking carbon sequestration and offer a tool for research in agronomy, forestry, soil ecology and biogeochemistry.

  7. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  8. Characterization of Nitinol Laser-Weld Joints by Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlschlögel, Markus; Gläßel, Gunter; Sanchez, Daniela; Schüßler, Andreas; Dillenz, Alexander; Saal, David; Mayr, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Joining technology is an integral part of today's Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Besides crimping and riveting, laser welding is often applied to join components made from Nitinol to Nitinol, as well as Nitinol components to dissimilar materials. Other Nitinol joining techniques include adhesive bonding, soldering, and brazing. Typically, the performance of joints is assessed by destructive mechanical testing, on a process validation base. In this study, a nondestructive testing method—photothermal radiometry—is applied to characterize small Nitinol laser-weld joints used to connect two wire ends via a sleeve. Two different wire diameters are investigated. Effective joint connection cross sections are visualized using metallography techniques. Results of the nondestructive testing are correlated to data from destructive torsion testing, where the maximum torque at fracture is evaluated for the same joints and criteria for the differentiation of good and poor laser-welding quality by nondestructive testing are established.

  9. Characterization of Nitinol Laser-Weld Joints by Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlschlögel, Markus; Gläßel, Gunter; Sanchez, Daniela; Schüßler, Andreas; Dillenz, Alexander; Saal, David; Mayr, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Joining technology is an integral part of today's Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Besides crimping and riveting, laser welding is often applied to join components made from Nitinol to Nitinol, as well as Nitinol components to dissimilar materials. Other Nitinol joining techniques include adhesive bonding, soldering, and brazing. Typically, the performance of joints is assessed by destructive mechanical testing, on a process validation base. In this study, a nondestructive testing method—photothermal radiometry—is applied to characterize small Nitinol laser-weld joints used to connect two wire ends via a sleeve. Two different wire diameters are investigated. Effective joint connection cross sections are visualized using metallography techniques. Results of the nondestructive testing are correlated to data from destructive torsion testing, where the maximum torque at fracture is evaluated for the same joints and criteria for the differentiation of good and poor laser-welding quality by nondestructive testing are established.

  10. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-02-22

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electrolyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polarographically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods. 6 figs.

  11. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  12. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

  13. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface area of the separating screen. Additionally, there are no moving parts, and there are no failure modes that involve fluid loss. A patent application has been filed.

  14. Global Assays of Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review There exists an imbalance between our understanding of the physiology of the blood coagulation process and the translation of this understanding into useful assays for clinical application. As technology advances, the capabilities for merging the two areas have become more attainable. Global assays have advanced our understanding of the dynamics of the blood coagulation process beyond end point assays and are at the forefront of implementation in the clinic. Recent findings We will review recent advances in the main global assays with a focus on thrombin generation that have potential for clinical utility. These assays include direct (thrombogram, whole blood, purified systems) and indirect empirical measures of thrombin generation (thromboelastography) and mechanism-based computational models that use plasma composition data from individuals to generate thrombin generation profiles. Summary Empirical thrombin generation assays (direct and indirect) and computational modeling of thrombin generation have greatly advanced our understanding of the hemostatic balance. Implementation of these types of assays and visualization approaches in the clinic potentially will provide a basis for the development of individualized patient care. Advances in both empirical and computational global assays have made the goal of predicting pre-crisis changes in an individual’s hemostatic state one step closer. PMID:25054908

  15. Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be made for hydrophobic chemicals using passive dosing. PMID:22125776

  16. On-orbit nondestructive evaluation of space platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Charles T.

    The requirements that must be met for on-orbit nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures under the space environment conditions are examined. Emphasis is placed on problems encountered in this environment from atomic oxygen bombardment, high velocity impact from space debris, and thermal cycling of materials and structures. The SSF is used to illustrate the major needs for monitoring the 'health' of on-orbit structures. It is concluded that nondestructive evaluation methods including acoustic emission, eddy current, laser holographic, optical thermal, and ultrasonic should be adaptable to the requirements of LEO.

  17. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  18. Single-cell assays

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Declan; Ren, Kangning; Wu, Hongkai

    2011-01-01

    This review presents an overview of literature that describes the applications of microfluidics to assay individual cells. We quantify the content of an individual mammalian cell, so that we can understand what criteria a single-cell assay must satisfy to be successful. We put in context the justification for single-cell assays and identify the characteristics that are relevant to single-cell assays. We review the literature from the past 24 months that describe the methods that use microfabrication—conventional or otherwise—and microfluidics in particular to study individual cells, and we present our views on how an increasing emphasis on three-dimensional cell culture and the demonstration of the first chemically defined cell might impact single-cell assays. PMID:21559238

  19. CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Salazar, William R.; Mayo, Douglas R.; Vigil, Georgiana M.; Crooks, William J.; Stange, Sy

    2012-07-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

  20. Advanced analysis techniques for uranium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W. H.; Ensslin, Norbert; Carrillo, L. A.; Beard, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium has a negligible passive neutron emission rate making its assay practicable only with an active interrogation method. The active interrogation uses external neutron sources to induce fission events in the uranium in order to determine the mass. This technique requires careful calibration with standards that are representative of the items to be assayed. The samples to be measured are not always well represented by the available standards which often leads to large biases. A technique of active multiplicity counting is being developed to reduce some of these assay difficulties. Active multiplicity counting uses the measured doubles and triples count rates to determine the neutron multiplication (f4) and the product of the source-sample coupling ( C ) and the 235U mass (m). Since the 35U mass always appears in the multiplicity equations as the product of Cm, the coupling needs to be determined before the mass can be known. A relationship has been developed that relates the coupling to the neutron multiplication. The relationship is based on both an analytical derivation and also on empirical observations. To determine a scaling constant present in this relationship, known standards must be used. Evaluation of experimental data revealed an improvement over the traditional calibration curve analysis method of fitting the doubles count rate to the 235Um ass. Active multiplicity assay appears to relax the requirement that the calibration standards and unknown items have the same chemical form and geometry.

  1. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Research into the nondestructive evaluation of advanced reinforced composite laminates is summarized. The applicability of the Framers-Kronig equations to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials is described.

  2. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  3. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Ruffino, Norman; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Winfree, William; Russell, Richard; Bryson, Craig; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Landy, James

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines the background and objective of nondestructive crack detection, flow control valve assembly and poppet post flight evaluation, poppet properties. magnetic property characterization of lab data, NDE, eddy current inspection, simulation, eddy current criteria, poppet cycle testing and NDE criteria, and the use of ultrasonic surface wave for crack detection.

  4. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

  5. Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

  6. Training manuals for nondestructive testing using magnetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Training manuals containing the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using magnetic particle as detection media are used by metal parts inspectors and quality assurance specialists. Magnetic particle testing involves magnetization of the test specimen, application of the magnetic particle and interpretation of the patterns formed.

  7. An Instructional Program for Training Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Vernon L.

    This document, the second portion of a two-part study, is designed to provide a guide for the formal training of technicians for nondestructive testing and inspection. Information in the guide is based on results of the industrial survey discussed in Part I. The subject matter is intended to be both flexible and comprehensive, and instructional…

  8. Evaluation of methods for nondestructive testing of brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, A.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of nondestructive methods of testing brazed joints reveals that ultrasonic testing is effective in the detection of nonbonds in diffusion bonded samples. Radiography provides excellent resolutions of void or inclusion defects, and the neutron radiographic technique shows particular advantage for brazing materials containing cadmium.

  9. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  10. Nondestructive method for measuring residual stresses in metals, a concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwebel, C. D.

