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Sample records for pasteurella multocida bordetella

  1. Serum haptoglobin concentration in growing swine after intranasal challenge with Bordetella bronchiseptica and toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type D.

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C J; Shryock, T R; Bane, D P; Unverzagt, L

    1996-01-01

    The acute phase reaction, in association with progressive atrophic rhinitis (AR), was monitored for 3 wk using serum haptoglobin (HPT) quantification in thirty-six, 15 kg swine after intranasal challenge with varying doses of Pasteurella multocida type D (toxigenic strain) and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The challenge doses were administered alone or in combination with pigs divided into 9 isolated treatment groups. Increasing doses of B. bronchiseptica were associated with lower serum HPT (P < 0.05), whereas increasing doses of P. multocida tended to increase serum HPT (0.05 < P < 0.10). Significant and positive correlation of mean HPT and AR score was found in these pigs; increased AR scores were associated with elevated mean HPT concentration (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). A significant interaction between P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica dose indicated that increasing the dose of B. bronchiseptica, for a fixed P. multocida dose, was associated with less AR (P < 0.05). The AR scores were greater in pigs given P. multocida, than B. bronchiseptica alone. These results indicate that a complex interaction between Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica causes progressive atrophic rhinitis and alters serum HPT concentration in swine. Images Figure I. Figure II. Figure III. Figure IV. PMID:8809387

  2. Pasteurella multocida liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Cortez, J C; Shapiro, M; Awe, R J

    1986-08-01

    A previously healthy 61-year-old woman was seen with an abnormal chest roentgenogram and a 3-week history of fever, chills, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. Blood cultures revealed Pasteurella multocida sensitive to penicillin. Liver spleen radioisotope scan and CT scan revealed space occupying lesions in the right lobe of the liver. The patient was a gardener with no pets or animal exposure. This case illustrates P. multocida septicemia and a liver abscess in a patient without animal exposure. In addition, the possibility of soil as another reservoir of infection is raised. PMID:3487981

  3. Hematogenous Pasteurella multocida brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.; Lipsky, B.A.

    1985-10-01

    A case of hematogenously acquired brain abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida is described. CT scans of the head revealed the lesions in a 67 year old man with mild alcoholic liver disease and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ultrasound examinations of the abdomen and chest and an echocardiogram failed to reveal a source for the abscess. On autopsy examination three encapsulated brain abscesses were found. 34 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. Association between Pneumocystis spp. and co-infections with Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida in Austrian pigs with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kureljušić, B; Weissenbacher-Lang, C; Nedorost, N; Stixenberger, D; Weissenböck, H

    2016-01-01

    In this retrospective study, 218 pig lung tissue samples were analyzed to examine a possible association between Pneumocystis spp. using in situ hybridization, Bordetella bronchiseptica (B.b.) using immunohistochemistry (IHC), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M.h.) by quantitative PCR, and Pasteurella multocida (P.m.; IHC). Compared to the bacterial agents (B.b., 5%; M.h., 30%; P.m., 23%), Pneumocystis occurred with a higher prevalence (51%). Co-infections with two or three pathogens were present in 28% of the examined cases. Those of Pneumocystis and M.h. were most commonly seen, followed by Pneumocystis and P.m. and M.h. and P.m. Histologically, interstitial pneumonia was found in both the Pneumocystis positive lungs and lungs with a mild M.h. infection. The B.b. and P.m. positive lungs were mainly associated with suppurative bronchopneumonia and severe M.h. cases with fibrinous or fibrino-haemorrhagic pneumonia. In suckling piglets, the number of samples positive for Pneumocystis predominated, whereas samples from fattening pigs were mainly positive for bacteria or Pneumocystis and bacteria. PMID:26654847

  5. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mayumi; Elshimy, Noha; Abusriwil, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. PMID:26942025

  6. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mayumi; Elshimy, Noha; Abusriwil, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. PMID:26942025

  7. Pasteurella multocida- and Pasteurella haemolytica-ghosts: new vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Marchart, J; Dropmann, G; Lechleitner, S; Schlapp, T; Wanner, G; Szostak, M P; Lubitz, W

    2003-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida is an important animal pathogen. Bacterial ghosts produced by the expression of phage PhiX174 lysis gene E are empty cells devoid of cytoplasmic and genomic material. Lysis of P. multocida 7A and P. haemolytica A1 carrying Pasteurella-specific lysis vectors (pSR2 and pSON2) occurred 140 min after induction of gene E expression induced by temperature upshift. The E-mediated cell lysis and killing activity was the same in both Pasteurella species and no viable cells could be detected after lysis of P. multocida and P. haemolytica. Pasteurella ghosts were used for immunization of rabbits and mice. Rabbits immunized subcutaneously with either P. multocida- or P. haemolytica-ghosts developed antibodies reacting with the immunizating strain, as well as with other Pasteurella strains. The number of proteins in whole cell protein extracts recognized by the sera constantly increased during the observation period of 51 days. In addition, dose-dependent protection against homologous challenge was observed in mice immunized with P. multocida-ghosts. Animals which received 1.15 x 10(8) ghosts and a challenge dose of up to 60 cfu (LD90), showed 100% protection. According to these results, we suggest ghosts of P. multocida and P. haemolytica as new vaccine candidates. PMID:12922135

  8. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  9. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  10. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  11. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  12. [Pasteurella multocida meningitis with cerebral abscesses].

    PubMed

    Nguefack, S; Moifo, B; Chiabi, A; Mah, E; Bogne, J-B; Fossi, M; Fru, F; Mbonda, E; Djientcheu, V-P

    2014-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida is classically responsible for local soft tissue infections secondary to dog bites or cat scratches. It can be responsible for meningitis in infants and elderly persons. We report the case history of a 5-year-old male child admitted to our pediatric unit for meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an infection with P. multocida. The suspected mode of contamination was either from the saliva of a pet dog or through an unnoticed skull fracture sustained after an accident 1 year prior to the occurrence of meningitis. In spite of the neurologic complication (cerebral abscess), the progression was favorable after drainage of the abscess, 5 weeks of parenteral treatment, and 3 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. Meningitis due to Pasteurella sp. is rare and can lead to neurologic complications. The notion of bites or scratches can be absent and the mode of contamination is sometimes difficult to unveil. PMID:24457110

  13. Pasteurella multocida pneumonia complicated by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Martyn, V; Swift, D

    1984-02-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented with acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. She proved to have a Pasteurella multocida pneumonia, with blood stream invasion by the organism, and required positive pressure ventilation for 53 days. Penicillin G., the drug of choice for this infection, failed to reverse the steady decline in her arterial oxygen-tension, and it was only after treatment with chloramphenicol and prednisolone that she began to improve. Serological tests strongly indicated the presence of a Staphylococcus aureus infection and the delay in giving antibiotics appropriate to this second pathogen may have been the reason for the patient's initial downhill course. PMID:6709548

  14. Pasteurella multocida Toxin Manipulates T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Dagmar; Heeg, Klaus; Kubatzky, Katharina F.

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes various diseases in a broad range of wild and domestic animals. Toxigenic strains of the serotypes A and D produce an AB protein toxin named Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT). PMT constitutively activates the heterotrimeric G protein subunits Gαq, Gα13, and Gαi through deamidation of a glutamine residue, which results in cytoskeletal rearrangements as well as increased proliferation and survival of the host cell. In human monocytes, PMT alters the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation toward a phenotype that suppresses T cell activation. Here we describe that the toxin also modulates CD4-positive T helper (Th) cells directly. PMT amplifies the expansion of Th cells through enhanced cell cycle progression and suppression of apoptosis and manipulates the differentiation of Th subclasses through activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) family members and induction of subtype-specific master transcription factors. A large population of toxin-treated T cells is double-positive for Foxp3 and RORγt, the transcription factors expressed by Treg and Th17 cells, respectively. This suggests that these cells could have the potential to turn into Th17 cells or suppressive Treg cells. However, in terms of function, the PMT-differentiated cells behave as inflammatory Th17 cells that produce IL-17 and trigger T cell proliferation. PMID:26635744

  15. Pasteurella multocida: from Zoonosis to Cellular Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mengfei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In a world where most emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and our contacts with both domestic and wild animals abound, there is growing awareness of the potential for human acquisition of animal diseases. Like other Pasteurellaceae, Pasteurella species are highly prevalent among animal populations, where they are often found as part of the normal microbiota of the oral, nasopharyngeal, and upper respiratory tracts. Many Pasteurella species are opportunistic pathogens that can cause endemic disease and are associated increasingly with epizootic outbreaks. Zoonotic transmission to humans usually occurs through animal bites or contact with nasal secretions, with P. multocida being the most prevalent isolate observed in human infections. Here we review recent comparative genomics and molecular pathogenesis studies that have advanced our understanding of the multiple virulence mechanisms employed by Pasteurella species to establish acute and chronic infections. We also summarize efforts being explored to enhance our ability to rapidly and accurately identify and distinguish among clinical isolates and to control pasteurellosis by improved development of new vaccines and treatment regimens. PMID:23824375

  16. Cloning and expression of the dermonecrotic toxin gene of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kamps, A M; Kamp, E M; Smits, M A

    1990-01-15

    A DNA library of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida strain CVI 47459 was constructed in the Lambda GEM-11 vector. Recombinant clones that encoded dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) were identified immunologically with antiserum raised against purified DNT. By comparing the DNA restriction maps of the immunoreactive recombinants, we located the DNT gene. Hybridization studies with 10 strains of P. multocida ssp. multocida suggested that strains that do not produce the DNT do not contain sequences homologous to the DNT gene. PMID:2328908

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide as an Effective Disinfectant for Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Won-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infections vary widely, from local infections resulting from animal bites and scratches to general infections. As of yet, no vaccine against P. multocida has been developed, and the most effective way to prevent pathogenic transmission is to clean the host environment using disinfectants. In this study, we identified which disinfectants most effectively inhibited environmental isolates of P. multocida. Three readily available disinfectants were compared: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 70% isopropyl alcohol, and synthetic phenol. In suspension tests and zone inhibition tests, 3% HP was the most promising disinfectant against P. multocida. PMID:24954350

  18. Draft genome sequences of two virulent serotypes of avian Pasteurella multocida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent Pasteurella multocida strain Pm70....

  19. Phenotypic characterization of Zimbabwean isolates of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K; Sadza, M; Madsen, M; Hill, F W; Pawandiwa, A

    1994-02-01

    The phenotypic characteristics of 60 Zimbabwean isolates of Pasteurella multocida sensu stricto, from disease syndromes in different host species were studied. A number of representative strains were also serotyped. Consistent results were obtained in the tests for; catalase, oxidase, urease, indole, acid in glucose, inositol, salicin and sucrose. There was no obvious relationship between serotype, host or disease and the pattern of utilization of certain substrates by an isolate. This has been discussed in the context of recent proposals to reclassify Pasteurella and P. multocida on genotypic and phenotypic studies. It is suggested that notwithstanding the relevance of genetic studies in circumscribing P. multocida, the phenotype and disease significance of the taxon should not be ignored. A case of bronchitis in a dog which was simultaneously colonized by three different strains of Pasteurella is described. Also septicaemic pasteurellosis in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is reported and for the first time prevalence of various serotypes in pasteurellosis of animals in Zimbabwe. PMID:8160349

  20. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    PubMed Central

    López, C.; Sanchez-Rubio, P.; Betrán, A.; Terré, R.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline. PMID:24294240

  1. A cryopreservation method for Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Melody K.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A cryopreservation method and improved isolation techniques for detection of Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples were developed. Wetland water samples were collected in the field, diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, final concentration 10%), and frozen at -180 C in a liquid nitrogen vapor shipper. Frozen samples were transported to the laboratory where they were subsequently thawed and processed in Pasteurella multocida selective broth (PMSB) to isolate P. multocida. This method allowed for consistent isolation of 2 to 18 organisms/ml from water seeded with known concentrations of P. multocida. The method compared favorably with the standard mouse inoculation method and allowed for preservation of the samples until they could be processed in the laboratory.

  2. A cryopreservation method for Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples.

    PubMed

    Moore, M K; Shadduck, D J; Goldberg, D R; Samuel, M D

    1998-01-01

    A cryopreservation method and improved isolation techniques for detection of Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples were developed. Wetland water samples were collected in the field, diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, final concentration 10%), and frozen at -180 C in a liquid nitrogen vapor shipper. Frozen samples were transported to the laboratory where they were subsequently thawed and processed in Pasteurella multocida selective broth (PMSB) to isolate P. multocida. This method allowed for consistent isolation of 2 to 18 organisms/ml from water seeded with known concentrations of P. multocida. The method compared favorably with the standard mouse inoculation method and allowed for preservation of the samples until they could be processed in the laboratory. PMID:9476245

  3. A Case of Polyarticular Pasteurella multocida Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nitoslawski, Sarah; McConnell, Todd M.; Semret, Makeda; Stein, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old man with a history of osteoarthritis presents with right leg erythema and inability to weight-bear and pain in his right shoulder. Synovial fluid cell count of the knee and shoulder showed abundant neutrophils, and cultures of the knee showed growth of Pasteurella multocida. The patient owned four cats with which he had frequent contact, but history and physical examination elicited no evidence of scratches or bites. This case highlights the invasive potential of Pasteurella multocida in an immunocompetent individual and its capacity to cause septic arthritis in the setting of frequent animal contact. PMID:27366169

  4. Naturally acquired Pasteurella multocida infection in rabbits: clinicopathological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    DiGiacomo, R F; Xu, Y M; Allen, V; Hinton, M H; Pearson, G R

    1991-01-01

    A cohort of 41 New Zealand White rabbits, 35 to 60 days old, from twelve litters were followed for twelve weeks for development of pasteurellosis. Eleven of 19 rabbits in five litters acquired Pasteurella multocida infection. The incubation period was difficult to determine as P. multocida infection was detected both before and after the onset of rhinitis. The response of rabbits to infection varied from subclinical infection to death from systemic pasteurellosis. Atrophy of the maxilloturbinates of the nares was detected in rabbits with chronic rhinitis associated with P. multocida infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1889034

  5. Identification of Pasteurella multocida CHAPS-soluble outer membrane proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowl cholera continues to be of concern to the poultry industry, especially for turkey growers. This disease costs the turkey industry millions of dollars annually. In order to gain a better understanding of Pasteurella multocida virulence factors involved in colonization and pathogenesis, the outer...

  6. The CHAPS-soluble outer membrane proteome of Pasteurella multocida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowl cholera continues to be of major concern to the poultry industry, especially for turkey growers. This disease costs the turkey industry millions of dollars annually. Fowl cholera is caused primarily by three serotypes of Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:1, A:3, and A:4. a live attenuated vacc...

  7. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines §...

  8. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. 113.70 Section 113.70 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines §...

  9. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines §...

  10. Virulence of raptor-origin Pasteurella multocida in domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Aye, P P; Morishita, T Y; Angrick, E J

    1999-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belonging to somatic serotype 1 and capsular type A has been known to cause avian cholera in domestic poultry. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 has also been isolated from raptorial birds. However, the capsular type for these raptorial isolates remains unknown. Moreover, the virulence of these raptorial isolates for domestic poultry has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to determine the capsular type of raptorial P. multocida serotype 1 isolates and to determine if these isolates were virulent for domestic chickens. Study chickens were inoculated with one of three P. multocida isolates. Isolate WESO-1 was obtained from a western screech owl (Otus kennicottii) and isolates RTHA-2 and RTHA-4 were isolated from two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). These isolates were given by either the oral, intravenous, or intraocular route. Control birds were given brain-heart infusion broth. The capsular serotypes of three isolates were also determined. The RTHA-2 and RTHA-4 isolates belonged to P. multocida capsular type A. The WESO-1 isolate belonged to capsular type F. Results also demonstrated that, for the isolates examined, the intraocular route did not cause mortality in chickens. There was mortality in all groups for the intravenous route. However, various mortality patterns were observed when P. multocida was given orally for the three different isolates. The RTHA-4 isolate (serotype 1:A) was the most virulent for domestic chickens. The WESO-1 isolate (serotype 1:F) was the least virulent for chickens among the raptorial isolates examined. PMID:10396641

  11. Pasteurella Multocida Peritonitis After Cat Scratch in a Patient with Cirrhotic Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Verma, Ajay; Caffery, Michael; Sowden, Sowden

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic agent transmitted by canines and felines, has been very rarely reported to cause bacterial peritonitis in humans. Pasteurella multocida peritonitis is associated with high mortality even with appropriate treatment, therefore its early recognition is essential. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida peritonitis following cat scratch in a patient with Child Pugh Class C alcoholic cirrhosis, culminating in multiple organ failure and death PMID:26294953

  12. Pasteurella Multocida Peritonitis After Cat Scratch in a Patient with Cirrhotic Ascites.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Verma, Ajay; Caffery, Michael; Sowden, Sowden

    2015-04-15

    Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic agent transmitted by canines and felines, has been very rarely reported to cause bacterial peritonitis in humans. Pasteurella multocida peritonitis is associated with high mortality even with appropriate treatment, therefore its early recognition is essential. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida peritonitis following cat scratch in a patient with Child Pugh Class C alcoholic cirrhosis, culminating in multiple organ failure and death. PMID:26294953

  13. Immunogenicity of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Fenninger, Judith C.; Leitner, Deborah R.; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is able to cause disease in humans and in a wide range of animal hosts, including fowl cholera in birds, atrophic rhinitis in pigs, and snuffles in rabbits. Together with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida also represents a major bacterial causative agent of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which is one of the most important causes for economic losses for the cattle backgrounding and feedlot industry. Commercially available vaccines only partially prevent infections caused by P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Thus, this study characterized the immunogenicity of P. multocida and M. haemolytica outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) upon intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that OMVs derived from P. multocida or M. haemolytica are able to induce robust humoral and mucosal immune responses against the respective donor strain. In addition, also significant cross-immunogenic potential was observed for both OMV types. Colonization studies showed that a potential protective immune response against P. multocida is not only achieved by immunization with P. multocida OMVs, but also by immunization with OMVs derived from M. haemolytica. Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that M. haemolytica OMVs induce a more complex immune response compared to P. multocida OMVs. The outer membrane proteins OmpA, OmpH, and P6 were identified as the three major immunogenic proteins of P. multocida OMVs. Amongst others, the serotype 1-specific antigen, an uncharacterized outer membrane protein, as well as the outer membrane proteins P2 and OmpA were found to be the most important antigens of M. haemolytica OMVs. These findings are useful for the future development of broad-spectrum OMV based vaccines against BRD and other infections caused by P. multocida or M. haemolytica. PMID:23731905

  14. Sepsis-induced purpura fulminans caused by Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lisa; Oliveira, Nelson; Cássio, Isabel; Costa, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was admitted with a cutaneous rash associated with septic shock and multiorganic failure, 6 days after a dog bite. He was started on empiric antibiotherapy and supportive measures. The patient's condition aggravated, with need for invasive mechanical ventilation and intermittent haemodialysis, and evolution from a petechiae-like rash to purpura and gangrene, culminating in bilateral lower limb amputation. The blood cultures revealed only Pasteurella multocida, after 10 days of incubation. P multocida infection is a rare cause of soft tissue infection that subsides with oral antibiotherapy. Infections causing sepsis are rare and appear in immunocompromised patients. Purpura fulminans induced by sepsis is a rare, life-threatening disorder. This syndrome should be recognised promptly, so early treatment is instituted. We found no case reports of purpura fulminans caused by Pasteurella infections in our literature review. PMID:24554680

  15. Sepsis-induced purpura fulminans caused by Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Lisa; Oliveira, Nelson; Cássio, Isabel; Costa, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was admitted with a cutaneous rash associated with septic shock and multiorganic failure, 6 days after a dog bite. He was started on empiric antibiotherapy and supportive measures. The patient's condition aggravated, with need for invasive mechanical ventilation and intermittent haemodialysis, and evolution from a petechiae-like rash to purpura and gangrene, culminating in bilateral lower limb amputation. The blood cultures revealed only Pasteurella multocida, after 10 days of incubation. P multocida infection is a rare cause of soft tissue infection that subsides with oral antibiotherapy. Infections causing sepsis are rare and appear in immunocompromised patients. Purpura fulminans induced by sepsis is a rare, life-threatening disorder. This syndrome should be recognised promptly, so early treatment is instituted. We found no case reports of purpura fulminans caused by Pasteurella infections in our literature review. PMID:24554680

  16. Prolonged incubation period in neonatal Pasteurella multocida meningitis and bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Tamura, Takuya; Abe, Michiko; Ogiwara, Shigetoshi; Sai, Shuji; Kosugiyama, Kiyotaka; Sugihara, Akemi; Nagumo, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Seido; Kinugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida, often found as part of the human oral flora and in finger/toenails, also exists in many animals, especially cats, dogs, and pigs. Although rare, pasteurella infection in neonates can cause serious systemic disease, such as meningitis. In this article, a 23-day-old girl presented with decreased appetite and irritability for >2 days. Eighteen days previously her pet cat had jumped onto the left side of her head while she was sleeping. On laboratory data C-reactive protein was high, and on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis leukocyte count was extremely high, with low glucose and high protein. P. multocida grew out of the blood and CSF cultures, and she was successfully treated with antibiotics for 3 weeks. Although pasteurellosis rarely occurs, it can sometimes lead to life-threatening situations, so parents should exercise caution when having pets around their children. PMID:25521988

  17. Survival of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in aerosols and aqueous liquids.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, C M; Chanter, N; Wathes, C M

    1992-01-01

    The survival of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in air and liquids was studied to identify possible risk factors in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. In aerosols, at low relative humidity (28%), the viability of toxigenic P. multocida 5 min after aerosolization was at least 22% of its initial value. Viability at low relative humidity declined to 8% after 45 min. Viability at high relative humidity (79%) was 69% after 5 min and declined to 2% after 45 min. Survival of toxigenic P. multocida in liquids depended on storage and constituents in the liquid. Toxigenic P. multocida became nonculturable 1 to 14 days after inoculation in water and artificial seawater, depending on the storage temperature. Toxigenic P. multocida stored at 37 degrees C could be detected for up to 6 days in pig slurry and more than 36 days in Bacto Tryptose broth and nasal lavages. However, in Bacto Tryptose broth and nasal lavages stored at 4 degrees C, P. multocida was detected for up to 14 days whereas at 15 and 37 degrees C it was detected for more than 49 days. These results suggest that aerosols and fomites can play a role in the transmission of atrophic rhinitis. PMID:1575496

  18. Characterization of a Pasteurella multocida plasmid and its use to express recombinant proteins in P. multocida.

    PubMed

    Wright, C L; Strugnell, R A; Hodgson, A L

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a naturally occurring 5.36-kb streptomycin and sulphonamide resistance plasmid, designated pIG1, isolated from type D Pasteurella multocida was determined. A 1.6-kb noncoding region and a 1.4-kb region encoding three putative proteins were shown by sequence homologies and functional characterizations to be involved in the replication and mobilization of pIG1, respectively. The remaining sequence carried an unusual arrangement of streptomycin- and sulphonamide-resistant genes when compared to various other plasmids. It appears that the antibiotic resistance region of pIG1 may have evolved by recombination between three different short direct repeat DNA sequences. A 4.5-kb recombinant plasmid was constructed by replacing the antibiotic resistance genes of pIG1 with a kanamycin resistance gene and seven unique restriction sites. The resulting plasmid, designated pIG112, stably replicates in P. multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Escherichia coli and can be introduced into these organisms by either transformation or conjugation. This vector exists at approximately 70 copies per cell in P. multocida and approximately 20 copies per cell in E. coli. To demonstrate plasmid-borne gene expression in P. multocida, the P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin gene, toxA, and a genetically modified form of this gene were cloned into pIG112 and expressed in high amounts in a nontoxigenic P. multocida strain. Cell culture assays demonstrated that nontoxigenic P. multocida expressing toxA was cytopathic, whereas a strain expressing the modified toxA derivative was not. PMID:9073583

  19. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Pasteurella multocida Infection

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Dincman, Toros; Clyburn, Benjamin E.; Steed, Lisa L.; Rockey, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic infectious organism, has most often been described in patients after an animal bite. Here, we characterize the clinical features and outcomes of P multocida infection in a large cohort of patients according to the presence or absence of an animal bite. We retrospectively searched MUSC's laboratory information system for all patients with positive P multocida cultures from 2000 to 2014. Extensive data were abstracted, including clinical and outcome data. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was used to assess comorbidities among patients. We identified 44 patients with P multocida infections, including 25 with an animal bite. The average age was 64 years and the majority of patients were women (N = 30). There was no difference in age and sex distribution among those with and without a bite (P = 0.38 and 0.75, respectively). A CCI ≥1 was significantly associated with the absence of a bite (P = 0.006). Patients presenting without a bite were more frequently bacteremic (37% vs 4%, respectively, P = 0.001), and were hospitalized more often (84% vs 44%, respectively, P = 0.012). Of the 8 patients who required intensive care unit (ICU)-based care, 7 were non-bite-related. There were 4 deaths, all occurring in patients not bitten. P multocida infections not associated with an animal bite were often associated with bacteremia, severe comorbidity(ies), immune-incompetent states, the need for ICU management, and were associated with substantial mortality. PMID:26356688

  20. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  1. [Invasive Pasteurella multocida infections: Two clinical cases and literature review].

    PubMed

    Smíšková, Dita; Džupová, Olga

    2015-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a common commensal of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of animals, especially cats and dogs. It is transmitted to humans through contact with animals. Bite wound infection is the most common clinical manifestation. Systemic infections are unusual and mainly affect immunocompromised individuals. The article presents two cases of Pasteurella infection. Wound infection in a 75-year-old female following a bite from her pet cat was associated with bacteremia. The disease course was favorable with the initial clindamycin treatment despite in vitro resistance. The other patient was a 62-year-old female diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis with multiple brain abscesses and transient expressive aphasia. She reported frequent contacts with pets and domestic animals without a recent bite. Hematogenous dissemination of the infection was suspected. Because of poor therapeutic response, cefotaxime was switched to chloramphenicol which was later switched to a combination of cefotaxime with ciprofloxacin due to anemia. Following 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and another 10 weeks of oral ciprofloxacin therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed normal results and the neurological defect resolved. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Pasteurella infection are discussed and literature is reviewed. PMID:26312375

  2. Septic Arthritis and Osteomyelitis Caused by Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Vranis, Neil; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Christian, Matthew; Joshi, Manjari; Pensy, Raymond A

    2015-07-01

    This report presents a case of progressive septic arthritis and osteomyelitis caused by a rare pathogen, Pasteurella multocida, thought to be provoked by the use of systemic corticosteroids. Despite initial improvement after antibiotics and surgical procedure, the patient returned with new, associated symptoms 1 month later. This concurrent set of circumstances leading to a life-threatening condition has not been reported, to the best of our knowledge. Physicians aware of such a case will be better prepared to diagnose, treat, and educate their patients. Additionally, the diagnostic challenge presented by this case report emphasizes the need for vigilance and thoroughness in obtaining histories from patients presenting with seemingly benign complaints, especially in vulnerable populations, such as infants, pregnant women, and immunocompromised adults. PMID:26161771

  3. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  4. Synergistic role of gaseous ammonia in etiology of Pasteurella multocida-induced atrophic rhinitis in swine.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T D; Roe, J M; Webster, A J

    1996-01-01

    One-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and allocated to 14 experimental groups, each composed of five animals. Each group was housed in a separate Rochester exposure chamber and exposed continuously to gaseous ammonia at either 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, or 50 ppm (two groups per exposure level). One week after ammonia exposure commenced, the pigs from one group at each exposure level were inoculated intranasally with 9 x 10(7) CFU of Pasteurella multocida type D. After a further 4 weeks of exposure, all the pigs were euthanized and the extent of turbinate degeneration was assessed by using a morphometric index (J.T. Done, D. H. Upcott, D. C. Frewin, and C. N. Hebert, Vet. Rec. 114:33-35, 1984) and a subjective scoring system (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Atrophic Rhinitis: a System of Snout Grading, 1978). Exposure to ammonia at a concentration of 5 ppm or greater resulted in a significant increase in the severity of turbinate atrophy induced by P. multocida compared with that occurring in pigs kept in 0 ppm of ammonia. This effect was maximal at 10 ppm but decreased progressively at concentrations above 25 ppm. Regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between the severity of turbinate degeneration and the number of P. multocida organisms isolated from the nasal epithelium at the end of the experiment (R2 = 0.86). These findings suggest that exposure to ammonia facilitates the growth and/or survival of P. multocida within the upper respiratory tract of the pig, thereby contributing to the severity of the clinical disease atrophic rhinitis. Furthermore, exposure of pigs to ammonia at 10 ppm or greater, in the absence of either P. multocida or Bordetella bronchiseptica, induced a mild but statistically significant degree of turbinate atrophy. The findings of this study demonstrate that exposure to ammonia, at concentrations within the range encountered commonly in commercial piggeries, contributes to the severity of clinical lesions

  5. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by Pasteurella multocida under treatment with rifaximin.

    PubMed

    Lutz, P; Parcina, M; Bekeredjian-Ding, I; Hoerauf, A; Strassburg, C P; Spengler, U

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. Recently, rifaximin, a non-absorbable antibiotic which is used to prevent recurrent hepatic encephalopathy, has been proposed as effective prophylaxis for SBP. Here, we present an unusual case of SBP under treatment with rifaximin. A 50-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis was admitted because of tense ascites and abdominal pain. She was under long-term oral prophylaxis with rifaximin due to hepatic encephalopathy. Paracentesis revealed SBP caused by Pasteurella multocida, which was sensitive to multiple antibiotics, including rifaximin. Treatment with ceftriaxone resulted in rapid resolution of the peritonitis and restoration of the patient. Since P. multocida is usually transmitted from pets, the patient's cat was tested and could be identified as the most likely source of infection. This case should elicit our awareness that uncommon pathogens and unusual routes of transmission may lead to SBP, despite antibacterial prophylaxis with non-absorbable antibiotics. Nevertheless, such infections may still remain sensitive to systemic therapy with conventional antibiotics. PMID:23526308

  6. RSF1010-based shuttle vectors for cloning and expression in Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Lee, M D; Henk, A D

    1997-03-01

    The broad host-range cloning vectors, pJRD215 and pMMB67EH, were evaluated for stability and cloning efficiency in Pasteurella multocida. Transformation of P. multocida by electroporation was unreliable and poorly efficient regardless of whether the transforming DNA was isolated from E. coli or P. multocida. Both vectors contain a mob site that enabled transfer by conjugation from E. coli to P. multocida with high efficiency. Kanamycin, streptomycin, and ampicillin resistance encoded by the vectors were expressed in P. multocida. LacZ was cloned in pMMB67EH, an expression vector, and was transferred to P. multocida by conjugation. The transconjugants expressed a functional beta-galactosidase as determined by o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) test. We propose the use of these cosmid and expression vectors as a shuttle vectors for cloning in P. multocida. PMID:9100336

  7. New sites of localisation of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo surviving experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS. Results Following P. multocida B:2 infection, all calves in group 1 and one calf in group 2 that was allowed to commingle with infected calves from group 1 were euthanised within 48 h. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was detected from the nasal and rectal swab samples on days 5 and 6 from the remaining calves in group 2. The first injection of dexamethasone into the carrier animals resulted in reemergence in samples from the nose, rectum and vagina. However, subsequent dexamethasone injections failed to re-activate P. multocida B:2. When surviving carrier calves in group 2 were euthanised at the end of the experiment, P. multocida B:2 was detected in the lungs and various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Conclusions Commingling naive buffalo calves with calves acutely infected with P. multocida B:2 resulted in carriers among surviving buffalo. Pasteurella was found in various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of HS. PMID:24721163

  8. Identification, purification, and characterization of the type 4 fimbriae of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Ruffolo, C G; Tennent, J M; Michalski, W P; Adler, B

    1997-01-01

    The presence of fimbriae on Pasteurella multocida has been reported, but there have been no prior studies aimed at conclusively characterizing these structures. We now report on the identification and characterization of type 4 fimbriae on serogroup A, B, and D strains of P. multocida. Under microaerophilic conditions P. multocida showed an increased expression of the fimbriae, which were observed to form bundles. Fimbriae purified by high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography constituted a single 18-kDa subunit, the first 21 amino acids of which shared very high similarity with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of other type 4 fimbrial subunits. Antiserum against the P. multocida 18-kDa protein immunostained the type 4 fimbrial subunit of Moraxella bovis and Dichelobacter nodosus. Based on these observations we conclude that P. multocida possesses type 4 fimbriae and have designated the P. multocida fimbrial subunit PtfA. PMID:8975936

  9. Candidate vaccine antigens and genes in Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Adler, B; Bulach, D; Chung, J; Doughty, S; Hunt, M; Rajakumar, K; Serrano, M; van Zanden, A; Zhang, Y; Ruffolo, C

    1999-08-20

    Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of fowl cholera and other diseases of production animals. Isolates are classified into five groups based on capsular antigens and into 16 serotypes based on LPS antigens. Strains causing fowl cholera are most frequently designated A:1, A:3 or A:4. Whole cell bacterins can provide some degree of protection, but only against the homologous LPS serotype. There is good evidence that cross-protective antigens are expressed only under in vivo conditions. Empirically derived, live, attenuated vaccines can protect against heterologous serotypes, but because the basis for attenuation is undefined, reversion to virulence is not uncommon. Work in our laboratory is aimed at using a variety of approaches to identify potential protective antigens or virulence genes to be used as candidates for attenuating mutations or as the basis for vaccine antigen delivery systems. The gene encoding an outer membrane protein, Oma87, which is a homologue of the D15 protective antigen of Haemophilus influenzae, was cloned and sequenced. Rabbit antiserum prepared against recombinant Oma87 could passively protect mice against infection. Type 4 fimbriae form the basis of vaccines against ovine footrot and bovine keratoconjunctivitis. We have identified type 4 fimbriae on the surface of P. multocida, purified the fimbrial subunit protein, PtfA, and determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence. Subsequent cloning of the ptfA gene and its inactivation will now be used to assess the importance of type 4 fimbriae in virulence. There has long been anecdotal evidence for the importance of capsule in virulence, but unequivocal genetic evidence for such a role is lacking. We have cloned and characterised the capsule biosynthetic locus in P. multocida A:1 and identified four bex genes involved in capsule transport and genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and transfer of the N-acetyl glucosamine and glucuronic acid components of the capsule. It has

  10. Sepsis puerperalis caused by a genotypically proven cat-derived Pasteurella multocida strain.

    PubMed

    Voss, A; van Zwam, Y H; Meis, J F; Melchers, W; Steegers, E A

    1998-01-01

    We report a disseminated intrauterine Pasteurella multocida infection in a puerperal woman who could not remember any traumatic exposure to her cat. An oral swab taken from the cat, just 2 days after the patient's admission, grew Pasteurella multocida, with an PCR-fingerprinting pattern identical to the patient's isolate. Hand-washing after every contact with cats and dogs and if feasible separation of in-house pets from mother and infant should be applied to prevent this uncommon but serious occurrence of post-partum infections. To our knowledge this is the first case of Pasteurella multocida 'child-bed fever', with a genotypically identical strain isolated from the in-house cat. PMID:9481551

  11. A Chronic Respiratory Pasteurella multocida Infection Is Well-Controlled by Long-Term Macrolide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Masafumi; Sakata, Tomomi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Tomono, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with severe bronchiectasis frequently received antibiotics, including penicillin, for acute exacerbations due to Pasteurella multocida. Although the bacteria showed a decrease in antibiotic susceptibility, her symptoms and X-ray findings became stable, and severe exacerbations were not observed for the last few years after a low-dose erythromycin treatment was started. The development of a respiratory infection with Pasteurella multocida is relatively uncommon, but it can be controlled by immunomodulation which is associated with long-term macrolide therapy. PMID:26831030

  12. A new selective enrichment procedure for isolating Pasteurella multocida from avian and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.K.; Cicnjak-Chubbs, L.; Gates, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A selective enrichment procedure, using two new selective media, was developed to isolate Pasteurella multocida from wild birds and environmental samples. These media were developed by testing 15 selective agents with six isolates of P. multocida from wild avian origin and seven other bacteria representing genera frequently found in environmental and avian samples. The resulting media—Pasteurella multocida selective enrichment broth and Pasteurella multocida selective agar—consisted of a blood agar medium at pH 10 containing gentamicin, potassium tellurite, and amphotericin B. Media were tested to determine: 1) selectivity when attempting isolation from pond water and avian carcasses, 2) sensitivity for detection of low numbers of P. multocida from pure and mixed cultures, 3) host range specificity of the media, and 4) performance compared with standard blood agar. With the new selective enrichment procedure, P. multocida was isolated from inoculated (60 organisms/ml) pond water 84% of the time, whereas when standard blood agar was used, the recovery rate was 0%.

  13. Overexpression and immunogenicity of the Oma87 outer membrane protein of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, M; Wei, L; Kwang, J; Wilkie, I; Adler, B

    2000-03-01

    The outer membrane protein of Oma87 from Pasteurella multocida A:1 has significant similarity to the D15 protective antigen of Haemophilus influenzae (Ruffolo and Adler, 1996). Four fragments of Oma87 from a P. multocida serotype D strain were cloned into a pGEX expression vector and transformed into E. coli JM105. Western blot analysis revealed that convalescent chicken sera reacted with only GST-F1 fusion protein which contained amino acids 18 through to 130 of Oma87 fused to the GST protein. Vaccination with the GST-F1 protein failed to protect chickens against challenge with a virulent P. multocida serotype A. PMID:10699506

  14. The effect of hypovitaminosis A on the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Aye, P P; Morishita, T Y; Saif, Y M; Jonas, M

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that Pasteurella multocida can invade the host tissues via the mucous membrane. Vitamin A (VitA) deficiency has been associated with mucous membrane damage, such as squamous metaplasia. The objective of this study was to determine the early stages in the pathogenesis of P. multocida in VitA-deficient turkeys and clinically healthy turkeys. Fifteen-week-old VitA-deficient and clinically healthy turkeys were inoculated with P. multocida P-1059, a virulent strain, and the portal of entry, invasion, and localization of P. multocida were studied by microbial examination of the trachea, liver, and lung and histologic examinations of internal organs. Higher mortality was found in VitA-deficient turkeys. Pasteurella multocida was first reisolated from the trachea, secondarily from the liver and blood, and finally from the lung in both groups. Invasion of P. multocida into tissues occurred between 3 hr and 24 hr postinoculation in both groups. Our findings suggest that altered membrane integrity in VitA-deficient birds did not appear to change the time course of the systemic spread of P. multocida infection in turkeys and that the increased mortality seen in the VitA-deficient turkeys may be associated with immune system impairment. PMID:11195636

  15. Virulence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds for domestic poultry and game birds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K D; Christensen, J P; Permin, A; Bisgaard, M

    2001-02-01

    Chickens, turkeys, partridges and pheasants were experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida to investigate whether outbreaks of fowl cholera in avifauna might represent a risk for organic, backyard and industrial poultry production. Birds were infected intra-tracheally with a strain of P. multocida subsp. multocida (40605-1) isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds in Denmark. P. multocida subsp. multocida strain P-1059 was included as a reference strain. The outbreak strain was highly virulent for turkeys, partridges and pheasants, while chickens were more resistant. The present findings underline the importance of wild birds as a reservoir for P. multocida. Intratracheal challenge proved useful for studying the virulence of P. multocida. PMID:19184870

  16. Sialic Acid Uptake Is Necessary for Virulence of Pasteurella multocida in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many pathogenic bacteria employ systems to incorporate sialic acid into their membranes as a means of protection against host defense mechanisms. Pasteurella multocida is an opportunistic pathogen which causes diseases of economic importance in a wide range of animal species and sialic acid uptake p...

  17. Immune response in mice and swine to DNA vaccines derived from the Pasteurella multocida toxin gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA vaccines were constructed with either a 5’-truncated or full-length, genetically detoxified toxin gene from Pasteurella multocida and two different DNA vaccine vectors, distinguished by the presence or absence of a secretion signal sequence. Optimal PMT-specific antibody responses and spleen cel...

  18. Proximity-dependent inhibition of growth of mannheimia haemolytica by pasteurella multocida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Bibersteinia trehalosi have been identified in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis). Of these pathogens, M. haemolytica has been shown to consistently cause fatal pneumonia in BHS under experimental conditions. However, M. hae...

  19. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3. 113.118 Section 113.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  20. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1. 113.117 Section 113.117 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  1. Associations between water quality, Pasteurella multocida, and avian cholera at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehr, M.A.; Botzler, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied patterns in avian cholera mortality, the presence of Pasteurella multocida in the water or sediment, and water chemistry characteristics in 10 wetlands at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex (California, USA), an area of recurrent avian cholera epizootics, during the winters of 1997 and 1998. Avian cholera outbreaks (a?Y50 dead birds) occurred on two wetlands during the winter of 1997, but no P. multocida were recovered from 390 water and 390 sediment samples from any of the 10 wetlands. No mortality events were observed on study wetlands during the winter of 1998; however, P. multocida was recovered from water and sediment samples in six of the 10 study wetlands. The pH levels were higher for wetlands experiencing outbreaks during the winter of 1997 than for nonoutbreak wetlands, and aluminum concentrations were higher in wetlands from which P. multocida were recovered during the winter of 1998. Water chemistry parameters (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and dissolved protein) previously linked with P. multocida and avian cholera mortality were not associated with the occurrence of avian cholera outbreaks or the presence of P. multocida in our study wetlands. Overall, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that wetland characteristics facilitate the presence of P. multocida and, thereby, allow some wetlands to serve as long-term sources (reservoirs) for P. multocida.

  2. Neonatal Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica Meningitis Traced to Household Cats: Molecular Linkage Analysis Using Repetitive-Sequence-Based PCR.

    PubMed

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Freij, Bishara J; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Makin, Jacob; Runge, Jessica K; Luna, Ruth Ann

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis. We describe such a case and verify two household cats as the source of infection using repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) molecular fingering. PMID:26491173

  3. Neonatal Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica Meningitis Traced to Household Cats: Molecular Linkage Analysis Using Repetitive-Sequence-Based PCR

    PubMed Central

    Freij, Bishara J.; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Makin, Jacob; Runge, Jessica K.; Luna, Ruth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis. We describe such a case and verify two household cats as the source of infection using repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) molecular fingering. PMID:26491173

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Buffaloes in India with Hemorrhagic Septicemia Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abrahante, J. E.; Veeregowda, B. M.; Hogtapur, S. S.; Briggs, R. E.; Maheswaran, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 is the causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes in Asia. It is an acute fatal disease and is considered one of the most economically important diseases in this region of the world. We present here the draft genome sequences of strains 2213 and 3213 of P. multocida. PMID:25103770

  5. First High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida Sequence Type 128 Isolated from Infected Bone.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Niloofar; Eng, Wilhelm Wei Han; Lee, Yin Peng; Tan, Lian Huat; Thuraisingham, Ravindran; Yule, Catherine M; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first high-quality draft genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida sequence type 128, which was isolated from the infected finger bone of an adult female who was bitten by a domestic dog. The draft genome will be a valuable addition to the scarce genomic resources available for P. multocida. PMID:26941132

  6. Development of OMP based indirect ELISA to gauge the antibody titers in bovines against Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, V; Verma, S; Singh, G; Wani, A. H; Chahota, R; Dhar, P; Verma, L; Sharma, M

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important pathogen of various domestic animals. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a major role in pathogenesis and immunogenicity of P. multocida. The aim of the study was to develop indirect enzyme linked immuno sorbant assay (ELISA) based on OMPs to ascertain the antibody titers in animals post-infection or to gauge the potency of vaccine. The OMPs were extracted and purified from P. multocida P:52 (vaccine strain) and P. multocida B:2 isolated from natural outbreak of Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and analyzed on SDS PAGE and through western blot. The OMPs profile of the vaccine strain and the isolate from the natural outbreak of HS were found to be similar. Optimization of various components viz. coating antigens, anti-species conjugate, etc. were carried out against both anti-P. multocida hyper immune and pre immune serum. Validation of OMP based indirect ELISA assay to measure immune response against P. multocida in bovine revealed 91% diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and about 100% diagnostic specificity (DSP) at 25% cut off. OMP based indirect ELISA was found to be more specific, but less sensitive as compared to WCL based assay. PMID:27175202

  7. Development of OMP based indirect ELISA to gauge the antibody titers in bovines against Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Dogra, V; Verma, S; Singh, G; Wani, A H; Chahota, R; Dhar, P; Verma, L; Sharma, M

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important pathogen of various domestic animals. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a major role in pathogenesis and immunogenicity of P. multocida. The aim of the study was to develop indirect enzyme linked immuno sorbant assay (ELISA) based on OMPs to ascertain the antibody titers in animals post-infection or to gauge the potency of vaccine. The OMPs were extracted and purified from P. multocida P:52 (vaccine strain) and P. multocida B:2 isolated from natural outbreak of Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and analyzed on SDS PAGE and through western blot. The OMPs profile of the vaccine strain and the isolate from the natural outbreak of HS were found to be similar. Optimization of various components viz. coating antigens, anti-species conjugate, etc. were carried out against both anti-P. multocida hyper immune and pre immune serum. Validation of OMP based indirect ELISA assay to measure immune response against P. multocida in bovine revealed 91% diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and about 100% diagnostic specificity (DSP) at 25% cut off. OMP based indirect ELISA was found to be more specific, but less sensitive as compared to WCL based assay. PMID:27175202

  8. Genomic characterization of Pasteurella multocida HB01, a serotype A bovine isolate from China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Bin; Tang, Biao; Tan, Chen; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-04-25

    Pasteurella multocida infects various domestic and feral animals, generally causing clinical disease. To investigate P. multocida disease in cattle, we sequenced the complete genome of P. multocida HB01 (GenBank accession CP006976), a serotype A organism isolated from a cow in China. The genome is composed of a single circular chromosome of 2,416,068 base pairs containing 2212 protein-coding sequences, 6 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 56 tRNA genes. The present study confirms that P. multocida HB01 possesses a more complete metabolic pathway with an intact trichloroacetic acid cycle for anabolism compared with A. pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. This is the first time that this metabolic mechanism of P. multocida has been described. We also identified a full spectrum of genes related to known virulence factors of P. multocida. The differences in virulence factors between strains of different serotypes and origins were also compared. This comprehensive comparative genome analysis will help in further studies of the metabolic pathways, genetic basis of serotype, and virulence of P. multocida. PMID:26827796

  9. Serological tests as indicators of immunity against Pasteurella multocida infection in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Dua, S K; PandurangaRao, C C

    1978-01-01

    Five serological tests, i.e. single tube agglutination, doubling dilution tube agglutination, agar agglutination, passive hemagglutination and passive mouse protection tests were evaluated for their efficacy in predicting the fate of vaccinated and unvaccinated sheep on challenge with an ovine strain of Pasteurella multocida. The passive hemagglutination test predicted the fate of unvaccinated sheep while the agar agglutination test indicated the immune status of vaccinated sheep. PMID:743601

  10. Deadly case of Pasteurella multocida aortitis and mycotic aneurysm following a cat bite.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dennis Dane; Berliner, Yaniv; Carr, David

    2016-06-16

    Animal bites are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Aortitis leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially deadly complication of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) following an animal bite. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the ED after falling at home. He complained of weakness and abdominal pain. He was in septic shock and was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous fluids. He reported previous antibiotic treatment of a cellulitis secondary to a cat bite injury to his right thumb four weeks prior. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent computed tomography scan revealed a leaking mycotic abdominal aneurysm that was surgically repaired. Blood cultures and aortic wall tissue cultures grew P. multocida. Given how common animal bite presentations are in the ED, this case highlights the need to consider aortitis and mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm in an unwell patient with an animal bite. PMID:27326399

  11. Purpura fulminans and severe sepsis due to Pasteurella multocida infection in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Konda, Monoj Kumar; Chang, Stephanie; Zaccheo, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman was admitted into the intensive care unit, with severe sepsis and renal failure. She developed purpura fulminans (PF) of bilateral upper and lower extremities along with gangrene on the tips of her fingers and toes. Blood cultures confirmed Pasteurella multocida as the causative organism. Despite aggressive supportive measures, the patient remained dependent on high doses of vasopressors and the gangrene progressed. She ultimately succumbed to her underlying severe sepsis. PF is a rare and fatal dermatological emergency commonly seen in children, but it also occurs in adults. Acute infectious PF occurs secondary to severe sepsis and P. multocida is a rare cause of PF. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of PF due to P. multocida in an adult. PMID:27298290

  12. Deadly case of Pasteurella multocida aortitis and mycotic aneurysm following a cat bite

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dennis Dane; Berliner, Yaniv; Carr, David

    2016-01-01

    Animal bites are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Aortitis leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially deadly complication of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) following an animal bite. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the ED after falling at home. He complained of weakness and abdominal pain. He was in septic shock and was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous fluids. He reported previous antibiotic treatment of a cellulitis secondary to a cat bite injury to his right thumb four weeks prior. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent computed tomography scan revealed a leaking mycotic abdominal aneurysm that was surgically repaired. Blood cultures and aortic wall tissue cultures grew P. multocida. Given how common animal bite presentations are in the ED, this case highlights the need to consider aortitis and mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm in an unwell patient with an animal bite. PMID:27326399

  13. Infected total knee arthroplasty due to postoperative wound contamination with Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bala; Holloway, Edward; Townsend, Robert; Sutton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a small Gram-negative bacterium comprising part of the normal gastrointestinal and nasopharyngeal flora of domestic pets, such as dogs and cats. It rarely causes infection in humans. Previous reports of P multocida causing prosthetic joint infection have described either haematogenous spread of infection from a distant site through a scratch or bite, or reactivation of infection from a previous injury. We report a case of acute total knee arthroplasty joint infection becoming acutely infected by P multocida. We postulate that the mechanism of infection was direct contamination of the wound as a consequence of the patient being licked by his pet dog. We discuss the potential role played by thromboprophylaxis as a factor contributing to prolonged wound leak. PMID:24108765

  14. Invasive Pasteurella multocida Infections - Report of Five Cases at a Minnesota Hospital, 2014.

    PubMed

    Talley, P; Snippes-Vagnone, P; Smith, K

    2016-09-01

    During October 2014, the Minnesota Department of Health was notified of five Hospital A patients with Pasteurella multocida bacteraemia; three had died. Human soft tissue infection with P. multocida typically results from cat or dog bites or scratches. Invasive infection, defined as a P. multocida isolate from a usually sterile site, is rare. We evaluated P. multocida isolations at Hospital A, compared with other Minnesota hospitals to understand invasive infection trends. A case was defined as clinically confirmed P. multocida in a Minnesota resident during 2012-2014. All hospital laboratories were queried; Fisher's exact test was used for comparison. Medical charts were reviewed for 2014 Hospital A patients with P. multocida infections. The Minnesota clinical laboratories survey response rate was 79% (63/80). At Hospital A, proportion of P. multocida isolates from usually sterile sites increased from 0% (0/2) during 2012 to 11% (1/9) during 2013, and to 86% (5/6) during 2014. The proportion of patients with P. multocida isolated from sterile sites was 35% (6/17) at Hospital A compared with 10% (58/583) statewide during 2012-2014 combined (P < 0.05). Among 2014 Hospital A patients with invasive P. multocida infection, all five were men; median age was 70 (range: 44-78) years. Four were temporally clustered within a 33-day period; three of those had bacteraemia on admission, making hospital acquisition possible in only one. Among five bacteraemia patients, four had cirrhosis and/or skin ulcerations, and three died. The proportion of invasive P. multocida cases was substantially higher at Hospital A during 2014. No epidemiologic links between patients were found. Three had known pet exposure. Collaborative educational efforts of chronically ill pet owners by physicians and veterinarians can acknowledge the health benefits of pet ownership, while minimizing risk for serious invasive zoonotic infections, including those caused by P. multocida. PMID

  15. Plasmid and restriction endonuclease patterns in Pasteurella multocida isolated from a swine pyramid.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, Xavier; Casal, Jordi; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and plasmid profile were used to study the epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida in a swine pyramid structure. The studied pyramid was comprised of a group of 12 swine farrow-to-finish farms related by unidirectional animal movement. P. multocida isolates were obtained from the lungs of 275 slaughtered pigs. Serotyping was performed by hyaluronidase sensitivity test and toxicity was investigated by the ELISA test. HpaII was used to cleave the P. multocida extracted DNA. REA patterns relationships were studied using the Sokal-Michener coefficients, and the dendrogram was built using the UPGMA system. The 218 P. multocida isolates obtained were distributed in 17 REA patterns. In 9 of the 12 farms studied only 2-3 REA patterns were detected, with one clearly predominant pattern. The 81 strains with plasmids were assigned to six plasmid profiles. REA and plasmid profiles proved to be good epidemiological tools for identifying different strains of P. multocida with the same phenotype. PMID:11731160

  16. Differentiation of toxigenic from nontoxigenic isolates of Pasteurella multocida by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, S; Someno, S; Yagihashi, T

    1994-01-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the differentiation of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida strains, the major etiologic agent for progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs, from nontoxigenic strains. The PCR targeted a toxA gene encoding a 143-kDa dermonecrotic toxin that is considered to be the central etiologic factor in progressive atrophic rhinitis. toxA fragments were amplified from toxigenic P. multocida isolates but not from nontoxigenic isolates or other bacteria isolated from pigs. The sensitivity of the reaction was as low as 10 pg of chromosomal DNA from a toxigenic strain. The results obtained by PCR of the DNAs of 187 field isolates of P. multocida were consistent with those obtained by the guinea pig skin test and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. Restriction fragment analysis of the PCR-amplified fragments from 67 field isolates and comparison of the DNA sequences of fragments from capsular serotype A and D strains suggest that the PCR-amplified region, which is considered to encode the major immunologic determinants of the toxin, would be the same among P. multocida strains. The PCR that we describe should be useful for the diagnosis and the etiologic survey of progressive atrophic rhinitis. Images PMID:8027302

  17. A 5-year retrospective report of Gallibacterium anatis and Pasteurella multocida isolates from chickens in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Jones, K H; Thornton, J K; Zhang, Y; Mauel, M J

    2013-12-01

    A 5-yr retrospective study (November 2006-December 2011) was conducted to determine the isolation frequency of Pasteurella multocida and Gallibacterium anatis and their antibiograms from chickens submitted to the Mississippi Poultry Research and Diagnostic Laboratory. The number of isolations of G. anatis increased over the last 5 yr in broiler and broiler breeder type chickens. For P. multocida, the number of isolations increased from 2006 to 2010, but decreased through 2011 with all isolations being from boiler breeder type chickens. Gallibacterium anatis demonstrated almost complete resistance to novobiocin, tylosin, lincosamide, and tetracycline antimicrobials with moderate to high sensitivity to sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and florfenicol. There was intermediate sensitivity for spectinomycin and erythromycin and variable resistance to β-lactam and aminoglycoside antimicrobials. In sharp contrast, P. multocida showed moderate to high sensitivity to β-lactam, novobiocin, and tetracycline antimicrobials, but had antibiograms similar to G. anatis for the other antimicrobials. Sensitivities were determined using minimum inhibitory concentration. This study examines the trends over a 5-yr period of the number of isolates of P. multocida and G. anatis and their sensitivities. These 2 pathogens produce very similar clinical signs and lesions (fowl cholera-like) in breeders despite having extremely antagonistic sensitivity patterns. This study shows the necessity for producers to attempt culture and sensitivity in suspect fowl cholera-like flocks before initiating antimicrobial treatment commonly used with P. multocida for fear that the culprit may actually be the more antimicrobial-resistant G. anatis. PMID:24235226

  18. Inhibition of growth and alteration of host cell interactions of Pasteurella multocida with natural byproducts.

    PubMed

    Salaheen, S; Almario, J A; Biswas, D

    2014-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of fowl cholera in both free-range pasture and conventional/commercially raised poultry. Its infection is a serious threat to poultry health and overall flock viability. Organic poultry is comparatively more vulnerable to this pathogen. It is a significant cause of production loss and price increase of poultry products, specifically organic poultry products. Some plant products are well documented as sources of natural antimicrobials such as polyphenols found in different berry pomaces and citrus oil. Pomace, a byproduct (primarily of seeds and skins) of fruits used for juice and wine production, and citrus oil, the byproduct of citrus juice production, show promising antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. Here, we showed for the first time that blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts and citrus oil inhibited P. multocida growth. Minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined as 0.3 and 0.4 mg/mL gallic acid equivalent for blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts, respectively. Similarly, only 0.05% citrus oil (vol/vol) completely inhibited P. multocida growth. Under shaking conditions, the antimicrobial activity of both pomace extracts and citrus oil was more intensive. Even citrus oil vapor also significantly reduced the growth of P. multocida. In addition, cell surface hydrophobicity of P. multocida was increased by 2- to 3-fold and its adherence to chicken fibroblast (DF1) and bovine mammary gland (MacT) cells was reduced significantly in the presence of pomace extracts only. This study indicates that these natural products might be good alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents, and hence, may be used as feed or water supplements to control fowl cholera and reduce production loss caused by P. multocida. PMID:24879687

  19. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Smith, Susan R.; Miyamoto, Amy; Shadduck, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 × 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  20. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Miyamoto, A.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 ?? 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  1. Expression of 4 truncated fragments of Pasteurella multocida toxin and their immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jayoung; Pyo, Hyoju; Lee, Semi; Lee, Jaeil; Kim, Taejung

    2009-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a poor antigen that becomes more immunogenic after its native structure has been destroyed. In contrast, partially truncated PMT proteins, which are predicted to be good antigens when used as a vaccine, might be used to improve the control of atrophic rhinitis in pigs. In this study, 4 truncated PMT fragments were expressed in Escherichia coli, and those 4 fragments were inoculated into mice to produce the polyclonal antibodies. The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that #1 and #4 fragments were the most immunogenic. Immunized mice were subsequently challenged intraperitoneally with P. multocida type D. Five of the eight #1 fragment-immunized mice showed some protection against death and bacterial clearance. Pigs immunized with #1 fragment produced no or mild atrophic rhinitis (turbinate conchal score) after challenge, suggesting that this #1 fragment could be a good candidate for a subunit recombinant-type vaccine. PMID:19794890

  2. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in Nebraska (USA) wetlands under epizootic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Brand, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Gleason Basin, a marsh located in the western part of the Rainwater Basin in Nebraska, was selected during the 1980 spring waterfowl migration as a study site to determine the presence and persistence of virulent Pasteurella multocida. Avian cholera mortality in migratory waterfowl using the Basin increased during a 2-wk period of a die-off beginning the first week of March when 2,409 carcasses were collected from the marsh. Study sites within the marsh were established for sampling water associated with and not associated with intact and scavenged carcasses. Isolations of virulent P. multocida were made from five of six study sites associated with either intact or scavenged carcasses for 3 days and from three of five non-carcass-associated study sites for 2 days. Recovery of these bacteria from this environment suggested a possible source of infection for susceptible waterfowl using the contaminated site.

  3. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from rabbits in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Sena de Gobbi, Débora Dirani; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Nogueira Filsner, Pedro Henrique de Lima; Moreno, Marina; Paixão, Renata; Pereira, Jucélia de Jesus; Micke Moreno, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46) of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46) of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. PMID:22919347

  4. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Baranyuk, V.; Sileo, L.; Price, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  5. Comparative analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from bovine respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Jánosi, Szilárd; Makrai, László

    2015-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration. PMID:26689880

  6. [A case of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida septicemia due to cat bites in liver cirrhosis patient].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Hasegawa, K; Mitsuhashi, Y; Kojima, S; Ishikawa, K; Hayashi, N; Sawada, T

    1995-11-01

    A 60-year-old male who had been suffering from liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with high grade fever accompanied by right chest pain. Chest X-rays revealed a moderate amount of pleural fluid suggesting pleuritis. Multocida was isolated from the blood culture as well as the pleural fluid. Antibiotic therapy was initiated according to the drug susceptibility of the isolates. Ten days treatment was effective on the cessation of both septicemia and the clinical symptoms. Since the patient had been bitten several times by his own pet cats, their mouth swabs were taken for pathogenic investigations. Serotypes of the cats' isolates coincided with that of the patient's which consequently indicated the route of infection. P. multocida is a Gram negative coccobacillary organism that resides as normal flora in the oral cavity of animals, including dogs and cats. It has been originally known to be a causative agent for hemorrhagic septicemia in domestic animals. However, recently reports of P. multocida infections in man has been increasing due to the enlargement of pet populations. Although outbreaks of septicemia is rare, it occurs most often in immunologically compromised hosts, including patients with liver cirrhosis as in this case. Therefore, it is important to initiate an urgent antibiotic therapy in such cases. Overall, it is of utmost importance to instruct immunosuppressed patients to avoid excessive exposure to animals including pets. PMID:8708412

  7. Occurrence of virulence-associated genes in Pasteurella multocida isolates obtained from different hosts.

    PubMed

    Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tabatabaei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pasteurella multocida infects a wide range of animals and the infection may spread to human through animal bites and scratches. Pasteurella multocida isolates, obtained from several clinically healthy and diseased animals (bovine, sheep, goat, poultry, dog and cat), were investigated for capsule biosynthesis (capA, B, D, E and F) and expression of 22 virulence-associated genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Multiplex PCR results revealed expression of capA, capD and capB genes in 81 (61.83%), 30 (22.90%) and 10 isolates (7.29%), respectively. However, neither of the isolates harbored capE or capF genes and ten isolates (7.29%) were negative for all cap genes. The expression of the capB gene was observed in small ruminant isolates. The occurrence of the ompA, ompH, oma87, sodA and sodC genes was noticed in all of the samples. More than 90% of the isolates harbored hgbA (96.18%), ptfA (95.41%), exbBD-tonB (93.12%), nanB (93.12%) and plbB genes (90.83%). The transferrin binding protein encoding gene tbpA was exclusively detected in the ruminant isolates. The limited number of isolates (25.95%) harbored dermonecrotoxin gene (toxA) and the highest occurrence was noted in the small ruminants, and the capsular type D isolates. This study highlights that the toxA, tbpA, and pfhA genes can be considered as important epidemiological markers for the characterization of P. multocida isolates. PMID:27057674

  8. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from poultry and swine

    PubMed Central

    Furian, Thales Quedi; Borges, Karen Apellanis; Laviniki, Vanessa; da Silveira Rocha, Silvio Luis; de Almeida, Camila Neves; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; de Souza Moraes, Hamilton Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida. PMID:26887247

  9. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changfu; Qu, Ying; Sun, Meizhen; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Huang, Xianhui; Huai, Binbin; Lu, Yan; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with P. multocida(type B, serotype 2), then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24 h after inoculation. The ratio of 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24 h/MIC or AUC24 h/MPC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against P. multocida (R (2) = 0.8514) by non-linear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24 h/MIC and AUC24 h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10 CFU/mL reduction) and 90% (3log10 CFU/mL reduction) of maximum response were 18.60 and 50.65 h, 4.67 and 12.89 h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest. PMID:26257726

  10. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of marbofloxacin in calves for Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Potter, T; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin were established in calves for six strains of each of the pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. The distribution of marbofloxacin into inflamed (exudate) and non-inflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids allowed comparison with the serum concentration-time profile. To establish the PD profile, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Moderately higher MICs were obtained for serum compared to MHB. An initial integration of PK-PD data established C(max)/MIC ratios of 45.0 and AUC(24h)/MIC values of 174.7 h, based on serum MICs, for both bacterial species. Using bacterial time-kill curves, generated ex vivo for serum marbofloxacin concentrations, PK-PD modelling established three levels of growth inhibition: AUC(24 h)/MIC ratios for no reduction, 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count from the initial inoculum count were 41.9, 59.5 and 68.0 h for M. haemolytica and 48.6, 64.9 and 74.8 h for P. multocida, on average respectively. Inter-strain variability for 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count was smaller for P. multocida than for M. haemolytica. In conjunction with literature data on MIC(90) values, the present results allowed prediction of dosages for efficacy for each organism for the three levels of growth inhibition. PMID:23084327

  11. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Magda Patricia; Martinez, Nhora María; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) staining. The goblet cells (GCs) were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium (P < 0.05) and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs (P < 0.05) compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:25810949

  12. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Changfu; Qu, Ying; Sun, Meizhen; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Huang, Xianhui; Huai, Binbin; Lu, Yan; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with P. multocida(type B, serotype 2), then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24 h after inoculation. The ratio of 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24 h/MIC or AUC24 h/MPC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against P. multocida (R2 = 0.8514) by non-linear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24 h/MIC and AUC24 h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10 CFU/mL reduction) and 90% (3log10 CFU/mL reduction) of maximum response were 18.60 and 50.65 h, 4.67 and 12.89 h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest. PMID:26257726

  13. Immune response to dna vaccine expressing transferrin binding protein a gene of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satparkash; Singh, Vijendra Pal; Cheema, Pawanjit Singh; Sandey, Maninder; Ranjan, Rajeev; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2011-04-01

    Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS), an acute and fatal disease of cattle and buffalo is primarily caused by serotype B:2 or E:2 of Pasteurella multocida. The transferrin binding protein A (TbpA) has been found to act as immunogen and potent vaccine candidate in various Gram negative bacteria including P. multocida. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of this antigen as a DNA vaccine against HS in mice model. The tbpA gene of P. multocida serotype B:2 was cloned in a mammalian expression vector alone and along with murine IL2 gene as immunological adjuvant to produce monocistronic and bicistronic DNA vaccine constructs, respectively. The immune response to DNA vaccines was evaluated based on serum antibody titres and lymphocyte proliferation assay. A significant increase in humoral and cell mediated immune responses was observed in mice vaccinated with DNA vaccines as compared to non immunized group. Additionally, the bicistronic DNA vaccine provided superior immune response and protection level following challenge as compared to monocistronic construct. The study revealed that DNA vaccine presents a promising approach for the prevention of HS. PMID:24031690

  14. Cloning and expression of two Pasteurella multocida genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Manoha, F; Chevalier, G; Wróblewski, H; Delamarche, C

    1994-01-01

    A library of cloned Pasteurella multocida (toxigenic strain 9222, serotype D2) genomic sequences was constructed in Escherichia coli by incorporating TaqI digestion fragments into the plasmid vector pUC19. Immunological screening with antibodies directed against porin H, the major protein of the P multocida outer membrane, allowed the identification of a recombinant plasmid containing a 2.9-kbp DNA insert. This plasmid encoded the synthesis of two polypeptides, p25 (25 kDa) and p28 (28 kDa) which were detected in the different compartments of the E coli transformant. The peptide p25 was more abundant in the periplasm whereas p28 was mainly found in the cell envelope and in the cytosol. Immunological analysis indicates that p25, in contrast to p28, is antigenically related to porin H of P multocida. The expression in E coli of the gene encoding p28 was enhanced by induction of the lac promoter. PMID:8031908

  15. Multiplex PCR To Identify Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Simon; Desmolaize, Benoit; Jaju, Puneet; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLSB (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump; and mph(E), which encodes a macrolide-inactivating phosphotransferase. Here, we describe a multiplex PCR assay that detects the presence of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) and differentiates between these genes. In addition, the assay distinguishes P. multocida from M. haemolytica by amplifying distinctive fragments of the 23S rRNA (rrl) genes. One rrl fragment acts as a general indicator of gammaproteobacterial species and confirms whether the PCR assay has functioned as intended on strains that are negative for erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E). The multiplex system has been tested on more than 40 selected isolates of P. multocida and M. haemolytica and correlated with MICs for the veterinary macrolides tulathromycin and tilmicosin, and the newer compounds gamithromycin and tildipirosin. The multiplex PCR system gives a rapid and robustly accurate determination of macrolide resistance genotypes and bacterial genus, matching results from microbiological methods and whole-genome sequencing. PMID:22564832

  16. Detection of Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida by capture enzyme immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody against P37 antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, R R; Deeb, B J; DiGiacomo, R F

    1997-01-01

    As infection with Pasteurella multocida is common in rabbits, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for its detection. A murine immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibody was used to capture a 37-kDa polypeptide of P. multocida serotype A:12 in an EIA to detect antibodies to P. multocida. The 37-kDa antigen was selected since it was previously shown to be a major immunogen during P. multocida infection in rabbits. The sensitivity of the P37 EIA, determined with sera from 56 rabbits infected with P. multocida, was 98%. Specificity, evaluated with sera from 62 rabbits from colonies free of P. multocida, was 92%. Titration curves of sera from rabbits immunized with P. multocida serotype A:3 or A:12 coincided, indicating that the P37 EIA was equally efficient in detecting antibodies to the two major serotypes of the organism. Comparison of the P37 EIA with the current serodiagnostic test, a bacterial lysate EIA, revealed relatively good correlation (r = 0.68). However, specificity was greatly improved, as 34% of uninfected rabbits were falsely positive by the lysate EIA whereas only 3% of uninfected rabbits were falsely positive by the P37 EIA. The coefficient of variation for same-day tests was 10%, and that for interday tests was 15%, indicating good reproducibility. The greater sensitivity and specificity of the P37 EIA should significantly enhance diagnostic capability to identify rabbits infected with P. multocida. PMID:8968909

  17. An ST11 clone of Pasteurella multocida, widely spread among farmed rabbits in the Iberian Peninsula, demonstrates respiratory niche association.

    PubMed

    García-Alvarez, Andrés; Chaves, Fernando; Fernández, Ana; Sanz, Celia; Borobia, Marta; Cid, Dolores

    2015-08-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a veterinary pathogen causing diseases with considerable economic repercussions in a wide range of animal hosts. In rabbits, P. multocida infections cause a variety of clinical manifestations including rhinitis, pneumonia, septicemia, abscesses, mastitis, and pyometra. In this study, 100 P. multocida isolates from different commercial rabbit farms located throughout the Iberian Peninsula were molecularly characterized by capsular typing, detection of four virulence-associated genes (tbpA, toxA, hgbB, and pfhA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Rabbit P. multocida isolates belonged to three different capsular types: A (47.0%), D (28.0%), and F (25.0%). One group of P. multocida isolates of capsular type D and positive for the hgbB gene was significantly associated with the clinical presentation of respiratory disease (OR 5.91; 95%CI, 1.63-21.38). These isolates belonged to same sequence type, ST11, in the P. multocida Multi-host MLST database. The ST11 clone also includes isolates from porcine and avian pneumonia. This clonal group of epidemiologically unrelated P. multocida isolates could be a virulent clone with some degree of specificity for respiratory disease. These findings could be relevant in the development of vaccines for pasteurellosis prevention, especially respiratory disease. PMID:26192377

  18. Nasal isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida as predictors of respiratory disease in shipped calves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J D; Holland, B P; Step, D L; Payton, M E; Confer, A W

    2015-04-01

    Three hundred ninety five calves were purchased from sale barns and delivered to the Willard Sparks Beef Research Center. Nasal swabs were collected to determine if presence of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract (URT) can facilitate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Samples were collected at arrival and at treatment for BRD. Clinically healthy control calves were sampled at time of treatment of sick calves. M. haemolytica was more commonly isolated from calves at treatment than at time of arrival or from control calves. M. haemolytica was more common in calves requiring treatment than in those never treated. Need for treatment and number of treatments were negatively associated with average daily gain, supporting the accuracy of diagnosis. These results suggest that URT sampling, when combined with clinical diagnosis, may assist in providing greater diagnostic accuracy, improving ability to evaluate risk factors, interventions, and treatments. PMID:25599936

  19. Treatment of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with various antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Stipkovits, L; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, and pathologic lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas and bacteria in the lungs. Based on the results of clinical observations (respiratory signs, rectal temperature, body weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency), macroscopic and histologic lesions of the lungs, and microbiologic findings, the best results were obtained by treatment of pigs with Econor + chlortetracycline, followed by Tetramutin, Pulmotil, Cyfac, and lincomycin + chlortetracycline. PMID:11768127

  20. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and cefuroxime. Possible reasons for the confusion regarding the activity of oral cephalosporins are addressed. PMID:3364944

  1. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    PubMed Central

    Esquinas, Paula; Botero, Lucía; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n = 2); healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n = 2); healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n = 2); diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n = 3). The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide. PMID:23577280

  2. Serotypes and DNA fingerprint profiles of Pasteurella multocida isolated from raptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida isolates from 21 raptors were examined by DNA fingerprint profile and serotyping methods. Isolates were obtained from noncaptive birds of prey found in 11 states from November 28, 1979, through February 10, 1993. Nine isolates were from bald eagles, and the remaining isolates were from hawks, falcons, and owls. Seven isolates were members of capsule group A, and 14 were nonencapsulated. One isolate was identified as somatic type 3, and another was type 3,4,7; both had unique HhaI DNA fingerprint profiles. Nineteen isolates expressed somatic type 1 antigen; HhaI profiles of all type 1 isolates were identical to each other and to the HhaI profile of the reference somatic type 1, strain X-73. The 19 type 1 isolates were differentiated by sequential digestion of DNA with HpaII; four HpaII fingerprint profiles were obtained. The HpaII profile of one isolate was identical to the HpaII profile of strain X-73. Incidence of P. multocida somatic type 1 in raptors suggests that this type may be prevalent in other wildlife or wildlife environments.

  3. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates from wetland ecosystems during 1996 to 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Wilson, M.A.; Joly, D.O.; Lehr, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We cultured 126 Pasteurella multocida isolates, 92 from water and 34 from sediment samples collected from wetlands in the Pacific and Central flyways of the United States between 1996 and 1999. Most (121) of the isolates were P. multocida serotype 1, but serotypes 3, 3/4, 10, and 11 were also found. Many (82) of the isolates were further characterized by DNA fingerprinting procedures and tested in Pekin ducks for virulence. Almost all the serotype 1 isolates we tested caused mortality in Pekin ducks. Serotype 1 isolates varied in virulence, but the most consistent pattern was higher mortality in male ducks than in females. We found no evidence that isolates found in sediment vs. water, between Pacific and Central flyways, or during El Nino years had consistently different virulence. We also found a number of non-serotype 1 isolates that were avirulent in Pekin ducks. Isolates had DNA fingerprint profiles similar to those found in birds that died during avian cholera outbreaks.

  4. Field study of pneumonia in vaccinated cattle associated with incorrect vaccination and Pasteurella multocida infection.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, W M; Caldow, G L

    2015-04-25

    This field study used data on the vaccine courses against bovine respiratory disease sold by one pharmaceutical company in conjunction with pharmacovigilance data to explore reported suspected lack of expected efficacy and the reasons for this. The study ran from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2010, and covered vaccines sold in Scotland and part of Northumberland. In total, 83 groups of cattle reported suspected lack of expected efficacy, representing 1.6 per cent of the 804,618 vaccine courses sold. It was possible to investigate 45 of these outbreaks in depth using a standard questionnaire and diagnostic protocol. Vaccine usage outwith the specific product characteristics (SPC) occurred in 47 per cent of cases (21/45). The proportion of vaccination courses used where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected in the diseased cattle and vaccine use was consistent with the SPC was estimated at 0.12 per cent of the courses sold. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen detected and was found in 21 of the outbreaks. For outbreaks where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected, P. multocida was found at a significantly greater frequency (P=0.03) where vaccine use was compliant with the SPC (five of six outbreaks) compared with outbreaks where vaccine use had not been compliant with the SPC (one of seven outbreaks). The limitations of the study, including the diagnostic tests employed and definition of vaccination outwith the SPC, are discussed. PMID:25724544

  5. Analysis of haemorrhagic septicaemia-causing isolates of Pasteurella multocida by ribotyping and field alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE).