    1968-01-01

    Nondestructive direct measurement of residual surface stresses in metals can be made because metal under stress has a different electrochemical solution potential than in the unstressed condition. The method uses two matched electrolytic cells to cancel extraneous effects on the actual solution potential of the metal specimen.

  11. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  12. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  13. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  15. Automatic, nondestructive test monitors in-process weld quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deal, F. C.

    1968-01-01

    Instrument automatically and nondestructively monitors the quality of welds produced in microresistance welding. It measures the infrared energy generated in the weld as the weld is made and compares this energy with maximum and minimum limits of infrared energy values previously correlated with acceptable weld-strength tolerances.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of new coiled tubing and pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, R.K.

    1996-09-01

    The nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE) of coiled tubing and pipe during manufacture has not previously been described. This paper outlines the NDE methods employed during the production of such material, along with flaw removal criteria. This paper describes coiled tubing and pipe up to 3.5 inches diameter for both downhole and line pipe use.

  17. Microwave moisture sensor for rapid and nondestructive grading of peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture sensor operating at a single frequency for instantaneous and nondestructive determination of moisture content in peanut kernels from microwave dielectric measurements on peanut pods was developed and tested. The sensor operates at a frequency of 5.8 GHz and uses the pr...

  18. Some Hazards of Passive Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    Non-smokers are exposed to three types of cigaret smoke: mainstream, sidestream and diffusional smoke, of which sidestream (produced while the cigaret smolders in an ashtray) is the most toxic. Studies of passive smoking show that while smoke is an unpleasant irritant, it appears to have no lasting effects on healthy passive smokers. It may, however, be a particular irritant to already sensitive individuals such as asthmatics, and to young children chronically exposed. Such children show an increase of respiratory disorders, and adults show an increase of small airway disease with a possible risk of lung cancer. More stringent legislation on smoking is desirable. PMID:21286053

  19. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  20. Passive-solar retrofit concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Four retrofit passive solar designs for single family dwellings are presented. The first design, for a house in Minnesota, involves insulating wall cavities and the attic with blown cellulose, reduction of infiltration, and installation of insulating shades on all windows. The second, for a house in Michigan, combines weatherization, a sunspace with clerestory, and a thermosiphoning collector. The third, for a house in Missouri, involves the addition of a large sunspace with a passive solar hot water preheater for a hot tub. The fourth, for a house in Indiana, combines intensive weatherization with a two story sunspace and thermal chimney addition. All designs are thoroughly illustrated.

  1. Indoor localization using passive RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Segou, Olga E.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems based on passive tags are used successfully in a wide range of object identification applications. However, the increasing needs to meet new demands on applications of localization and tracking create a new field for evolution of the RFID technology. This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a cost-effective localization system for in-building usage that is able to localize objects that carry passive RFID tags. The RFID reading is performed by a single Reader and an array of directional antennas through multiplexing. Evaluation and experimental results from three localization algorithms based on RSSI are presented.

  2. Factor VII assay

    MedlinePLUS

    The factor VII assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor VII. This is one of the proteins in ... the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick ...

  3. Factor V assay

    MedlinePLUS

    The factor V assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor V. This is one of the proteins in ... the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick ...

  4. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  5. Study of kinetics of a PGNAA system for nondestructive characterization of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, B.; Haghighat, A.; Dulloo, A.; Congedo, T.V.

    1999-09-01

    Pulsed gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a promising method for accurate nondestructive assaying of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb) in mixed waste. A laboratory PGNAA system was developed by the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC). The system proved to be very successful in a blind-test performance evaluation study, by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, employing 8-gal drums. The DOE is currently supporting development of a commercial system for characterization of 55-gal drummed mixed waste through joint efforts of the Penn State Transport theory Group (PSTTG), WSTC, and Canberra. A transport theory methodology was established by PSTTG for accurate simulations of such systems. These simulations will be used in support of the design of the full-size system for assaying 55-gal drums and to optimize system performance. Herein the authors introduce the methodology, present results of simulations, and discuss neutron kinetics and its impact on the system performance.

  6. Passive and hybrid solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, S. R.

    1985-11-01

    Passive solar systems are introduced. The four most common types of system are direct gain windows, air collectors, mass walls, and sunspaces. For each system type the concept, an example, design considerations, calculation methods, performance data, and suggested reading are presented. Conclusions are valid for central and to an extent for northern Europe.

  7. Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

  8. [Passive smoking--active killer].

    PubMed

    Palavra, Irena Rojni?; Franeli?, Iva Pejnovi?; Milanovi?, Sanja Musi?; Pulji?, Kresimir

    2013-01-01

    Although still not perceived in this way, passive smoking is a public health issue of great importance. World Health Organization estimates that as a result of passive exposure to tobacco smoke each year 600,000 people die, of which 165,000 children. There are 33% of men, 35% of women and 40% of children who do not smoke, but are exposed to second hand smoke, and still only 11% of the world population is protected by adequate smoke-free legislation. Scientific literature provides evidence that passive exposure to tobacco smoke can result in numerous adverse health effects: asthma and allergies, respiratory infections and (middle) ear infections, cancers of various localization, accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, retardation of growth and development in children, and in pregnancy it can lead to congenital anomalies and premature birth as well as lower body weight and length of the child. Certainly, the scariest consequence of all is sudden infant death syndrome, also called "death in the crib". Smoke-free policies have proven their effectiveness, but while implementing the laws, it is necessary to raise public awareness of the hazards of, both active and passive, exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:24490334

  9. Monitored passive-solar buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.

    1982-06-01

    Selected performance results from six monitored passive and hybrid solar heated buildings are presented. These employ: a two story trombe wall; a thermosyphoning solar air heater with rock bin storage; a greenhouse; a composite concrete and water trombe wall; two story sunspace; and, for a mobile/modular home, direct gain and roof pond.

  10. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  11. Passivation Of High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Surfaces of high-temperature superconductors passivated with native iodides, sulfides, or sulfates formed by chemical treatments after superconductors grown. Passivating compounds nearly insoluble in and unreactive with water and protect underlying superconductors from effects of moisture. Layers of cuprous iodide and of barium sulfate grown. Other candidate passivating surface films: iodides and sulfides of bismuth, strontium, and thallium. Other proposed techniques for formation of passivating layers include deposition and gas-phase reaction.

  12. Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jerald D.; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat; Greenwood, Reginald C.

    1995-01-01

    The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field.

  13. Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cole, J.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1995-01-03

    The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source) and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field. 7 figures.

  14. The Passive in Technical and Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Lilita

    Almost every discussion of technical or scientific writing style mentions the passive voice as a stylistic choice to avoid. However, the passive voice does have legitimate uses in technical and scientific writing--the problem is to define the appropriate or effective uses and the inappropriate or ineffective ones. An examination of passive voice…

  15. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  16. Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

  17. A Lexical Approach to Passive in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Fred

    Dissatisfaction with the standard transformational grammar approach to teaching passive voice sentences gave rise to the method developed. It is based on the framework of a lexical-functional grammar, which claims that both active and passive sentences are base-generated, and that both active and passive verb forms occur in the lexicon. It would…

  18. User evaluation study of passive solar residences

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, S.

    1980-03-01

    Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

  19. Assaying Hematopoiesis Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Boatman, Sonja; Barrett, Francesca; Satishchandran, Sruthi; Jing, Lili; Shestopalov, Ilya; Zon, Leonard I.

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a commonly used model for studying hematopoiesis as a result of its unique attributes. Zebrafish are highly suitable for large-scale genetic and chemical screens compared to other vertebrate systems. It is now possible to analyze hematopoietic lineages in zebrafish and validate cell function via transplantation assays. Here, we review advancements over the past decade in forward genetic screens, chemical screens, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and transplantation assays. Integrating these approaches enables new chemical and genetic screens that assay cell function within the hematopoietic system. Studies in zebrafish will continue to contribute and expand our knowledge about hematopoiesis, and develop novel treatments for clinical applications. PMID:23916372

  20. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    PubMed Central

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  1. RNA encapsidation assay.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Padmanaban; Rao, A L N

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of viral RNA encapsidation assay provides a rapid means of assaying which of the progeny RNA are competent for packaging into stable mature virions. Generally, a parallel analysis of total RNA and RNA obtained from purified virions is advisable for accurate interpretation of the results. In this, we describe a series of in vivo assays in which viral RNA encapsidation can be verified. These include whole plants inoculated either mechanically or by Agroinfiltration and protoplasts. The encapsidation assay described here is for an extensively studied plant RNA virus, brome mosaic virus, and can be reliably applied to other viral systems as well as with appropriate buffers. In principle, the encapsidation assay requires purification of virions from either symptomatic leaves or transfected plant protoplasts followed by RNA isolation. The procedure involves grinding the infected tissue in an appropriate buffer followed by a low speed centrifugation step to remove the cell debris. The supernatant is then emulsified with an organic solvent such as chloroform to remove chlorophyll and cellular material. After a low seed centrifugation, the supernatant is subjected to high speed centrifugation to concentrate the virus as a pellet. Depending on the purity required, the partially purified virus preparation is further subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Following purification of virions, encapsidated RNA is isolated using standard phenol-chloroform extraction procedure. An important step in the encapsidation assay is the comparative analysis of total and virion RNA preparations by Northern hybridization. This would allow the investigator to compare the number of progeny RNA components synthesized during replication vs. encapsidation. Northern blots are normally hybridized with radioactively labeled RNA probes (riboprobes) for specific and sensitive detection of desired RNA species. PMID:18370261

  2. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  3. Fluorometric assay for aflatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1984-11-01

    The method that is now widely adopted by the government laboratories for the assay of individual aflatoxin components (B/sub 1/, B/sub 2/, G/sub 1/, and G/sub 2/) utilizes a TLC technique. The extraction and clean-up steps of this technique were further researched but the method is still time consuming. It is, therefore, very important to develop a rapid and accurate assay technique for aflatoxins. The current research proposes a technique which utilizes a Turner Fluorometer.

  4. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is /sup 125/I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed.

  5. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  6. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  7. The use of infrared thermography for nondestructive evaluation of joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meola, Carosena; Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; Squillace, Antonino; Giorleo, Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    A junction between two similar, or dissimilar, materials represents generally a weak structural point and so it requires accurate choice of the most adequate joining technique and nondestructive evaluation of joined parts whatever the joining technique. The attention of the present paper is focused on the aid provided by infrared thermography for nondestructive evaluation of three types of joints: aluminum adhesively bonded joints, stainless steel laser welded joints and Glare ® mechanical fastened joints. Both techniques, pulse and modulated thermography with optical stimulation, are used. The attention is particularly focused on the second method because phase images are practically not affected by local nonuniform heating and/or local variation of the emissivity coefficient as thermal images.

  8. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  9. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.

  10. Nondestructive Characterization Techniques Used for Ceramic Matrix Composite Life Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Koenig, John; Ellingson, Bill; Spohnholtz, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Recent results indicate that the specific damping capacity and resonant frequency measurements taken periodically during a component's lifetime is able to quantify the mechanical fatigue of CMCS. This gives hope for the potential of determining the actual and residual life of CMC materials using a combination of nondestructive techniques. If successful, then this new paradigm for life prediction of CMCs could revolutionize the approach for designing and servicing CMC components, thereby significantly reducing costs for design, development, health monitoring, and maintenance of CMC components and systems. The Nondestructive Characterization (NDC) life prediction approach would complement life prediction using micromechanics and continuum finite element models. This paper reports on the initial concept of NDC life prediction, a review of the C/SiC blisk damping data, and how changes in the specific damping capacity & ultrasonic elastic modulus data have established the concept as a possibility.

  11. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  12. Non-destructive NIR FT Raman analysis of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, B.; Klump, H. H.; Schenzel, K.; Schulz, H.

    1999-10-01

    Non-destructive analyses of animal and plant cells and tissues by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range have not been possible since the samples are destroyed photochemically or their fluorescence conceals the Raman spectra completely. When excited with the Nd:YAG laser line at 1064 nm fluorescence-free Raman spectra of animal or plant cells and tissues can be recorded without special preparation. In this paper we concentrate on plants and its constituents: essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices, alkaloids and fibers can be characterized. The spectra allow the observation of biochemical processes, to observe the distribution of natural products, application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding, the harvesting time and control of food—everything non-destructively in living plants!

  13. Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-23

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  14. Nondestructive Testing Qualification of Main Circulatory Tube Pipes DU 500

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakova, Bojana M.; Tzokov, Petio

    2004-07-01

    The criteria for safe operation of nuclear energetic installations is given a higher priority in the policy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant. An efficient non-destructive inspection is the key point for the safe service. Kozloduy NPP keeps on making investments in equipment and qualification of specialists in this field. The processes of qualification of the NDT components, important for the nuclear and radiation safety, make considerable improvement in Kozloduy NPP, thanks to the accumulated in the years experience in the activities of NDT inspection qualification, and to the help of our partners Serco Assurance and the Institute of Rzes. The results obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of circulation tube mains DU 500 WWER 440 type are under discussion in this report. (authors)

  15. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  16. Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  17. Uranium holdup in concrete floors: a comparison of nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, T.L.; Dedo, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, Babcock and Wilcox ceased operations at its high-enriched uranium conversion facility in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Incorporated in the Company's action was the responsibility to clean up, recover and/or identify any an all uranium that might be held up in processing equipment, piping, and the building. By 1980, most of the historical inventory difference had been recovered from the equipment and piping, which had been removed from the plant. It was anticipated that over the 20-yr history of this facility, some special nuclear material (SNM) would be embedded in the floors of the building. The objective of this work was to develop a method to measure this material nondestructively and as accurately as possible. This paper illustrates two nondestructive methods used at the Apollo facility and then presents a comparison of the NDA to the results of destructive recovery.

  18. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Goleman, R.; Czerwinski, D.; Gizewski, T.

    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth.

  19. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  20. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  1. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  2. Nondestructive damage evaluation in ceramic matrix composites for aerospace applications.

    PubMed

    Dassios, Konstantinos G; Kordatos, Evangelos Z; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Matikas, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  3. Non-destructive ultrasonic measurements of case depth. [in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flambard, C.; Lambert, A.

    1978-01-01

    Two ultrasonic methods for nondestructive measurements of the depth of a case-hardened layer in steel are described. One method involves analysis of ultrasonic waves diffused back from the bulk of the workpiece. The other method involves finding the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves launched on the surface of the work. Procedures followed in the two methods for measuring case depth are described.

  4. NASA CR-2120 - Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    This is a familiarization report of nondestructive testing (ndt) prepared by staff of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories on a NASA contract. There is a short introduction, a chapter on applicability of ndt which is illustrated with examples of typical defects and includes tables comparing the characteristics, interrelationships, and costs of the different techniques. There are chapters dealing with penetrants, magnetic particle radiography, ultrasonics, and eddy currents. New techniques are described.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of critical composite material structural elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, John C., Jr.; Lesko, John J.; Weyers, R.