    PubMed

    Townsend, K M; Dawkins, H J; Papadimitriou, J M

    1997-10-16

    Ribotyping and field alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE) were used to examine 19 Pasteurella multocida isolates, and to assess the ability of these techniques to differentiate P. multocida strains that cause haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS). Reproducible patterns were obtained from both methods, with FAGE demonstrating greater discriminatory power than ribotyping. FAGE analysis was particularly useful in distinguishing North American cultures originating from the 1922 Yellowstone National Park Buffalo 'B' strain, demonstrating the ability to detect genetic alterations induced by repeated subculture. A remarkable homogeneity was observed among Asian HS strains following ribotyping and FAGE analysis, with a clear distinction observed between virulent and avirulent HS isolates. This study has illustrated the value of genomic fingerprinting methods in distinguishing strains of similar serotype, and the capability of these methods to produce detailed characterisation of P. multocida isolates. PMID:9444075

  6. Bordetella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bordetella includes 8 formally recognized species, of which Bordetella parapertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella avium, and Bordetella hinzii are of veterinary interest. Bordetella pertussis, the type species, is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of whooping co...

  7. Identification of genes transcribed by Pasteurella multocida in rabbit livers through the selective capture of transcribed sequences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongchun; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Aiqin; Liu, Jiasen; Yuan, Dongwei; Jiang, Qian; Lin, Huan; Si, Changde; Qu, Liandong

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus, is the causative agent of fowl cholera in poultry, hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle, atropic rhinitis in swine, and snuffles in rabbits. The differentially expressed gene profile of P. multocida in infected rabbit livers was identified and compared with that from in vitro culture by selective capture of transcribed sequences. A total of 31 genes were identified, of which 28 encoded enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism, intermediary metabolism, and energy metabolism, or proteins for regulatory adaptive responses, general microbial stress response, transport proteins, and secreted proteinases. Three were unknown, novel genes. Five genes representing different categories were chosen randomly and verified by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. All were upregulated by P. multocida in infected rabbit livers, with changes ranging from 1.61- to 13.55-fold when compared with in vitro cultures. This study has identified genes of P. multocida that are upregulated during infection of rabbit livers when compared with in vitro growth conditions. The genes will provide a molecular basis for further study of the pathogenesis of P. multocida. PMID:22448890

  8. Influence of systemic fluoroquinolone administration on the presence of Pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of clinically healthy calves.

    PubMed

    Catry, Boudewijn; Croubels, Siska; Schwarz, Stefan; Deprez, Piet; Cox, Bianca; Kehrenberg, Corinna; Opsomer, Geert; Decostere, Annemie; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2008-01-01

    The influence of enrofloxacin administration (5 mg/kg) for five consecutive days on the occurrence of Pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of two healthy calves was monitored over a 10-day period. From nasal swabs of two additional healthy control calves, which received a placebo saline administration, P. multocida was isolated throughout the study period. In the enrofloxacin treated calves, P. multocida was not demonstrated in the nasopharynx from 48 h after the first injection until two days after the last administration, when P. multocida reappeared and proved to be clonal in nature to the original isolates. During the experiment, no change in minimal inhibitory concentration for enrofloxacin of the P. multocida isolates was detected (MIC < or = 0.015 microg/mL). Enrofloxacin concentrations were determined in the plasma by a high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection. The PK/PD indices AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC ratio were calculated and found to be 1157.7 and 129.8, respectively. Remarkably, the respiratory pathogen Arcanobacterium pyogenes became the predominant recovered organism in the nasopharynx of one animal following enrofloxacin therapy throughout the remaining of the experiment. PMID:18808692

  9. The Capsule Is a Virulence Determinant in the Pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2)

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, John D.; Adler, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121–134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode proteins involved in capsule export, and region 2 contains genes proposed to encode proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. In order to construct a mutant impaired in capsule export, the final gene of region 1, cexA, was disrupted by insertion of a tetracycline resistance cassette by allelic replacement. The genotype of the tet(M) ΩcexA mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The acapsular phenotype was confirmed by immunofluorescence, and the strain could be complemented and returned to capsule production by the presence of a cloned uninterrupted copy of cexA. Wild-type, mutant, and complemented strains were tested for virulence by intraperitoneal challenge of mice; the presence of the capsule was shown to be a crucial virulence determinant. Following intraperitoneal challenge of mice, the acapsular bacteria were removed efficiently from the blood, spleen, and liver, while wild-type bacteria multiplied rapidly. Acapsular bacteria were readily taken up by murine peritoneal macrophages, but wild-type bacteria were significantly resistant to phagocytosis. Both wild-type and acapsular bacteria were resistant to complement in bovine and murine serum. PMID:10816499

  10. Localization of the Intracellular Activity Domain of Pasteurella multocida Toxin to the N Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brenda A.; Ponferrada, Virgilio G.; Vallance, Jefferson E.; Ho, Mengfei

    1999-01-01

    We have shown that Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) directly causes transient activation of Gqα protein that is coupled to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase Cβ1 in Xenopus oocytes (B. A. Wilson, X. Zhu, M. Ho, and L. Lu, J. Biol. Chem. 272:1268–1275, 1997). We found that antibodies directed against an N-terminal peptide of PMT inhibited the toxin-induced response in Xenopus oocytes, but antibodies against a C-terminal peptide did not. To test whether the intracellular activity domain of PMT is localized to the N terminus, we conducted a deletion mutational analysis of the PMT protein, using the Xenopus oocyte system as a means of screening for toxin activity. Using PCR and conventional cloning techniques, we cloned from a toxinogenic strain of P. multocida the entire toxA gene, encoding the 1,285-amino-acid PMT protein, and expressed the recombinant toxin as a His-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. We subsequently generated a series of N-terminal and C-terminal deletion mutants and expressed the His-tagged PMT fragments in E. coli. These proteins were screened for cytotoxic activity on cultured Vero cells and for intracellular activity in the Xenopus oocyte system. Only the full-length protein without the His tag exhibited activity on Vero cells. The full-length PMT and N-terminal fragments containing the first 500 residues elicited responses in oocytes, but the C-terminal 780 amino acid fragment did not. Our results confirm that the intracellular activity domain of PMT is localized to the N-terminal 500 amino acids of the protein and that the C terminus is required for entry into cells. PMID:9864199

  11. Protective efficacy afforded by live Pasteurella multocida vaccines in chickens is independent of lipopolysaccharide outer core structure.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; John, Marietta; Edmunds, Mark; Wright, Amy; Ford, Mark; Turni, Conny; Blackall, P J; Cox, Andrew; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D

    2016-03-29

    Pasteurella multocida is a major animal pathogen that causes a range of diseases including fowl cholera. P. multocida infections result in considerable losses to layer and breeder flocks in poultry industries worldwide. Both killed whole-cell and live-attenuated vaccines are available; these vaccines vary in their protective efficacy, particularly against heterologous strains. Moreover, until recently there was no knowledge of P. multocida LPS genetics and structure to determine precisely how LPS structure affects the protective capacity of these vaccines. In this study we show that defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants presented as killed whole-cell vaccines elicited solid protective immunity only against P. multocida challenge strains expressing highly similar or identical LPS structures. This finding indicates that vaccination of commercial flocks with P. multocida killed cell formulations will not protect against strains producing an LPS structure different to that produced by strains included in the vaccine formulation. Conversely, protective immunity conferred by vaccination with live P. multocida strains was found to be largely independent of LPS structure. Birds vaccinated with a range of live mutants belonging to the L1 and L3 LPS genotypes, each expressing a specific truncated LPS structure, were protected against challenge with the parent strain. Moreover, birds vaccinated with any of the five LPS mutants belonging to the L1 LPS genotype were also protected against challenge with an unrelated strain and two of the five groups vaccinated with live LPS mutants belonging to the L3 genotype were protected against challenge with an unrelated strain. In summary, vaccination with live P. multocida aroA mutants producing full-length L1 or L3 LPS or vaccination with live strains producing shortened L1 LPS elicited strong protective immunity against both homologous and heterologous challenge. PMID:26892738

  12. Partial Characterization of R-Plasmids from Pasteurella multocida Isolated from Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Stephen M.; Hirsh, Dwight C.

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, isolated from turkeys during an outbreak of septicemic disease (“fowl cholera”), was found to be resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. Agarose gel electrophoretic analysis of DNA from these isolates indicated the presence of extrachromosomal elements. Plasmid DNA was isolated by cesium chloride-ethidium bromide density centrifugation. Escherichia coli was transformed to antimicrobic resistance with this DNA. Two plasmids were isolated. One of these plasmids had a buoyant density of 1.7158 g/cm3 (56.9 mol% guanine plus cytosine) and a molecular weight of 4.4 × 106 and conferred resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. The other, having a buoyant density of 1.7198 g/cm3 (61 mol% guanine plus cytosine) and a molecular weight of 3.44 × 106, conferred resistance to streptomycin and sulfonamides. Streptomycin resistance was mediated by streptomycin phosphotransferase. Compatibility group testing indicated that neither plasmid belonged to any of 13 compatibility groups (of conjugal plasmids). Both plasmids were also found to be compatible with three small, nonconjugative resistance plasmids. Images PMID:708012

  13. Selective Membrane Redistribution and Depletion of Gαq-Protein by Pasteurella multocida Toxin.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Nathan C; Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), the major virulence factor responsible for zoonotic atrophic rhinitis, is a protein deamidase that activates the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Initial activation of G alpha-q-coupled phospholipase C-beta-1 signaling by PMT is followed by uncoupling of G alpha-q-dependent signaling, causing downregulation of downstream calcium and mitogenic signaling pathways. Here, we show that PMT decreases endogenous and exogenously expressed G alpha-q protein content in host cell plasma membranes and in detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fractions. This membrane depletion of G alpha-q protein was dependent upon the catalytic activity of PMT. Results indicate that PMT-modified G alpha-q redistributes within the host cell membrane from the DRM fraction into the soluble membrane and cytosolic fractions. In contrast, PMT had no affect on G alpha-s or G beta protein levels, which are not substrate targets of PMT. PMT also had no affect on G alpha-11 levels, even though G alpha-11 can serve as a substrate for deamidation by PMT, suggesting that membrane depletion of PMT-modified G-alpha-q has specificity. PMID:27490568

  14. Selective Membrane Redistribution and Depletion of Gαq-Protein by Pasteurella multocida Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, Nathan C.; Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), the major virulence factor responsible for zoonotic atrophic rhinitis, is a protein deamidase that activates the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Initial activation of G alpha-q-coupled phospholipase C-beta-1 signaling by PMT is followed by uncoupling of G alpha-q-dependent signaling, causing downregulation of downstream calcium and mitogenic signaling pathways. Here, we show that PMT decreases endogenous and exogenously expressed G alpha-q protein content in host cell plasma membranes and in detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fractions. This membrane depletion of G alpha-q protein was dependent upon the catalytic activity of PMT. Results indicate that PMT-modified G alpha-q redistributes within the host cell membrane from the DRM fraction into the soluble membrane and cytosolic fractions. In contrast, PMT had no affect on G alpha-s or G beta protein levels, which are not substrate targets of PMT. PMT also had no affect on G alpha-11 levels, even though G alpha-11 can serve as a substrate for deamidation by PMT, suggesting that membrane depletion of PMT-modified G-alpha-q has specificity. PMID:27490568

  15. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  16. Purification and characterization of protein H, the major porin of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, G; Duclohier, H; Thomas, D; Shechter, E; Wróblewski, H

    1993-01-01

    Protein H (B. Lugtenberg, R. van Boxtel, D. Evenberg, M. de Jong, P. Storm, and J. Frik, Infect. Immun. 52:175-182, 1986) is the major polypeptide of the outer membrane of Pasteurella multocida, a bacterium pathogenic for humans and animals. We have purified this protein to homogeneity by size exclusion chromatography after selective extraction with surfactants and demonstrated its pore-forming ability after reincorporation into planar lipid bilayers. In these experiments, the current through the pores was a linear function of the applied voltage in the range of -50 to +50 mV. Voltages beyond +/- 50 mV tended to partially close the channels, giving rise to apparent negative resistances. These observations suggest that protein H channels are probably not voltage regulated in vivo. With the patch clamp technique, single-channel conductance fluctuations of 0.33 nS were recorded in 1 M KCl. Electrophoretic and circular dichroism analyses showed that protein H forms homotrimers stable in sodium dodecyl sulfate at room temperature, with a high content of beta-sheet secondary structure. Upon boiling, the trimers were fully dissociated into monomers with an increase of alpha helix and irregular structure, at the expense of beta sheets. The apparent molecular mass of fully denatured monomers ranged between 37 and 41.8 kDa, depending on the electrophoretic system used for analysis. The trimeric arrangement of protein H was confirmed by image analysis of negatively stained, two-dimensional crystal arrays. This morphological study revealed, in agreement with electrophoretical data, a trimeric structure with an overall diameter of 7.7 nm. Each monomer appeared to contain a pore with an average diameter of 1 nm. Quantitative comparisons revealed that the amino acid composition (hydropathy index of -0.40) and the N-terminal sequence (determined over 36 residues) of protein H are similar to those of bacterial general porins, notably porin P2 of Haemophilus influenzae. We conclude

  17. Purification of dermonecrotic toxin from a sonic extract of Pasteurella multocida SP-72 serotype D.

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, T; Sawata, A; Tsuji, M; Samejima, Y; Kume, K

    1984-01-01

    A procedure was developed to purify dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) from a sonic extract of a serotype D strain of Pasteurella multocida. Sonic extract containing DNT was applied to a DEAE-Sephacel column and eluted by a linear gradient of NaCl. Upon rechromatographing, fractions with dermonecrotic activity for guinea pigs were applied on a second Sephacel column, and a pooled fraction with the toxic activity was filtered through a Sephadex G-200 column. Pooled fractions with the toxic activity were subjected to polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and the toxic substance was eluted from each sliced gel. Eluted fractions with the toxic activity were rechromatographed on a second Sephadex G-200 column, and a pooled fraction with high dermonecrotic activity was referred to as a purified DNT. The activity of purified DNT was increased by 1,000 times, and the average yield was about 1.8%. The purified DNT was homogeneous as determined by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and thin-layer isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels and gave a single band on PAGE and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The molecular weight of the toxin was ca. 160,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The isoelectric point of the toxin was ca. 4.7 to 4.8. Amino acid analysis of the purified DNT revealed that the toxin was composed of characteristically high proportions of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, proline, alanine, and leucine. The minimal necrotizing dose of the toxin was about 1 ng of protein, and the 50% lethal dose per mouse was 0.2 micrograms. The purified DNT was heat labile and sensitive to inactivation by trypsin, Formalin, and glutaraldehyde. Images PMID:6542070

  18. Florfenicol As a Modulator Enhancing Antimicrobial Activity: Example Using Combination with Thiamphenicol against Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Shien, Jui-Hung; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Synergistic effects between the same class of antibiotics are rarely reported. Our previous study found synergistic-like interaction between florfenicol (FFC) and thiamphenicol (TAP) against Staphylococcus aureus. Here, the enhanced antimicrobial activity was evaluated in 97 clinical isolates of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Susceptible strains were initially identified by checkerboard microdilution assay (fractional inhibitory concentration index [FICI] ≤ 0.625), followed by confirmation of synergism using the time-kill methodology (≥2 log10 CFU/ml reduction). In all, 43% of Pasteurella multocida tested were susceptible to the enhanced bactericidal effect. In chicken fowl cholera models, FFC and TAP combination at much lower dosage that is correspondent to their MIC deduction provided maximum protection in vivo. Furthermore, synergistic combination of FFC with oxytetracycline (OTC) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro was also demonstrated. Based on the enhanced uptake of TAP and OTC, FFC presumably elicits enhanced antimicrobial activity in an orderly manner through alteration of bacterial membrane permeability or efflux systems and subsequent increase of intracellular concentration of the antibiotics used in combination. Results of ethidium bromide accumulation assay and RNA-seq showed little evidence for the involvement of efflux pumps in the synergy but further investigation is required. This study suggests the potentiality of a novel combination regimen involving FFC as an initiating modulator effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria depending on the antibiotics that are combined. The observed improvement of bacteriostatic effect to bactericidal, and the extended effectiveness against FFC-resistant bacterial strains warrant further studies. PMID:27065961

  19. Clinico-pathology, hematology, and biochemistry responses toward Pasteurella multocida Type B: 2 via oral and subcutaneous route of infections

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Adamu, Lawan; Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bakar, Md Zuki Abu; Norsidin, Mohd Jefri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pasteurella multocida a Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. Hemorrhagic septicemia is a disease caused by P. multocida serotype B:2 and E:2. The organism causes acute, a highly fatal septicemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, post mortem and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida Type B:2 infections initiated through the oral and subcutaneous routes. Methods: Nine buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline; Groups 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of 1012 colony forming unit of P. multocida Type B:2 subcutaneously and orally respectively. Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in temperature between the subcutaneous and the control group. The results revealed significant differences (p<0.05) in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, leukocytes, monocytes, and A: G ratio between the subcutaneous and the control group. Furthermore, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in leukocytes, band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, gamma glutamyl tranferase and A: G ratio between the oral and the control group. The post mortem lesions of the subcutaneous group buffaloes showed generalized hyperemia, congestion and hemorrhage of the immune organs, gastro-intestinal tract organs and vital organs. The oral group buffaloes showed mild lesions in the lung and liver. Histologically, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in hemorrhage and congestion; necrosis and degeneration; inflammatory cells infiltration; and edema in between the groups. Conclusion: This study was a proof that oral route infection of P. multocida Type B:2

  20. Evaluation of immunopathologic effects of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea in mice after experimental challenge with Pasteurella multocida serotype A

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, A; Gharibi, D; Ghorbanpoor, M; Anbari, S; Pourmahdi Broojeni, M

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the immunopathological effects of aqueous Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on mice experimentally challenged with Pasteurella multocida serotype A, forty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups. The groups included a control group (received sterile distilled water 2 times/week for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally), a PMA group (received sterile distilled water as the control group and after 2 weeks, 5.6 × 103 CFU/ml of P. multocida serotype A, intranasally), an EPE+PMA group (received E. purpurea extract intraperitoneally 2 times/week for 2 weeks and then challenged as the PMA group) and an EPE group (received E. purpurea extract as EPE+PMA group and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally). After 24 and 48 h post challenge, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed and analyzed for bacterial counts in their lungs and livers, TNFα serum levels and histapathological changes. The results showed significant differences in lung bacterial counts between PMA and EPE+PMA groups. TNFα serum level was significantly higher in the PMA group. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of neutrophils in alveolar septa and hyperemia in the PMA group. In addition, the criteria of bronchopneumonia were partially recovered in the EPE+PMA compared to the PMA group. According to the results, it seems that E. purpurea extract has an immunomodulatory effect and can be used to prevent or control of pneumonia caused by Pasteurella. PMID:27175135

  1. Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

  2. Genome sequencing of a virulent avian Pasteurella multocida strain GX-Pm reveals the candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengjie; Sizhu, Suolang; Luo, Qingping; Xu, Xuewen; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Anding

    2016-04-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. First genomic study was performed on an avirulent avian strain Pm70, and until 2013, two genomes of virulent avian strains X73 and P1059 were sequenced. Comparative genome study supplied important information for further study on the pathogenesis of fowl cholera. In the previous study, a capsular serotype A strain GX-Pm was isolated from the liver of a chicken, which died during an outbreak of fowl cholera in 2011. The strain showed multiple drug resistance and was highly virulent to chickens. Therefore, the present study performed the genome sequencing and a comparative genomic analysis to reveal the candidate genes involved in virulence of P. multocida. Sequenced draft genome sequence of GX-Pm was 2,292,886 bp, contained 2941 protein-coding genes, 5 genomic islands, 4 IS elements and 2 prophage regions. Notability, all the predicted drug-resistance genes were included in predicted genomic islands. A comparative genome study on virulent avian strains P1059, X73 and GX-Pm with the avirulent avian strain Pm 70 indicated that 475 unique genes were only identified in either of virulent strains but absent in the avirulent strain. Among these genes, 20 genes were contained within genomes of all three virulent strains, including a few of putative virulence genes. Further characterization of the pathogenic functions of these genes would benefit the understanding of pathogenesis of fowl cholera. PMID:27033902

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

    PubMed Central

    George, Shiney; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Nath, Anjan Jyoti; Sarma, Bhupen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33), IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health. PMID:27047111

  4. Pasteurella multocida non-native joint infection after a dog lick: A case report describing a complicated two-stage revision and a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Philip W, Lam; Page, Andrea V

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are commonly caused by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci; however, other microbial etiologies and specific risk factors are increasingly recognized. Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is part of the normal oral flora in many animals, and is particularly common in dogs and cats. PJIs caused by P multocida have been reported only rarely in the literature and typically occur in the context of an animal bite or scratch. The present article describes a P multocida joint infection that occurred after a dog lick and complicated a two-stage revision arthroplasty. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding P multocida PJIs follows. PMID:26361490

  5. Computational Prediction of Immunodominant Epitopes on Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) H of Pasteurella multocida Toward Designing of a Peptide Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary vaccine design necessitates discrimination between the immunogenic and non-immunogenic components within a pathogen. To successfully target a humoral immune response, the vaccine antigen should contain not only B-cell epitopes but abounding Th-cell agretopes and MHC-II binding regions as well. No single computational method is available that allows the identification of such regions on antigens with good reliability. A consensus approach based on several prediction methods can be adopted to overcome this problem.Targeting the outer membrane protein (Omp) H as a candidate, a comprehensive work flow is described for the computational identification of immunodominant epitopes toward the designing of a peptide vaccine against Pasteurella multocida. PMID:27076289

  6. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida and maintained at high and low environmental temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Ryan, M.P.; Vanjonack, W.J.; Johnson, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used to determine plasma corticosterone concentration (PCC) in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida via either the palatine air spaces or the drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C) and moderate )19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. In uninoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures, the PCC was generally lower than in turkeys maintained at moderate temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. After inoculation with P. multocida, all groups of inoculated turkeys showed an increase in the average PCC, which attained a level in some turkeys of over 40 ng/ml, in relation to the average in the uninoculated turkeys, which ranged from 1.8 to 27.3 ng/ml. This increase was proportional to the severity of the infection that developed. The PCC was found to be a sensitive indicator of an incubating infection of P. multocida, since it was markedly increased in turkeys that were bled one day before the onset of depression. In turkeys that were inoculated via the palatine air spaces and maintained at 20 C, the PCC on the day of inoculation was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in the turkeys that later died than in those that survived. Generally, the PCC was higher in the turkeys that either died between 5 and 10 days after inoculation or were depressed aa the end of the experiment on day 10, relative to the turkeys that were alert at the end of the experiment.

  7. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease. PMID:26850845

  8. A rare case of neonatal sepsis/meningitis caused by Pasteurella multocida complicated with status epilepticus and focal cerebritis.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, R; Pomero, G; Delogu, A; Gozzoli, L; Gancia, P

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is normally present in respiratory and digestive tract of many domestic and wild animals, but is a rare pathogen in neonatal infection. Here we describe for the first time a case of meningitis complicated by status epilepticus and right parietal lobe cerebritis. The patient showed a dramatic clinical onset characterized by septic appearance and prolonged seizures. Multidrug anticonvulsivant therapy was used to control the status epilepticus, but despite the aggressive treatment electrical crises were still evident 24 hours after the admission. Furthermore, a brain MRI, performed to investigate a persistent intermittent fever even if CSF became sterile, showed a focus cerebritis in the right parietal lobe, early stage of the cerebral abscess. Prolonged antibiotic therapy with steroids was requested to solve the cerebritis area. Interestingly, direct contact between the patient and domestic animals was denied by the family, but the father reported a contact with a rooster, killed and cooked few days before, suggesting, as previously described, that Pasteurella may also be transmitted through asymptomatic human carrier. The patient had a favourable outcome with no medium-term sequelae one month after discharge, but the severity of the clinical course and the unpredictable way of transmission highlight the importance of hygiene measures approaching infants. PMID:22423481

  9. Cloning of the gene and characterization of the enzymatic properties of the monomeric alkaline phosphatase (PhoX) from Pasteurella multocida strain X-73.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Ru; Shien, Jui-Hung; Shieh, Happy K; Hu, Chung-Chi; Gong, Shuen-Rong; Chen, Ling-Yun; Chang, Poa-Chun

    2007-02-01

    We have identified a new phoX gene encoding the monomeric alkaline phosphatase from Pasteurella multocida X-73. This gene was not found in the published genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida pm70. Characterization of the recombinant PhoX of Pasteurella multocida X-73 showed that it is a monomeric enzyme, activated by Ca(2+) and possibly secreted by the Tat pathway. These features distinguish phosphatases of the PhoX family from those of the PhoA family. All proteins of the PhoX family were found to contain a conserved motif that shares significant sequence homology with the calcium-binding site of a phosphotriesterase known as diisopropylfluorophosphatase. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that D527 of PhoX might be the ligand bound to the catalytic calcium. This is the first report on identification of homologous sequences between PhoX and the phosphotriesterase and on the potential calcium-binding site of PhoX. PMID:17156125

  10. REP-PCR analysis of Pasteurella multocida isolates that cause haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Townsend, K M; Dawkins, H J; Papadimitriou, J M

    1997-01-01

    Amplification of multiple P multocida genomic DNA fragments by outwardly-directed primers based on the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) consensus sequence, generated complex profiles in a PCR-based fingerprinting method known as REP-PCR. Polymorphisms within REP-PCR profiles were used to characterise 38 isolates of P multocida. The high degree of homogeneity observed among haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) strains of serotype B and E provided evidence of a disease-associated REP profile that may serve as a novel method for the identification of HS strains regardless of serotype. REP-PCR profiles of other P multocida serotypes were highly variable, illustrating the potential of this technique for the molecular fingerprinting of fowl cholera or atrophic rhinitis isolates. A specific amplified REP fragment was isolated and used to probe membrane-bound digested P multocida genomic DNA. Hybridisation patterns not only distinguished HS-causing isolates from non-HS P multocida, but also demonstrated a degree of relatedness between HS and HS-like strains. PMID:9429249

  11. Occurrence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khamesipour, Faham; Momtaz, Hassan; Azhdary Mamoreh, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence-associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87, and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA, and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn't carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH, and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1) and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB) genes occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin, and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors (VFs) in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease (BRD). The results

  12. Identification of the Avian Pasteurella multocida phoP Gene and Evaluation of the Effects of phoP Deletion on Virulence and Immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kangpeng; Liu, Qing; Liu, Xueyan; Hu, Yunlong; Zhao, Xinxin; Kong, Qingke

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an animal pathogen of worldwide economic significance that causes fowl cholera in poultry and wild birds. Global gene regulators, including PhoP are important in regulating bacterial virulence and are good targets for developing attenuated vaccines against many pathogenic bacteria. However, the biological significance of phoP gene has not been identified in P. multocida. Here, we identified the phoP gene in P. multocida, and we evaluated the roles of phoP in P. multocida by deleting the phoP gene. The P. multocida phoP mutant exhibited similar growth curves and lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein profiles but displayed defective polymyxin resistance in vitro compared with the parent strain. Additionally, the phoP deletion resulted in decreased virulence. The LD50 of the ΔphoP mutant was 32- and 154-fold higher than the parent strain via the oral and intranasal routes, respectively. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that 161 genes were up-regulated and 173 genes were down-regulated in the absence of the phoP gene. Finally, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the ΔphoP mutant were evaluated. Immunized ducks produced significantly higher levels of serum IgY and bile IgA compared to the control ducks, and immunization with the ΔphoP mutant conferred 54.5% protection efficiency against challenge with the virulent P. multocida. This work provides a platform to dissect the function of phoP and develop a new vaccine against P. multocida. PMID:26703595

  13. Identification of the Avian Pasteurella multocida phoP Gene and Evaluation of the Effects of phoP Deletion on Virulence and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kangpeng; Liu, Qing; Liu, Xueyan; Hu, Yunlong; Zhao, Xinxin; Kong, Qingke

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an animal pathogen of worldwide economic significance that causes fowl cholera in poultry and wild birds. Global gene regulators, including PhoP are important in regulating bacterial virulence and are good targets for developing attenuated vaccines against many pathogenic bacteria. However, the biological significance of phoP gene has not been identified in P. multocida. Here, we identified the phoP gene in P. multocida, and we evaluated the roles of phoP in P. multocida by deleting the phoP gene. The P. multocida phoP mutant exhibited similar growth curves and lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein profiles but displayed defective polymyxin resistance in vitro compared with the parent strain. Additionally, the phoP deletion resulted in decreased virulence. The LD50 of the ΔphoP mutant was 32- and 154-fold higher than the parent strain via the oral and intranasal routes, respectively. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that 161 genes were up-regulated and 173 genes were down-regulated in the absence of the phoP gene. Finally, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the ΔphoP mutant were evaluated. Immunized ducks produced significantly higher levels of serum IgY and bile IgA compared to the control ducks, and immunization with the ΔphoP mutant conferred 54.5% protection efficiency against challenge with the virulent P. multocida. This work provides a platform to dissect the function of phoP and develop a new vaccine against P. multocida. PMID:26703595

  14. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue-cage model in yellow cattle.

    PubMed

    Shan, Q; Wang, J; Yang, F; Ding, H; Liang, C; Lv, Z; Li, Z; Zeng, Z

    2014-06-01

    The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug marbofloxacin was administered to yellow cattle intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue-cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue-cage fluid (transudate) were studied by using a tissue-cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of marbofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) were determined. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC for serum, exudate, and transudate of 155.75, 153.00, and 138.88, respectively, after intravenous dosing and 160.50, 151.00, and 137.63, respectively, after intramuscular dosing. After intramuscular dosing, the maximum concentration/MIC ratios for serum, exudate, and transudate were 21.13, 9.13, and 8.38, respectively. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after intramuscular dosing were fitted to the inhibitory sigmoid Emax equation to provide the values of AUC/MIC required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and elimination of bacteria. The respective values for serum were 17.25, 31.29, and 109.62, and slightly lower values were obtained for transudate and exudate. It is proposed that these findings might be used with MIC50 or MIC90 data to provide a rational approach to the design of dosage schedules which optimize efficacy in respect of bacteriological as well as clinical cures. PMID:24033339

  15. Loop‑mediated Isothermal Amplification assay (LAMP) based detection of Pasteurella multocida in cases of haemorrhagic septicaemia and fowl cholera.

    PubMed

    Bhimani, Mayurkumar; Bhanderi, Bharat; Roy, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Twenty two isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained from different tissues of dead birds and animals (cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat) suspected of fowl cholera and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The isolates were confirmed as P. multocida by various biochemical tests and PM PCR. An attempt was made to standardize Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using newly designed primer sequences of KMT1 gene. Loop mediated isothermal amplification was conducted using 6 sets of primers at 65°C for 30 minutes and the result was confirmed by visual observation using SYBR green fluorescence dye as marker of positive reaction under UV transilluminator. On electrophoretic analysis of the products on 2% agarose gel, a ladder like pattern was observed, which suggested a positive amplification, whereas no amplification was observed in negative controls. Additionally, product of positive reaction yielded a green fluorescence following addition of SYBR green under UV transilluminator. It was observed that LAMP is a more sensitive test than polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as the former could detect DNA to lower limit of 22.8 pg/µl, while the latter could detect DNA to lower limit of 2.28 ng/ µl, thus LAMP could detect 100 times lesser concentration of DNA in comparison to PCR. Loop mediated isothermal amplification is a rather newer molecular technique, which can be used for rapid detection of infectious agent at field level and which does not require sophisticated instrument, i.e. thermal cycler. Furthermore, unlike the conventional PCR technique, LAMP requires lesser time to perform and result can be read visually. PMID:26129662

  16. A semi-multifunctional sialyltransferase from Bibersteinia trehalosi and its comparison to the Pasteurella multocida ST1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Talafová, Klaudia; Hrabárová, Eva; Nahálka, Jozef

    2015-12-20

    Sialic acids are well known for their crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Improvement in the efficacy of protein drugs, an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin, preparation of infant milk and the diagnosis of diseases are examples of why there is a need for efficient in vitro sialylation. Sialyltransferases are crucial enzymes for the synthesis of sialo-oligosaccharides. Here, we introduce a new α2,3-sialyltransferase from bacteria Bibersteinia trehalosi (BtST1), which is homological to sialyltransferase from Pasteurella multocida (PmST1), Pasteurella dagmatis (PdST1) and Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd0053). BtST1 is active in a wide pH range and shows considerable acceptor flexibility. Very good specific activities have been detected with lactose and LacNAc as acceptors, and these activities were comparable to those of efficient multifunctional PmST1 and higher than PdST1, Hd0053 and also PmST1 M144D which was constructed to decrease the high sialidase activity of PmST1. Testing of PmST1 mutant forms revealed that mutations that included S143 caused only the restriction of sialyltransferase activity, whereas mutations including G142 resulted in the loss of activity with lactose. BtST1 possesses only low sialidase and trans-sialidase activities that are comparable to mutant PmST1 M144D, which are detected only in the presence of CMP. The combination of large acceptor flexibility, high activity for lactose and LacNAc and naturally low sialidase activity make BtST1 an attractive enzyme for biotechnological applications. PMID:26477829

  17. Immunogenicity and efficacy of three recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin vaccines against progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Chienjin; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Liu, Cheng-I; Winton, James R.; Chien, Maw-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Three short fragments of recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin (rsPMT) were constructed for evaluation as candidate vaccines against progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) of swine. PMT-specific antibody secreting cells and evidence of cellular immunity were detected in rsPMT-immunized pigs following authentic PMT challenge or homologous antigen booster. Piglets immunized with rsPMT fragments containing either the N-terminal or the C-terminal portions of PMT developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Pregnant sows immunized with rsPMT had higher levels of maternal antibodies in their colostrum than did those immunized with a conventional PAR-toxoid vaccine. Offspring from rsPMT vaccinated sows had better survival after challenge with a five-fold lethal dose of authentic PMT and had better growth performance after challenge with a sublethal dose of toxin. Our findings indicate these non-toxic rsPMT proteins are attractive candidates for development of a subunit vaccine against PAR in pigs.

  18. Modification of heterotrimeric G-proteins in Swiss 3T3 cells stimulated with Pasteurella multocida toxin.

    PubMed

    Babb, Rebecca C; Homer, Karen A; Robbins, Jon; Lax, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    Many bacterial toxins covalently modify components of eukaryotic signalling pathways in a highly specific manner, and can be used as powerful tools to decipher the function of their molecular target(s). The Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) mediates its cellular effects through the activation of members of three of the four heterotrimeric G-protein families, G(q), G(12) and G(i). PMT has been shown by others to lead to the deamidation of recombinant Gα(i) at Gln-205 to inhibit its intrinsic GTPase activity. We have investigated modification of native Gα subunits mediated by PMT in Swiss 3T3 cells using 2-D gel electrophoresis and antibody detection. An acidic change in the isoelectric point was observed for the Gα subunit of the G(q) and G(i) families following PMT treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells, which is consistent with the deamidation of these Gα subunits. Surprisingly, PMT also induced a similar modification of Gα(11), a member of the G(q) family of G-proteins that is not activated by PMT. Furthermore, an alkaline change in the isoelectric point of Gα(13) was observed following PMT treatment of cells, suggesting differential modification of this Gα subunit by PMT. G(s) was not affected by PMT treatment. Prolonged treatment with PMT led to a reduction in membrane-associated Gα(i), but not Gα(q). We also show that PMT inhibits the GTPase activity of G(q). PMID:23144805

  19. Application of intact cell-based NFAT-β-lactamase reporter assay for Pasteurella multocida toxin-mediated activation of calcium signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) stimulates and subsequently uncouples phospholipase C β1 (PLCβ1) signal transduction through its selective action on the alpha subunit of the Gq protein. Here, we describe the application of an NFAT-β-lactamase reporter assay as a functional readout for PMT-induced activation of the Gq-protein-coupled PLCβ1-IP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway. Use of the NFAT-β-lactamase reporter assay with a cell-permeable fluorogenic substrate provides high sensitivity due to the absence of endogenous β-lactamase activity in mammalian cells. This assay system was optimized for cell density, dose and time exposure of PMT stimulation. It is suited for quantitative characterization of PMT activity in mammalian cells and for use as a high-throughput screening method for PMT deletion and point mutants suitable for vaccine development. This method has application for diagnostic screening of clinical isolates of toxinogenic P. multocida. PMID:18190943

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Two Purification Methods on the Immunogenicity of Recombinant Outer Membrane Protein H of Pasteurella multocida Serovar A:1

    PubMed Central

    Thanasarasakulpong, Arunee; Poolperm, Pichayanut; Tangjitjaroen, Weerapongse; Varinrak, Thanya; Sawada, Takuo; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH) of Pasteurella multocida strain X-73 can be purified using affinity chromatography but this adversely affects its immunogenicity. The current study presents the results from an intervention study comparing the immunogenicity of rOmpH purified using electroelution with rOmpH purified using affinity chromatography and native OmpH purified using electroelution and a nonimmunized control group. Chickens immunized with rOmpH purified using electroelution produced the highest ELISA antibody levels against P. multocida strains. Chickens in each of the 5 treatment groups were split into two subgroups for challenge with two different P. multocida strains. The average number of adhesions to CEF cells was statistically significantly lower in sera from chickens immunized with rOmpH or native OmpH purified using electroelution than in those of the three other treatment groups. The survival amongst chickens immunized with rOmpH or native OmpH purified using electroelution indicated high levels of protection. In contrast, survival probability was zero or low in the groups immunized with rOmpH purified using affinity chromatography and in the nonimmunized group. These findings show that the rOmpH purified using electroelution retains its immunogenicity and stimulates high levels of protection in chickens against P. multocida infection. PMID:26885439

  1. [Problems in the use of radioactively marked bacteria in animal experiments. 1. Labeling of Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica and Salmonella dublin with eH, 14C, 32P, 59Fe, 99mTc, 125J1].