    1996-11-01

    A small span bridge that has suffered corrosive deterioration of a number of the steel structural members is in the process of being rehabilitated with glass and carbon fiber reinforced, pultruded polymer structural beams. As part of a comprehensive research program to develop methods for modeling long term durability of the composite material, nondestructive evaluation if being used to provide a preliminary assessment of the initial condition of the beams as well as to monitor the deterioration of the beams during service.

  6. The Effects of Stress Mitigation on Nondestructive Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Eric D. Larsen; Timothy R. Mcjunkin; Arthur D. Watkins

    2004-08-01

    Ultrasonic volumetric and eddy current and visual profile surface inspections of the completed weld securing the outer lid of the Yucca Mountain waste package are required after stress mitigation. However, the technique implemented may affect the ability of the different evaluation techniques to properly characterize the completed weld. An evaluation was performed to determine the extent the nondestructive evaluation techniques are affected by two candidate mitigation processes: controlled plasticity burnishing and laser peening. This report describes the work performed and summarizes the results.

  7. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  8. Fault determinations in electroexplosive devices by nondestructive techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J.; Rosenthal, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Several nondestructive test techniques were developed for electroexplosive devices. The bridgewire responds, when pulsed with a safe level current, by generating a characteristic heating curve. The response is indicative of the electrothermal behavior of the bridgewire-explosive interface. Bridgewires which deviate from the characteristic heating curve were dissected and examined to determine the cause of the abnormality. Deliberate faults were fabricated into squibs. The relationship of the specific abnormality and the fault associated with it is demonstrated.

  9. Detection and sizing of underbead cracks using ultrasonic nondestructive examination

    SciTech Connect

    Scarbrough, J.D.; Wierzbicki, W.M.

    1982-02-11

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) will detect three mil deep underbead cracks in welds joining thin walled iridium hemishells. A correlation was developed to relate the amplitude of the signal reflected from the crack with crack wall area. The observed cracks occur in the weld underbead in the arc taper area during encapsulation of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets for thermoelectric generators used in deep space exploration.

  10. Non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite-laminates is summarized. Indices derived from the measurement of fundamental acoustic parameters are used in order to quantitatively estimate the local material properties of the laminate. The following sections describe ongoing studies of phase insensitive attenuation measurements, and discuss several phenomena which influences the previously reported technique of polar backscatter. A simple and effective programmable gate circuit designed for use in estimating attenuation from backscatter is described.

  11. Simulation of selective passive compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Spikings, C.R.; Putley, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Compulsators have attracted a great deal of interest over the last few years as a way of providing repetitive high current millisecond pulses. The compulsator stores energy in a rotational form and works on a similar principle to a conventional alternator except that its internal impedance is reduced through compensating currents allowing greater currents to be drawn. This paper presents the theory behind selective passive compensation and presents some results from the computer simulation of a railgun powered by a selective passive compulsator. These results show that compulsator can be configured to produce flat topped current pulses into a railgun load. A test compulsator with active compensation has previously been designed and built by Culham Laboratory.

  12. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave–matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices PMID:26414528

  13. New England style passive solar

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.

    2000-06-01

    There are homeowners throughout New England who planned for and built homes that allow them to avoid the sting of winter's high heating bills. These climate-responsive homes rely on passive solar heating, cooling and lighting. An example of such a climate-responsive/passive solar house is the home that Arthur and Terry Becker build on 6 beautiful acres (2.4 hectares) of rolling farm and woodland southeast of Andover, Connecticut, in 1981. They worked very closely with their designer, Al Eggan of K.T. Lear and Associates, to ensure that they would never have to pay for home heating oil, and that they would enjoy a level of year-round comfort that they had not experienced in conventionally built homes.

  14. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-09-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave-matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices

  15. Passive oscillatory heat transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    2002-01-01

    An underdeveloped class of oscillatory passive heat transport cycles are discussed that have the potential to transport significantly higher heat loads than current heat pipes. Prototype cycles employing inferior working fluids have demonstrated transport of higher heat loads over significantly greater distances than similarly sized heat pipes (including CPLs and LHPs) employing ammonia. Most of the proposed cycles do not require capillary forces to circulate the working fluid. They are also relatively insensitive to gravity and might best be compared to thermal systems using mechanical pumps. The history of development to date of such cycles is presented in relation to other approaches under consideration for various semi/passive thermal control applications. Specific operational characteristics of a select loop are presented. The obvious pros and cons of these systems are discussed as well as potential applications-particularly as regards electronics cooling. .

  16. Myths in passive solar design

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    For years passive solar design principles have been perpetuated without being reexamined or questioned regarding their relevance in the context of new materials and constructions. Rarely does an architect get quantitative feedback on system or concept performance after the building is built. The result has been the perpetuation of beliefs among conference papers, text books and popular articles, all too often based only on belief. In this paper examples of premises which likely deserve to be kept passive rather than acted on are challenged. Designers are encouraged to ask three questions when applying a commonly held rule or assumption: Does it address the right issue? Does it apply, given the properties of new components and materials? If the premise is violated, how badly is comfort or the energy balance affected? Examples taken from monitoring and sensitivity studies illustrate the importance of asking `stupid` questions. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Workshop 1: Passive solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M.; Schreitmueller, K. R.

    1982-11-01

    The design of a solar house for a latitude of 50 degrees north in Northern Europe is discussed. An evaluation of a 500 cubic meter house and a computerized simulation of a 350 cubic meter house are given. It was found that the heating demand of a poorly insulated house may be decreased by 70 to 75% by means of an extensive insulation; new buildings should be extensively insulated; passive solar energy utilization is usually not cost effective.

  18. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  19. Interior design for passive solar homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  20. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  1. Passive vent damper. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savery, C.W.

    1981-09-15

    Seven concepts upon which a passive vent damper device could be based were generated during the early phase of the project. The concepts are: von Karman vortex street phenomena, turbulence amplifier in parallel with flow over a body, flow stability with heat transfer effects, temperature dependent flow oscillation effects, temperature controlled jet deflection, vortex valve, and separation phenomena to reduce drag. After the fluid mechanical approach to developing a passive vent damper was exhausted, the outside combustion vent was identified as a passive concept related to vent dampers which is amenable to development. Calculations and literature search indicated that up to 10% fuel savings were possible with an outside combustion vent. A breadboard design of a residential system was generated; one was constructed; and a field test with the investigator's forced air furnace was conducted. Based upon tests, the outside combustion vent produced energy savings of 0.4 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/month. This was estimated to result in about $30.00 seasonal fuel savings. The design, during a total of about 20 hours of operation in the field, operated safely and reliably with no problems. The outside combustion vent was proved feasible, and to have adequate performance, reliability, safety and economics. The few steps remaining to complete the commercialization of the device as a conversion for installed and new furnace applications are identified and outlined.

  2. Passive infrared motion sensing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    In the last 10 years passive IR based (8--12 microns) motion sensing has matured to become the dominant method of volumetric space protection and surveillance. These systems currently cost less than $25 to produce and yet use traditionally expensive IR optics, filters, sensors and electronic circuitry. This IR application is quite interesting in that the volumes of systems produced and the costs and performance level required prove that there is potential for large scale commercial applications of IR technology. This paper will develop the basis and principles of operation of a staring motion sensor system using a technical approach. A model for the motion of the target is developed and compared to the background. The IR power difference between the target and the background as well as the optical requirements are determined from basic principles and used to determine the performance of the system. Low cost reflective and refractive IR optics and bandpass IR filters are discussed. The pyroelectric IR detector commonly used is fully discussed and characterized. Various schemes for ``false alarms`` have been developed and are also explained. This technology is also used in passive IR based motion sensors for other applications such as lighting control. These applications are also discussed. In addition the paper will discuss new developments in IR surveillance technology such as the use of linear motion sensing arrays. This presentation can be considered a ``primer`` on the art of Passive IR Motion Sensing as applied to Surveillance Technology.