    PubMed

    Flossmann, K D; Rohrmann, B; Hubald, J; Finsterbusch, L

    1977-01-01

    Several methods are suggested by which to use the radionuclides 3H, 14C, 32P, 59Fe, 99mTc, and 125J for labelling or doublelabelling of Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Salmonella dublin, with particular reference being made to labelling ofr animal experiments. Suitable radioactive substrates for internal labelling in chemically defined or partially defined nutritive media include 3H-thymin, 3H-thymidine, 14C-glucose, 14C-mannose, 14C-aspartic acid, as well as 3H-uracil, 3H-uridine, 3H-orotic acid, 14C-orotic acid, 59Fe-III-citrate or chloride, and Na2H32PO4. The choise of the nuclide and substrate should by governed by the problem at hand. PMID:849104

  2. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Repella, Tana L.; Ho, Mengfei; Chong, Tracy P. M.; Bannai, Yuka; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2011-01-01

    The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn) and cholera toxin (CT), the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity. PMID:22053287

  3. Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) upregulates CTGF which leads to mTORC1 activation in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Oubrahim, Hammou; Wong, Allison; Wilson, Brenda A; Chock, P Boon

    2013-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a mitogenic protein that hijacks cellular signal transduction pathways via deamidation of heterotrimeric G proteins. We previously showed that rPMT activates mTOR signaling via a Gαq/11/PLCβ/PKC mediated pathway, leading in part to cell proliferation and migration. Herein, we show that mTOR and MAPK, but not membrane-associated tyrosine kinases, are activated in serum-starved 3T3 cells by an autocrine/paracrine substance(s) secreted into the conditioned medium following rPMT treatment. Surprisingly, this diffusible factor(s) is capable of activating mTOR and MAPK pathways even in MEF Gαq/11 double knockout cells. Microarray analysis identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA as the most upregulated gene in rPMT-treated serum-starved 3T3 cells relative to untreated cells. These results were further confirmed using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. In accord with rPMT-induced mTOR activation, upregulation of CTGF protein was observed in WT MEF, but not in Gαq/11 double knockout MEF cells. Although CTGF expression is regulated by TGFβ, rPMT did not activate TGFβ pathway. In addition, MEK inhibitors U0126 or PD98059, but not mTOR specific inhibitors, rapamycin and Torin 1, inhibited rPMT-induced upregulation of CTGF. Importantly, CTGF overexpression in serum-starved 3T3 cells using adenovirus led to phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of mTOR. However, despite the ability of CTGF to activate the mTOR pathway, upregulation of CTGF alone could not induce morphological changes as those observed in rPMT-treated cells. Our findings reveal that CTGF plays an important role, but there are additional factors involved in the mitogenic action of PMT. PMID:23415771

  4. Effect of Ovalbumin Aerosol Exposure on Colonization of the Porcine Upper Airway by Pasteurella multocida and Effect of Colonization on Subsequent Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T. D. C.; Roe, J. M.; Hayes, C. M.; Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Seventy-three piglets were weaned at 1 week of age, randomly assigned to 10 groups (A to J), accommodated in stainless steel exposure chambers, and exposed continuously to a controlled environment containing aerosolized ovalbumin. The concentrations of ovalbumin dust were as follows (milligrams per cubic meter): A and F, 16.6; B and G, 8.4; C and H, 4.2; D and I, 2.1; E and J, 0. At weekly intervals, the pigs were bled via venipuncture and anesthetized for nasal lavage and tonsilar biopsies performed for subsequent bacteriologic analysis. At 2 weeks of age, the pigs in groups A to E were challenged with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida (108 CFU pig−1), and at 6 weeks of age, the pigs were euthanatized. At postmortem, the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed on the snout sections by using a morphometric index. Exposure to aerial ovalbumin resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum antiovalbumin immunoglobulin G (IgG; P < 0.001) and serum antiovalbumin IgA (P < 0.001). Exposure also caused a significant increase in the numbers of P. multocida organisms isolated from the upper respiratory tract (P < 0.001) and a corresponding increase in turbinate atrophy, as judged by the morphometric index (P < 0.001). Concurrent challenge with P. multocida and ovalbumin resulted in a significant decrease in both the IgG and IgA responses to ovalbumin (P < 0.001). These results show that ovalbumin exposure increases pig susceptibility to P. multocida colonization and that toxigenic P. multocida modifies the serum IgG and IgA responses to ovalbumin in the pig. Both of these effects may enhance the virulence of this respiratory pathogen and so influence the pathogenesis of atrophic rhinitis in pigs. PMID:9665955

  5. Effect of ovalbumin aerosol exposure on colonization of the porcine upper airway by Pasteurella multocida and effect of colonization on subsequent immune function.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T D; Roe, J M; Hayes, C M; Webster, A J

    1998-07-01

    Seventy-three piglets were weaned at 1 week of age, randomly assigned to 10 groups (A to J), accommodated in stainless steel exposure chambers, and exposed continuously to a controlled environment containing aerosolized ovalbumin. The concentrations of ovalbumin dust were as follows (milligrams per cubic meter): A and F, 16.6; B and G, 8.4; C and H, 4.2; D and I, 2.1; E and J, 0. At weekly intervals, the pigs were bled via venipuncture and anesthetized for nasal lavage and tonsilar biopsies performed for subsequent bacteriologic analysis. At 2 weeks of age, the pigs in groups A to E were challenged with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida (10(8) CFU pig(-1)), and at 6 weeks of age, the pigs were euthanatized. At postmortem, the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed on the snout sections by using a morphometric index. Exposure to aerial ovalbumin resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum antiovalbumin immunoglobulin G (IgG; P < 0.001) and serum antiovalbumin IgA (P < 0.001). Exposure also caused a significant increase in the numbers of P. multocida organisms isolated from the upper respiratory tract (P < 0.001) and a corresponding increase in turbinate atrophy, as judged by the morphometric index (P < 0.001). Concurrent challenge with P. multocida and ovalbumin resulted in a significant decrease in both the IgG and IgA responses to ovalbumin (P < 0.001). These results show that ovalbumin exposure increases pig susceptibility to P. multocida colonization and that toxigenic P. multocida modifies the serum IgG and IgA responses to ovalbumin in the pig. Both of these effects may enhance the virulence of this respiratory pathogen and so influence the pathogenesis of atrophic rhinitis in pigs. PMID:9665955

  6. Distribution of the ompA-types among ruminant and swine pneumonic strains of Pasteurella multocida exhibiting various cap-locus and toxA patterns.

    PubMed

    Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Siarkou, V; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

    2015-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen in food-producing animals and numerous virulence genes have been identified in an attempt to elucidate the pathogenesis of pasteurellosis. Currently, some of these genes including the capsule biosynthesis genes, the toxA and the OMPs-encoding genes have been suggested as epidemiological markers. However, the number of studies concerning ruminant isolates is limited, while, no attempt has ever been made to investigate the existence of ompA sequence diversity among P. multocida isolates. The aim of the present study was the comparative analysis of 144 P. multocida pneumonic isolates obtained from sheep, goats, cattle and pigs by determining the distribution of the ompA-types in conjunction with the cap-locus and toxA patterns. The ompA genotypes of the isolates were determined using both a PCR-RFLP method and DNA sequence analysis. The most prevalent capsule biosynthesis gene among the isolates was capA (86.1%); a noticeable, however, rate of capD-positive isolates (38.6%) was found among the ovine isolates that had been associated primarily with the capsule type A in the past. Moreover, an unexpectedly high percentage of toxA-positive pneumonic isolates was noticed among small ruminants (93.2% and 85.7% in sheep and goats, respectively), indicating an important epidemiological role of toxigenic P. multocida for these species. Despite their great heterogeneity, certain ompA-genotypes were associated with specific host species, showing evidence of a host preference. The OmpA-based PCR-RFLP method developed proved to be a valuable tool in typing P. multocida strains. PMID:25946323

  7. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Wael A; Ahmed, Ahmed I; Ibrahim, Awad A; Ahmed, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6%) and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%), 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05%) and 5 could not be typed (23.8%). Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%), and 3 were type D (14.3%). The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents. PMID:22485004

  8. Serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs (Bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Chandranaik, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik; Hegde, Raveendra; Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Giridhar, Papanna; Muniyellappa, Handenahally Kaverappa; Kalge, Rajeshwar; Sumathi, Benamanahalli Raju; Nithinprabhu, Kumble; Chandrashekara, Narasimhaiah; Manjunatha, Venkataramanappa; Jaisingh, Nirupama; Mayanna, Asha; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli; Kanaka, Sermaraja; Venkatesha, Mudalagiri Dasappagupta

    2015-06-01

    We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for 'O' type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates. PMID:25894817

  9. Pasteurella multocida Heddleston serovar 3 and 4 strains share a common lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis locus but display both inter- and intrastrain lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; St Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D; Boyce, John D

    2013-11-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines. PMID:23974032

  10. MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida or Ascaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed.

    PubMed

    Schou, T W; Labouriau, R; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Sørensen, P; Cu, H P; Nguyen, V K; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2010-05-15

    In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida were compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance. PMID:19945754

  11. Recombinant transferrin binding protein A (rTbpA) fragments of Pasteurella multocida serogroup B:2 provide variable protection following homologous challenge in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Kumar, Abhinendra; Mohanty, Nihar Nalini; Nagaleekar, Viswas Konasagara

    2015-02-01

    Transferrin binding protein A (TbpA), an iron acquisition surface protein that also acts as virulence factor, is widely distributed among strains of Pasteurella multocida. In the present study, a total of seven clones of TbpA fragments (39D to F777; 39D to Q697; 188V to F777; 188V to Q697; 39D to P377; 188V to P377 and 39D to F187) belonging to P. multocida B:2 were constructed, over-expressed and purified as recombinant fusion proteins from Escherichia coli using affinity chromatography. Immunization of mice with rTbpA fragments resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) rise in antigen specific serum total IgG and subtypes (IgG1 and IgG2a) tires. All immunized mice challenged with 8 LD50 of P. multocida B:2 resulted in a variable protective efficacy up to 50%. The study indicated the potential possibilities to incorporate full length TbpA in subunit vaccine formulation composed of synergistic subunit antigens against haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffalo. PMID:25544697

  12. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Asian Haemorrhagic Septicaemia-Associated Strains of Pasteurella multocida Identifies More than 90 Haemorrhagic Septicaemia-Specific Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed M.; Seemann, Torsten; Gladman, Simon; Adler, Ben; Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D.; Bennett, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is the primary causative agent of a range of economically important diseases in animals, including haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), a rapidly fatal disease of ungulates. There is limited information available on the diversity of P. multocida strains that cause HS. Therefore, we determined draft genome sequences of ten disease-causing isolates and two vaccine strains and compared these genomes using a range of bioinformatic analyses. The draft genomes of the 12 HS strains were between 2,298,035 and 2,410,300 bp in length. Comparison of these genomes with the North American HS strain, M1404, and other available P. multocida genomes (Pm70, 3480, 36950 and HN06) identified a core set of 1,824 genes. A set of 96 genes was present in all HS isolates and vaccine strains examined in this study, but absent from Pm70, 3480, 36950 and HN06. Moreover, 59 genes were shared only by the Asian B:2 strains. In two Pakistani isolates, genes with high similarity to genes in the integrative and conjugative element, ICEPmu1 from strain 36950 were identified along with a range of other antimicrobial resistance genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the HS strains formed clades based on their country of isolation. Future analysis of the 96 genes unique to the HS isolates will aid the identification of HS-specific virulence attributes and facilitate the development of disease-specific diagnostic tests. PMID:26151935

  13. Cross protection against fowl cholera disease with the use of recombinant Pasteurella multocida FHAB2 peptides vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that fhaB2 (filamentous hemagglutinin) is an important virulence factor for P. multocida in development of fowl cholera disease and that recombinant FHAB2 peptides derived from P. multocida, Pm-1059, protect turkeys against Pm-1059 challenge. To test the hypothesis that rFHA...

  14. Minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints and disk diffusion inhibitory zone interpretive criteria for tilmicosin susceptibility testing against Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae associated with porcine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Shryock, Thomas R; Staples, J Mitchell; DeRosa, David C

    2002-09-01

    Tilmicosin is a novel macrolide antibiotic developed for exclusive use in veterinary medicine. Tilmicosin has been approved as a feed premix to control porcine respiratory disease associated with Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines for tilmicosin was predicated on the relationship of clinical efficacy studies that demonstrated a favorable therapeutic outcome, on pharmacokinetic data, and on in vitro test data, as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The approved breakpoints for the minimum inhibitory concentration dilution testing for both species are resistant, > or = 32 microg/ml, and susceptible, < or = 16 microg/ml. The zone of inhibition interpretive criteria for disk diffusion testing with a 15-microg tilmicosin disk are resistant, < or = 10 mm, and susceptible, > or = 11 mm. PMID:12296390

  15. Cloning, expression and protective capacity of 37 kDa outer membrane protein gene (ompH) of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2.

    PubMed

    Tan, H Y; Nagoor, N H; Sekaran, S D

    2010-12-01

    The major outer membrane protein (OmpH) of 4 local Malaysian strains of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 were characterized in comparison to ATCC strains. Three major peptide bands of MW 26, 32 and 37 kDa were characterized using SDSPAGE. Two of these fragments, the 32 kDa and 37 kDa were observed to be more reactive with a mouse polyclonal antiserum in all of the local isolates as well as the ATCC strains in a Western blot. However, the 32 kDa fragment was found to cross react with other Gram negative bacteria. Therefore, the 37 kDa OmpH was selected as vaccine candidate. The 37 kDa ompH gene of the isolated strain 1710 was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector to produce large amounts of recombinant OmpH (rOmpH). The 37 kDa ompH gene of strain 1710 was sequenced. In comparison to a reference strain X-73 of the ompH of P. multocida, 39bp was found deleted in the 37 kDa ompH gene. However, the deletion did not shift the reading frame or change the amino acid sequence. The rOmpH was used in a mice protection study. Mice immunized and challenged intraperitoneally resulted 100% protection against P. multocida whilst mice immunized subcutaneously and challenged intraperitoneally only resulted 80% protection. The rOmpH is therefore a suitable candidate for vaccination field studies. The same rOmpH was also used to develop a potential diagnostic kit in an ELISA format. PMID:21399583

  16. Clinico-pathology, hematology and biochemistry responses in buffaloes towards Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 immunogen lypopolysaccharide via oral and intravenous routes of infection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Norsidin, Mohd Jefri

    2016-02-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B: 2 and E: 2. The organism causes acute, highly fatal septicaemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Lipopolysaccharide can be found on the outer cell wall of the organism. Lipopolysaccharide is released during multiplication which leads to inflammatory reaction. It represents the endotoxin of P. multocida type B: 2 and responsible for toxicity in haemorrhagic septicaemia which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, gross post mortem lesions and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide infections initiated through intravenous and oral routes of infection. 9 buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS); Group 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of lipopolysaccharide broth intravenously and orally respectively. For the clinical signs, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in temperature between the control, intravenous and oral group. In hematology and biochemistry findings, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in erythrocytes, haemoglobin, PCV, MCV, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, GGT and albumin between the control, intravenous and oral group. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the MCHC, leukocytes, band neutrophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, total protein, globulin and A:G ratio between intravenous and oral group. For Group 2 buffaloes, there were gross lesions in the lung, trachea, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney. In contrast, lesions were only observed in the lung, trachea and liver of Group 3 buffaloes. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in hemorrhage and congestion; necrosis and degeneration; and

  17. Genetic diversity among Pasteurella multocida strains of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine origin from England and Wales by comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Davies, Robert L

    2004-12-01

    Genetic diversity among 86 Pasteurella multocida isolates was investigated by comparative sequence analysis of a 1468 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The strains included 79 field isolates recovered from birds (poultry) (22), cattle (21), pigs (26) and sheep (10) within England and Wales, four Asian isolates associated with bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia, and the type strains of the three subspecies of P. multocida. Dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns were also determined to establish correlations between subspecies status and phylogenetic relatedness. Nineteen 16S rRNA types were identified, but these were clustered into two distinct phylogenetic lineages, A and B. Sequences within lineages A and B had a mean number of nucleotide differences of 21.12+/-3.90. Isolates within lineage A were associated with birds, cattle, pigs and sheep, whereas those belonging to lineage B were recovered from birds and a cat. Eighty-seven per cent of the isolates were classified as P. multocida subsp. multocida by dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns, but these have diverse 16S rRNA gene sequences that were represented in both lineages A and B. Avian P. multocida subsp. septica isolates were associated exclusively with lineage B, but bovine P. multocida subsp. septica isolates were present in lineage A. P. multocida subsp. gallicida isolates of avian, bovine and porcine origin represent a homogeneous group within lineage A, but they have the same 16S rRNA type as certain P. multocida subsp. multocida isolates. These findings provide strong support for the view that dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns are inaccurate indicators of genetic relatedness among P. multocida strains. Avian capsular type B isolates and capsular type B and E isolates associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia of cattle and water buffaloes are closely related and form a distinct cluster within lineage A. The current subspecies nomenclature of P. multocida neither accurately reflects the

  18. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of erythromycin, roxithromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Yun, H

    2001-06-01

    When intermittent dosing is used during treatment, the concentrations of antibiotics fluctuate and subinhibitory concentrations may occur between doses. Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic subinhibitory effects (PA SMEs) on bacteria may provide additional, valuable information for the rational use of a drug in clinical practice. In this study tilmicosin was the most active antibiotic tested against P. multocida type D with MICs ranging from 4-16 mg/l. Roxithromycin and tilmicosin induced a statistically significantly longer PAE than did tylosin against P. multocida types A and D (P < 0.05). The duration of PAEs and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on P. multocida. Tilmicosin had a longer PA SME compared with erythromycin, roxithromycin and tylosin for P. multocida. The computerized incubator used in the present study provided an efficient and convenient determination of PAE and PA SME, allowing frequent measurements of the bacterial growth. PMID:11397617

  19. Pasteurella multocida isolated from wild birds of North America: a serotype and DNA fingerprint study of isolates from 1978 to 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Serotype and DNA fingerprint methods were used to study Pasteurella multocida isolated from 320 wild birds of North America. Isolates were collected during 1978-93. The HhaI profiles of 314 isolates matched the HhaI profile of somatic reference type 1, strain X-73; somatic type 1 antigen was expressed by 310 isolates, and the serotype of four isolates was undetected. Differentiation of the 314 isolates was observed by digestion of DNA with HpaII. None of the HpaII profiles matched the HpaII profile of X-73 (designated HhaI 001/HpaII 001). Three HpaII profiles were recognized among the somatic type 1 isolates: HpaII 002 (n = 18), HpaII 003 (n = 122), and HpaII 004 (n = 174). Profile HpaII 002 was found among isolates collected during 1979-83. Profile HpaII 003 was identified from isolates collected during 1979-89, with the exception of two isolates in 1992. The HpaII 004 profile was identified from isolates collected during 1983-93. Of the six remaining isolates, four expressed somatic type 4 and had HhaI profiles identical to the somatic type 4 reference strain P-1662 profile (designated HhaI 004); these isolates were differentiated by digestion of DNA with HpaII. One isolate was identified as serotype F:11, and another was serotype A:3,4. In the present study, 314 of 316 (99.4%) isolates from wild birds in the Central, Mississippi, and Pacific flyways during 1978-93, were P. multocida somatic type 1.

  20. Donor substrate promiscuity of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities of Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) and Escherichia coli K5 KfiA.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Thon, Vireak; Chen, Yi; Muthana, Musleh M; Qu, Jingyao; Hie, Liana; Chen, Xi

    2014-02-01

    The biological activities of heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (HP) are closely related to their molecular structures. Both Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) and Escherichia coli K5 KfiA have been used for enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of HS and HP oligosaccharides and their derivatives. We show here that cloning using the pET15b vector and expressing PmHS2 as an N-His6-tagged fusion protein improve its expression level in E. coli. Investigation of the donor substrate specificity of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities of P. multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) and E. coli K5 KfiA indicates the substrate promiscuities of PmHS2 and KfiA. Overall, both PmHS2 and KfiA can use uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and some of its C2'- and C6'-derivatives as donor substrates for their α1-4-GlcNAcT activities. Nevertheless, PmHS2 has a broader tolerance towards substrate modifications. Other than the UDP-sugars that can be used by KfiA, additional C6'-derivatives of UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-glucose, and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) are tolerable substrates for the α1-4-GlcNAcT activity of PmHS2. The substrate promiscuities of PmHS2 and KfiA will allow efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of diverse HS and HP oligosaccharide derivatives which may have improved or altered activities compared to their natural counterparts. PMID:23661084

  1. Differences in Virulence Between Bovine-Derived Clinical Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A from the UK and the USA in a Model of Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis.

    PubMed

    Dagleish, M P; Bayne, C W; Moon, G G; Finlayson, J; Sales, J; Williams, J; Hodgson, J C

    2016-07-01

    The time of onset and subsequent degree and progression of clinical signs, bacterial colonization and tissue pathology during experimental disease induced by intratracheal inoculation of either a UK or USA isolate of Pasteurella multocida serotype A recovered from clinical cases of bovine pneumonia were determined. Calves aged 8 weeks were challenged with 300 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone (group 1, n = 3, negative control) or containing 7.1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of UK isolate (group 2, n = 8) or 5.8 × 10(8) cfu of USA isolate (group 3, n = 8). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 0, 1 and 4 days post challenge (dpc) and at the time of necropsy examination (7-8 dpc) showed no significant differences between groups 2 and 3 in bacterial numbers recovered. No P. multocida were recovered from group 1 animals. No clinical disease was present in group 1 calves and in group 3 was limited to scour in 1 calf at 1 dpc. All calves in group 2 had reduced food intake at 4-5 dpc, five had periods of dullness, three a mild nasal discharge at 1 dpc, four had mild to substantial respiratory stridor and one was killed at 6 dpc for humane reasons. Rectal temperatures remained about 39°C in group 1 calves, but increased in P. multocida-challenged calves to 40-41°C within 8-12 h of challenge. Significantly (P = 0.01) greater percentages of lung surface area were consolidated in group 2 (mean ± SD, 21 ± 10.1) compared with group 3 (7 ± 8.6) calves. Significantly more extensive and severe histological lesions were present in the lung lobes (P = 0.006) and lymph nodes (P = 0.02) of group 2 compared with group 3 calves. Pleurisy was present in group 2 calves only and no pathology was present in group 1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) produced 11 (group 2, UK isolate) or 10 (group 3, USA isolate) bands with differences in banding patterns. Results overall showed that two isolates, distinct geographically and genetically (by PFGE

  2. Surveillance for Pasteurella multocida in Ring-Necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) After an Outbreak of Avian Cholera and Apparently Successful Antibiotic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin D; Dunn, Patricia; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Schriner, Timothy; Hofacre, Charles; Johnson, Joshua; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Avian cholera is a significant disease of domestic and wild birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida (PM). In poultry, a major source of PM infection is chronic carriers, domestic birds that have become infected and recovered or had subclinical infections. Although outbreaks of avian cholera in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) have been reported, the potential for chronic carriers is unknown. To address this, we conducted surveillance for PM in a flock of captive ring-necked pheasants after an outbreak of avian cholera that responded positively to antibiotic treatment based on resolution of morbidity and mortality. At approximately 1 mo after antibiotic treatment, oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 300 pheasants (out of a total population of ~2300) in a single winter holding pen. All samples were tested for PM through routine aerobic bacterial culture, but none of the samples were positive. In addition, there were no additional outbreaks within this infected pen over the subsequent months. These data provide preliminary evidence to suggest that pheasants that respond to antibiotic therapy may be less likely to become chronic carriers of PM than other poultry species, such as chickens (Gallus domesticus). However, due to marked phenotypic and biologic differences between PM strains, additional studies are needed to further support or refute these findings and better understand avian cholera in this species. PMID:26953951

  3. [Expression and purification of an adhesive protein of rabbit Pasteurella multocida C51-3 and detection of its antigenicity].

    PubMed

    Nazierbieke, Wulumuhan; Yan, Fang; He, Cui; Zhang, Lei; Borrathybay, Entomack

    2008-08-01

    The cp36 gene encoding an adhesive protein was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of rabbit P. multocida C51-3 strain, and cloned into the pMD18-T vector and then sequenced. The mature adhesive protein without a signal peptide of cpm36 gene was amplified by PCR from the recombinant plasmid pMD18-cp36, then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pQE30 to provide a recombinant plasmid pQE30-cpm36. The recombinant protein of CPM36 was produced in Escherichia coli M15 harboring the recombinant plasmid pQE30-cpm36 by IPTG induction, and the recombinant protein purified by the affinity chromatography with Ni(2+)-NTA resin. The sequence analyses showed that the ORF of cp36 gene was 1032 bp in length, and DNA homology of the cp36 genes between the C51-3 strain and the previously reported different serotype strains of P. multocida in GenBank was 76.9 to 100%. The SDS-PAGE analyses revealed a single fusion protein band with a molecular weight of 37 kD, and the Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the recombinant protein CPM36 and native 36 kD protein of C51-3 were recognized specifically by an antiserum against the recombinant protein, suggesting that the recombinant protein is an antigenic protein. PMID:18998549

  4. The RNA-Binding Chaperone Hfq Is an Important Global Regulator of Gene Expression in Pasteurella multocida and Plays a Crucial Role in Production of a Number of Virulence Factors, Including Hyaluronic Acid Capsule.

    PubMed

    Mégroz, Marianne; Kleifeld, Oded; Wright, Amy; Powell, David; Harrison, Paul; Adler, Ben; Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D

    2016-05-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a number of economically important animal diseases, including avian fowl cholera. Numerous P. multocida virulence factors have been identified, including capsule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and filamentous hemagglutinin, but little is known about how the expression of these virulence factors is regulated. Hfq is an RNA-binding protein that facilitates riboregulation via interaction with small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules and their mRNA targets. Here, we show that a P. multocida hfq mutant produces significantly less hyaluronic acid capsule during all growth phases and displays reduced in vivo fitness. Transcriptional and proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during mid-exponential-phase growth revealed altered transcript levels for 128 genes and altered protein levels for 78 proteins. Further proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during the early exponential growth phase identified 106 proteins that were produced at altered levels. Both the transcript and protein levels for genes/proteins involved in capsule biosynthesis were reduced in the hfq mutant, as were the levels of the filamentous hemagglutinin protein PfhB2 and its secretion partner LspB2. In contrast, there were increased expression levels of three LPS biosynthesis genes, encoding proteins involved in phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine addition to LPS, suggesting that these genes are negatively regulated by Hfq-dependent mechanisms. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that Hfq plays a crucial role in regulating the global expression of P. multocida genes, including the regulation of key P. multocida virulence factors, capsule, LPS, and filamentous hemagglutinin. PMID:26883595

  5. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Settypalli, Tirumala Bharani Kumar; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Spergser, Joachim; Lelenta, Mamadou; Wade, Abel; Gelaye, Esayas; Loitsch, Angelika; Minoungou, Germaine; Thiaucourt, Francois; Diallo, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%-4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in 17 samples

  6. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lamien, Charles Euloge; Spergser, Joachim; Lelenta, Mamadou; Wade, Abel; Gelaye, Esayas; Loitsch, Angelika; Minoungou, Germaine; Thiaucourt, Francois; Diallo, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%–4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in 17 samples

  7. Structure-function studies of the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis and the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica by heterologous C protein activation and construction of hybrid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Westrop, G; Hormozi, K; da Costa, N; Parton, R; Coote, J

    1997-01-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis and the leukotoxin (LktA) from Pasteurella haemolytica are members of the RTX (stands for repeats in toxin) family of cytolytic toxins. They have pore-forming activity and share significant amino acid homology but show marked differences in biological activity. CyaA is an invasive adenylate cyclase and a weak hemolysin which is active on a wide range of mammalian cells. LktA is a cytolytic protein with a high target cell specificity and is able to lyse only leukocytes and platelets from ruminants. Each toxin is synthesized as an inactive protoxin encoded by the A gene, and the product of the accessory C gene is required for posttranslational activation. Heterologous activation of LktA by CyaC did not result in a change in its specificity for nucleated cells, although the toxin showed a greater hemolytic-to-cytotoxic ratio. LktC was unable to activate CyaA. A hybrid toxin (Hyb1), which contained the N-terminal enzymic domain and the pore-forming domain from CyaA (amino acids [aa] 1 to 687), with the remainder of the protein derived from the C-terminal end of LktA (aa 379 to 953), showed no toxic activity. Replacement of part of the LktA C-terminal domain of Hyb1 by the CyaA C-terminal domain (aa 919 to 1706) to create hybrid toxin 2 (Hyb2) partially restored toxic activity. In contrast to CyaA, Hyb2 was activated more efficiently by LktC than by CyaC, showing the importance of the region between aa 379 and 616 of LktA for activation by LktC. LktC-activated Hyb2 was more active against ruminant than murine nucleated cells, whereas CyaC-activated Hyb2 displayed a similar, but lower, activity against both cell types. These data indicate that LktC and the region with which it interacts have an influence on the target cell specificity of the mature toxin. PMID:9006045

  8. Serum susceptibility of bovine pasteurellas.

    PubMed Central

    Blau, K A; Ward, A C; Prieur, D J; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the serum sensitivity of 23 P. haemolytica isolates and 18 P. multocida isolates was determined by incubating dilutions of bacteria with equal volumes of fresh or heat-inactivated bovine serum for one, two, or three hours. Clinical isolates of both Pasteurella species were resistant to serum, whereas isolates from asymptomatic cattle varied in serum susceptibility. The classical pathway of complement appeared to be the principal means of complement mediated killing as detected by incubation in the presence or absence of EGTA-MgCl2. Lyzozyme and iron saturation of serum did not greatly affect serum susceptibility with either of the Pasteurella species. PMID:3300919

  9. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a role in Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT)-induced protein synthesis and proliferation in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Oubrahim, Hammou; Wong, Allison; Wilson, Brenda A; Chock, P Boon

    2013-01-25

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a potent mitogen known to activate several signaling pathways via deamidation of a conserved glutamine residue in the α subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. However, the detailed mechanism behind mitogenic properties of PMT is unknown. Herein, we show that PMT induces protein synthesis, cell migration, and proliferation in serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells. Concomitantly PMT induces phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1) and its substrate, ribosomal S6 protein (rpS6), in quiescent 3T3 cells. The extent of the phosphorylation is time and PMT concentration dependent, and is inhibited by rapamycin and Torin1, the two specific inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Interestingly, PMT-mediated mTOR signaling activation was observed in MEF WT but not in Gα(q/11) knock-out cells. These observations are consistent with the data indicating that PMT-induced mTORC1 activation proceeds via the deamidation of Gα(q/11), which leads to the activation of PLCβ to generate diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate, two known activators of the PKC pathway. Exogenously added diacylglycerol or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, known activators of PKC, leads to rpS6 phosphorylation in a rapamycin-dependent manner. Furthermore, PMT-induced rpS6 phosphorylation is inhibited by PKC inhibitor, Gö6976. Although PMT induces epidermal growth factor receptor activation, it exerts no effect on PMT-induced rpS6 phosphorylation. Together, our findings reveal for the first time that PMT activates mTORC1 through the Gα(q/11)/PLCβ/PKC pathway. The fact that PMT-induced protein synthesis and cell migration is partially inhibited by rapamycin indicates that these processes are in part mediated by the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:23223576

  10. Properties of dermonecrotic toxin prepared from sonic extracts Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Kume, K; Nakai, T; Samejima, Y; Sugimoto, C

    1986-01-01

    A toxin with dermonecrotic activity (DNT) was purified from sonic extracts of Bordetella bronchiseptica L3 of pig origin at phase I by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. The purification procedure was one developed for obtaining the Pasteurella multocida DNT from sonic extracts with some modifications. Dermonecrotizing activity of B. bronchiseptica-purified DNT was increased by 600-fold compared with that of the crude extract, and the average yield was about 3%. The toxin was homogeneous, as determined by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and disk isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. The toxin gave a single band on polyacrylamide disk gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS PAGE. The molecular weight of the toxin was ca. 190,000 +/- 5,000, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of the toxin was ca. 6.5 to 6.6. The minimal necrotizing dose of the toxin for guinea pigs was about 2 ng of protein per 0.1 ml, the 50% lethal dose per mouse was about 0.3 micrograms, and the minimal cytotoxic dose for embryonic bovine lung cells was about 2 ng/ml. The toxin was heat labile and sensitive to inactivation by trypsin, Formalin, and glutaraldehyde. The mildly trypsinized B. bronchiseptica DNT preparation dissociated into two polypeptide chains, with molecular weights of ca. 75,000 +/- 4,000 (fragment 1) and ca. 118,000 +/- 5,000 (fragment 2), after treatment with dithiothreitol-SDS or urea. Upon removal of dithiothreitol and urea from the dissociated DNT preparation, the fragments reassociated, and the DNT that was formed was indistinguishable from the native toxin. Images PMID:3699886

  11. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2012-12-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  12. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Prüller, Sandra; Rensch, Ulrike; Meemken, Diana; Kaspar, Heike; Kopp, Peter A.; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1–2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147), blaOXA-2, (n = 4), strA and strB (n = 17), sul1 (n = 10), sul2 (n = 73), dfrA7 (n = 3) and tet(A) (n = 8) were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes. PMID:26275219

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles in P. multocida strains isolated from cats

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; de Gobbi, Debora Dirani Sena; Moreno, Marina; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2015-01-01

    Cats are often described as carriers of Pasteurella multocida in their oral microbiota. This agent is thought to cause pneumonia, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, gingivostomatitis, abscess and osteonecrosis in cats. Human infection with P. multocida has been described in several cases affecting cat owners or after cat bites. In Brazil, the cat population is approximately 21 million animals and is increasing, but there are no studies of the presence of P. multocida in the feline population or of human cases of infection associated with cats. In this study, one hundred and ninety-one healthy cats from owners and shelters in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for the presence of P. multocida in their oral cavities. Twenty animals were positive for P. multocida , and forty-one strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. The P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes and resistance profile. A total of 75.6% (31/41) of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 24.4% (10/41) of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA, tbpA or pfhA genes. The frequencies of the other genes tested were variable, and the data generated were used to build a dendrogram showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. The most common resistance profile observed was against sulfizoxazole and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:26221117

  15. 9 CFR 113.121 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... product from each serial shall be tested for potency using the mouse test provided in this paragraph. A mouse dose shall be 1/20 of the least dose recommended on the label for other animals which shall not be less than 2 ml. (1) The ability of the bacterin being tested (Unknown) to protect mice shall...

  16. 9 CFR 113.121 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... product from each serial shall be tested for potency using the mouse test provided in this paragraph. A mouse dose shall be 1/20 of the least dose recommended on the label for other animals which shall not be less than 2 ml. (1) The ability of the bacterin being tested (Unknown) to protect mice shall...

  17. 9 CFR 113.121 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... product from each serial shall be tested for potency using the mouse test provided in this paragraph. A mouse dose shall be 1/20 of the least dose recommended on the label for other animals which shall not be less than 2 ml. (1) The ability of the bacterin being tested (Unknown) to protect mice shall...

  18. 9 CFR 113.121 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... product from each serial shall be tested for potency using the mouse test provided in this paragraph. A mouse dose shall be 1/20 of the least dose recommended on the label for other animals which shall not be less than 2 ml. (1) The ability of the bacterin being tested (Unknown) to protect mice shall...

  19. 9 CFR 113.121 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... product from each serial shall be tested for potency using the mouse test provided in this paragraph. A mouse dose shall be 1/20 of the least dose recommended on the label for other animals which shall not be less than 2 ml. (1) The ability of the bacterin being tested (Unknown) to protect mice shall...

  20. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the..., including but not limited to acute illness with higher body temperature and respiration rate,...

  1. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the..., including but not limited to acute illness with higher body temperature and respiration rate,...

  2. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the..., including but not limited to acute illness with higher body temperature and respiration rate,...

  3. Transformation of Pasteurella novicida

    PubMed Central

    Tyeryar, Franklin J.; Lawton, William D.

    1969-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid from a streptomycin-resistant mutant of Pasteurella novicida transformed portions of P. novicida streptomycin-sensitive populations to streptomycin-resistant. Similarly, mutants auxotrophic for tryptophan or purine biosynthesis were also transformed to nutritional independence. PMID:5359612

  4. Bordetella pertussis transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are Gram negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are gene...

  5. Conversion of Bordetella pertussis to Bordetella parapertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Kumazawa, N. H.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1978-01-01

    The epidemiological and drug susceptibility data on whooping cough suggested a possibility that Bordetella pertussis converts in some way to Bordetella parapertussis. To prove this, B. pertussis strain 75 was treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and a mutant resistant to staphcillin v and eight mutants resistant to trimethoprim were isolated. The staphcillin V-resistant mutant of B. pertussis agreed with all of the criteria of B. parapertussis and the trimethoprim-resistant mutants also agreed with many of these criteria. Thus, a hypothesis is presented that B. parapertussis is a mutant of B. pertussis which appeared in nature probably by a selective pressure of antibiotics. PMID:211161

  6. Polymorphism of Repeated Regions of Pertactin in Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Boursaux-Eude, Caroline; Guiso, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Pertactin is an outer membrane protein expressed by Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica that induces protective immunity to Bordetella infections. The immunodominant and immunoprotective epitopes of pertactin include two repeated regions, I and II. Comparison of these two repeated regions showed that B. parapertussis pertactin is invariant, whereas B. pertussis pertactin varies mostly in region I and B. bronchiseptica pertactin varies in both repeated regions I and II, but mostly in region II. These differences may result from specific characteristics of these Bordetella species. PMID:10899896

  7. Evaluation of the Specificity of BP3385 for Bordetella pertussis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BP3385 has been proposed as a diagnostic PCR target for discriminating between Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella species that also infect humans. Our results demonstrate this gene is also present in some strains of Bordetella hinzii and Bordetella bronchiseptica....