  3. Sigma Receptor Binding Assays.

    PubMed

    Chu, Uyen B; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2015-01-01

    Sigma receptors, both Sigma-1(S1R) and Sigma-2 (S2R), are small molecule-regulated, primarily endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated sites. A number of drugs bind to sigma receptors, including the antipsychotic haloperidol and (+)-pentazocine, an opioid analgesic. Sigma receptors are implicated in many central nervous system disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease and conditions associated with motor control, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Described in this unit are radioligand binding assays used for the pharmacological characterization of S1R and S2R. Methods detailed include a radioligand saturation binding assay for defining receptor densities and a competitive inhibition binding assay employing [(3) H]-(+)-pentazocine for identifying and characterizing novel ligands that interact with S1R. Procedures using [(3) H]-1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine ([(3) H]-DTG), a nonselective sigma receptor ligand, are described for conducting a saturation binding and competitive inhibition assays for the S2R site. These protocols are of value in drug discovery in identifying new sigma ligands and in the characterization of these receptors. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26646191

  4. Factor II assay

    MedlinePLUS

    The factor II assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor II. Factor II is also known as prothrombin. This is ... the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick ...

  5. Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (Inventor); Koeing, David W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

  6. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  7. Implementing a technique to improve the accuracy of shuffler assays of waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.

    1996-07-01

    The accuracy of shuffler assays for fissile materials is generally limited by the accuracy of the calibration standards, but when the matrix in a large drum has a sufficiently high hydrogen density (as exists in paper, for example) the accuracy in the active mode can be adversely affected by a nonuniform distribution of the fissile material within the matrix. This paper reports on a technique to determine the distribution nondestructively using delayed neutron signals generated by the shuffler itself. In assays employing this technique, correction factors are applied to the result of the conventional assay according to the distribution. Maximum inaccuracies in assays with a drum of paper, for example, are reduced by a factor of two or three.

  8. Infrared thermal wave nondestructive testing for rotor blades in wind turbine generators non-destructive evaluation and damage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi bin; Zhang, Cun-lin; Wu, Nai-ming; Duan, Yu-xia; Li, Hao

    2009-07-01

    The rotor blades are key components in wind turbine generators. A visual inspection of the laminated shells for delaminations, air pockets, missing/disoriented fabric etc. is in most cases also not possible due to the manufacturing process, so Non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT & E) techniques for assessing the integrity of rotor blades structure are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of wind turbine generators due to maintenance. Nowadays, Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing (Pulsed thermography) is commonly used for assessing composites. This research work utilizes Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing system (EchoTherm, Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc.) to inspect a specimen with embedded defects (i.e. foreign matter and air inclusions) in different depth which is a part of rotor blades in wind turbine generators, we have successfully identified defects including foreign matter and air inclusions, and discovered a defective workmanship. The system software allows us to simultaneously view and analyze the results for an entire transition.

  9. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  10. HIGH ENERGY DELAYED GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY FOR PLUTONIUM ASSAY OF SPENT REACTOR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Luke W.; Smith, L. E.; Misner, Alex C.

    2011-07-18

    Nuclear safeguards requires accountancy of plutonium present in spent reactor fuels. Current non-destructive methods do not directly measure plutonium content but instead rely on indirect measurements that require operator declarations of the fuel history. Delayed gamma spectroscopy is one method being investigated which can overcome these limitations. Delayed gamma rays from fission depend on the isotopic fission yield of the fissile isotope, and thus can be used to fingerprint the isotopes undergoing fission. However, difficulties arise because of the intense background due to long lived fission radionuclides already present in the fuel. We report on progress on simulated measurements of the delayed gamma spectrum in the presence of this background, using neutrons from a D-T source thermalized in an interrogation chamber slipped over a fuel assembly. By focusing on delayed gammas in the 3 to 4 MeV range, the passive spectrum becomes negligible, while allowing the preferential attenuation of the passive background to acceptable levels.

  11. Performance assessment of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry for spent nuclear fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J.; LaFleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2013-11-01

    Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is one of several nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques being integrated into systems to measure spent fuel as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Spent Fuel Project. The NGSI Spent Fuel Project is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration to measure plutonium in, and detect diversion of fuel pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies. SINRD shows promising capability in determining the 239Pu and 235U content in spent fuel. SINRD is a relatively low-cost and lightweight instrument, and it is easy to implement in the field. The technique makes use of the passive neutron source existing in a spent fuel assembly, and it uses ratios between the count rates collected in fission chambers that are covered with different absorbing materials. These ratios are correlated to key attributes of the spent fuel assembly, such as the total mass of 239Pu and 235U. Using count rate ratios instead of absolute count rates makes SINRD less vulnerable to systematic uncertainties. Building upon the previous research, this work focuses on the underlying physics of the SINRD technique: quantifying the individual impacts on the count rate ratios of a few important nuclides using the perturbation method; examining new correlations between count rate ratio and mass quantities based on the results of the perturbation study; quantifying the impacts on the energy windows of the filtering materials that cover the fission chambers by tallying the neutron spectra before and after the neutrons go through the filters; and identifying the most important nuclides that cause cooling-time variations in the count rate ratios. The results of these studies show that 235U content has a major impact on the SINRD signal in addition to the 239Pu content. Plutonium-241 and 241Am are the two main nuclides responsible for the variation in the count rate ratio with cooling time. In short, this work provides insights into some of the main factors that affect the performance of SINRD, and it should help improve the hardware design and the algorithm used to interpret the signal for the SINRD technique. In addition, the modeling and simulation techniques used in this work can be easily adopted for analysis of other NDA systems, especially when complex systems like spent nuclear fuel are involved. These studies were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation of Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Responte, Donald; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of a bimodal technique integrating time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM) for nondestructive detection of changes in the biochemical, structural, and mechanical properties of self-assembled engineered articular cartilage constructs. The cartilage constructs were treated with three chemical agents (collagenase, chondroitinase-ABC, and ribose) to induce changes in biochemical content (collagen and glycosaminoglycan [GAG]) of matured constructs (4 weeks); and to subsequently alter the mechanical properties of the construct. The biochemical changes were evaluated using TRFS. The microstructure and the thickness of the engineered cartilage samples were characterized by UBM. The optical and ultrasound results were validated against those acquired via conventional techniques including collagen and GAG quantification and measurement of construct stiffness. Current results demonstrated that a set of optical parameters (e.g., average fluorescence lifetime and decay constants) showed significant correlation (p<0.05) with biochemical and mechanical data. The high-resolution ultrasound images provided complementary cross-section information of the cartilage samples morphology. Therefore, the technique was capable of nondestructively evaluating the composition of extracellular matrix and the microstructure of engineered tissue, demonstrating great potential as an alternative to traditional destructive assays. PMID:22010819