  8. Identification of clinical Pasteurella isolates by MALDI-TOF -- a comparison with VITEK 2 and conventional microbiological methods.

    PubMed

    Zangenah, Salah; Güleryüz, Gülay; Boräng, Stina; Ullberg, Måns; Bergman, Peter; Ozenci, Volkan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of four methods that are widely used in the clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of Pasteurella species. The 4 methods evaluated were VITEK2, VITEK MS (BioMerieux), and Bruker Biotyper MS (Bruker) as well as traditional biochemical tests. Sequencing of the sodA gene was used as the reference method. Sixty-five isolates of Pasteurella spp. from 65 patients were analyzed. One Pasteurella multocida isolate from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA) was used as a reference. Traditional biochemical tests accurately identified 62/66 (94%) isolates. Both Bruker and Vitek matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) identified 59/66 (89%) strains, but VITEK2 could only identify 32/66 (48.5%) isolates correctly. The mean time to identification using biochemical tests was 20 hours; VITEK2 took 6 hours and MALDI-TOF approximately 10 minutes. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF is a quick method, which accurately identified most isolates of Pasteurella to the species level. Thus, MALDI-TOF constitutes a valuable diagnostic tool in the clinical laboratory. PMID:23886788

  9. Classification of Pasteurella species B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Henrik; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella species B has so far only been reported from the oral cavity of dogs, cats and a ferret. In the present study, information from 15 recent isolates from different sources, including African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), Moholi bushbabies (Galago moholi) and pneumonia of a cat, were compared to five strains investigated previously from bite wounds in humans inflicted by a cat and dog and from gingiva of a cat. rpoB gene sequence comparison showed that 17 isolates, including the reference strain (CCUG 19794(T)), had identical sequences, whereas two were closely related and demonstrated 97.9 and 99.6 % similarity to strain CCUG 19794(T), respectively; the type strain of Pasteurella stomatis was the most closely related strain, with 92.3 % similarity. This is within the mean range (76-100 %) of rpoB gene sequence similarity between species of the same genus within the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of four strains selected based on rpoB sequence comparison showed at least 99.7 % similarity between strains of Pasteurella species B, with 96.2 % similarity to the type strain of the closest related species (Pasteurella canis), indicating that Pasteurella species B should have separate species status. Separate species status was also documented when recN sequence comparisons were converted to a genome similarity of 93.7 % within Pasteurella species B and 59.0 % to the type strain of the closest related species (P. canis). Based on analysis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, and since most isolates originate from the oral cavities of a diverse group of animals, it is suggested that these bacteria be classified as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.; the type strain is P683(T) ( = CCUG 19794(T) = CCM 7950(T) = strain 23193(T) = MCCM 00102(T)), obtained from a cat. Previous reports of the type strain have shown ubiquinone-8, demethylmenaquinone-8 and menaquinone-8 as the major quinones. Polyamines in the type

  10. Is Bordetella pertussis clonal?

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, M. N.; Matthews, R. C.; Burnie, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To establish whether Bordetella pertussis is essentially clonal. DESIGN--Analysis of restriction fragments of XbaI digests of DNA from clinical and control isolates of B pertussis by pulse field gel electrophoresis. MATERIALS--105 isolates of B pertussis: 67 clinical isolates from throughout the United Kingdom and 23 from Germany (collected during the previous 18 months); vaccine strains 2991 and 3700; and 13 control isolates from Manchester University's culture collection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Frequency of DNA types according to country of origin and classical serotyping. RESULTS--17 DNA types were identified on the basis of the variation in 11 fragments, banding at 200-412 kilobases; 15 types were found in the clinical and control isolates from the United Kingdom and seven in those from Germany. There was no correlation with serotype. DNA type 1 was the commonest overall (22/105 strains, 22%), predominating in serotypes 1,2 and 1,2,3 and including the vaccine strains but not the isolates from Germany. CONCLUSIONS--Current infections due to B pertussis are not caused by a clonal pathogen as multiple strains are circulating in a given population at one time. There is also considerable epidemiological variation in the pathogen population between countries. These findings may have implications for the design of acellular vaccines. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 PMID:1392709

  11. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... chickens during the prechallenged period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section... in one chicken, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 chickens. The test is... or more chickens, but the serial is unsatisfactory if the test is not repeated. (c) Potency...

  12. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... chickens during the prechallenged period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section... in one chicken, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 chickens. The test is... or more chickens, but the serial is unsatisfactory if the test is not repeated. (c) Potency...

  13. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... chickens during the prechallenged period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section... in one chicken, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 chickens. The test is... or more chickens, but the serial is unsatisfactory if the test is not repeated. (c) Potency...

  14. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in one chicken, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 chickens. The test is... the same source and hatch, shall be properly identified and used as provided in this paragraph....

  15. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is inconclusive... more turkeys, but the serial is unsatisfactory if the test is not repeated. (c) Potency test. Bulk...

  16. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys during the prechallenge period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section shall... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is...

  17. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys during the prechallenge period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section shall... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is...

  18. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is inconclusive... more turkeys, but the serial is unsatisfactory if the test is not repeated. (c) Potency test. Bulk...

  19. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is inconclusive... more turkeys, but the serial is unsatisfactory if the test is not repeated. (c) Potency test. Bulk...

  20. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is inconclusive... more turkeys, but the serial is unsatisfactory if the test is not repeated. (c) Potency test. Bulk...

  1. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys during the prechallenge period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section shall... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is...

  2. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys during the prechallenge period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section shall... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is...

  3. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys during the prechallenge period of the potency test provided in paragraph (c) of this section shall... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is...

  4. Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis: two immunologically distinct species.

    PubMed Central

    Khelef, N; Danve, B; Quentin-Millet, M J; Guiso, N

    1993-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis are closely related species. Both are responsible for outbreaks of whooping cough in humans and produce similar virulence factors, with the exception of pertussis toxin, specific to B. pertussis. Current pertussis whole-cell vaccine will soon be replaced by acellular vaccines containing major adhesins (filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin) and major toxin (pertussis toxin). All of these factors are antigens that stimulate a protective immune response in the murine respiratory model and in clinical assays. In the present study, we examined the protective efficacies of these factors, and that of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, another B. pertussis toxin, against B. parapertussis infection in a murine respiratory model. As expected, pertussis toxin did not protect against B. parapertussis infection, since this bacterium did not express this protein, but the surprising result was that none of the other factors were protective against B. parapertussis infection. Furthermore, B. parapertussis adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, although it protected against B. parapertussis infection, did not protect against B. pertussis infection. Despite a high degree of homology between both B. pertussis and B. parapertussis species, no cross-protection was observed. Our results outline the fact that, as in other gram-negative bacteria, Bordetella surface proteins vary immunologically. Images PMID:8423077

  5. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  6. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  7. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  8. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  9. Laboratory Maintenance of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Robin R; Cotter, Peggy A

    2009-11-01

    The causative agent of the respiratory disease whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis, is a nutritionally fastidious microorganism but can be grown with relative ease in research laboratories. Stainer-Scholte synthetic broth medium and Bordet-Gengou blood agar both support growth of B. pertussis and are commonly used. B. pertussis prefers aerobic conditions and a temperature range of 35 degrees to 37 degrees C. Appropriate laboratory safety protocols are required to prevent the generation of aerosols, which could potentially spread this highly infectious agent. PMID:19885941

  10. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  11. Combinations of Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Field Isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida▿

    PubMed Central

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Warrass, Ralf; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections in cattle are commonly associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. These infections can generally be successfully treated in the field with one of several groups of antibiotics, including macrolides. A few recent isolates of these species exhibit resistance to veterinary macrolides with phenotypes that fall into three distinct classes. The first class has type I macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotic resistance and, consistent with this, the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated by the enzyme product of the erm(42) gene. The second class shows no lincosamide resistance and lacks erm(42) and concomitant 23S rRNA methylation. Sequencing of the genome of a representative strain from this class, P. multocida 3361, revealed macrolide efflux and phosphotransferase genes [respectively termed msr(E) and mph(E)] that are arranged in tandem and presumably expressed from the same promoter. The third class exhibits the most marked drug phenotype, with high resistance to all of the macrolides tested, and possesses all three resistance determinants. The combinations of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) are chromosomally encoded and intermingled with other exogenous genes, many of which appear to have been transferred from other members of the Pasteurellaceae. The presence of some of the exogenous genes explains recent reports of resistance to additional drug classes. We have expressed recombinant versions of the erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) genes within an isogenic Escherichia coli background to assess their individually contributions to resistance. Our findings indicate what types of compounds might have driven the selection for these resistance determinants. PMID:21709086

  12. Adhesion of type A Pasteurella mulocida to rabbit pharyngeal cells and its possible role in rabbit respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Glorioso, J C; Jones, G W; Rush, H G; Pentler, L J; Darif, C A; Coward, J E

    1982-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida serotype A was found in association with the mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynges of rabbits with respiratory tract infections. The bacteria specifically attached to squamous epithelial cells of the pharyngeal mucosa both in vivo and in vitro and to some tissue culture cell lines such as HeLa. All strains with serotype A capsules were adhesive. With the exception of one serotype D strain, strains with capsular serotypes B, D, and E were at least 10-fold less adhesive. Bacterial adhesiveness was much reduced after pronase digestion, heat treatment, and homogenization, but removal of the hyaluronic acid capsule increased adhesion. Electron microscopy revealed that fimbriae were produced by an adhesive pasteurella strain, but not by two nonadherent strains. The attachment of the former strain to pharyngeal and HeLa cells was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Together, these findings suggest that this amino sugar may be a component of the receptor on both animal cell surfaces and that the fimbriae may be the adhesions. It is proposed that bacterial attachment has a role in colonization and infection of rabbit upper respiratory mucosae. Images PMID:7068213

  13. Development of a PCR assay for identification of Bordetella hinzii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella hinzii infects primarily poultry and immunocompromised humans. Although initially thought to be nonpathogenic in poultry, it was recently shown that some strains cause disease in turkey poults indistinguishable from the clinical presentation of turkey coryza caused by Bordetella avium. ...

  14. 21 CFR 558.630 - Tylosin and sulfamethazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (vibrionic); control of swine pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida and/or... pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida and/or Corynebacterium pyogenes). (iii) For... hyodysenteriae; and control of swine pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida...

  15. 21 CFR 558.630 - Tylosin and sulfamethazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida and/or Corynebacterium pyogenes); for... caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida and/or Corynebacterium pyogenes). (iii) For... hyodysenteriae; and control of swine pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida...

  16. 21 CFR 558.630 - Tylosin and sulfamethazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (vibrionic); control of swine pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida and/or... pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida and/or Corynebacterium pyogenes). (iii) For... hyodysenteriae; and control of swine pneumonias caused by bacterial pathogens (Pasteurella multocida...

  17. Growth Phase dependent gene regulation in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetellae are Gram negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, is a human-restricted variant of Bordetella bronchiseptica, which infects a broad range of mammals causing chronic and often asymptomatic infections. Growth phase dependent gen...

  18. Whooping cough in Pakistan: Bordetella pertussis vs Bordetella parapertussis in 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Habib; Said, Fahad; Syed, Muhammad A; Mughal, Amjad; Kazi, Yasmeen F; Heuvelman, Kees; Mooi, Frits R

    2011-10-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an acute respiratory disease mainly affecting infants and children and is caused by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The aim of this study was to investigate the share of Bordetella species from potential whooping cough cases during 2005-2009. Eight hundred and two samples from suspected pertussis cases were collected, mainly from 2 provinces of Pakistan. Bacterial culture, identification, DNA extraction and routinely used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods using IS1001, IS1002 and IS481 were used to identify the Bordetella species. The results were unexpected, because all of the isolates collected from the different cities were identified as B. parapertussis (7.4%); B. pertussis was not isolated from any sample. However, PCR results indicated the presence of a small percentage (0.6%) of B. pertussis among the total cases studied. This study suggests that vaccines to protect against both B. pertussis and B. parapertussis should be considered. PMID:21563881

  19. Structure of Bordetella pertussis peptidoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Folkening, W.J.; Nogami, W.; Martin, S.A.; Rosenthal, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    Bordetella pertussis Tohama phases I and III were grown to the late-exponential phase in liquid medium containing (/sup 3/H)diaminopimelic acid and treated by a hot (96/sup 0/C) sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction procedure. Washed sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble residue from phases I and III consisted of complexes containing protein (ca. 40%) and peptidoglycan (60/sup 6/). Subsequent treatment with proteinase K yielded purified peptidoglycan which contained N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, and diaminopimelic acid in molar ratios of 1:1:2:1:1 and <2% protein. Radiochemical analyses indicated that /sup 3/H added in diaminopimelic acid was present in peptidoglycan-protein complexes and purified peptidoglycan as diaminopimelic acid exclusively and that pertussis peptidoglycan was not O acetylated, consistent with it being degraded completely by hen egg white lysozyme. Muramidase-derived disaccharide peptide monomers and peptide-cross-linked dimers and higher oligomers were isolated by molecular-sieve chromatography; from the distribution of these peptidoglycan fragments, the extent of peptide cross-linking of both phase I and III peptidoglycan was calculated to be ca. 48%. Unambiguous determination of the structure of muramidase-derived pepidoglycan fragments by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry indicated that the pertussis peptidoglycan monomer fraction was surprisingly homogeneous, consisting of >95% N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-glutamyl-diaminopimelyl-alanine.

  20. Crystallization of pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, H; Munoz, J J

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for crystallizing pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis. The crystalline material induced histamine hypersensitivity in mice at a dose of 0.5 ng of protein and leukocytosis at a dose of 100 ng and was toxic at a dose of 429 microgram. The histamine-sensitizing activity and the toxicity were as high as ever reported. Images PMID:6260667

  1. Diagnosis of Whooping Cough in Switzerland: Differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Laure F.; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001−, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested. PMID:24586447

  2. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Laure F; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested. PMID:24586447

  3. Bordetella bronchiseptica fimbrial protein-enhanced immunogenicity of a Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin fragment.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, S; Kania, S A; Nair, R V; McPherson, J T; Moore, R N; Bemis, D A

    2001-09-14

    Leukotoxin produced by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is an important virulence factor in shipping fever pneumonia in feedlot cattle and is a critical protective antigen. In this study, the immune response to a chimeric protein generated by combining a gene fragment encoding neutralizing epitopes of M. haemolytica leukotoxin and a fimbrial protein gene (fim N) from Bordetella bronchiseptica was evaluated. The recombinant gene was cloned in a bacterial expression vector under the control of the tac promoter and expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Immunization of mice with the recombinant protein, GST-LTXFIM elicited a significantly stronger anti-leukotoxin antibody response than comparable immunizations with GST-LTX fusion proteins lacking FIM N. The GST-LTXFIM was also more stable than GST-LTX during storage at -80 degrees C, thus alleviating a stability problem inherent to leukotoxin. This chimeric protein may be a candidate for inclusion in new generation vaccines against shipping fever pneumonia. PMID:11535337

  4. Complete chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Forssman antigen using novel glycosyltransferases identified in Campylobacter jejuni and Pasteurella multocida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified an alpha1,4-galactosyltransferase (CgtD) and a beta1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (CgtE) in the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus of Campylobacter jejuni LIO87. Strains that carry these genes may have the capability of synthesizing mimics of the P blood group antigens of the ...

  5. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  6. A PCR assay for identification of Bordetella hinzii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella hinzii infects primarily poultry and immunocompromised humans. Although initially thought to be nonpathogenic in poultry, it was recently shown that some strains cause disease in turkey poults indistinguishable from the clinical presentation of turkey coryza caused by Bordetella avium. B....

  7. Plasmids for heterologous expression in Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N D; Highlander, S K

    1997-02-28

    New cloning and expression vectors that replicate both in Pasteurella haemolytica and in Escherichia coli were constructed based on a native sulfonamide (SuR) and streptomycin (SmR) resistant plasmid of P. haemolytica called pYFC1. Each shuttle vector includes an MCS and a selectable antibiotic resistance marker that is expressed in both organisms. Plasmid pNF2176 carries the P. haemolytica ROB-1 beta-lactamase gene (blaP, ApR) and pNF2214 carries the Tn903 aph3 kanamycin resistance (KmR) element. The expression vector, pNF2176, was created by placing the MCS downstream of the sulfonamide gene promoter (PsulII) on pYFC1; this was used to clone and express the promoterless Tn9 chloramphenicol resistance gene (cat, CmR) in P. haemolytica (pNF2200). A promoter-probe vector (pNF2283) was constructed from pNF2200 by deleting PsulII. PMID:9074498

  8. A transport medium for specimens containing Pasteurella pestis

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, D. C.; Vivona, S.; Do-Van-Quy; Gibson, F. L.; Deuber, G. L.; Rust, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    A medium, originally designed by Stuart and co-workers and later modified by Cary & Blair, for the maintenance and transport, without multiplication, of pathogenic bacteria contained in bacteriological specimens was tested in the laboratory and in the field in Viet-Nam to determine its effectiveness in preserving specimens known to contain Pasteurella pestis. The results indicate that this medium should be useful in diagnostic plague studies in areas where transport facilities are inadequate. Properly collected clinical specimens, sent to a central laboratory by any means and under any climatic conditions likely to be encountered in the hot tropics, should yield viable Pasteurella pestis for at least 30 days. PMID:5301387

  9. Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica contain transcriptionally silent pertussis toxin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Aricò, B; Rappuoli, R

    1987-01-01

    Pertussis toxin, the major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, is not produced by the closely related species Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. It is shown here that these two species possess but do not express the complete toxin operon. Nucleotide sequencing of an EcoRI fragment of 5 kilobases comprising the regions homologous to the pertussis toxin genes shows that in this region, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica are 98.5% and 96% homologous, respectively, to B. pertussis. The changes (mostly base pair substitutions) in many cases are identical in B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica, suggesting that these two species derive from a common ancestor. Many of the mutations common to B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica involve the promoter region, which becomes very inefficient. The S1 subunits of both species, when expressed in Escherichia coli, have the same ADP-ribosylating activity as the S1 subunit from B. pertussis, indicating that the mutations in the S1 gene described here do not affect its function. Images PMID:3584073

  10. Modulation of Bordetella pertussis by nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    McPheat, W L; Wardlaw, A C; Novotny, P

    1983-08-01

    Growth of Bordetella pertussis in a high concentration of nicotinic acid (NA) had a modulating effect on several properties and activities of the bacteria. Compared with normally grown cells, those grown in a high concentration of NA had reduced capacity for taking up both NA and nicotinamide (ND); they had reduced adenylate cyclase activity and showed loss of agglutinogen factors 2 and 3, but an increase in factor 1. By contrast, cells grown in a high concentration of ND showed only a slightly decreased capacity for uptake of ND and none of the other changes. Modulation of B. pertussis by NA varied with the strain and culture conditions and appeared to be distinct from the antigenic modulation induced by high Mg2+ in the culture medium. Evidence is presented for the association of a small proportion of the extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase with the outer membrane of B. pertussis. PMID:6307872

  11. Modulation of Bordetella pertussis by nicotinic acid.

    PubMed Central

    McPheat, W L; Wardlaw, A C; Novotny, P

    1983-01-01

    Growth of Bordetella pertussis in a high concentration of nicotinic acid (NA) had a modulating effect on several properties and activities of the bacteria. Compared with normally grown cells, those grown in a high concentration of NA had reduced capacity for taking up both NA and nicotinamide (ND); they had reduced adenylate cyclase activity and showed loss of agglutinogen factors 2 and 3, but an increase in factor 1. By contrast, cells grown in a high concentration of ND showed only a slightly decreased capacity for uptake of ND and none of the other changes. Modulation of B. pertussis by NA varied with the strain and culture conditions and appeared to be distinct from the antigenic modulation induced by high Mg2+ in the culture medium. Evidence is presented for the association of a small proportion of the extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase with the outer membrane of B. pertussis. PMID:6307872

  12. Human infections associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Woolfrey, B F; Moody, J A

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the potential of Bordetella bronchiseptica to act as a human pathogen. After encountering two patients from whom B. bronchiseptica was isolated, we searched the literature and found 23 reports in which a human infection was reported in association with B. bronchiseptica. As a basis for evaluating these cases, we summarize the literature about the current microbiological status of B. bronchiseptica, the pathology and pathogenic mechanisms associated with the microorganism, and the likelihood of it acting as a commensal or colonizer. From this review we conclude that B. bronchiseptica has been rarely isolated from humans despite their considerable exposure to animal sources. Evidence suggests that B. bronchiseptica may be rarely encountered as a commensal or colonizer of the respiratory tract of humans and rarely in association with infection. When found as a probable pathogen, most infections have been respiratory tract in origin and have occurred in severely compromised hosts. PMID:1889042

  13. Hamster bite peritonitis: Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Taylor, J H; Campbell, M

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient. This rare infection was the result of contamination of the dialysis tubing by a pet hamster. We stress the importance of household pets as a source of infection in the peritoneal dialysis population. PMID:11095007

  14. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. 113.68 Section 113.68 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines §...

  15. Occurrence of Bordetella infection in pigs in northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Bhoj R; Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92%) nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific) and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific) primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA) had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India. PMID:24688547

  16. Occurrence of Bordetella Infection in Pigs in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Bhoj R.; Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92%) nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific) and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific) primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA) had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India. PMID:24688547

  17. Prevalence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in certain central Iowa.

    PubMed

    Farrington, D O; Jorgenson, R D

    1976-10-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from 6 of 13 short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 1 of 47 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) trapped in the vicinity of a swine Bordetella rhinitis experimental area. The organism was found in four of 50 foxes (Vulpes fulva), 2 of 36 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) and 1 of 37 raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped in the Ames, Iowa area. This bacterium was not culturally isolated from 14 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), 64 house mice (Mus Musculus), 10 masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) and 54 starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). PMID:16502690

  18. [Bordetella pertussis agglutinogens in cultivation dynamics].

    PubMed

    Basnak'ian, I A; Aleksakhina, N N; Shelemekh, O V; Miriasova, L V; Siundiukova, R A

    2007-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis growth phases during homogenous batch dynamic cultivation in the liquid medium as well as during the static cultivation on the solid medium were established. The maximal activity of agglutination reaction with antisera to B. pertussis agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3 was detected in bacterial culture at the end of exponential phase of growth. The activity of agglutination reaction decreased when cultures in stationary and death phases were used. During transition from exponential to death phase level of antibodies to agglutinogen 2 decreased by4 - 32 times. 2 - 4-fold decrease of antibodies level was observed when antiserum to agglutinogen 3 was used. Activity of agglutination reaction with antiserum to agglutinogen 1 was high and did not depend from phase of growth. When polyvalent antiserum to B. pertussis was used 4-fold decrease of antibody titers was observed in parallel with change of growth phases. Sera from rabbits immunized with B. pertussis cultures from the middle of exponential growth phase, the end of this phase, and begin of the death phase had high (maximal) level of agglutinating antibodies (6400), which was detected on 101 day after immunization with the former culture and on 31 day after immunization with either of the two latter cultures. To the end of experiment (292 day) titers decreased to 800, 3200, and 1600 respectively. These findings confirm an advisability of use of exponential growth culture for immunization of rabbits in order to obtain highly active diagnostic antisera to B. pertussis. PMID:17672129

  19. Strain-specific virulence of Bordetella hinzii in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Bordetella, B. avium and B. hinzii, are known to infect avian hosts. B. avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza, a disease of high morbidity. B. hinzii, though commonly acquired from the respiratory tracts of diseased poultry, has not been demonstrated to be pathogenic in eith...

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Bordetella parapertussis to various antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Haraguchi, Y

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro activity of 18 antimicrobial agents against 32 strains of Bordetella parapertussis isolated from whooping cough patients was studied. The most active antimicrobial agents were piperacillin and minocycline, followed (in descending order of activity) by moxalactam, erythromycin, cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, josamycin, sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid. Isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, cefatrizine, cefaclor, streptomycin, and cephalexin. PMID:2764546

  1. Fimbrial hemagglutinin in stationary and shake cultures of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, H; Munoz, J J

    1979-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis produced hemagglutinin in stationary cultures; in cultures kept under constant shaking, hemagglutinin was found only during the first 48 h of incubation but not after 3 to 5 days. The type of medium had a pronounced effect on production of hemagglutinin. Strain differences in ability to produce hemagglutinin were also detected. Images PMID:39897

  2. Strain-specific virulence of Bordetella hinzii in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella hinzii is commonly acquired from the respiratory tract of diseased poultry but regarded as nonpathogenic in avian hosts. Recently, it was recognized that some previously used isolates were misidentified at the time of their acquisition as B. avium, B. avium-like or Alcaligenes faecalis ty...

  3. Septic Arthritis and Osteomyelitis Due to Bordetella petrii

    PubMed Central

    Bankowski, Matthew J.; Pien, Francis D.

    2014-01-01

    A case of Bordetella petrii septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in an elbow resulted from a dirt bike accident in Hawaii. Two months of intravenous antibiotics and repeated surgeries were required to cure this infection. Our case, and literature review, suggests that extended-spectrum penicillins, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are good treatment options. PMID:25540393

  4. Coinfection with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  5. Opportunistic Pulmonary Bordetella hinzii Infection after Avian Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dupin, Clarisse; Bénézit, François; Goret, Julien; Piau, Caroline; Jouneau, Stéphane; Guillot, Sophie; Mégraud, Francis; Kayal, Samer; Desrues, Benoit; Le Coustumier, Alain; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We report 2 cases of pulmonary Bordetella hinzii infection in immunodeficient patients. One of these rare cases demonstrated the potential transmission of the bacteria from an avian reservoir through occupational exposure and its persistence in humans. We establish bacteriologic management of these infections and suggest therapeutic options if needed. PMID:26584467

  6. Coinfection of Pigs with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  7. Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, J; Albo, C; Rodríguez, A; Sopeña, B; Martínez, C

    1994-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is recognised as a respiratory tract pathogen in many mammalian species, but has rarely been implicated in human infection. A case is reported of pneumonia caused by B bronchiseptica in a patient suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Images PMID:8066571

  8. Isolation of Bordetella bronchiseptica from Blood and a Pancreatic Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a respiratory pathogen rarely encountered in human hosts. We describe a case of bacteremia and pancreatic abscess caused by this organism. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of B. bronchiseptica causing intra-abdominal infection in the form of an abscess. PMID:25740781

  9. Bordetella bronchoseptica pneumonia with shock in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Tamion, F; Girault, C; Chevron, V; Pestel, M; Bonmarchand, G

    1996-01-01

    Bordetella bronchoseptica is a rarely reported cause of human infection, but is a common respiratory tract commensal of mammals. Human infection with B. bronchoseptica is almost always associated with severe underlying disease and contact with an appropriate animal reservoir. We report a case of pneumonia with shock caused by B. bronchoseptica in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:8792492

  10. Bordetella pseudohinzii spp. nov. infects C57Bl6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical studies rely heavily on mouse models of infection. Precise identification and control of contaminating pathogens that circulate in mouse colonies is an important task. Over the past decade, there have been several reports documenting the isolation of Bordetella spp. from purported pathog...

  11. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Kathryn; Weigand, Michael R.; Skoff, Tami H.; Cunningham, Victoria A.; Halse, Tanya A.; Tondella, M. Lucia

    2016-01-01

    A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin–deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes. PMID:26812174

  12. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  17. Agglutinogens and fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, L A; Robinson, A; Funnell, S; Gorringe, A R; Irons, L I; Seabrook, R N

    1988-01-01

    Agglutinogen 2 (AGG2) of Bordetella pertussis is a fimbrial antigen and therefore a potential adhesin and acellular vaccine component. AGG2 was found to dissociate only under harsh conditions into the subunits of mol. wt. 22500 seen in SDS-PAGE. Results from studies of agglutinogen 3 (AGG3) are presented which confirm previous findings from this Laboratory that AGG3 is also a fimbrial protein but with a subunit mol. wt. of 22000. The amino acid sequence of AGG2, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding it, was used as a basis for synthesis of three peptides. Coupled to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), the peptides were immunogenic in mice, inducing antibodies which bound well to homologous peptide in ELISA but poorly to intact fimbriae. Monoclonal and polyclonal serotype-specific antibodies failed to react significantly with the peptides or their KLH-conjugates. These results indicate that the synthetic peptides do not represent the serotype 2 epitope. Mice immunized with purified AGG2 or AGG3 were found to be protected against respiratory infection with B. pertussis. Results presented here indicate that this protection is, to a large extent, serotype-specific and that immunization of mice with AGG2 or AGG3 can lead to a change in serotype of the infecting strain. These results are analogous to findings from epidemiological studies of the protection induced in children by whole cell vaccines. They reaffirm the importance of both AGG2 and AGG3 as components of whole cell and acellular vaccines. PMID:2908520

  18. Helical structure of Bordetella pertussis fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Steven, A C; Bisher, M E; Trus, B L; Thomas, D; Zhang, J M; Cowell, J L

    1986-01-01

    The helical structures of Bordetella pertussis fimbriae of serotypes 2 and 6 were determined by optical diffraction analysis of electron micrographs of negatively stained paracrystalline bundles of purified fimbriae. The fimbrial structure is based on an axial repeat of 13 nm that contains five repeating units in two complete turns of a single-start helix. This structure was confirmed by direct measurements of mass per unit length for individual fimbriae performed by dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy of unstained specimens. These data further established that the helically repeating unit is a monomer of fimbrial protein (Mr congruent to 22,000 for type 2 and Mr congruent to 21,500 for type 6). Radial density profiles calculated from the scanning transmission electron micrographs showed that the fimbria has peak density at its center, i.e., no axial channel, consistent with the results of conventional negative-staining electron microscopy. The radial profile gives an outermost diameter of approximately 7.5 nm, although the peripheral density is, on average, diffuse, allowing sufficient intercalation between adjacent fimbriae to give a center-to-center spacing of approximately 5.5 nm in the paracrystals. Despite serological and biochemical differences between type 2 and type 6 fimbriae, the packing arrangements of their fimbrial subunits are identical. From this observation, we infer that the respective subunits may have in common conserved regions whose packing dictates the helical geometry of the fimbria. It is plausible that a similar mechanism may underlie the phenomenon of phase variations in other systems of bacterial fimbriae. Images PMID:2875062

  19. Phenotypic variation and modulation in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Peppler, M S; Schrumpf, M E

    1984-01-01

    Most of the isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica obtained by this laboratory possessed a characteristic colonial morphology when grown on Bordet- Gengou agar (BGA) at 37 degrees C. The colonies appeared domed (Dom+) with a smooth colonial surface (Scs+) and a clear zone of hemolysis ( Hly +). From these Dom+ Scs+ Hly + BGA colony types arose flat (Dom-), smooth colonial surface (Scs+) and nonhemolytic ( Hly -) variants at frequencies of 10(-2) to 10(-3). Isogenic pairs of Dom+ Scs+ Hly + and Dom- Scs+ Hly - BGA phenotype variants (BGA-PVs) were picked from 11 strains of B. bronchiseptica, and their whole cell lysates were compared with each other by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Characteristic SDS-PAGE profiles were observed for each of the Dom+ Scs+ Hly + and Dom- Scs+ Hly - BGA-PVs with regard to (i) surface-exposed proteins, based on autoradiographs of 125I- Iodogen -labeled organisms, (ii) polypeptide differences, based on gels stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250, and (iii) lipopolysaccharide differences based on gels stained with silver after oxidation with periodic acid. SDS-PAGE profiles were then used to monitor the phenotypes expressed by Dom+ Scs+ Hly + and Dom- Scs+ Hly - BGA-PVs transferred and grown on brucella agar, Trypticase soy agar, and nutrient agar. When grown on non-BGA media, the Dom+ Scs+ Hly + BGA-PVs from six of eight strains showed SDS-PAGE profiles identical to those of Dom- Scs+ Hly - BGA-PVs. This phenotypic change was reversible even after 15 subcultures on the non-BGA media, since Dom+ Scs+ Hly + organisms passed back onto BGA expressed both Dom+ Scs+ Hly + colonial morphology and Dom+ Scs+ Hly + SDS-PAGE profiles. The influence of cultural conditions on maintenance of virulence is discussed. Images PMID:6373614

  20. Misidentification of Bordetella bronchiseptica as Bordetella pertussis using a Newly Described RT-PCR Targeting the Pertactin Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently a real-time PCR (RT-PCT) assay based on sequence from the gene for pertactin was proposed for identification of Bordetella pertussis. Here we report that the B. pertussis pertactin gene sequence for the region encompassing the RT-PCR probe and primers is nearly identical to that of many B....

  1. Molecular Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Infections Due to Bordetella pertussis and Other Bordetella Subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Seema; Cherry, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Bordetella respiratory infections are common in people (B. pertussis) and in animals (B. bronchiseptica). During the last two decades, much has been learned about the virulence determinants, pathogenesis, and immunity of Bordetella. Clinically, the full spectrum of disease due to B. pertussis infection is now understood, and infections in adolescents and adults are recognized as the reservoir for cyclic outbreaks of disease. DTaP vaccines, which are less reactogenic than DTP vaccines, are now in general use in many developed countries, and it is expected that the expansion of their use to adolescents and adults will have a significant impact on reducing pertussis and perhaps decrease the circulation of B. pertussis. Future studies should seek to determine the cause of the unique cough which is associated with Bordetella respiratory infections. It is also hoped that data gathered from molecular Bordetella research will lead to a new generation of DTaP vaccines which provide greater efficacy than is provided by today's vaccines. PMID:15831828

  2. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Mittermayer, Helmut; Kessler, Harald H; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed. PMID

  3. Haemolytic effect of Pasteurella haemolytica on blood from young mammals.

    PubMed

    Smith, G R; Turner, A; Hawkey, C M

    1988-09-01

    On agar plates containing young lamb blood, Pasteurella haemolytica produces a wide outer zone of partial haemolysis in addition to the narrow zone of complete clearing seen on adult sheep blood agar. To determine whether this phenomenon was limited to lamb blood, samples from young animals of 20 mammalian species were examined. Two species--the barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) and scimitar horned oryx (Oryx tao)--possessed blood that gave this effect provided that the samples were taken from young animals. The 18 species that gave negative results included an ovine species, the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). PMID:3194597

  4. 21 CFR 522.313b - Ceftiofur hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD, shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with...

  5. Epidemiology of whooping cough & typing of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Hegerle, Nicolas; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative human-restricted bacterium that evolved from the broad-range mammalian pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica. It causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans, which is the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. The introduction of the pertussis whole-cell vaccination for young children, followed by the introduction of the pertussis acellular vaccination (along with booster vaccination) for older age groups, has affected the bacterial population and epidemiology of the disease. B. pertussis is relatively monomorphic worldwide, but nevertheless, different countries are facing different epidemiological evolutions of the disease. Although it is tempting to link vaccine-driven phenotypic and genotypic evolution of the bacterium to epidemiology, many other factors should be considered and surveillance needs to continue, in addition to studies investigating the impact of current clinical isolates on vaccine efficacy. PMID:24199799

  6. Bordetella biofilms: a lifestyle leading to persistent infections.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Natalia; Dubey, Purnima; Arnal, Laura; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Deora, Rajendar

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica and B. pertussis are Gram-negative bacteria that cause respiratory diseases in animals and humans. The current incidence of whooping cough or pertussis caused by B. pertussis has reached levels not observed since the 1950s. Although pertussis is traditionally known as an acute childhood disease, it has recently resurged in vaccinated adolescents and adults. These individuals often become silent carriers, facilitating bacterial circulation and transmission. Similarly, vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals continue to be carriers of B. bronchiseptica and shed bacteria resulting in disease outbreaks. The persistence mechanisms of these bacteria remain poorly characterized. It has been proposed that adoption of a biofilm lifestyle allows persistent colonization of the mammalian respiratory tract. The history of Bordetella biofilm research is only a decade long and there is no single review article that has exclusively focused on this area. We systematically discuss the role of Bordetella factors in biofilm development in vitro and in the mouse respiratory tract. We further outline the implications of biofilms to bacterial persistence and transmission in humans and for the design of new acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:26586694

  7. Bordetella bronchiseptica responses to physiological reactive nitrogen and oxygen stresses

    PubMed Central

    Omsland, Anders; Miranda, Katrina M.; Friedman, Richard L.; Boitano, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica can establish prolonged airway infection consistent with a highly developed ability to evade mammalian host immune responses. Upon initial interaction with the host upper respiratory tract mucosa, B. bronchiseptica are subjected to antimicrobial reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), effector molecules of the innate immune system. However, the responses of B. bronchiseptica to redox species at physiologically relevant concentrations (nM-µM) have not been investigated. Using predicted physiological concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O2.−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) of B. bronchiseptica, all redox active species displayed dose-dependent antimicrobial activity. Susceptibility to individual redox active species was significantly increased upon introduction of a second species at sub-antimicrobial concentrations. An increased bacteriostatic activity of NO was observed relative to H2O2. The understanding of Bordetella responses to physiologically relevant levels of exogenous RNS and ROS will aid in defining the role of endogenous production of these molecules in host innate immunity against Bordetella and other respiratory pathogens. PMID:18462394

  8. Bordetella bronchialis sp. nov., Bordetella flabilis sp. nov. and Bordetella sputigena sp. nov., isolated from human respiratory specimens, and reclassification of Achromobacter sediminum Zhang et al. 2014 as Verticia sediminum gen. nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Peter A; Peeters, Charlotte; Cnockaert, Margo; Inganäs, Elisabeth; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J

    2015-10-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of four Bordetella hinzii-like strains from human respiratory specimens and representing nrdA gene sequence based genogroups 3, 14 and 15 were examined. In a 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogenetic tree, the four strains consistently formed a single coherent lineage but their assignment to the genus Bordetella was equivocal. The respiratory quinone, polar lipid and fatty acid profiles generally conformed to those of species of the genus Bordetella and were characterized by the presence of ubiquinone 8, of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and several aminolipids, and of high percentages of C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0 and summed feature 2, as major chemotaxonomic marker molecules, respectively. The DNA G+C content was about 66 mol%, which corresponded with that of the high-percentage DNA G+C content genera of the family Alcaligenaceae including the genus Bordetella. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments revealed the presence of three distinct genomospecies and thus confirmed phenotypic differences as revealed by means of extensive biochemical characterization. We therefore propose to formally classify Bordetella genogroups 3, 14 and 15 as Bordetella bronchialis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 28640T = AU3182T = CCUG 56828T), Bordetella sputigena sp. nov. (type strain LMG 28641T = CCUG 56478T) and Bordetella flabilis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 28642T = AU10664T = CCUG 56827T). In addition, we propose to reclassify Achromobacter sediminum into the novel genus Verticia, as Verticia sediminum, gen. nov., comb. nov., on the basis of its unique phylogenetic position, its marine origin and its distinctive phenotypic, fatty acid and polar lipid profile. PMID:26220296

  9. Cilia-associated bacteria in fatal Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  10. Agglutinating monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize lipooligosaccharide A of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z M; Cowell, J L; Brennan, M J; Burns, D L; Manclark, C R

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that specifically agglutinate strains of Bordetella pertussis having serotype 1 agglutinogen were uniquely reactive with the electrophoretically slow-migrating A form of lipooligosaccharide. These monoclonal antibodies should be useful for the structural analysis of B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide and for the establishment of a better-defined serogroup for Bordetella species. Images PMID:2893776

  11. Agglutinating monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize lipooligosaccharide A of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z M; Cowell, J L; Brennan, M J; Burns, D L; Manclark, C R

    1988-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that specifically agglutinate strains of Bordetella pertussis having serotype 1 agglutinogen were uniquely reactive with the electrophoretically slow-migrating A form of lipooligosaccharide. These monoclonal antibodies should be useful for the structural analysis of B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide and for the establishment of a better-defined serogroup for Bordetella species. PMID:2893776

  12. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Suggests a Unique Genetic Basis for Virulence of Bordetella hinzii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particular strains of Bordetella hinzii can induce mild to moderate respiratory disease in turkeys but potential virulence factors of this agent have not been identified, despite extensive characterization of virulence factors in several other Bordetella species. To elucidate the genetic basis for ...