  13. Rat mesentery angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Klas C

    2011-01-01

    The adult rat mesentery window angiogenesis assay is biologically appropriate and is exceptionally well suited to the study of sprouting angiogenesis in vivo [see review papers], which is the dominating form of angiogenesis in human tumors and non-tumor tissues, as discussed in invited review papers(1,2). Angiogenesis induced in the membranous mesenteric parts by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a pro-angiogenic factor can be modulated by subcutaneous (s.c.), intravenous (i.v.) or oral (p.o.) treatment with modifying agents of choice. Each membranous part of the mesentery is translucent and framed by fatty tissue, giving it a window-like appearance. The assay has the following advantageous features: (i) the test tissue is natively vascularized, albeit sparsely, and since it is extremely thin, the microvessel network is virtually two-dimensional, which allows the entire network to be assessed microscopically in situ; (ii) in adult rats the test tissue lacks significant physiologic angiogenesis, which characterizes most normal adult mammalian tissues; the degree of native vascularization is, however, correlated with age, as discussed in(1); (iii) the negligible level of trauma-induced angiogenesis ensures high sensitivity; (iv) the assay replicates the clinical situation, as the angiogenesis-modulating test drugs are administered systemically and the responses observed reflect the net effect of all the metabolic, cellular, and molecular alterations induced by the treatment; (v) the assay allows assessments of objective, quantitative, unbiased variables of microvascular spatial extension, density, and network pattern formation, as well as of capillary sprouting, thereby enabling robust statistical analyses of the dose-effect and molecular structure-activity relationships; and (vi) the assay reveals with high sensitivity the toxic or harmful effects of treatments in terms of decreased rate of physiologic body-weight gain, as adult rats grow robustly. Mast-cell-mediated angiogenesis was first demonstrated using this assay(3,4). The model demonstrates a high level of discrimination regarding dosage-effect relationships and the measured effects of systemically administered chemically or functionally closely related drugs and proteins, including: (i) low-dosage, metronomically administered standard chemotherapeutics that yield diverse, drug-specific effects (i.e., angiogenesis-suppressive, neutral or angiogenesis-stimulating activities(5)); (ii) natural iron-unsaturated human lactoferrin, which stimulates VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis(6), and natural iron-unsaturated bovine lactoferrin, which inhibits VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis(7); and (iii) low-molecular-weight heparin fractions produced by various means(8,9). Moreover, the assay is highly suited to studies of the combined effects on angiogenesis of agents that are administered systemically in a concurrent or sequential fashion. The idea of making this video originated from the late Dr. Judah Folkman when he visited our laboratory and witnessed the methodology being demonstrated. Review papers (invited) discussing and appraising the assay Norrby, K. In vivo models of angiogenesis. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 10, 588-612 (2006). Norrby, K. Drug testing with angiogenesis models. Expert Opin. Drug. Discov. 3, 533-549 (2008). PMID:21712799

  14. The corneal pocket assay.

    PubMed

    Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cornea in most species is physiologically avascular, and thus this assay allows the measurement of newly formed vessels. The continuous monitoring of neovascular growth in the same animal allows the evaluation of drugs acting as suppressors or stimulators of angiogenesis. Under anesthesia a micropocket is produced in the cornea thickness and the angiogenesis stimulus (tumor tissue, cell suspension, growth factor) is placed into the pocket in order to induce vascular outgrowth from the limbal capillaries. Neovascular development and progression can be modified by the presence of locally released or applied inhibitory factors or by systemic treatments. In this chapter the experimental details of the avascular cornea assay, the technical challenges, and advantages and disadvantages in different species are discussed. Protocols for local drug treatment and tissue sampling for histology and pharmacokinetic profile are reported. PMID:25468596

  15. Arabidopsis assay for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Gichner, T; Badayev, S A; Demchenko, S I; Relichová, J; Sandhu, S S; Usmanov, P D; Usmanova, O; Velemínský, J

    1994-10-16

    Four laboratories, two in the Czech Republic (Brno and Prague) and two in the CIS (Moscow and Duschanbe), participated in the International Programme on Chemical Safety's (IPCS) collaborative study to evaluate the utility of the most commonly used plant test systems, including the Arabidopsis thaliana assay, for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents. Out of the five compounds evaluated in the Arabidopsis assay, three compounds, i.e., ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and azidoglycerol, were reported to be mutagenic by all four participating laboratories. Sodium azide (NaN3) demonstrated a negative response in all four laboratories, whereas maleic hydrazide was reported to be weakly mutagenic by one laboratory and nonmutagenic by the other three laboratories. PMID:7523895

  16. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  17. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Sarah E; O'Gara, James P

    2016-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of regulatory protein interactions with the sequences upstream of potential target genes is an important element in gene expression studies. These experiments termed electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) provide valuable insight into the mechanism of action of transcription factors. EMSAs combined with downstream applications such as transcriptional analysis help uncover precisely how regulatory proteins control target gene expression. This chapter comprises a guideline for expression and purification of recombinant transcription factor proteins followed by a detailed protocol for EMSAs. PMID:26194709

  18. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary samples were collected from 150 subjects, including 50 hookah smokers, 50 passive smokers, and 50 non-smokers. Bioassay Technology Laboratory cotinine kit was used to determine salivary levels of cotinine using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at a sensitivity rate of 0.019 pg/ml. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Findings The highest salivary cotinine levels were recorded in hookah users (20.24 ± 5.62 ng/ml), followed by passive smokers (16.09 ± 3.51 ng/ml), in descending order. No detectable cotinine levels were observed in non-smokers. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a strong and positive correlation between use of hookah and salivary cotinine levels (r = 0.932, P = 0.001). Conclusion Based on the results of the present study, salivary cotinine levels were higher in hookah smokers compared with passive smokers and non-smokers, in descending order. PMID:26885355

  19. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-05-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.

  20. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 38.25-1 (a)(4) and...

  1. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  2. Passive monitoring using traffic noise recordings - case study on the Steinachtal Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Stähler, Simon; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Civil structures age continuously. The early recognition of potentially critical damages is an important economical issue, but also one of public safety. Continuous tracking of small changes in the medium by using passive methods would offer an extension to established active non-destructive testing procedures at relatively low cost. Here we present a case study of structural monitoring using continuous recordings of traffic noise on a 200 meter long reinforced concrete highway bridge in Germany. Over two months of continuos geophone records are used in the frequency range of 2-8 Hz. Using passive image interferometry, evaluation of hourly cross-correlations between recordings at pairs of receivers yield velocity variations in the range of -1.5% to +2.1%. We were able to correlate our outcomes with temperature measurements of the same two month period. The measured velocity changes scale with the temperature variations with on average a dv/v of 0.064% per degree Celsius. This value is in accordance with other studies of concrete response to temperature, confirming that we are able to observe subtle changes with physical origin. It is shown that traffic noise is temporally homogenenous enough to fulfill the requirements of passive image interferometry.

  3. Exploratory loading techniques. [in holographic nondestructive testing of flat metal plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M., III

    1976-01-01

    Interferometric holographic nondestructive testing of aluminum, copper, and steel flat plates is reported. Structural weaknesses under positive pressure, negative pressure, heating, and cooling are discussed.

  4. On-orbit Passive Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2008-01-01

    On July 12, 2006, British-born astronaut Piers Sellers became the first person to conduct thermal nondestructive evaluation experiments in space, demonstrating the feasibility of a new tool for detecting damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) structures of the Shuttle. This new tool was an EVA (Extravehicular Activity, or spacewalk) compatible infrared camera developed by NASA engineers. Data was collected both on the wing leading edge of the Orbiter and on pre-damaged samples mounted in the Shuttle s cargo bay. A total of 10 infrared movies were collected during the EVA totaling over 250 megabytes of data. Images were downloaded from the orbiting Shuttle to Johnson Space Center for analysis and processing. Results are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory with the same type of camera and simulated solar heating. The EVA camera system detected flat-bottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 50% material loss from the back (hidden) surface in RCC during this first test of the EVA IR Camera. Data for the time history of the specimen temperature and the capability of the inspection system for imaging impact damage are presented.

  5. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  6. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.; Balcomb, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  7. Cellular automaton formulation of passive scalar dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Hudong; Matthaeus, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Cellular automata modeling of the advection of a passive scalar in a two-dimensional flow is examined in the context of discrete lattice kinetic theory. It is shown that if the passive scalar is represented by tagging or 'coloring' automation particles a passive advection-diffusion equation emerges without use of perturbation expansions. For the specific case of the hydrodynamic lattice gas model of Frisch et al. (1986), the diffusion coefficient is calculated by perturbation.

  8. Passivation of metal contaminants in cat cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Stuntz, G. F.; Schucker, R. C.

    1985-03-12

    A method for passivating metal contaminants present in a hydrocarbon feedstock which become deposited on cracking catalyst is described. The method is directed at passing the cracking catalyst through a passivation zone having a reducing atmosphere maintained at an elevated temperature. The reducing atmosphere comprises a process reducing gas stream which has been passed through a guard bed adapted to selectively remove an unsaturated hydrocarbon prior to the process reducing gas being added to the passivation zone.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic matrix composite combustor components.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Verrilli, M. J.; Stephan, R.; Barnett, T. R.; Ojard, G.

    2002-11-08

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing. The combustor liners were inspected by X-ray, ultrasonic and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications were found to correlate with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. Microstructural examination of the SiC/SiC liners revealed the thermography indications to be delaminations and damaged fiber tows.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jiangang G.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Stephan, Robert R.; Barnett, Terry R.; Ojard, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite (silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix) were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by x-ray, ultrasonic, and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications correlated with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of Terfenol-D for transducer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Greenough, R.D.; Pollard, D.J.; Schulze, M.P.

    1997-04-01

    A method and techniques have been developed for the nondestructive evaluation of grain oriented highly magnetostrictive rare-earth compounds, such as Terfenol-D, for use in actuator construction. Detection of an asymmetric flux distribution and localized fluctuations in ac permeability have been correlated with gradients in chemical composition and departures from the ideal grain structure produced by free float or contained zone preparation techniques. The data provide valuable information to gauge material quality, the response of individual samples to applied stress, and the reproducibility of transducer properties from one sample to another. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Multimodal Plane Wave Imaging for Non-destructive Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Jeune, Léonard; Robert, Sébastien; Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Prada, Claire

    Ultrasonic imaging with high frame rates is of great interest in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) to perform fast inspections. In this communication, we propose a new fast imaging method for NDT which is derived from the medical Plane Wave Imaging (PWI). The PWI method is applied to immersion-testing configurations (plane or complex water/steel interface between the probe and the image area) and to different imaging modes (imaging with direct or half-skip wave paths) according to the type of defects (point-like or extended crack-types defects).

  14. Nondestructive inspection of Piper PA25 forward spar fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.

    1995-07-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration`s (FAA`s) Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories applied two nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques to inspect a forward spar fuselage attachment fitting. The techniques used were based on radiography and ultrasonic test methods. The combination of these techniques did reveal material thinning of two spar fittings from Piper PA25 aircraft. However, crack detection near a notch design feature could not be performed. Based on the results of these experiments, an ultrasonic test procedure was subsequently developed for the material thinning. The procedure has since been incorporated by the FAA into a revision of Airworthiness Directive 93-21-12.

  15. Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure

    DOEpatents

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

    1983-11-01

    A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure at regions of interest within the object.

  16. Investigations and Non-destructive Testing in New Building Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenov, V.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Osipov, S.; Shtein, A.; Ustinov, A.; Danilson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical rebar couplers are preferable in the advanced building construction and structural design of antiseismic elements. The paper presents destructive inspection techniques used to investigate stress fields (tensile and compressive) and deformation curves for mechanical rebar splicing. The properties of mechanical rebar splicing are investigated by the non-destructive testing digital radiography. The behavior of real connections (column-to- column, beam-to-column) is studied under static and dynamic loads. Investigation results allow the elaboration of recommendations on their application in the universal prefabricated antiseismic structural system developed at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, Russia.

  17. Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.

  18. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  19. Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real-time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false-color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real-time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  20. Terahertz real-time imaging for nondestructive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  1. Experimental implementation of reverse time migration for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Griffa, Michele; Bas, Pierre-Yves Le; Ulrich, Timothy J; Johnson, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is a commonly employed imaging technique in seismic applications (e.g., to image reservoirs of oil). Its standard implementation cannot account for multiple scattering/reverberation. For this reason it has not yet found application in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper applies RTM imaging to NDE applications in bounded samples, where reverberation is always present. This paper presents a fully experimental implementation of RTM, whereas in seismic applications, only part of the procedure is done experimentally. A modified RTM imaging condition is able to localize scatterers and locations of disbonding. Experiments are conducted on aluminum samples with controlled scatterers. PMID:21302980

  2. Needs and opportunities: nondestructive evaluation for energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Advanced manufacturing and new energy systems are presenting a wide variety of challenges for nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE). This paper discusses the state of the art, needs and opportunities for NDE to provide reliable, effective and economic inspection and monitoring for energy systems. It introduces issues of materials, defects and allowables, the evolution of advanced NDT and NDE and then considers examples of NDE for energy systems. These include applications in the petrochemical industry, advanced and additive manufacturing, solar cells, wind turbines, nuclear systems and some underlying issues of large scale composites, pipes and concrete.

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. G.; Verrilli, M. J.; Stephan, R.; Barnett, T. R.; Ojard, G.

    2003-01-01

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by X-ray, ultrasonic and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications were found to correlate with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations. [copyright] 2003 American Institute of Physics

  4. APPARATUS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF CANTILEVERED MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, E.R.; Mahoney, C.H.; Lay, C.R.

    1961-10-24

    An apparatus for non-destructive inspection of cantilevered members, such as compressor blades, is described. The member under inspection is vibrated with a regulated source of air under pressure. The amplitude of vibration of the member is maintained at its natural frequency. The frequency of vibration of the member is measured. An indication of an excessive decay or erratic shifting in the measured frequency above an allowable hysteretic decay is provided as an indication of a fault in the member. The member is vibrated for a selected test period. (AEC)

  5. Liberty Bell 7 Recovery Evaluation and Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Smith, William L.

    1999-01-01

    An inspection of the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, and its contents was made on September 1 and 2, 1999. The condition of the capsule and its contents was consistent with long-term exposure to salt water and high pressures at the bottom of the ocean. Many of the metallic materials suffered corrosion, whereas the polymer-based materials seem to have survived remarkably well. No identifiable items or structures were found that appeared to have any scientific value. At this time, no further nondestructive evaluation appears to be justified.

  6. Efficient Nondestructive Evaluation of Prototype Carbon Fiber Reinforced Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermography inspection is an optic based technology that can reduce the time and cost required to inspect propellant tanks or aero structures fabricated from composite materials. Usually areas identified as suspect in the thermography inspection are examined with ultrasonic methods to better define depth, orientation and the nature of the anomaly. This combination of nondestructive evaluation techniques results in a rapid and comprehensive inspection of composite structures. Examples of application of this inspection philosophy to prototype will be presented. Methods organizing the inspection and evaluating the results will be considered.