  13. BpsR functions as a dual activator and repressor of Bordetella gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bacteria are Gram-negative respiratory pathogens of animals, birds, and humans. A hallmark feature of some Bordetella species is their ability to efficiently survive in the respiratory tract even after vaccination. Our overall hypothesis is that establishment of colonization and persisten...

  14. [Bordetella bronchiseptica recurrent bacteraemia in a patient with bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Echeverri-Toro, Lina; Arango, Andrés; Ospina, Sigifredo; Agudelo, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of recurrent bacteraemia caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in an immunocompromised patient with a history of allogenic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome, who was admitted to hospital with febrile syndrome. Bordetella bronchiseptica is an uncommon human pathogen which mainly affects immunocompromised patients, being a rare cause of bacteraemia. PMID:26849691

  15. Single-chain urokinase in empyema induced by Pasturella multocida.

    PubMed

    Idell, Steven; Jun Na, Moon; Liao, Huai; Gazar, A E; Drake, Wonder; Lane, Kirk B; Koenig, Kathy; Komissarov, Andrey; Tucker, Torry; Light, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    Intrapleural fibrin deposition and subsequent fibrosis characterize evolving empyema and contribute to the morbidity associated with this condition. Single-chain urokinase (scuPA) is proenzyme form of the urokinase plasminogen activator, which has recently been shown to effectively clear intrapleural loculation in tetracycline-induced pleurodesis in rabbits. The authors therefore hypothesized that scuPA could likewise improve intrapleural injury associated with empyema. The authors used a rabbit model of empyema induced by intrapleural administration of Pasturella multocida to test this hypothesis and determined the effects of intrapleural scuPA on pleural fluids indices of inflammation and intrapleural fibrosis. The authors found that intrapleural administration of scuPA was well tolerated, generated readily detectable fibrinolytic activity in the empyema fluids and did not induce intrapleural or systemic bleeding. Pleural fluid volume, intrapleural protein, and D-dimer concentrations were increased at 24 and 48 hours (P < .01, respectively) after induction of empyema. Intrapleural loculation did not occur in the scuPA- or vehicle control-treated animals and there was no significant change in the pleural empyema or thickening scores. These findings confirm that intrapleural scuPA generates fibrinolysis in empyema fluids but does not alter fibrotic repair at the pleural surface or the intensity of intrapleural inflammation in this empyema model. PMID:19895321

  16. Molecular and antimicrobial analyses of non-classical Bordetella isolated from a laboratory mouse

    PubMed Central

    LOONG, Shih Keng; MAHFODZ, Nur Hidayana; WALI, Haryanti Azura Mohamad; TALIB, Siti Aisyah A.; NASRAH, Siti Noraisah Ahmad; WONG, Pooi Fong; ABUBAKAR, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification and separation of non-classical Bordetella species is very difficult. These species have been implicated in animal infections. B. hinzii, a non-classical Bordetella, has been isolated from mice in experimental facilities recently. We isolated and characterized one non-classical Bordetella isolate from the trachea and lung of an ICR mouse. Isolate BH370 was initially identified as B. hinzii by 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA sequencing. Additionally, isolate BH370 also displayed antimicrobial sensitivity profiles similar to B. hinzii. However, analyses of nrdA sequences determined its identity as Bordetella genogroup 16. The isolation of BH370 from a healthy mouse suggests the possibility of it being a commensal. The nrdA gene was demonstrated to possess greater phylogenetic resolution as compared with 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA for the discrimination of non-classical Bordetella species. PMID:26782013

  17. Molecular and antimicrobial analyses of non-classical Bordetella isolated from a laboratory mouse.

    PubMed

    Loong, Shih Keng; Mahfodz, Nur Hidayana; Wali, Haryanti Azura Mohamad; Talib, Siti Aisyah A; Nasrah, Siti Noraisah Ahmad; Wong, Pooi Fong; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2016-05-01

    Accurate identification and separation of non-classical Bordetella species is very difficult. These species have been implicated in animal infections. B. hinzii, a non-classical Bordetella, has been isolated from mice in experimental facilities recently. We isolated and characterized one non-classical Bordetella isolate from the trachea and lung of an ICR mouse. Isolate BH370 was initially identified as B. hinzii by 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA sequencing. Additionally, isolate BH370 also displayed antimicrobial sensitivity profiles similar to B. hinzii. However, analyses of nrdA sequences determined its identity as Bordetella genogroup 16. The isolation of BH370 from a healthy mouse suggests the possibility of it being a commensal. The nrdA gene was demonstrated to possess greater phylogenetic resolution as compared with 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA for the discrimination of non-classical Bordetella species. PMID:26782013

  18. Evaluation of 3 analyte-specific reagents for detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ferdaus; Hays, Lindsay; Bell, Jeremiah; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2014-11-01

    The performance of 3 analyte-specific reagents (ASRs), Elitech Biosciences, EraGen Biosciences, and Focus Diagnostic, was evaluated for detection of Bordetella pertussis (BP) and Bordetella parapertussis (BPP) in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. A total of 104 frozen, leftover clinical specimens obtained from pediatric patients during 2011-2012 were included in this study. Performance was compared to the Bordetella real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory-developed test (LDT). The positive percent agreement for detection of BP by Elitech was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.14-99.30); EraGen and Focus was 98% (95% CI: 87.99-99.89) in comparison to LDT PCR assay. The negative percent agreement of Elitech, EraGen, and Focus in comparison to LDT was 96% (95% CI: 85.14-99.30), 92% (95% CI: 79.89-97.41), and 96% (95% CI: 85.14-99.30), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) for BP was 0.1 CFU/reaction by both Focus and EraGen and 1.0 CFU/reaction by Elitech. However, LOD for BPP was lower by EraGen (0.1 CFU/reaction) compared to Focus (1.0 CFU/reaction) and Elitech (1.0 CFU/reaction). These results demonstrate that all 3 ASRs tested are comparable and reliable for routine clinical diagnosis of pertussis and parapertussis. PMID:25239539

  19. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Noor-Khairul; Zam, Zarifah; Mdnoor, Siti-Suraya; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis. PMID:22606491

  20. Response of the ruminant respiratory tract to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M R; Brogden, K A

    2000-07-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of loss to the sheep and cattle industry throughout the world. Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of domestic ruminants and causes serious outbreaks of acute pneumonia in neonatal, weaned and growing lambs, calves, and goats. M. haemolytica is also an important cause of pneumonia in adult animals. Transportation, viral infections with agents such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus or bovine respiratory syncytial virus, overcrowding, housing of neonates and weaned animals together and other stressful conditions predispose animals to M. haemolytica infection [1, 2]. This review assimilates some of the findings key to cellular and molecular responses of the lung from a pathologist's perspective. It includes some of what is known and underscores areas that are not fully understood. PMID:10967288

  1. Pasteurella pestis detection in fleas by fluorescent antibody staining*

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Bruce W.; Kartman, Leo; Prince, Frank M.

    1966-01-01

    In an effort to develop a method for the rapid field identification of plague-infected fleas, the authors have studied the feasibility of direct fluorescent antibody staining of the midgut contents of fleas fed on mice infected with Pasteurella pestis. Fluorescent antibodies prepared from antisera derived from rabbits inoculated with the water-soluble P. pestis fraction 1b antigen, the somatic antigen of heat-killed P. pestis (Bryans strain), and live avirulent (strain A1122) or virulent (Yreka strain) plague vaccines were used used in this study. This direct staining method proved to be impracticable, but encouraging results were obtained by fluorescent antibody staining of broth cultures of macerates of infected fleas after 24-48 hours' incubation. The broth enrichment technique has not yet been evaluated in the field, but it is expected to be of value since it is relatively simple to perform and requires only material that can easily be transported to remote areas. PMID:5328902

  2. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Noor-Khairul; Zam, Zarifah; MdNoor, Siti-Suraya; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis. PMID:22606491

  3. New solid medium for enhanced growth of Pasteurella tularensis.

    PubMed

    GASPAR, A J; TRESSELT, H B; WARD, M K

    1961-10-01

    Gaspar, Andrew J. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Hugh B. Tresselt, and Martha K. Ward. New solid medium for enhanced growth of Pasteurella tularensis. J. Bacteriol. 82:564-569. 1961.-The purpose of this work was to develop a solid medium for more rapid growth of Pasteurella tularensis, especially from small inocula comparable to those generally encountered in clinical materials. AFTER TITRATION OF VARIOUS INGREDIENTS, SEPARATELY AND IN COMBINATION, THE OPTIMAL BASE WAS FOUND TO BE: 2.6% tryptose broth (Difco) with thiamine, 0.5% cysteine-HCl, 0.2% sodium thioglycolate, 1.0% glucose, dissolved by mixing without heat, and adjusted to pH 7.2 +/- 0.03. To this base 1.0% agar (Difco) is added and dissolved by heating in flowing steam for about 5 min prior to autoclaving at 121 C for 20 min. After sterilization and cooling, 5.0% defibrinated rabbit blood is added aseptically. Plates of the completed medium are incubated at 37 C for 24 hr prior to use. Colonies of P. tularensis approximately 1.0 mm in diameter are obtained on this medium after 26 to 29 hr incubation if conditions of high relative humidity (90 to 100% saturation) are maintained.The mechanisms involved in the growth enhancement obtained on this medium are under study. The role of thioglycolate appears to be that of keeping in solution the relatively high concentration of cysteine-HCl required. The specific methods of preparation described, the incubation of plates prior to use, and final incubation under conditions of high humidity all are important for optimal results. This developmental work has employed only pure cultures. Attempts are being made to develop a selective medium, using this new preparation as base, for the direct isolation of P. tularensis from a variety of clinical materials. PMID:13897160

  4. P. MULTOCIDA MEMBRANE PROTEOME ANALYSIS (POSTER PRESENTATION FOR THE AM. SOC. BIOCHEM. & MOL. BIOL. MEETING)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial bacterins for the control of fowl cholera are comprised of P. multocida serotypes A:1, A:3, and A:4, which are the serotypes that are most often associated with outbreaks in poultry flocks. A membrane-associated protein fraction (cross-protective factor, CPF), comprised of 11 major prote...

  5. Bibersteinia trehalosi Inhibits the Growth of Mannheimia haemolytica by a Proximity-Dependent Mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is the only pathogen that consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. Paradoxically, Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi and occasionally Pasteurella multocida have been isola...

  6. Bibersteinia trehalosi inhibits the growth of mannheimia haemolytica by a proximity-dependent mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is the only pathogen that consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. Paradoxically, Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from BHS ...

  7. Serospecific protection of mice against intranasal infection with Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A; Gorringe, A R; Funnell, S G; Fernandez, M

    1989-08-01

    The ability of purified serospecific agglutinogens from Bordetella pertussis to protect mice against intranasal infection has been examined. Immunization with agglutinogen 2 protected mice against infection with 1.2.0 or 1.2.3 serotypes of B. pertussis, whereas immunization with agglutinogen 3 protected mice against infection with all serotypes. More importantly immunization with serospecific agglutinogen resulted in immune selection so that organisms recovered following infection did not express the immunizing antigen. The results are consistent with the suggestions that protection of children with whole cell pertussis vaccine is to some extent serospecific and that agglutinogens should be considered as constituents of acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:2573215

  8. Novel Genetic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Bordetella bronchiseptica Pertactin

    PubMed Central

    Register, Karen B.

    2001-01-01

    The Bordetella bronchiseptica outer membrane protein pertactin is believed to function as an adhesin and is an important protective immunogen. Previous sequence analysis of the pertactin gene identified two regions predicted to encode amino acid repeat motifs. Recent studies have documented DNA sequence heterogeneity in both regions. The present study describes additional variants in these regions, which form the basis for six novel pertactin types. Immunoblotting demonstrated phenotypic heterogeneity in pertactin consistent with the predicted combined sizes of the repeat regions. A revised system for classifying B. bronchiseptica pertactin variants is proposed. PMID:11179374

  9. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, vaccines and cycles of whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Bouchez, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease due to Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis. This highly contagious respiratory disease occurs through epidemic cycles every 3-5 years and vaccination did not change this frequency. Models suggest that the cyclic increase of susceptibles is linked to demographic differences and different vaccine coverage. However, differences in surveillance of the disease as well as adaptation of the agents of the disease to their human hosts and to vaccine pressure might also play an important role. These parameters are discussed in this review. PMID:26242280

  10. Purification and subunit heterogeneity of pili of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S W; Way, A W; Osen, E G

    1986-01-01

    Pili were isolated and purified from Bordetella bronchiseptica. Electron microscopic observations revealed that pili are ubiquitous in this species. The occurrence of pili and flagella appeared to correlate with growth phase and colonial morphology. Pili were about 3 to 4 nm in diameter and morphologically similar to pili isolated from other gram-negative bacteria. Internal core structure was not evident. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified pili showed that up to three different pilus subunit variants could be observed on a single strain, depending on the colonial phase and culture condition. Enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot, however, showed that these subunit variants are serologically related. Mice vaccinated with purified pili were protected against a virulent intraperitoneal challenge of B. bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica pili were also found to be similar to Bordetella pertussis pili in morphology and in the molecular size and antigenic structure of pilus subunits. The intact pili of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis, however, appeared to have weak serological cross-reactivity. Images PMID:2867974

  11. Fimbriae and determination of host species specificity of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, E H; Norman, J M; Hatcher, M D; Bemis, D A

    1993-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, designated CF8 and prepared against fimbrial protein enrichments of Bordetella bronchiseptica 110H, was determined by immunogold electron microscopy to bind to some but not all fimbrial filaments on intact bacterial cells. Comparison of the reactivity of this antibody with that of monoclonal antibody BPF2, which is specific for Bordetella pertussis serotype 2 fimbriae, indicated that CF8 recognizes an epitope similar to that recognized by BPF2. By Western blot (immunoblot), it was determined that monoclonal antibody CF8 does not react with proteins denatured by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethanol and by boiling for 5 min but that it does recognize fimbrial proteins in their native, nondenatured state. This antibody was used to compare fimbriae between strains of B. bronchiseptica isolated from different species. Strains from pigs, dogs, guinea pigs, and four other species were compared by an enzyme immunoassay. Strains isolated from pigs were found to express significantly more CF8-reactive and B. pertussis serotype 2 cross-reactive fimbriae than strains isolated from guinea pigs. Strains from dogs were more variable in reactivity than those from pigs or guinea pigs. The reactivity with antifimbrial monoclonal antibody CF8 did not correlate with enzyme electromorphotype but did correlate with the host species, suggesting a role for fimbriae in the determination of host species specificity of B. bronchiseptica. Images PMID:8102377

  12. Bordetella pertussis, an agent not to forget: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In the past, pertussis affected particularly children under 6 years of age, but recent trends show that there is a shift toward the older age group. The clinical presentation can be atypical in the adolescent age group, and the disease is often misdiagnosed. Case presentation We present a case of an 11-year-old male patient oriented to our unit with anorexia, weight loss and persistent cough with nocturnal paroxysms for 4 weeks. He also reported occasional wheezing and chest tightness. He denied fever, chills, myalgia, sore throat, or rhinorrhea. The patient presented to his primary care physician 1 week prior with the same complaint and was treated with amoxicillin and ebastine. Facing the persistence of the complaints he was oriented to our unit in order to exclude tuberculosis. Further study confirmed Bordetella pertussis infection and he started clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day for 14 days). The patient's symptoms resolved after two weeks. Two of the patient's family members have developed symptoms of Bordetella pertussis infection and were treated after convenient study. Conclusion Cough is one of the most common complaints among children and its causes are multiple. Active immunization and early diagnosis are crucial in the management of pertussis. PMID:19200362

  13. Bordetella bronchiseptica Bvg Phase-Dependent Contribution to Colonization, Transmission, and Immune Responses in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica causes respiratory disease in several animal species, including swine. In pigs, B. bronchiseptica infection can result in bronchopneumonia, as well as make animals susceptible to secondary pathogens, resulting in severe respiratory disease. The mechanisms by which B. bronch...

  14. Pasteurella pestis detection in Fleas by fluorescent antibody staining.

    PubMed

    Hudson, B W; Kartman, L; Prince, F M

    1966-01-01

    In an effort to develop a method for the rapid field identification of plague-infected fleas, the authors have studied the feasibility of direct fluorescent antibody staining of the midgut contents of fleas fed on mice infected with Pasteurella pestis. Fluorescent antibodies prepared from antisera derived from rabbits inoculated with the water-soluble P. pestis fraction 1b antigen, the somatic antigen of heat-killed P. pestis (Bryans strain), and live avirulent (strain A1122) or virulent (Yreka strain) plague vaccines were used used in this study.This direct staining method proved to be impracticable, but encouraging results were obtained by fluorescent antibody staining of broth cultures of macerates of infected fleas after 24-48 hours' incubation.The broth enrichment technique has not yet been evaluated in the field, but it is expected to be of value since it is relatively simple to perform and requires only material that can easily be transported to remote areas. PMID:5328902

  15. Binding of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin to bovine leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J F; Leite, F; Czuprynski, C J

    1997-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen in the bovine respiratory disease complex. This organism produces an exotoxin (referred to as leukotoxin) during logarithmic-phase growth that is a potent leukocyte-modulating agent. At low concentrations, it activates neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes to release inflammatory mediators, while at the same time making these cells destined to undergo apoptotic cell death. At higher concentrations, the toxin causes rapid swelling and loss of cell viability. In this study, we demonstrated that toxin binding can be directly evaluated by flow cytometry with biologically active biotinylated leukotoxin. Leukotoxin binding was blocked by the addition of a neutralizing anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody and was not detected when bovine leukocytes were incubated with culture filtrates from a mutant strain of P. haemolytica that does not produce biologically active leukotoxin. In addition, treatment of bovine leukocytes with protease K eliminated subsequent binding of leukotoxin, suggesting that there is a protein on the leukocyte surface that is either a leukotoxin binding site or is required for stabilization of leukotoxin binding. We did not detect binding of biotinylated leukotoxin to porcine or human leukocytes, which have been reported previously to be resistant to the lytic effects of the leukotoxin. These findings suggest that there may be a specific binding site for P. haemolytica leukotoxin on bovine but not on porcine or human leukocytes and that it might be involved in the activation and lytic activities of the leukotoxin. PMID:9284143

  16. Pasteurella haemolytica bacteriophage: identification, partial characterization, and relationship of temperate bacteriophages from isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, A.B.; Renshaw, H.W.; Sneed, L.W.

    1985-05-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) isolates (n = 15) from the upper respiratory tract of clinically normal cattle, as well as from lung lesions from cases of fatal bovine pasteurellosis, were examined for the presence of bacteriophage after irradiation with UV light. Treatment of all P haemolytica isolates with UV irradiation resulted in lysis of bacteria due to the induction of vegetative development of bacteriophages. The extent of growth inhibition and bacterial lysis in irradiated cultures was UV dose-dependent. Bacterial cultures exposed to UV light for 20 s reached peak culture density between 60 and 70 minutes after irradiation; thereafter, culture density declined rapidly, so that by 120 minutes, it was approximately 60% of the original value. When examined ultrastructurally, lytic cultures from each isolate revealed bacteriophages with an overall length of approximately 200 nm and that appeared to have a head with icosahedral symmetry and a contractile tail. Cell-free filtrate from each noninduced bacterial isolate was inoculated onto the other bacterial isolates in a cross-culture sensitivity assay for the presence of phages lytic for the host bacterial isolates. Zones of lysis (plaques) did not develop when bacterial lawns grown from the different isolates were inoculated with filtrates from the heterologous isolates.

  17. Analysis of separate isolates of Bordetella pertussis repeated DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    McPheat, W L; Hanson, J H; Livey, I; Robertson, J S

    1989-06-01

    Two independent isolates of a Bordetella pertussis repeated DNA unit were sequenced and shown to be an insertion sequence element with five nucleotide differences between the two copies. The sequences were 1053 bp in length with near-perfect terminal inverted repeats of 28 bp, had three open reading frames, and were each flanked by short direct repeats. The two insertion sequences showed considerable homology to two other B. pertussis repeated DNA sequences reported recently: IS481 and a 530 bp repeated DNA unit. The B. pertussis insertion sequence would appear to comprise a group of closely related sequences differing mainly in flanking direct repeats and the terminal inverted repeats. The two isolates reported here, which were from the adenylate cyclase and agglutinogen 2 regions of the genome, were numbered IS48lvl and IS48lv2 respectively. PMID:2559151

  18. Association between Bordetella pertussis agglutinogen 2 and fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Carter, E J; Preston, N W

    1984-08-01

    Fimbriae have been demonstrated on strains of Bordetella pertussis that possess agglutinogen 2 (types 1, 2, 3 and 1, 2), but not on those that lack it (types 1,3 and 1). This correlation between fimbriation and the presence of agglutinogen 2 has been found with fresh isolates from children and with laboratory strains that are virulent for mice. If fimbriae enhance the attachment of bacteria to mucosal cells, these findings offer an explanation for the predominance of serotypes 1,2,3 and 1,2 in non-vaccinated communities. The findings also suggest that agglutinogen 3 is not a fimbrial antigen, and because this is an essential component of fully effective whole-cell vaccine, a subcellular vaccine prepared from fimbriae alone may be inadequate. PMID:6146723

  19. Bordetella bronchiseptica phase variation induced by crystal violet.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, H; Isayama, Y

    1986-01-01

    A method for effective induction of phase variation in Bordetella bronchiseptica by treatment with crystal violet (CV) is presented. When grown in CV-broth, phase I cells dissociated into three serial phases. Appearance of variant cells was observed simultaneously with the beginning of cell multiplication. The maximum effect of CV was obtained at a concentration of 8 micrograms/ml, when the proportion of variants in the population reached 100%. The main factors which affected phase variation were concentration of CV, culture age, and temperature of treatment. The phase variants obtained were phenotypically stable upon serial passages on Bordet-Gengou agar plates. By this treatment, no reversion of phase descendants to former phases was observed. Images PMID:3700613

  20. Infectious Disease Report: Bordetella pertussis Infection in Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Abraham; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Janz, Tyler; Greene, John N

    2016-04-01

    We illustrate 2 cases of pneumonia associated with Bordetella pertussis infection in 72-year-old and 61-year-old patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bacterial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, and those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant, solid organ transplant, or myelosuppressive therapy are at increased risk. The infection was detected and the 2 patients had good outcomes following azithromycin treatment. Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a contagious respiratory illness that has become a public health challenge due to decreased immunity of the pertussis vaccine. Therefore, it is critical to recognize pertussis early in the course of the disease. PMID:27218794

  1. Bordetella petrii infection with long-lasting persistence in human.

    PubMed

    Le Coustumier, Alain; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Cattoir, Vincent; Guillot, Sophie; Guiso, Nicole

    2011-04-01

    We report the repeated isolation of Bordetella petrii in the sputum of a 79-year-old female patient with diffuse bronchiectasis and persistence of the bacterium for >1 year. The patient was first hospitalized due to dyspnea, which developed into severe cough with purulent sputum that yielded B. petrii on culture. After this first episode, the patient was hospitalized an additional 4 times with bronchorrhea symptoms. The isolates collected were analyzed by using biochemical, genotypic, and proteomic tools. Expression of specific proteins was analyzed by using serum samples from the patient. The B. petrii isolates were compared with other B. petrii isolates collected from humans or the environment and with isolates of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica, and B. holmesii, obtained from human respiratory tract infections. Our observations indicate that B. petrii can persist in persons with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease as has been previously demonstrated for B. bronchiseptica. PMID:21470449

  2. Bordetella petrii Infection with Long-lasting Persistence in Human

    PubMed Central

    Le Coustumier, Alain; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Cattoir, Vincent; Guillot, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    We report the repeated isolation of Bordetella petrii in the sputum of a 79-year-old female patient with diffuse bronchiectasis and persistence of the bacterium for >1 year. The patient was first hospitalized due to dyspnea, which developed into severe cough with purulent sputum that yielded B. petrii on culture. After this first episode, the patient was hospitalized an additional 4 times with bronchorrhea symptoms. The isolates collected were analyzed by using biochemical, genotypic, and proteomic tools. Expression of specific proteins was analyzed by using serum samples from the patient. The B. petrii isolates were compared with other B. petrii isolates collected from humans or the environment and with isolates of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica, and B. holmesii, obtained from human respiratory tract infections. Our observations indicate that B. petrii can persist in persons with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease as has been previously demonstrated for B. bronchiseptica. PMID:21470449

  3. Pasteurella species peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Household pets as a risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, Philippe Guillaume; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe; Verrelli, Mauro; Allen, David W; Embil, John M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pasteurella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli that are a part of the normal oropharyngeal flora of numerous domestic animals. They have been recognized as a rare but significant cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). A consensus about management strategies for PD-associated peritonitis caused by Pasteurella species currently does not exist. METHODS: The microbiological database serving the Manitoba Renal Program was searched from 1997 to 2013 for cases of Pasteurella species PD-associated peritonitis, and charts were reviewed. PubMed was searched for case reports and data were abstracted. RESULTS: Seven new local cases and 30 previously reported cases were analyzed. This infection is clinically similar to other forms of PD peritonitis, with household pet exposure appearing to be the strongest risk factor. Cats are the most commonly implicated pet. Direct contact between the pet and the equipment was commonly reported (25 of 37 patients) but was not necessary for infection to develop. The mean duration of treatment was 15 days. Complication rates were low, with only 11% of patients requiring PD catheter removal. There was no mortality reported. CONCLUSION: Pasteurella species are a rare cause of PD-associated peritonitis that can be successfully treated with a two-week course of intraperitoneal antibiotics with a high likelihood of catheter salvage. PMID:25798157

  4. Construction and validation of a first-generation long-oligonulceotide microarray by transcriptional of the Bordetella bronchiseptica Bvg regulon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bordetella bronchiseptica is a bacterial respiratory pathogen that infects a broad range of mammals, causing chronic and often subclinical infections. Gene expression in Bordetella is regulated by a two-component sensory transduction system, BvgAS, which controls the expression of a spec...

  5. In vitro susceptibility of porcine respiratory pathogens to tilmicosin.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, D C; Veenhuizen, M F; Bade, D J; Shryock, T R

    2000-11-01

    Bacterial isolates obtained from swine with various clinical diseases were tested for susceptibility to tilmicosin by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion tests using National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology. The tilmicosin MIC90 was < or =0.125 microg/ml for Erysiopelothrix rhusiopathiae, < or = 1 microg/ml for Haemophilus parasuis isolates, 8 microg/ml for Actinobacillus suis and Pasteurella multocida type A, 16 microg/ml for toxigenic and nontoxigenic P. multocida type D, 64 microg/ml for Bordetella bronchiseptica, and >128 microg/ml for Staphylococcus hyicus and Streptococcus suis. The results of disk diffusion testing matched well with the MIC results for each pathogen. This in vitro survey of tilmicosin activity against various swine isolates suggests that further clinical evaluation of tilmicosin in swine may be warranted for disease associated with E. rhusiopathiae, H. parasuis, and A. suis but not B. bronchiseptica, S. suis, or S. hyicus. PMID:11108454

  6. Surface proteins of Bordetella pertussis: comparison of virulent and avirulent strains and effects of phenotypic modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, S K; Parker, C D

    1986-01-01

    The surface proteins of several Bordetella strains and their modulated derivatives were examined by surface radioiodination, cell fractionation, and Western blotting. A surface protein with a high Mr, missing in a mutant lacking the filamentous hemagglutinin, was identified in virulent Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis cells and was absent in avirulent B. pertussis strains. The electrophoretic profiles of lipopolysaccharide and the 40,000-Mr anion-selective porin were not determinants which correlated with phase variation or phenotypic modulation. At least three envelope proteins (91,000, 32,000, and 30,000 molecular weight) were found only in virulent B. pertussis strains and were absent or diminished in the avirulent phase and most phenotypically modulated strains. Two transposon-induced mutants unable to produce hemolysin, dermonecrotic toxin, pertussis toxin, and filamentous hemagglutinin also lacked these three envelope proteins, confirming that virulence-associated envelope proteins were genetically regulated with other virulence-associated traits. Images PMID:2876957

  7. Purification and characterization of fimbriae isolated from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J M; Cowell, J L; Steven, A C; Carter, P H; McGrath, P P; Manclark, C R

    1985-01-01

    Fimbriae were detached from Bordetella pertussis by mechanical shearing and purified by successive precipitations with ammonium sulfate, phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), and magnesium chloride. In each of these purification steps, the fimbriae aggregated into bundles as seen by electron microscopy. These aggregates could be disaggregated at pH 9.5. By electron microscopy, the purified fimbriae appeared as long filaments with a diameter of 5 nm. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified fimbriae showed a single protein subunit with a molecular weight of 22,000. The purified fimbriae did not have hemagglutinating activity when assayed with several types of erythrocytes, and they were antigenically, chemically, and structurally distinct from the filamentous hemagglutinin of B. pertussis. The purified fimbriae were also identified as serotype 2 agglutinogens, since antibody to the purified fimbriae agglutinated B. pertussis strains serotyped as 1.2.4, 1.2.3, or 1.2.3.6 but did not agglutinate those serotyped as 1.3.6. Images PMID:2859248

  8. Genetic analysis of phase change in Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, A A; Falkow, S

    1984-01-01

    Avirulent-phase derivatives of Bordetella pertussis (those which have simultaneously lost the ability to synthesize several virulence-associated factors) and the genetic mechanism of the phase change were studied. Increased tolerance to erythromycin was shown to be an avirulent-phase marker. By the use of efficiency of plating on erythromycin, the proportion of avirulent-phase (Vir) variants in a virulent-phase (Vir+) population was determined to be between 10(-3) and 10(-6), depending on the strain. We showed that the phase shift is reversible and detected a complete Vir- to Vir+ to Vir- to cycle. In other experiments, hybridization studies with avirulent-phase mutants obtained by Tn5 mutagenesis suggested that a single region located at a unique site in the B. pertussis chromosome controls the phase change. One of the avirulent Tn5 mutants was used as a recipient in a conjugative cross with a virulent-phase donor. All recombinants which had reacquired the virulence-associated factors also lost Tn5, indicating the loss of Tn5 was required to restore the Vir+ phenotype. The Tn5 avirulent-phase mutants behave as if the insertion interrupted the function of a transacting gene product which is required for the expression of the other virulent-phase genes. A model of the molecular basis of the phase regulation is presented. Images PMID:6317569

  9. Immunogenicity of killed Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Smith, I M; Baskerville, A J; Brothwell, E; Oliphant, J

    1982-03-01

    Two intramuscular injections (two weeks apart of graded doses of killed strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica from the pig (OLN 14 or LBF 1) or the dog (D1) had produced in mice circulating agglutinins ranging in mean titre (log2) per group from about 3.3 to 10.2 two weeks later. These levels depended partly on vaccinal strains and dose, and partly on the strain used as agglutinogen. Other such mice were challenged intraperitoneally with about 50 LD50 (approximately or equal to 10(7.4) viable bacteria) of two pig strains, one (293) from a British case of atrophic rhinitis and the other (N) from an American herd. Against challenge vaccinal strain OLN 14 was about 10 and LBF 1 about 100 times more immunogenic than vaccinal strain D1. In a separate experiment mice given intramuscularly amounts of LBF 1 or D1 vaccine estimated as being immunogenically equivalent were challenged intraperitoneally with one or other of seven pig or seven dog strains. On aggregate each vaccine protected to about the same extent against challenge by the pig strains, although LBF 1 vaccine was less effective than D1 vaccine against a strain of Danish origin. Both vaccines also protected more mice against challenge by the dog than the pig strans but LBF 1 vaccine was somewhat less effective than D1 vaccine, especially when challenged by strain D1. PMID:7079606

  10. Environmental regulation of expression of virulence determinants in Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Melton, A R; Weiss, A A

    1989-01-01

    The trans-activator vir is required for expression of all virulence-associated genes in Bordetella pertussis. The nature of the global regulation of these factors by vir and environmental signals was examined by Northern blot analysis and with beta-galactosidase transcriptional fusions in five vir-regulated genes. Northern blots suggested that vir regulates at the level of transcription since Vir- organisms did not exhibit detectable mRNA from vir-regulated loci. Environmental signals such as high levels of salts, nicotinic acid, and 6-chloronicotinic acid or growth at low temperatures were examined. Of all of the cations and anions examined, only SO4 ions eliminated transcription of vir-regulated genes and reduced transcription of vir itself, suggesting that global regulation is obtained by modifying expression of the essential component, vir. Organisms grown on 6-chloronicotinic acid or quinaldic acid did not have detectable transcription from vir-regulated loci. Modulation by nicotinic acid, on the other hand, was strain dependent, acting at the level of transcription in strain 18-323 but not in Tohama I derivatives. Growth at lower temperatures reduced, but did not eliminate, transcription from vir-regulated loci. At 28 degrees C the ratio of pertussis toxin mRNA to recA mRNA (a non-vir-regulated factor) was equivalent to that at 37 degrees C, suggesting that transcription at low temperatures is reduced in a proportional manner and need not involve vir. Images PMID:2478524

  11. Purification and preliminary characterization of agglutinogen 3 from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, J H; Frøholm, L O; Paulsen, B S

    1985-01-01

    One serotype antigen, agglutinogen 3, from Bordetella pertussis, (strain M2, serotype 1.3), has been purified. The purification procedure included acetone drying of cells harvested from shaking cultures. Agglutinogens were extracted in phosphate buffered saline. Crude extract was heat treated at 80 degrees C for 5 min and precipitated by ammonium sulphate between 25 and 60% saturation at 4 degrees C, providing 50% of the total activity and a five-fold purification. Further purification was attempted by gel filtration chromatography using a TSK-G3000 SW column. The ammonium sulphate precipitated fraction was also separated by anion exchange chromatography using a Mono Q HR 5/5 column. The purification work indicated that agglutinogen 3 is associated with several other substances and that this property can lead to purification difficulties. The isolation procedure was monitored by an agglutination-inhibition assay. The peak fraction from the ion exchange chromatography was purified up to 27-fold according to the specific activities (inhibition units per mg protein). The yield was only 1% due to severe loss of activity. In the gel filtration chromatography agglutinogen 3-activity eluted with a maximum activity corresponding to a molecular weight near 450,000. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that agglutinogen 3 might have a subunit molecular weight of 20,800. PMID:2872104

  12. Antibody responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica in vaccinated and infected dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, John; Rhodes, Carrie; Lacoste, Stacey; Krakowka, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) whole cell bacterins have been replaced with acelluar vaccines. We evaluated the response to the acellular Bb vaccines in Bb-seropositive commingled laboratory beagles and client-owned dogs with various lifestyles and vaccination histories. A single parenteral dose of the acellular Bb vaccine resulted in consistent anamnestic IgG, and to a lesser, but notable extent, IgA, Bb-reactive antibody responses in the seropositive beagles. Associated with the increase in antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was an increase in the complement (C)-dependent IgG antibody mediated bactericidal effect on Bb in vitro. Antibody responses in client-owned dogs were more variable and were dependent upon the vaccination history and serological evidence of previous Bb exposure. Antibodies from vaccinated dogs recognized several Bb proteins, notably P68 (pertactin) and P220 (fimbrial hemagglutinin), the response to which has been shown to be disease-sparing in Bp infections. These antibody responses were similar to those in experimentally infected dogs and in dogs that had received a widely used whole cell bacterin. PMID:25183893