  7. Nondestructive defect characterization of SiC substrates and epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xianyun; Sudarshan, Tangali

    2004-05-01

    This study presents a nondestructive and in-depth defect characterization method, based on the principle of polarized light microscopy (PLM), which can be used to quickly evaluate SiC substrates and epilayers. The developed PLM system has the capability to map, on a wafer scale, micropipes, elementary screw dislocations, and domain boundaries in SiC wafers. One unique feature of the PLM system is the ability to characterize the wafer with and without an epilayer, providing a newly found opportunity to investigate threading defect propagation in the overgrown epilayer. The correlation between SiC substrate defects and epilayer defects will be established.

  8. NON-DESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF SHIELDED HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. HOLLAS; C. A. GOULDING; B. L. MEYERS

    2001-04-01

    Arms control and special nuclear material reduction requirements will eventually encompass shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU) systems. Non-destructive analysis (NDA) techniques for plutonium such as neutron multiplicity measurements and analysis are well developed and provide information regarding the properties of plutonium systems. In a previous study [1] we developed a NDA method for determining the mass and neutron multiplication of subcritical bare metal systems of HEU. In this work we present results for a HEU sphere enclosed within various shielding materials of low density, (carbon and beryllium), medium density (iron) and high density (lead).

  9. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  10. Applications of passivated silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Richard; Park, Chan Ho

    2012-03-01

    We can postulate that dark matter are WIMPS, more specifically, Majorana particles called neutralinos floating through space. Upon neutralino-neutralino annihilation, they create a greater burst of other particles into space: these being all kinds of particles including anti-deuterons which are the indications of the existence of dark matter. For the study of the applications of passivated silicon detectors, this paper shows following procedures in two categories. Painting on little pieces of silicon (Polyimid and Boxcar Red) :Took clean paint brush and painted on Polyimid and Boxcar red samples onto little pieces of sample silicon and dried for a certain number of hours in different conditions. Cooling test : usually done in 7 cycles, cool until usually -35 degrees or -40 degrees Celsius with thermoelectric cooler, dry out, evapate the moisture in the fume hood, take pictures with the microscope and check for irregularities every 1, 4 and 7 times. The results show us how the passivated silicon will act in the real experiment--the vacuum chamber and x-rays (from the radioactive source), and different atmospheric pressures simulate what it will be like in space.

  11. Integrated non-destructive assessment of relevant structural elements of an Italian heritage site: the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainieri, C.; Marra, A.; Rainieri, G. M.; Gargaro, D.; Pepe, M.; Fabbrocino, G.

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of historical structures in need of preservation and restoration interventions is a very complex task due to the large uncertainties in the characterization of structural properties and detailing in view of the structural response. Moreover, the predictive performance of numerical analyses and simulations depend on the availability of information about the constructional properties of the architectural complex, crack patterns and active degradation phenomena. In particular, local changes in material properties or damage due to past events (such as earthquakes) can affect individual structural elements. They can be hardly detected as a result of the maintenance interventions carried out over the centuries and the possibility to carry out limited or even no destructive investigations due to the historical relevance of the structure. Thus, non-destructive investigations play a fundamental role in the assessment of historical structures minimizing, at the same time, the invasiveness of interventions. The present paper deals with an explanatory case study concerning the structural investigations carried out in view of the seismic assessment of an Italian historical monument, the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti in Collepardo, erected in 1204 under Pope Innocenzo HI. The relevance of the case study is due to the application, in combination, of different NDT methods, such as sonic tests, and active and passive infrared thermography, in order to characterize relevant masonry elements. Moreover, an advanced system for the in-situ nondestructive vibration-based estimation of the tensile loads in ancient tie-rods is described and the main results obtained from its application for the characterization of the tie-rods of the cloister are presented.

  12. Development of a plutonium solution-assay instrument with isotopic capability

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1992-09-01

    A new generation of solution-assay instrument has been developed to satisfy all the assay requirements of an aqueous plutonium-recovery operation. The assay is based on a transmission-corrected passive assay technique. We have demonstrated that the system can cover a concentration range of 0.5--300 g/{ell} with simultaneous isotopic determination. The system can be used to assay input and eluate streams of the recovery operation. The system can be modified to measure low-concentration effluent solutions from the recovery operation covering 0.01--40 g/{ell}. The same system has also been modified to assay plutonium solutions enriched in {sup 242}Pu. 6 refs.

  13. Estimating primaries from passive seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hao; Wang, De-Li; Feng, Fei; Zhu, Heng

    2015-12-01

    Passive seismic sources can generally be divided into transient sources and noise sources. Noise sources are particularly the continuous, random small bursts, like background noise. The virtual-shot gathers obtained by the traditional cross-correlation algorithm from passive seismic data not only contain primaries, but also include surface-related multiples. Through estimating primaries by sparse inversion, we can directly obtain primaries from passive seismic data activated by transient sources, which are free of surface-related multiples. The problem of estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources has not been discussed to date. First, by introducing the optimisation problem via the L1-norm constraint, this paper makes the traditional method of estimating primaries by sparse inversion from passive seismic data activated by transient sources improved, which overcomes the time-window problem. During the sparse inversion, the sparsifying transform, S = C2⊗W, is introduced. In the sparsifying-transform domain, the transformed data is more sparse, so the solution becomes more accurate. Second, this paper proposes estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources. In the case of the sparse assumption not holding, we use the least-squares method based on the principle of minimum energy to estimate primaries from passive seismic data using the noise sources. Finally, we compare the primaries estimated from passive seismic data using transient sources and noise sources and analyse the characteristics of the estimated primaries obtained from two passive seismic data.

  14. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays

    PubMed Central

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh–Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed. PMID:20000921

  15. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  16. C. elegans Chemotaxis Assay

    PubMed Central

    Margie, Olivia; Palmer, Chris; Chin-Sang, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms use chemotaxis to seek out food sources, avoid noxious substances, and find mates. Caenorhabditis elegans has impressive chemotaxis behavior. The premise behind testing the response of the worms to an odorant is to place them in an area and observe the movement evoked in response to an odorant. Even with the many available assays, optimizing worm starting location relative to both the control and test areas, while minimizing the interaction of worms with each other, while maintaining a significant sample size remains a work in progress 1-10. The method described here aims to address these issues by modifying the assay developed by Bargmann et al.1. A Petri dish is divided into four quadrants, two opposite quadrants marked "Test" and two are designated "Control". Anesthetic is placed in all test and control sites. The worms are placed in the center of the plate with a circle marked around the origin to ensure that non-motile worms will be ignored. Utilizing a four-quadrant system rather than one 2 or two 1 eliminates bias in the movement of the worms, as they are equidistant from test and control samples, regardless of which side of the origin they began. This circumvents the problem of worms being forced to travel through a cluster of other worms to respond to an odorant, which can delay worms or force them to take a more circuitous route, yielding an incorrect interpretation of their intended path. This method also shows practical advantages by having a larger sample size and allowing the researcher to run the assay unattended and score the worms once the allotted time has expired. PMID:23644543

  17. Growth cone collapse assay.

    PubMed

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia. PMID:24838959

  18. Colony survival assay.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Laura J; Sale, Julian E

    2006-01-01

    For studies of DNA repair networks the sensitivity of mutants and combinations of mutants to varying forms of DNA damaging agents has formed a mainstay of genetic analysis in bacteria and yeast. Likewise, this form of epistasis analysis has proved immensely informative in DT40. Because DT40 is non-adherent, it is necessary to restrict the movement of cells by growing them in a viscous medium containing methylcellulose. Here we present methods for carrying out DNA damage survival assays in DT40 with chemical mutagens, ionising radiation and ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:17623926

  19. Radon assay for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  20. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...