  13. Rational medium design for Bordetella pertussis: basic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Thalen, M; van den IJssel, J; Jiskoot, W; Zomer, B; Roholl, P; de Gooijer, C; Beuvery, C; Tramper, J

    1999-10-01

    In current Bordetella pertussis media ammonium accumulates because of an imbalance in the nitrogen:carbon ratio of the substrates used, which is one of the factors limiting cell density in fed-batch cultures. The aim of this study was to map B. pertussis catabolic and anabolic capabilities, in order to design a medium that avoids ammonium accumulation, while substrates are metabolised completely. Besides the known dysfunctional glycolysis, B. pertussis also possessed a partially dysfunctional citric-acid cycle. Although ammonium accumulation was avoided by adding various carbon sources to medium with glutamate, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed excretion of acetate, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxy-butyrate, thereby reducing the biomass yield. Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxy-butyrate were also formed in Verwey, B2 and modified Stainer-Scholte medium. Electron microscopy in combination with NMR showed that cells early on in these cultures contained poly-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) globules, which disappeared later during the culture, coinciding with the appearance of beta-hydroxy-butyrate and/or acetoacetate. No globules nor metabolite excretion was detected when lactate in combination with glutamate were used as substrates. Thus, metabolite excretion and ammonium accumulation were avoided, while the yield of 8.8 g C-mol-1 compared favourably with literature values, averaging 6.5 g C-mol-1. Optimisation of this medium for pertussis toxin production will be reported in a separate article. PMID:10553654

  14. Review of the neutrophil response to Bordetella pertussis infection.

    PubMed

    Eby, Joshua C; Hoffman, Casandra L; Gonyar, Laura A; Hewlett, Erik L

    2015-12-01

    The nature and timing of the neutrophil response to infection with Bordetella pertussis is influenced by multiple virulence factors expressed by the bacterium. After inoculation of the host airway, the recruitment of neutrophils signaled by B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX). Over the next week, the combined activities of PTX, LOS and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) result in production of cytokines that generate an IL-17 response, promoting neutrophil recruitment which peaks at 10-14 days after inoculation in mice. Arriving at the site of infection, neutrophils encounter the powerful local inhibitory activity of ACT, in conjunction with filamentous hemagglutinin. With the help of antibodies, neutrophils contribute to clearance of B. pertussis, but only after 28-35 days in a naïve mouse. Studies of the lasting, antigen-specific IL-17 response to infection in mice and baboons has led to progress in vaccine development and understanding of pathogenesis. Questions remain about the mediators that coordinate neutrophil recruitment and the mechanisms by which neutrophils overcome B. pertussis virulence factors. PMID:26432818

  15. Clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors of Bordetella pertussis infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Bellettini, Camila Vieira; de Oliveira, Andressa Welter; Tusset, Cintia; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Amantéa, Sérgio Luís; Motta, Fabrizio; Gasparotto, Aline; Andreolla, Huander Felipe; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors for Bordetella pertussis infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which analyzed medical records of all patients submitted to a molecular dignosis (qPCR) for B. pertussis from September 2011 to January 2013. Clinical and laboratorial data were reviewed, including information about age, sex, signs/symptoms, length of hospitalization, blood cell counts, imaging findings, coinfection with other respiratory pathogens and clinical outcome. RESULTS: 222 cases were revised. Of these, 72.5% had proven pertussis, and 60.9% were under 1 year old. In patients aging up to six months, independent predictors for B. pertussis infection were (OR 8.0, CI 95% 1.8-36.3; p=0.007) and lymphocyte count >104/µL (OR 10.0, CI 95% 1.8-54.5; p=0.008). No independent predictors of B. pertussis infection could be determined for patients older than six months. Co-infection was found in 21.4% of patients, of which 72.7% were up to six months of age. Adenovirus was the most common agent (40.9%). In these patients, we were not able to identify any clinical features to detect patients presenting with a respiratory co-infection, even though longer hospital stay was observed in patients with co-infections (12 vs. 6 days; p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Cyanosis and lymphocytosis are independent predictors for pertussis in children up to 6 months old. PMID:25510991

  16. Adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica to hamster lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, B J; Bemis, D A

    1984-01-01

    The adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica smooth-, intermediate-, and rough-phase isolates to hamster lung fibroblasts (HLF) (Don line) was characterized by competitive inhibition studies and enzyme and chemical treatments of both the bacteria and the HLF. The adherence of the rough- and intermediate-phase isolates (n = 13) was altered by coincubation of the bacteria and HLF with cationic chelators, including EGTA and citrate. EGTA inhibition of the adherence of the rough- and intermediate-phase isolates could be overcome by the addition of Ca2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, or Sr2+ to the reaction mixture. In addition, citrate released bound bacteria from the HLF. Although the adherence of the smooth-phase isolates (n = 4) was unaltered by cationic chelators, binding was inhibited by N-acetylated amino sugars, with N-acetylglucosamine inhibiting 98% of the adherence of the smooth-phase isolates. Homogenization, protease K, and heat treatment (60 min, 60 degrees C) of the bacteria also resulted in a loss of adherence. It was concluded that B. bronchiseptica can adhere to HLF by at least two mechanisms and that the ligand responsible appears to be a proteinacious, heat labile cell surface component. PMID:6437989

  17. The multifaceted RisA regulon of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Coutte, Loïc; Huot, Ludovic; Antoine, Rudy; Slupek, Stephanie; Merkel, Tod J; Chen, Qing; Stibitz, Scott; Hot, David; Locht, Camille

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis regulates the production of its virulence factors by the BvgA/S system. Phosphorylated BvgA activates the virulence-activated genes (vags) and represses the expression of the virulence-repressed genes (vrgs) via the activation of the bvgR gene. In modulating conditions, with MgSO4, the BvgA/S system is inactive, and the vrgs are expressed. Here, we show that the expression of almost all vrgs depends on RisA, another transcriptional regulator. We also show that some vags are surprisingly no longer modulated by MgSO4 in the risA(-) background. RisA also regulates the expression of other genes, including chemotaxis and flagellar operons, iron-regulated genes, and genes of unknown function, which may or may not be controlled by BvgA/S. We identified RisK as the likely cognate RisA kinase and found that it is important for expression of most, but not all RisA-regulated genes. This was confirmed using the phosphoablative RisAD(60)N and the phosphomimetic RisAD(60)E analogues. Thus the RisA regulon adds a new layer of complexity to B. pertussis virulence gene regulation. PMID:27620673

  18. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase inactivation by the host cell.

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa-Ron, A; Rogel, A; Hanski, E

    1989-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis produces a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) which acts as a toxin capable of penetrating eukaryotic cells and generating high levels of intracellular cyclic AMP. Transfer of target cells into B. pertussis AC-free medium leads to a rapid decay in the intracellular AC activity, implying that the invasive enzyme is unstable in the host cytoplasm. We report here that treatment of human lymphocytes with a glycolysis inhibitor and an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation completely blocked the intracellular inactivation of B. pertussis AC. Lymphocyte lysates inactivated all forms of B. pertussis AC in the presence of exogenous ATP. This inactivation was associated with degradation of an 125I-labelled 200 kDa form of B. pertussis AC. It appears that ATP is required for the proteolytic pathway, but not as an energy source, since non-hydrolysable ATP analogues supported inactivation and complete degradation of the enzyme. The possibility that binding of ATP to B. pertussis AC renders it susceptible to degradation by the host cell protease is discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2554887

  19. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bouchez, Valérie; Hegerle, Nicolas; Strati, Francesco; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN), were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) or pertussis toxin (PT) deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE) cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells. PMID:26389958

  20. Bordetella pertussis modulates human macrophage defense gene expression.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Hugo Alberto; Oviedo, Juan Marcos; Gorgojo, Juan Pablo; Lamberti, Yanina; Rodriguez, Maria Eugenia

    2016-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, still causes outbreaks. We recently found evidence that B. pertussis can survive and even replicate inside human macrophages, indicating that this host cell might serve as a niche for persistence. In this work, we examined the interaction of B. pertussis with a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) that differentiates into macrophages in culture in order to investigate the host cell response to the infection and the mechanisms that promote that intracellular survival. To that end, we investigated the expression profile of a selected number of genes involved in cellular bactericidal activity and the inflammatory response during the early and late phases of infection. The bactericidal and inflammatory response of infected macrophages was progressively downregulated, while the number of THP-1 cells heavily loaded with live bacteria increased over time postinfection. Two of the main toxins of B. pertussis, pertussis toxin (Ptx) and adenylate cyclase (CyaA), were found to be involved in manipulating the host cell response. Therefore, failure to express either toxin proved detrimental to the development of intracellular infections by those bacteria. Taken together, these results support the relevance of host defense gene manipulation to the outcome of the interaction between B. pertussis and macrophages. PMID:27465637

  1. Bordetella pertussis: new concepts in pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetti, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent findings and selected topics of interest in Bordetella pertussis virulence and pathogenesis and treatment of pertussis. It is not intended to cover issues on immune responses to B. pertussis infection or problems with currently used pertussis vaccines. Recent findings Studies on the activities of various B. pertussis virulence factors include the immunomodulatory activities of filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, and adenylate cyclase toxin. Recently emerging B. pertussis strains show evidence of genetic selection for vaccine escape mutants, with changes in vaccine antigen-expressing genes, some of which may have increased the virulence of this pathogen. Severe and fatal pertussis in young infants continues to be a problem, with several studies highlighting predictors of fatality, including the extreme leukocytosis associated with this infection. Treatments for pertussis are extremely limited, though early antibiotic intervention may be beneficial. Neutralizing pertussis toxin activity may be an effective strategy, as well as targeting two host proteins, pendrin and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, as novel potential therapeutic interventions. Summary Pertussis is reemerging as a major public health problem and continued basic research is revealing information on bacterial virulence and disease pathogenesis, as well as potential novel strategies for vaccination and targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26906206

  2. Partial characterization of the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica-like bacteria isolated from swine enteritis.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, R T; Chengappa, M M; Oberst, R D; Staats, J J

    1995-08-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica-like (PHL) strains isolated from diarrheic pigs are known to produce a leukotoxin that is lethal to ruminant leukocytes. In the present study, 12 PHL strains were screened for leukotoxin production using a tetrazolium dye-reduction assay. Sterile culture supernatant from strain 6213A, the maximum leukotoxin producer, was used as the crude leukotoxin for characterization studies. The leukotoxin was inactivated by heat at 60 degrees C and by trypsin, protease, and amylase. Toxicity was retained over a pH range of 3.0-11.0. The leukotoxin was lethal to polymorphoneutrophils (PMNs) of cattle, sheep, goat, and swine. Chromosomal DNA of all 12 PHL strains hybridized with a 3.9 kb Pasteurella haemolytica A1 leukotoxin probe, indicating similarities between the leukotoxin genes of P. haemolytica and PHL strains. PMID:7483245

  3. Differential regulation of type III secretion and virulence genes in Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica by a secreted anti-σ factor

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Umesh; Shokeen, Bhumika; Cheng, Ning; Cho, Yeonjoo; Blum, Charles; Coppola, Giovanni; Miller, Jeff F.

    2016-01-01

    The BvgAS phosphorelay regulates ∼10% of the annotated genomes of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and controls their infectious cycles. The hierarchical organization of the regulatory network allows the integration of contextual signals to control all or specific subsets of BvgAS-regulated genes. Here, we characterize a regulatory node involving a type III secretion system (T3SS)-exported protein, BtrA, and demonstrate its role in determining fundamental differences in T3SS phenotypes among Bordetella species. We show that BtrA binds and antagonizes BtrS, a BvgAS-regulated extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, to couple the secretory activity of the T3SS apparatus to gene expression. In B. bronchiseptica, a remarkable spectrum of expression states can be resolved by manipulating btrA, encompassing over 80 BtrA-activated loci that include genes encoding toxins, adhesins, and other cell surface proteins, and over 200 BtrA-repressed genes that encode T3SS apparatus components, secretion substrates, the BteA effector, and numerous additional factors. In B. pertussis, BtrA retains activity as a BtrS antagonist and exerts tight negative control over T3SS genes. Most importantly, deletion of btrA in B. pertussis revealed T3SS-mediated, BteA-dependent cytotoxicity, which had previously eluded detection. This effect was observed in laboratory strains and in clinical isolates from a recent California pertussis epidemic. We propose that the BtrA-BtrS regulatory node determines subspecies-specific differences in T3SS expression among Bordetella species and that B. pertussis is capable of expressing a full range of T3SS-dependent phenotypes in the presence of appropriate contextual cues. PMID:26884180

  4. Identification of Bordetella bronchseptica in fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common cause of tracheobronchitis and upper respiratory disease in dogs and cats, but it can also lead to fatal pneumonia. Identification of this pathogen is important due the risk of transmission to other animals, availability of vaccines and potential...

  5. Antigenic relationship between serotype-specific agglutinogen and fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, L A; Irons, L I; Dowsett, A B

    1982-09-01

    The widely held view that the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) of Bordetella pertussis is derived from fimbriae (pili) is not supported by studies of fimbriation and FHA content of the organism. Fimbriae do not label specifically with antibody to FHA in immuno-electron microscopy but do label with antibody to serotype-specific agglutinogen. PMID:6127315

  6. [Conversion of Bordetella parapertussis serovar through lysogeny produced by pertussis phages].

    PubMed

    Mebel, S; Lapaeva, I

    1982-09-01

    Bacteriophages from Bordetella pertussis were titrated on the indicator strain B. parapertussis 17903 by using standard soft agar techniques. Secondary growth, occasionally observed in some phage plaques, was isolated and transferred onto selective media. Judging from growth on these special media and microscopic examination the isolated clones consisted entirely of Bordetellae. Determination of the agglutinogen pattern of 160 of these clones revealed that 88% contained agglutinogen 1; 87.5% agglutinogen 14, and 80.1% agglutinogen 12 (Table 3). However, none of the strains expressed the agglutinogen pattern of either the phage donor or the recipient strain. The isolated clones were lysogenic as demonstrated by phage production and immunity against superinfection (95% of the clones).--Absorption of the monospecific antisera with whole cells from lysogenic strains resulted in a drastic decrease or even complete loss of specific antibodies towards those antigens identified by slide agglutination reactions (Table 4). Cross absorption experiments with antisera against B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and strain 73 1/7 and various strains of the genus Bordetella and with a number of lysogenic strains showing various agglutination patterns allowed the conclusion that the latter ones were serologically related to B. pertussis. The lysogenic strains completely absorbed antibodies against B. bronchiseptica, and those strains that carried the agglutinogen 14 also absorbed antibodies against, B. parapertussis (Table 5). In conclusion, these results support the necessity to revise the subdivision of the genus Bordetella into three species. A change of B. parapertussis to B. pertussis within the epidemiological processes is considered. PMID:7180238

  7. Bordetella bronchiseptica in a paediatric cystic fibrosis patient: possible transmission from a household cat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from the sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient recently exposed to a kitten with an acute respiratory disease. Genetic characterization of the isolate and comparison with other isolates of human or feline origin strongly implicate the kitten as the source of infe...

  8. The characterisation of Bordetella/Alcaligenes-like organisms and their effects on turkey poults and chicks.

    PubMed

    Varley, J

    1986-01-01

    Eight isolates of the Bordetella or Alcaligenes-like organisms associated with turkey rhino-tracheitis were examined. Five of these isolates had been recovered from the United Kingdom and three were foreign isolates. Four of the UK isolates came from flocks with mild respiratory disease. The fifth isolate came from birds with no respiratory signs and this appears to be the first report of the recovery of Bordetella/Alcaligenes from apparently normal turkeys. The field isolates and type strains Alcaligenes faecalis NCTC 415 and Bordetella bronchiseptica NCTC 452 were characterised by biochemical tests, but these did not include any electrophoresis or nucleic acid studies. Cluster analysis using the group average method and the similarly coefficient of Sokal and Sneath indicated that all the strains were distinct from Alcaligenes faecalis but were quite closely related to Bordetella bronchiseptica. Each field isolate was used to infect separate groups of day-old turkey poults and chicks, and each group contained birds which were experimentally infected and others which were in-contact. Observations were made over a 32-day period. In turkey poults, some of the isolates induced severe respiratory disease and mortality, and others very little or none. The UK isolates were less pathogenic than the foreign isolates. It was not possible to correlate the pathogenicity of the isolates for turkey poults with their biochemical characteristics. Chicks infected with two of the eight isolates showed slight respiratory signs, but there was no significant mortality. PMID:18766500

  9. Draft genome sequences of six Bordetella hinzii isolates acquired from Avian and Mammalian hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella hinzii is a Gram-negative bacterium known to infect poultry, humans, rabbits and rodents. It is an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans and some strains cause mild to moderate respiratory disease in turkeys. Little is known as to the degree of genetic diversity within the ...

  10. Contribution of Bordetella bronchiseptica Filamentous Hemagglutinin and Pertactin to Respiratory Disease in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease in pigs is the most important health concern for swine producers today. Bordetella bronchiseptica is widely prevalent in swine populations and has multiple roles in respiratory disease. It is the primary etiologic agent of atrophic rhinitis, bronchopneumonia in young pigs, and ha...

  11. Complete Genome Sequences of 11 Bordetella pertussis Strains Representing the Pandemic ptxP3 Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Marieke J.; van der Heide, Han G. J.; Zeddeman, Anne; Heuvelman, Kees; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen adaptation has contributed to the resurgence of pertussis. To facilitate our understanding of this adaptation we report here 11 completely closed and annotated Bordetella pertussis genomes representing the pandemic ptxP3 lineage. Our analyses included six strains which do not produce the vaccine components pertactin and/or filamentous hemagglutinin. PMID:26607899

  12. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. A study examining the effect o...

  13. Contribution of Bordetella bronchiseptica Filamentous Hemagglutinin and Pertactin to Respiratory Disease in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease in pigs is the most important health concern for swine producers today. Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. It is a primary etiologic agent of atrophic rhinitis, bronchopneumonia in young pigs, and has been ...

  14. Novel, host-restricted genotypes of Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with phocine respiratory tract isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a widespread respiratory pathogen in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. During a succession of phocine morbillivirus outbreaks occurring over the past 25 years, it was identified as a frequent secondary invader, often believed to be the cause of death. Prior a...

  15. Comparison of Ribotyping and sequence-based typing for discriminating among isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Our goal was to compare the discriminatory power of PvuII ribotyping and MLST using a single set of diverse Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates and to determine whether subtyping based on repeat region sequences of the pertactin gene (prn) provides additional resolution. Methods and Results: ...

  16. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. The effect of coinfection of S...

  17. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  18. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2 respectively). When 18 additional B. b...

  19. Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with pulmonary disease in mountain voles (Microtus montanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Duncan, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from the lungs of all of six mountain voles (Microtus montanus) found dead or dying of pulmonary infection near the Bear River Research Station in northern Utah in January, 1973. The possibility of concomitant viral or mycoplasmal infection was not ruled out.

  20. The Bordetella Bfe System: Growth and Transcriptional Response to Siderophores, Catechols, and Neuroendocrine Catecholamines

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark T.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2006-01-01

    Ferric enterobactin utilization by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis requires the BfeA outer membrane receptor. Under iron-depleted growth conditions, transcription of bfeA is activated by the BfeR regulator by a mechanism requiring the siderophore enterobactin. In this study, enterobactin-inducible bfeA transcription was shown to be TonB independent. To determine whether other siderophores or nonsiderophore catechols could be utilized by the Bfe system, various compounds were tested for the abilities to promote the growth of iron-starved B. bronchiseptica and induce bfeA transcription. The BfeA receptor transported ferric salmochelin, corynebactin, and the synthetic siderophores TRENCAM and MECAM. Salmochelin and MECAM induced bfeA transcription in iron-starved Bordetella cells, but induction by corynebactin and TRENCAM was minimal. The neuroendocrine catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine exhibited a remarkable capacity to induce transcription of bfeA. Norepinephrine treatment of B. bronchiseptica resulted in BfeR-dependent bfeA transcription, elevated BfeA receptor production, and growth stimulation. Pyrocatechol, carbidopa, and isoproterenol were similarly strong inducers of bfeA transcription, whereas tyramine and 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid demonstrated low inducing activity. The results indicate that the inducer structure requires a catechol group for function and that the ability to induce bfeA transcription does not necessarily correlate with the ability to stimulate bacterial growth. The expanded range of catechol siderophores transported by the BfeA receptor demonstrates the potential versatility of the Bordetella Bfe iron retrieval system. The finding that catecholamine neurotransmitters activate bfeA transcription and promote growth suggests that Bordetella cells can perceive and may benefit from neuroendocrine catecholamines on the respiratory epithelium. PMID:16885441

  1. Bordetella pertussis Acquires Resistance to Complement-Mediated Killing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pishko, Elizabeth J.; Betting, David J.; Hutter, Christina S.; Harvill, Eric T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to initially colonize a host, bacteria must avoid various components of the innate immune system, one of which is complement. The genus Bordetella includes three closely related species that differ in their ability to resist complement-mediated killing. Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica resist killing in naïve serum, a characteristic that may aid in efficient respiratory tract colonization and has been attributed to expression of O antigen. Bordetella pertussis lacks O antigen and is sensitive to naïve serum in vitro, yet it also efficiently colonizes the respiratory tract. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that B. pertussis may have an alternate mechanism to resist complement in vivo. While a number of reports on serum sensitivity of the bordetellae have been published, we show here that serum concentration and growth conditions can greatly alter the observed level of sensitivity to complement and that all but one strain of B. pertussis observed were sensitive to some level of naïve serum in vitro, particularly when there was excess complement. However, B. pertussis rapidly acquires increased resistance in vivo to naïve serum that is specific to the alternative pathway. Resistance is not efficiently acquired by B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica mutants lacking O antigen. This B. pertussis-specific mechanism of complement resistance does not appear to be dependent on either brkA or other genes expressed specifically in the Bvg+ phase. This in vivo acquisition of alternative pathway resistance suggests that there is a novel O antigen-independent method by which B. pertussis evades complement-mediated killing. PMID:12933835

  2. Bordetella pertussis acquires resistance to complement-mediated killing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pishko, Elizabeth J; Betting, David J; Hutter, Christina S; Harvill, Eric T

    2003-09-01

    In order to initially colonize a host, bacteria must avoid various components of the innate immune system, one of which is complement. The genus Bordetella includes three closely related species that differ in their ability to resist complement-mediated killing. Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica resist killing in naïve serum, a characteristic that may aid in efficient respiratory tract colonization and has been attributed to expression of O antigen. Bordetella pertussis lacks O antigen and is sensitive to naïve serum in vitro, yet it also efficiently colonizes the respiratory tract. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that B. pertussis may have an alternate mechanism to resist complement in vivo. While a number of reports on serum sensitivity of the bordetellae have been published, we show here that serum concentration and growth conditions can greatly alter the observed level of sensitivity to complement and that all but one strain of B. pertussis observed were sensitive to some level of naïve serum in vitro, particularly when there was excess complement. However, B. pertussis rapidly acquires increased resistance in vivo to naïve serum that is specific to the alternative pathway. Resistance is not efficiently acquired by B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica mutants lacking O antigen. This B. pertussis-specific mechanism of complement resistance does not appear to be dependent on either brkA or other genes expressed specifically in the Bvg(+) phase. This in vivo acquisition of alternative pathway resistance suggests that there is a novel O antigen-independent method by which B. pertussis evades complement-mediated killing. PMID:12933835

  3. Bordetella pertussis isolates in Finland: Serotype and fimbrial expression

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Eriikka; Xing, Dorothy K; Ölander, Rose-Marie; Hytönen, Jukka; Viljanen, Matti K; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2008-01-01

    Background Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans. It produces several virulence factors, of which the fimbriae are considered adhesins and elicit immune responses in the host. B. pertussis has three distinct serotypes Fim2, Fim3 or Fim2,3. Generally, B. pertussis Fim2 strains predominate in unvaccinated populations, whereas Fim3 strains are often isolated in vaccinated populations. In Finland, pertussis vaccination was introduced in 1952. The whole-cell vaccine contained two strains, 18530 (Fim3) since 1962 and strain 1772 (Fim2,3) added in 1976. After that the vaccine has remained the same until 2005 when the whole-cell vaccine was replaced by the acellular vaccine containing pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin. Our aims were to study serotypes of Finnish B. pertussis isolates from 1974 to 2006 in a population with > 90% vaccination coverage and fimbrial expression of the isolates during infection. Serotyping was done by agglutination and serotype-specific antibody responses were determined by blocking ELISA. Results Altogether, 1,109 isolates were serotyped. Before 1976, serotype distributions of Fim2, Fim3 and Fim2,3 were 67%, 19% and 10%, respectively. From 1976 to 1998, 94% of the isolates were Fim2 serotype. Since 1999, the frequency of Fim3 strains started to increase and reached 83% during a nationwide epidemic in 2003. A significant increase in level of serum IgG antibodies against purified fimbriae was observed between paired sera of 37 patients. The patients infected by Fim3 strains had antibodies which blocked the binding of monoclonal antibodies to Fim3 but not to Fim2. Moreover, about one third of the Fim2 strain infected patients developed antibodies capable of blocking of binding of both anti-Fim2 and Fim3 monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion Despite extensive vaccinations in Finland, B. pertussis Fim2 strains were the most common serotype. Emergence of Fim3 strains started in 1999 and coincided with nationwide

  4. Granulocyte plasma membrane damage by leukotoxic supernatant from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 and protection by immune serum.

    PubMed

    Styrt, B; Walker, R D; White, J C; Dahl, L D; Baker, J C

    1990-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease caused by Pasteurella haemolytica may be partially mediated by a leukotoxin secreted by the microorganism. We examined the effect of leukotoxic Pasteurella supernatants on leakage of the cytosol enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase from bovine granulocytes. Lactate dehydrogenase release (94%) was much higher than arylsulfatase release (38%) over 30 minutes of incubation. The Pasteurella supernatants inhibited superoxide production by stimulated granulocytes at concentrations which also caused substantial cell death as measured by failure to exclude trypan blue. Both toxic effects were prevented by serum from aerosol-immunized calves, and protection appeared to be antibody-specific by comparison with fetal bovine serum or with serum absorbed against intact P. haemolytica. These findings suggest that the leukotoxin may selectively disrupt the granulocyte plasma membrane, and that antibody directed against a surface component of the microorganism is also capable of protecting against the leukotoxin effect. PMID:2306664

  5. 21 CFR 522.955 - Florfenicol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... Haemophilus somnus. For treatment of bovine interdigital phlegmon (foot rot, acute...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis associated with Moraxella bovis. For the treatment of bovine foot...

  7. 21 CFR 522.955 - Florfenicol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... Haemophilus somnus. For treatment of bovine interdigital phlegmon (foot rot, acute...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis associated with Moraxella bovis. For the treatment of bovine foot...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pseudintermedius, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis and skin and soft tissue..., Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus mirabilis,...

  10. 21 CFR 558.618 - Tilmicosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respiratory disease associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. (3) Limitations... licensed veterinarian before reinitiating a further course of therapy with an appropriate...

  11. 21 CFR 558.618 - Tilmicosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respiratory disease associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. (3) Limitations... licensed veterinarian before reinitiating a further course of therapy with an appropriate...

  12. 21 CFR 520.90e - Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. Oral treatment of porcine colibacillosis (Escherichia coli) and salmonellosis (Salmonella... Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. (3) Limitations. For...

  13. 21 CFR 520.90e - Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. Oral treatment of porcine colibacillosis (Escherichia coli) and salmonellosis (Salmonella... Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. (3) Limitations. For...

  14. 21 CFR 522.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., bacterial pneumonia (shipping fever, calf pneumonia, and bovine pneumonia) caused by Aerobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, and Escherichia coli....

  15. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in..., and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; and for the control of SRD associated with A. pleuropneumoniae,...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of.... multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; and for...

  17. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of.... multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; and for...

  18. Purification and immunological characterization of a GroEL-like protein from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, D L; Gould-Kostka, J L; Kessel, M; Arciniega, J L

    1991-01-01

    A GroEL-like protein from Bordetella pertussis was purified. This protein was found to have the tetradecameric subunit structure typical of the GroEL family of proteins and to contain epitopes similar to those of other members of this family, including a human GroEL-like protein. Active immunization of neonatal mice with the B. pertussis GroEL-like protein provided little protection against an aerosol challenge with B. pertussis. Antibodies to this protein were elicited in mice by a standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine but not by an experimental acellular pertussis vaccine. Since the Bordetella GroEL-like protein was found to contain epitopes similar to those on the mammalian analog, the potential exists that vaccination with standard DTP vaccines may induce antibodies which react with the mammalian GroEL analog. Images PMID:2004820

  19. Immunogenicity of specific Bordetella pertussis surface antigens in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Blaskett, A. C.; Cox, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The predominant causative organism of whooping cough in Australia is of a serotype which has normally been associated overseas with unvaccinated communities. Australian DTP vaccines pass the statutory mouse test for Bordetella pertussis potency but this test is now believed to be relatively insensitive to certain factors, especially the major type-specific agglutinogens, which are presumably also important in the human host-parasite relationship. Because endemic B. bronchiseptica infections make some laboratory animals unsatisfactory for testing B. pertussis agglutinin responses, we have developed a test in which young farm sheep were immunized with vaccines. Type-specific agglutinins in their sera were assayed after absorption of non-specific agglutinins by suspensions of selected bordetella strains. Three well-reputed European DTP vaccines and two recent batches of Australian DTP vaccine were tested and compared thus. All evoked significant agglutinin responses to the main agglutinogens. PMID:2897927

  20. Recovery of Bordetella pertussis from PCR-Positive Nasopharyngeal Samples Is Dependent on Bacterial Load

    PubMed Central

    Steinbakk, Martin; Bjørnstad, Martha L.; Moghaddam, Amir; Reinton, Nils; Dahl, Mette L.; Grude, Nils; Sandven, Per

    2012-01-01

    Viable Bordetella pertussis isolates are essential for surveillance purposes. We performed culture of 223 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples. B. pertussis was recovered from 45 (20.2%) of the samples. Growth was associated with a high bacterial load, as determined by PCR. Culture from PCR-positive samples is a feasible approach to recover B. pertussis isolates, and culture can be limited to samples with a high bacterial load. PMID:23035189

  1. Recovery of Bordetella pertussis from PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples is dependent on bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; Steinbakk, Martin; Bjørnstad, Martha L; Moghaddam, Amir; Reinton, Nils; Dahl, Mette L; Grude, Nils; Sandven, Per

    2012-12-01

    Viable Bordetella pertussis isolates are essential for surveillance purposes. We performed culture of 223 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples. B. pertussis was recovered from 45 (20.2%) of the samples. Growth was associated with a high bacterial load, as determined by PCR. Culture from PCR-positive samples is a feasible approach to recover B. pertussis isolates, and culture can be limited to samples with a high bacterial load. PMID:23035189

  2. Host Specificity of Ovine Bordetella parapertussis and the Role of Complement

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Sara E.; Goodfield, Laura L.; Park, Jihye; Feaga, Heather A.; Ivanov, Yury V.; Bendor, Liron; Taylor, Dawn L.; Harvill, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    The classical bordetellae are comprised of three subspecies that differ from broad to very limited host specificity. Although several lineages appear to have specialized to particular host species, most retain the ability to colonize and grow in mice, providing a powerful common experimental model to study their differences. One of the subspecies, Bordetella parapertussis, is composed of two distinct clades that have specialized to different hosts: one to humans (Bpphu), and the other to sheep (Bppov). While Bpphu and the other classical bordetellae can efficiently colonize mice, Bppov strains are severely defective in their ability to colonize the murine respiratory tract. Bppov genomic analysis did not reveal the loss of adherence genes, but substantial mutations and deletions of multiple genes involved in the production of O-antigen, which is required to prevent complement deposition on B. bronchiseptica and Bpphu strains. Bppov lacks O-antigen and, like O-antigen mutants of other bordetellae, is highly sensitive to murine complement-mediated killing in vitro. Based on these results, we hypothesized that Bppov failed to colonize mice because of its sensitivity to murine complement. Consistent with this, the Bppov defect in the colonization of wild type mice was not observed in mice lacking the central complement component C3. Furthermore, Bppov strains were highly susceptible to killing by murine complement, but not by sheep complement. These data demonstrate that the failure of Bppov to colonize mice is due to sensitivity to murine, but not sheep, complement, providing a mechanistic example of how specialization that accompanies expansion in one host can limit host range. PMID:26158540

  3. Structure and biological properties of solubilized envelope proteins of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A; Hawkins, D C

    1983-01-01

    The structure and biological properties of solubilized envelope proteins of Bordetella pertussis have been examined. Several envelope proteins were found to be specific for phase I strains of B. pertussis and could be isolated by selective detergent extraction. These proteins had molecular weights of 90,000, 86,000, 81,000, 33,000, 31,000, and 30,000 and were reduced or absent in envelope preparations from Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis, or phase IV strains of B. pertussis. When the envelope preparations from phase I B. pertussis were assayed in the mouse intracerebral protection test they were found to be highly protective, and there was a strong correlation between the protective potency and the lymphocytosis-promoting factor (LPF) content of different preparations. Treatment with glutaraldehyde reduced the LPF activity, toxicity, and protective potency of the envelope extracts. Similarly affinity chromatography of envelope proteins on columns of haptoglobin coupled to Sepharose 4B reduced both the LPF content and the protective potency. The addition of a small amount of purified LPF to the haptoglobin-treated proteins restored the protective potency. The LPF by itself was nonprotective, indicating a potentiating role of LPF in the mouse intracerebral challenge test. Images PMID:6299946

  4. Detection and Differentiation of Bordetella spp. by Real-Time PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Koidl, Christoph; Bozic, Michael; Burmeister, Anja; Hess, Markus; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular detection of Bordetella pertussis DNA is a sensitive and specific method for the rapid diagnosis of pertussis. In this study, a new molecular assay for the detection and differentiation of Bordetella spp. based on automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR was evaluated. The analytical sensitivity of the new assay was determined by Probit analysis of serial dilutions of both cloned PCR products IS481 and IS1001 and cell suspensions of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica. The specificity was analyzed by testing a number of pathogens producing respiratory infections. Moreover, a total of 92 clinical samples were investigated. The results were compared to those obtained by an in-house assay based on manual DNA extraction, followed by real-time PCR and detection of IS481. The analytical sensitivity of the new assay for the detection of IS481 and IS1001 was determined to be 2.2 and 1.2 genome equivalents/μl, respectively. The analytical sensitivity for the detection of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica was determined to be 1.6, 1.0, and 2.7 genome equivalents/μl, respectively. When clinical specimens were tested with the new assay, 46 of 92 were found to be positive for Bordetella DNA. With the in-house assay, 45 samples tested positive. The new molecular assay proved to be suitable for the rapid diagnosis of pertussis in the routine diagnostic laboratory. PMID:17151212

  5. Genomic and Genetic Analysis of Bordetella Bacteriophages Encoding Reverse Transcriptase-Mediated Tropism-Switching Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minghsun; Gingery, Mari; Doulatov, Sergei R.; Liu, Yichin; Hodes, Asher; Baker, Stephen; Davis, Paul; Simmonds, Mark; Churcher, Carol; Mungall, Karen; Quail, Michael A.; Preston, Andrew; Harvill, Eric T.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Eiserling, Frederick A.; Parkhill, Julian; Miller, Jeff F.

    2004-01-01

    Liu et al. recently described a group of related temperate bacteriophages that infect Bordetella subspecies and undergo a unique template-dependent, reverse transcriptase-mediated tropism switching phenomenon (Liu et al., Science 295: 2091-2094, 2002). Tropism switching results from the introduction of single nucleotide substitutions at defined locations in the VR1 (variable region 1) segment of the mtd (major tropism determinant) gene, which determines specificity for receptors on host bacteria. In this report, we describe the complete nucleotide sequences of the 42.5- to 42.7-kb double-stranded DNA genomes of three related phage isolates and characterize two additional regions of variability. Forty-nine coding sequences were identified. Of these coding sequences, bbp36 contained VR2 (variable region 2), which is highly dynamic and consists of a variable number of identical 19-bp repeats separated by one of three 5-bp spacers, and bpm encodes a DNA adenine methylase with unusual site specificity and a homopolymer tract that functions as a hotspot for frameshift mutations. Morphological and sequence analysis suggests that these Bordetella phage are genetic hybrids of P22 and T7 family genomes, lending further support to the idea that regions encoding protein domains, single genes, or blocks of genes are readily exchanged between bacterial and phage genomes. Bordetella bacteriophages are capable of transducing genetic markers in vitro, and by using animal models, we demonstrated that lysogenic conversion can take place in the mouse respiratory tract during infection. PMID:14973019

  6. A Case of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection with Canine-associated Pasteurella canis in a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Preetam R.; Biranthabail, Dhanashree; Rangnekar, Aseem; Shiragavi, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    This is the report of lower respiratory tract infection with Pasteurella canis in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient with history of casual exposure to cats. Pasteurella species are part of the oral and gastrointestinal flora in the canine animals. These organisms are usually implicated in wound infection following animal bites, but can also be associated with a variety of infections including respiratory tract infections. PMID:26435948

  7. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1999-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were studied in vitro. The effect of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs (1/4, 1/2 MIC) on bacterial growth was evaluated. The presence of tilmicosin, tylosin and apramycin in the medium decreased the rate of growth of the bacterial strains tested using drug concentrations as low as 1/4 MIC. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) which is the suppression of optimal bacterial growth that persists after a short exposure (2 h) of microorganisms to an antibiotic was studied by exposure of bacteria to drugs at 1/4, 1/2, 1, 4 and 8 times MIC. The duration of PAEs increased with rising concentration for all drugs tested but at concentrations below the MIC, tilmicosin showed more significant PAEs than tylosin or apramycin against P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae. Tilmicosin and tylosin caused PAEs of up to 8 h when used at 8 times the MIC, while apramycin caused PAEs of up to 5 h when used at this concentration. Sub-MICs of either tilmicosin, tylosin, or apramycin had no effect on P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin production. However sub-MICs of tylosin, or apramycin significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of A. pleuropneumoniae and affected the capsular material production of this isolate and of one isolate of P. multocida (type A). The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied. In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs. PMID:10461841

  8. The airborne survival of Pasteurella haemolytica and its deposition in and clearance from the mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, M I; Wathes, C M; Taylor, F G

    1990-02-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica A1 was aerosolised by a Collison nebuliser in a Henderson apparatus and its survival in air was measured. The organism was fragile in aerosol and survived best at high humidity and warm temperature. Mice were exposed to the aerosol and clearance from the lung measured. Deposition in the mouse lung showed a good linear correlation with bacterial concentration in the spray suspension fluid. Clearance from the lung was rapid over 24 h although some bacteria could be detected 2 and 4 days after exposure. Mice which received a second exposure 2 weeks later exhibited accelerated clearance from the lung whereby no bacteria could be detected after 12 h. This was associated with serum IgG antibody production, and local and splenic lymphocyte responses to bacterial antigen in vitro. PMID:2138372

  9. Molecular characterization of two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains isolated from children with coughs.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, P; Mastrantonio, P; Hausman, S Z; Giuliano, M; Burns, D L

    1997-01-01

    During a surveillance program associated with the Italian clinical trial for the evaluation of new acellular pertussis vaccines, two bacterial isolates were obtained in cultures of samples from immunocompetent infants who had episodes of cough. Both clinical isolates were identified as Bordetella bronchiseptica by biochemical criteria, although both strains agglutinated with antisera specific for Bordetella parapertussis, suggesting that the strains exhibited some characteristics of both B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis. Both children from whom these strains were isolated exhibited an increase in serum antibody titer to pertussis toxin (PT), a protein that is produced by Bordetella pertussis but that is not thought to be produced by B. bronchiseptica. We therefore examined whether the clinical isolates were capable of producing PT. Neither strain produced PT under laboratory conditions, although both strains appeared to contain a portion of the ptx region that encodes the structural subunits of PT. In order to determine whether the ptx genes may encode functional proteins, we inserted an active promoter directly upstream of the ptx region of one of these strains. Biologically active PT was produced, suggesting that this strain contains the genetic information necessary to encode an active PT molecule. Sequence analysis of the ptx promoter region of both strains indicated that, while they shared homology with the B. bronchiseptica ATCC 4617 sequence, they contained certain sequence motifs that are characteristic of B. parapertussis and certain motifs that are characteristic of B. pertussis. Taken together, these findings suggest that variant strains of B. bronchiseptica exist and might be capable of causing significant illness in humans. PMID:9163480

  10. Cloning and immunologic characterization of a truncated Bordetella bronchiseptica filamentous hemagglutinin fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Keil, D J; Burns, E H; Kisker, W R; Bemis, D; Fenwick, B

    1999-12-10

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is an outer-membrane associated adhesin conserved within the genus Bordetella. FHA provides protection against B. pertussis infections in humans and is a component of acellular whooping cough vaccines. Furthermore, FHA serves as a protective antigen in several animal models of infection with B. bronchiseptica and may serve as a protective antigen of canine bordetellosis. In this study, polyclonal anti-B. pertussis FHA antiserum was used to identify an immunoreactive clone from the genomic DNA library of a canine B. bronchiseptica field isolate. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the immunoreactive clone were compared to fhaB and FhaB from B. pertussis revealing 94% identity at the nucleic acid level, and 86% identity at the protein level. A truncated fusion protein (FHAt) was prepared which included a conserved domain homologous to the immunodominant region in the FHA of B. pertussis [Leininger E, Bowen S, Renauld-Mongen G, Rouse JH, Menozzi FD, Locht C, Heron I, Brennan MJ. Immunodominant domain present on the Bordetella pertussis vaccine component filamentous hemagglutinin. J. Infect. Dis. 1997;175:1423-1431; Wilson DR, Siebers A, Finlay BB. Antigenic analysis of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin with phage display libraries and rabbit anti-filamentous hemagglutinin polyclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 1998;66:4884-4894]. FHAt was shown to be safe and antigenic in rabbits. FHAt induced the formation of antibodies that inhibit the hemagglutination associated with full length B. pertussis FHA, and inhibit adherence of B. bronchisepitca to canine fibroblasts by as much as 65%. This information may have implications for the development of safe and efficacious subunit vaccines for the prevention of canine bordetellosis and may contribute to future acellular whooping cough vaccines. PMID:10580199

  11. Molecular analysis of the bvg-repressed urease of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D J; Shojaei, M; Chhatwal, G S; Guzmán, C A; Walker, M J

    1996-11-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a ureolytic mammalian respiratory pathogen. We have investigated the regulation of urease in B. bronchiseptica and the potential role of this enzyme in eukaryotic invasion and intracellular survival. Our results indicate urease is a bordetella virulence repressed gene. Urease activity in virulent B. bronchiseptica BB7865 is up-regulated from basal levels by 5 gl1 magnesium sulphate at 37 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, urease activity remained at basal levels, even in the presence on magnesium sulphate, suggesting a second temperature dependent mechanism of urease regulation was also operating. Urease was not inducible by 10 mM urea nor up-regulated in nitrogen limiting conditions. To evaluate the role of urease in intracellular invasion and survival urease-negative mutants of B. bronchiseptica BB7865 and B. bronchiseptica BB7866 were created by transposon mutagenesis, and compared to the urease-positive parental strains in a HeLa cell invasion assay. We demonstrate that increasing the concentration of urea in the assay increased survival of the urease-positive but not urease-negative strains after 24 h, suggesting that urease does have a role in intracellular survival. Partial DNA sequence analysis of an 11.0 kb EcoRI DNA fragment encoding urease activity revealed an open reading frame containing 50%, 45%, 45%, and 41% homology to the UreA urease subunit protein of Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Helicobacter pylori and Proteus mirabilis respectively. We also show Bordetella pertussis to contain sequences homologous with a DNA probe containing the gene encoding UreA of B. bronchiseptica indicating the possible presence of cryptic urease genes in this species. PMID:8938644

  12. Occurence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in domestic cats with upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Garbal, M; Adaszek, Ł; Łyp, P; Frymus, J; Winiarczyk, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a widespread Gram-negative pathogen occurring in different mammal species. It is known to play a role in the etiology of infectious atrophic rhinitis of swine, canine kennel cough, respiratory syndromes of cats, rabbits and guinea pigs, and sporadic human cases have also been reported. The aim of this article is to present the occurrence of infections caused by these bacteria in domestic cats with respiratory symptoms, as well as to conduct a molecular analysis of the flaA gene B. bronchiseptica for the purpose of ascertaining whether cats become infected with one or more bacteria strains. B. bronchiseptica was isolated from the respiratory system of 16 out of 35 domestic cats with symptoms of respiratory tract infections. Polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of B. bronchiseptica flaA was performed to reveal the possible differences in nucleotide sequences of the flagellin gene. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained during PCR indicated that the isolates of bacteria from our own studies are characterised by 100% homology of the analysed fragment of the flaA gene, which suggests maintenance of a single genotype of these microorganisms in the cat population. Moreover, the bacteria revealed full homology with reference strain B. bronchiseptica ATCC 4617, and 99.4% homology with strain B. parapertussis ATCC 15311. This indicates that the PCR optimised for the Bordetella spp. flaA gene, combined with sequencing of amplicons obtained in PCR, is an effective diagnostic method allowing differentiation of Bordetella spp. type microorganisms. PMID:27487509

  13. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  14. Bacteriological variation among Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates from dogs and other species.

    PubMed Central

    Bemis, D A; Greisen, H A; Appel, M J

    1977-01-01

    Bacteriological properties of 50 isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica were compared. Phase variation, which involved colonial morphology and its associated characters of hemagglutination, hemolysis, acriflavine agglutination; crystal violet staining, flagellation, and fimbriation, occurred among these isolates. Organisms representing the three observed morphotypes did not have different growth rates, nor were any differences in their bacteriological characteristics observed after repeated subculture on agar. There were also variations in antimicrobial drug susceptibility, especially to sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and in nitrate reduction. The relationships among these variable parameters were not apparent. None of the observed variations could be attributed to differences in the species of origin. Images PMID:858784

  15. Respiratory disease associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica in a Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni).

    PubMed

    Hammond, Elizabeth E; Sosa, Daniel; Beckerman, Robert; Aguilar, Roberto F

    2009-06-01

    A 2-yr-old female captive-born Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) presented with respiratory disease. A severe inspiratory dyspnea with nasal congestion was observed with open-mouthed breathing and bilateral mucopurulent nasal exudate. Despite initial treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and anti-inflammatory and supportive care, the dyspnea persisted. The animal was anesthetized for bronchoscopy to obtain a deep tracheal sample. Based on culture of Bordetella bronchiseptica and sensitivity, a combination of systemic enrofloxacin, dexamethasone, and coupage with nebulization of saline, gentamicin, and albuterol as well as supportive care resulted in full recovery after 6 weeks of treatment. PMID:19569489

  16. Bordetella Bronchiseptica in the Immunosuppressed Population – A Case Series and Review

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Abraham T.; Katayama, Mitsuya; Tran, JoAnn; Zadikany, Ronit; Kandula, Manasa; Greene, John

    2014-01-01

    Organisms that are not known to cause serious infection in the immunocompetent population can, in fact, cause devastating illness in immunosuppressed neutropenic populations especially those who are undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and solid organ transplantation or a history of malignancy. One organism of interest isolated from immunosuppressed patients at our institution was Bordetella bronchiseptica. It is known to cause respiratory tract disease in the animal population which includes dogs, cats, and rabbits. This organism rarely causes serious infection in the immunocompetent population. However; in immunosuppressed patients, it can cause serious pulmonary disease. We present three cases of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia in patients with a history of malignancy. PMID:24804004

  17. The potential role of subclinical Bordetella Pertussis colonization in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Keith; Glazer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    It is established that (1) subclinical Bordetella pertussis colonization of the nasopharynx persists in highly vaccinated populations, and (2) B. pertussis toxin is a potent adjuvant that, when co-administered with neural antigens, induces neuropathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the principle animal model of multiple sclerosis. Building on these observations with supporting epidemiologic and biologic evidence, we propose that, contrary to conventional wisdom that subclinical pertussis infections are innocuous to hosts, B. pertussis colonization is an important cause of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26724970

  18. [Integration of plasmids into E. coli K12 chromosomes, caused by a Bordetella transposon].

    PubMed

    Sivov, I G; Beliavskiĭ, O A; karataev, G I

    2000-01-01

    Transposition of Bordetella pertussis transposon in E. coli chromosome has been studied on a model of exclusion of donor multicopy pKK3 plasmid with coumermicin. TnBP3 induced the formation of co-integrates between the plasmid and chromosome. The structure of co-integrate was determined. Facts of exclusion of integrated structure and transposon transposition within integrated plasmid into new sites on a recipient chromosome were detected. Relationship between these processes and activity of bacterial cell recombination system has been determined. PMID:10876766

  19. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Infant and Genetic Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Veterinary Kennel Cough Vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An infant with recurrent episodes of respiratory failure was diagnosed with pertussis based on immunofluorescence testing, but culture revealed macrolide-resistant Bordetella bronchiseptica. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the child was not infected with a kennel cough vaccine strain, although th...

  20. Draft genome sequences of 53 genetically distinct isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica representing 11 terrestrial and aquatic hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a variety of mammalian and avian hosts. Here we report the genome sequences of 53 genetically distinct isolates, acquired from a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic animals. These data will greatly facilitate ongoing efforts to better understand evolution, host...

  1. Novel Multitarget Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Bordetella Species in Clinical Specimens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tatti, Kathleen M.; Sparks, Kansas N.; Boney, Kathryn O.; Tondella, Maria Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A novel multitarget real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the rapid identification of Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. holmesii was developed using multicopy insertion sequences (ISs) in combination with the pertussis toxin subunit S1 (ptxS1) singleplex assay. The RT-PCR targets for the multiplex assay include IS481, commonly found in B. pertussis and B. holmesii; IS1001 of B. parapertussis; and the IS1001-like sequence of B. holmesii. Overall, 402 Bordetella species and 66 non-Bordetella species isolates were tested in the multitarget assay. Cross-reactivity was found only with 5 B. bronchiseptica isolates, which were positive with IS1001 of B. parapertussis. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of the multiplex assay was similar to the LLOD of each target in an individual assay format, which was approximately 1 genomic equivalent per reaction for all targets. A total of 197 human clinical specimens obtained during cough-illness outbreak investigations were used to evaluate the multitarget RT-PCR assay. The multiplex assay results from 87 clinical specimens were compared to the individual RT-PCR assay and culture results. The multitarget assay is useful as a diagnostic tool to confirm B. pertussis infections and to rapidly identify other Bordetella species. In conclusion, the use of this multitarget RT-PCR approach increases specificity, while it decreases the amount of time, reagents, and specimen necessary for RT-PCRs used for accurate diagnosis of pertussis-like illness. PMID:21940464

  2. Comparison of type 2 and type 6 fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis by using agglutinating monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Z M; Brennan, M J; David, J L; Carter, P H; Cowell, J L; Manclark, C R

    1988-12-01

    Two types of fimbriae have been identified on the pathogenic gram-negative organism Bordetella pertussis. Monoclonal antibodies to these fimbriae were produced to better understand the role of fimbriae as serotype-specific agglutinogens and to investigate the antigenic relationship between these fimbriae. Three monoclonal antibodies were identified that specifically agglutinated B. pertussis cells containing the U.S. Reference Factor 2 agglutinogen, and six monoclonal antibodies were produced that agglutinated only those strains containing the U.S. Reference Factor 6 agglutinogen. Indirect immunofluorescence studies and immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that these monoclonal antibodies bind to an outer membrane component on serotype-specific strains of B. pertussis. All of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with native or partially assembled type-specific fimbriae but not with monomeric fimbrial subunits as indicated by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The fimbrial agglutinogens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies were also uniquely reactive with either U.S. Reference Factor 2 or 6 antiserum (Eldering agglutinogen 2 or 6 polyclonal antiserum) in an indirect ELISA. No cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies with the unrelated fimbriae was observed in any of the comparative immunological studies. Some of the monoclonal antibodies agglutinated certain strains of B. bronchiseptica, suggesting that this closely related species can contain antigenically similar fimbriae. These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful for further structural and functional analysis of Bordetella fimbriae and for studies on the role that these antigens play in prevention of infection and disease. PMID:2903125

  3. Comparison of type 2 and type 6 fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis by using agglutinating monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z M; Brennan, M J; David, J L; Carter, P H; Cowell, J L; Manclark, C R

    1988-01-01

    Two types of fimbriae have been identified on the pathogenic gram-negative organism Bordetella pertussis. Monoclonal antibodies to these fimbriae were produced to better understand the role of fimbriae as serotype-specific agglutinogens and to investigate the antigenic relationship between these fimbriae. Three monoclonal antibodies were identified that specifically agglutinated B. pertussis cells containing the U.S. Reference Factor 2 agglutinogen, and six monoclonal antibodies were produced that agglutinated only those strains containing the U.S. Reference Factor 6 agglutinogen. Indirect immunofluorescence studies and immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that these monoclonal antibodies bind to an outer membrane component on serotype-specific strains of B. pertussis. All of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with native or partially assembled type-specific fimbriae but not with monomeric fimbrial subunits as indicated by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The fimbrial agglutinogens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies were also uniquely reactive with either U.S. Reference Factor 2 or 6 antiserum (Eldering agglutinogen 2 or 6 polyclonal antiserum) in an indirect ELISA. No cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies with the unrelated fimbriae was observed in any of the comparative immunological studies. Some of the monoclonal antibodies agglutinated certain strains of B. bronchiseptica, suggesting that this closely related species can contain antigenically similar fimbriae. These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful for further structural and functional analysis of Bordetella fimbriae and for studies on the role that these antigens play in prevention of infection and disease. Images PMID:2903125

  4. Bordetella pertussis infection: pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and the role of protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Kerr, J R; Matthews, R C

    2000-02-01

    Whooping cough is presently one of the ten most common causes of death from infectious disease worldwide. Despite a high vaccine uptake, resurgences of this disease have been observed in several countries. Virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis include agglutinogens, fimbriae, P.69/pertactin, pertussis toxin, filamentous haemagglutinin, adenylate cyclase, tracheal cytotoxin, dermonecrotic toxin, lipopolysaccharide, tracheal colonisation factor, serum resistance factor, and type III secretion. Virulence factor expression is regulated by the bvgAS locus, a two-component signal transduction system. The pathophysiologic sequence consists of attachment (fimbriae, P.69/pertactin, tracheal colonisation factor, pertussis toxin, filamentous haemagglutinin), evasion of host defence (adenylate cyclase, pertussis toxin, serum resistance factor), local effects (tracheal cytotoxin), and systemic effects (pertussis toxin). Bordetella pertussis is transmitted by respiratory droplets and causes disease only in humans. Various diagnostic methods are available, including culture, serological methods, and the polymerase chain reaction. Serotyping of isolates to detect agglutinogens 2 and 3 is useful because serotype 1,2 may be associated with higher mortality, and antibodies to these antigens (agglutinins) may be protective in both animals and humans. Immunisation using whole-cell vaccine is effective but is reactogenic. Acellular vaccines containing one to five components are being used increasingly in various countries. Protective immunity to pertussis correlates with high levels of antibody to each of pertactin, fimbriae, and pertussis toxin; however, doubt remains as to the relationship between agglutinogen 3 and fimbria 3, making results of trials investigating these virulence factors difficult to interpret. PMID:10746492

  5. Direct Detection of Erythromycin-Resistant Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Specimens by PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zengguo; Han, Ruijun; Liu, Ying; Du, Quanli; Liu, Jifeng; Ma, Chaofeng; Li, Hengxin; He, Qiushui; Yan, Yongping

    2015-11-01

    Resistance of Bordetella pertussis to erythromycin has been increasingly reported. We developed an allele-specific PCR method for rapid detection of erythromycin-resistant B. pertussis directly from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. Based on the proven association of erythromycin resistance with the A2047G mutation in the 23S rRNA of B. pertussis, four primers, two of which were designed to be specific for either the wild-type or the mutant allele, were used in two different versions of the allele-specific PCR assay. The methods were verified with results obtained by PCR-based sequencing of 16 recent B. pertussis isolates and 100 NP swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. The detection limits of the two PCR assays ranged from 10 to 100 fg per reaction for both erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant B. pertussis. Two amplified fragments of each PCR, of 286 and 112 bp, respectively, were obtained from a mutant allele of the isolates and/or NP swab samples containing B. pertussis DNAs. For the wild-type allele, only a 286-bp fragment was visible when the allele-specific PCR assay 1 was performed. No amplification was found when a number of non-Bordetella bacterial pathogens and NP swab samples that did not contain the DNAs of B. pertussis were examined. This assay can serve as an alternative for PCR-based sequencing, especially for local laboratories in resource-poor countries. PMID:26224847

  6. The vaccine potential of Bordetella pertussis biofilm-derived membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    de Gouw, Daan; Serra, Diego O; de Jonge, Marien I; Hermans, Peter Wm; Wessels, Hans Jct; Zomer, Aldert; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Mooi, Frits R

    2014-08-01

    Pertussis is an infectious respiratory disease of humans caused by the gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. The use of acellular pertussis vaccines (aPs) which induce immunity of relative short duration and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains are thought to have contributed to the recent resurgence of pertussis in industrialized countries despite high vaccination coverage. Current pertussis vaccines consist of antigens derived from planktonic bacterial cultures. However, recent studies have shown that biofilm formation represents an important aspect of B. pertussis infection, and antigens expressed during this stage may therefore be potential targets for vaccination. Here we provide evidence that vaccination of mice with B. pertussis biofilm-derived membrane proteins protects against infection. Subsequent proteomic analysis of the protein content of biofilm and planktonic cultures yielded 11 proteins which were ≥three-fold more abundant in biofilms, of which Bordetella intermediate protein A (BipA) was the most abundant, surface-exposed protein. As proof of concept, mice were vaccinated with recombinantly produced BipA. Immunization significantly reduced colonization of the lungs and antibodies to BipA were found to efficiently opsonize bacteria. Finally, we confirmed that bipA is expressed during respiratory tract infection of mice, and that anti-BipA antibodies are present in the serum of convalescent whooping cough patients. Together, these data suggest that biofilm proteins and in particular BipA may be of interest for inclusion into future pertussis vaccines. PMID:26038752

  7. A monoclonal antibody-based latex bead agglutination test for the detection of Bordetella avium.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P; Arp, L H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid method to distinguish Bordetella avium from closely related Bordetella avium-like and B. bronchiseptica bacteria. A monoclonal antibody of the IgM isotype was produced in Balb/c mice against live B. avium strain 75. The monoclonal antibody, in the form of ascites fluid, was added to a bovine serum albumin-glycine buffer (pH 8.6) and adsorbed to 3.03-microns-diameter latex beads. Optimum concentrations of antibody, beads, and bacteria were determined. The latex bead conjugate was tested against 40 isolates of B. avium, 24 isolates of B. avium-like bacteria, 17 isolates of B. bronchiseptica, two isolates of Alcaligenes faecalis, and several other common genera. Strong agglutination occurred with all B. avium isolates and the two isolates of A. faecalis. Weak agglutination occurred with Staphylococcus aureus and two isolates of B. bronchiseptica. There was no agglutination with any of the B. avium-like isolates. The latex bead agglutination test may be useful as an aid in the identification of B. avium when used in conjunction with other criteria. PMID:8257369

  8. BipA Is Associated with Preventing Autoagglutination and Promoting Biofilm Formation in Bordetella holmesii

    PubMed Central

    Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Saito, Momoko; Otsuka, Nao; Suzuki, Eri; Watanabe, Mineo; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii causes both invasive and respiratory diseases in humans. Although the number of cases of pertussis-like respiratory illnesses due to B. holmesii infection has increased in the last decade worldwide, little is known about the virulence factors of the organism. Here, we analyzed a B. holmesii isolate that forms large aggregates and precipitates in suspension, and subsequently demonstrated that the autoagglutinating isolate is deficient in Bordetella intermediate protein A (BipA) and that this deletion is caused by a frame-shift mutation in the bipA gene. A BipA-deficient mutant generated by homologous recombination also exhibited the autoagglutination phenotype. Moreover, the BipA mutant adhered poorly to an abiotic surface and failed to form biofilms, as did two other B. holmesii autoagglutinating strains, ATCC 51541 and ATCC 700053, which exhibit transcriptional down-regulation of bipA gene expression, indicating that autoagglutination indirectly inhibits biofilm formation. In a mouse intranasal infection model, the BipA mutant showed significantly lower levels of initial lung colonization than did the parental strain (P < 0.01), suggesting that BipA might be a critical virulence factor in B. holmesii respiratory infection. Together, our findings suggest that BipA production plays an essential role in preventing autoagglutination and indirectly promoting biofilm formation by B. holmesii. PMID:27448237

  9. Cyclic-di-GMP signalling regulates motility and biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Federico; Ha, Dae-Gon; O'Toole, George A.; Hozbor, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The signalling molecule bis-(3′–5′)-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of diverse cellular functions, including motility, biofilm formation, cell cycle progression and virulence, in bacteria. Multiple diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase-domain-containing proteins (GGDEF and EAL/HD-GYP, respectively) modulate the levels of the second messenger c-di-GMP to transmit signals and obtain such specific cellular responses. In the genus Bordetella this c-di-GMP network is poorly studied. In this work, we evaluated the expression of two phenotypes in Bordetella bronchiseptica regulated by c-di-GMP, biofilm formation and motility, under the influence of ectopic expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins with EAL or GGDEF domains that regulates the c-di-GMP level. In agreement with previous reports for other bacteria, we observed that B. bronchiseptica is able to form biofilm and reduce its motility only when GGDEF domain protein is expressed. Moreover we identify a GGDEF domain protein (BB3576) with diguanylate cyclase activity that participates in motility and biofilm regulation in B. bronchiseptica. These results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, the presence of c-di-GMP regulatory signalling in B. bronchiseptica. PMID:23475948

  10. Extracted protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis. I. Preparation and properties of the solubilized surface of components.

    PubMed

    Helting, T B; Blackkolb, F

    1981-04-01

    Bordetella pertussis microorganisms were treated with several extracting agents followed by ultracentrifugation to remove particulate matter. Analysis of the resulting supernatants by SDS gel electrophoresis showed one major component after simple salt extraction, and much more complex, although consistent pattern following detergent treatment. The yield of the solubilized protein in detergent extracts exceeded by far the values recorded for salt extracts. In order to prevent irreversible precipitation of the solubilized proteins upon removal of the denaturing agent, a novel procedure was developed. After extraction with urea-salt, the solubilized material was absorbed on a mineral carrier prior to the separation of the denaturing agent. The resulting absorbed vaccine was highly potent in the mouse-protection test, whereas the toxic reactions, elicited upon injection into experimental animals, were reduced in the comparison to the starting material. This diminished reactogenic potential was accompanied by the partial loss of the leukocytosis-promiting factor, whose activity was greatly diminished by urea-salt at alkaline pH-values. The procedure described may be applied to large-scale processing of Bordetella persussis microorganisms. Clinical trials now in progress should confirm or rebut the thesis that increased tolerability of the product, inferred from animal experiments, is reflected by fewer adverse reactions in humans. In the former case, the detergent extract vaccine may constitute a realistic alternative to conventional whole-cell vaccines against whooping-cough. PMID:6266198

  11. Comparison of Pathogenicity of Various Isolates of Bordetella Bronchiseptica in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Richard F.; Switzer, William P.; Duncan, J. Robert

    1967-01-01

    Eight groups of 12-to 24-hour-old pigs were procured from a respiratory disease-free herd of swine and reared in isolation using a box-rearing procedure. They were inoculated intranasally at 3 days of age with different isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica. It was found at necropsy 4 weeks post-inoculation that 4 isolates of swine origin, an isolate of rabbit origin and an isolate of cat origin caused mild to moderate turbinate atrophy in 22 of 24 pigs. An isolate of rat origin caused mild turbinate atrophy in 1 of 4 pigs and an isolate of dog origin caused no turbinate atrophy. Pneumonia was present in most of the pigs inoculated with the swine, cat and rabbit isolates. Bordetella bronchiseptica was recovered in heavy growth from the nasal and tracheal exudate collected at necropsy from pigs inoculated with the 4 isolates of swine origin and the isolate of cat origin. Fewer organisms were isolated from nasal exudate collected from pigs inoculated with the rat, dog and rabbit isolates. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:4226661

  12. Prevalence of Bordetella infection in a hospital setting in niamey, niger.

    PubMed

    Jusot, Viviane; Aberrane, Said; Alé, Franck; Laouali, Boubou; Moussa, Issa; Alio, Sanda A; Adehossi, Eric; Collard, Jean-Marc; Grais, Rebecca F

    2014-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis still poses an important health threat in developing countries. In Niger, notified pertussis cases are few despite the low diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/pentavalent vaccine coverage. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of B. pertussis in children aged <5 years consulting at a pediatric ward. A 5-month study in 2011 recruited 342 children with respiratory symptoms at the National Hospital of Niamey. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall, 34 (11.2%) of the 305 available nasopharyngeal aspirates tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction were positive for a Bordetella spp., with an estimated prevalence of 8.2 cases per 1000 children aged <5. None was notified to the surveillance network. A single specimen was positive on culture. This study, the first to provide laboratory-confirmed data on pertussis in Niger, highlights the need to sensitize health care personnel to actively notify clinical cases and to integrate laboratory diagnosis in the existing surveillance system. PMID:24531376

  13. Swine infectious agents in Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu tissue samples from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Brombila, Talita; Bersano, Josete Garcia; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Silva, Sheila Oliveira de Souza; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Ogata, Renato Akio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Richtzenhain, Leonardo Jose

    2014-04-01

    Peccaries and pigs, Tayassuidae and Suidae respectively, diverged approximately one million years ago from a common ancestor. Because these families share some pathogens, peccaries can act as reservoirs of infectious pathogens for domestic and wild swine. We evaluated the presence of swine infectious agents in the spleen and lung tissues of white-lipped peccaries (WLP; Tayassu pecari) and collared peccaries (CP; Pecari tajacu) in Brazil. Samples from 10 adult CP and three WLP, which had been hunted by locals or hit by motor vehicles, were obtained from two free-ranging Brazilian populations. The samples were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), and porcine parvovirus (PPV). Positive samples were sequenced. Both species were negative for PPV and B. bronchiseptica and positive for PCV2 and SuHV-1. The lungs of two animals were positive for M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida. This report is the first demonstration of PCV2 and SuHV-1 swine viruses and of M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida bacteria in peccaries. One factor contributing to this detection was access to tissue samples, which is uncommon. The role of these infectious agents in peccaries is unknown and further epidemiologic studies should be performed. This study identified several infectious agents in peccaries and highlighted the importance of the tissue type used to detect pathogens. PMID:24484498

  14. Age-related presence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in paraffin-embedded lung samples of dogs with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wöhrer, Daniela; Spergser, Joachim; Bagrinovschi, Gabriela; Möstl, Karin; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to detect selected pathogens in pneumonic lung tissue of dogs of different age groups by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridisation (ISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to get information about their involvement in pneumonia formation. In archived formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded lung samples from 68 cases with the clinical and histologic diagnosis of pneumonia the histological pattern of pneumonia was re-evaluated and the samples were further investigated for the following infectious agents: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Pasteurella (P.) multocida, Mycoplasma spp., and Pneumocystis spp. In 47.1% of the samples at least one of the featured respiratory pathogens was detected. In 31.3% of these positive samples more than one pathogen could be found. The correct detection of CDV had been achieved in ten out of eleven positive cases (90.9%) upon initial investigation, but the presence of bacterial pathogens, like B. bronchiseptica (10 cases) and P. multocida (17 cases) had been missed in all but one case. While CDV and CRCoV infections were exclusively found in dogs younger than one year, the vast majority of infections with P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica were both common either in dogs younger than 4 months or older than one year. Thus, this retrospective approach yielded valuable data on the presence, absence and prevalence of certain respiratory pathogens in dogs with pneumonia. PMID:26919147

  15. Respiratory Pathogens in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Good, Robert C.; May, Bessie D.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory disease in a dynamic colony of nonhuman primates during a 4-year period was due primarily to infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and Haemophilus influenzae. The principal secondary invaders were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and streptococci. A high fatality rate was associated with infections caused by each of the primary pathogens, and females appeared to be more susceptible than males. Incidence of respiratory disease was greatest in the fall and early winter; however, at all times newly colonized monkeys had a higher infection rate than conditioned monkeys. Infections were occasionally confined only to the lungs and were sometimes present without grossly observable lung lesions. The information given on susceptibility of 10 species of nonhuman primates to respiratory infections provides a basis for developing disease models. PMID:16557951

  16. Septicemic pasteurellosis in farmed elk (Cervus canadensis) in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Pritpal S; Ngeleka, Musangu; Woodbury, Murray R

    2016-09-01

    Septicemic pasteurellosis is a bacterial disease of domestic and wild animals including bison, elk, and pronghorn antelope caused by Pasteurella multocida. Here we report 2 cases of septicemic pasteurellosis in farmed elk. Pasteurella multocida serogroup B was isolated from multiple tissues in both animals. Gene sequencing (16S ribosomal RNA) and BLAST query confirmed that the sequence is 99% to 100% homologous to the P. multocida sequences in the database. PMID:27587888

  17. Exposure of calves to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus and Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, P D; Maxie, M G; Wilkie, B N; Savan, M; Valli, V E; Johnson, J A

    1983-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether sequential exposure to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus followed by Pasteurella haemolytica, or P. haemolytica followed by parainfluenza-3 virus, could lead to the production of pulmonary lesions in conventionally-raised calves. Twenty male calves with low serum antibody titres to both organisms were placed in five equal groups. Synergism of parainfluenza-3 virus and P. haemolytica was not demonstrated in any of the sequentially infected groups and pulmonary lesions were mild in all challenged calves. Clinical signs of disease were not present after exposure to parainfluenza-3 virus although the virus was repeatedly isolated from nasal secretions of all inoculated calves. Exposure to P. haemolytica produced a transient response which consisted of increased rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, with a mild neutrophilic leukocytosis and a mild left shift present six hours postinoculation and returning to normal within 24 hours. Results from this study suggest, although do not confirm, that reduced pulmonary clearance of inhaled P. haemolytica in parainfluenza-3 virus infected calves does not necessarily lead to production of severe pulmonary lesions and that previous exposure to aerosols of P. haemolytica may not enhance secondary parainfluenza-3 virus infection. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:6320999

  18. Canine adenovirus type 1 and Pasteurella pneumotropica co‑infection in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Pintore, Maria Domenica; Corbellini, Debora; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Florio, Caterina Lucia; Varello, Katia; Bozzetta, Elena; Adriano, Daniela; Decaro, Nicola; Casalone, Cristina; Iulini, Barbara

    2016-03-31

    In 2008, a 2 months-old male German shepherd was presented with fever, depression, and evident organic wasting. The puppy died within 48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. A complete necropsy was performed. Bacteriological examination of samples from the brain, lung, liver, spleen, and bone marrow tested positive for Pasteurella pneumotropica. Histopathology demonstrated in ammatory and vascular lesions in the central nervous system and internal organs. Canine adenovirus type 1 nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the frozen brain but not in the formalin- xed, para n-embedded liver and lung samples. The positive PCR was subsequently con rmed by indirect uorescent antibody testing of the para n-embedded brain and liver sections. Although the liver is the primary site of viral damage, these laboratory ndings suggest that Canine adenovirus type 1 infection should be included in the di erential diagnosis of neuropathological diseases in dogs and that adenoviral infections could promote septicaemia caused by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:27033531

  19. Aerosol survival of Pasteurella tularensis and the influence of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Cox, C S; Goldberg, L J

    1972-01-01

    The aerosol survival in air was determined for Pasteurella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) as a function of relative humidity (RH). Three different preparations of bacteria were used: (i) liquid suspension of P. tularensis LVS in spent culture medium; (ii) powders of P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid; (iii) P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid and then reconstituted with distilled water and disseminated as a liquid suspension. Preparation (i) gave greatest survival at high RH and lowest survival at intermediate RH. Preparation (ii), in contrast, gave greatest survival at low RH and minimum survival at 81% RH. Preparation (iii) was the same as preparation (i), i.e., the process of freeze-drying and reconstituting with distilled water before aerosol formation had little or no effect upon aerosol survival as a function of RH. Hence, control of aerosol survival appears to be through the water content of P. tularensis LVS at the moment of aerosol generation rather than the water content of the bacteria in the aerosol phase. PMID:4551041

  20. Characterization of epitopes involved in the neutralization of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 leukotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lainson, F A; Murray, J; Davies, R C; Donachie, W

    1996-09-01

    Defined segments of the leukotoxin A gene (lktA) from an A1 serotype of Pasteurella haemolytica were cloned into a plasmid vector and expressed as LacZ alpha fusion proteins. These fusion proteins were electrophoresed in SDS-PAGE gels and their immunoblotting reactivities with several monoclonal antibodies characterized. The epitope recognized by a strongly neutralizing monoclonal antibody was localized to a 32 amino acid region near the C terminus of the leukotoxin A (LktA) molecule. The epitope recognized by a non-neutralizing antibody was localized to a 33 amino acid region immediately adjacent. Smaller recombinant peptides containing these epitopes were not antigenic, but a polypeptide encompassing 229 amino acids at the C terminus evoked neutralizing antibodies when used to immunize specific-pathogen-free lambs. The distributions of linear epitopes recognized by this antiserum and by antisera raised to full-length recombinant LktA and to native LktA produced by P. haemolytica serotype A1 were determined by their reactivities with a set of overlapping 10 amino acid synthetic peptides. This revealed a complex distribution of linear epitopes at the C-terminal end of LktA. Toxin-neutralizing antibodies in convalescent sheep serum were shown to be directed against conformational epitopes by selective absorption of antibodies directed against linear epitopes. PMID:8828217

  1. Location of the three major agglutinogens of Bordetella pertussis by immuno-electronmicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Preston, N W; Zorgani, A A; Carter, E J

    1990-05-01

    When the three serotypes of Bordetella pertussis (types 1,2,3; 1,2 and 1,3) were labelled with agglutinins and protein-A gold, agglutinogen 1 was found on fimbriae and on the cell surface of types 1,2,3 and 1,2 but on the cell surface only of non-fimbriate type 1,3 organisms. In contrast, agglutinogen 2 was located on fimbriae only. Agglutinogen 3 was not labelled. When protein-A gold was replaced by immunoglobulin-G gold, agglutinogen 3 was found on the cell surface only, even of fimbriate bacteria of type 1,2,3. The implications of these findings for acellular vaccines are discussed. PMID:1971311

  2. Serotype variation in Bordetella pertussis is governed by cis-acting elements.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, D; Coote, J G; Duggleby, C J; Parton, R

    1991-03-01

    Bordetella pertussis contains two genes encoding the serospecific fimbrial subunit proteins 2 and 3 which are assembled into completed fimbriae, which elicit the formation of agglutinating antibodies. Expression of these agglutinogens can vary independently of each other. A gene library from a B. pertussis strain (fimbrial serotype 0.3) was probed with an oligonucleotide probe specific for fimbrial subunit genes. Three homologous genetic loci were identified; an active fim 3 gene, an inactive fim 2 gene and an unknown fim-homologous region. The fim 3 gene carried on a cosmid produced agglutinating fimbrial structures in B. parapertussis and in variants of B. pertussis which had lost the capacity to produce the agglutinogen. This indicated that cis-acting factors are associated with serotype variation in B. pertussis rather than the production of trans-acting repressor molecules. PMID:2040439

  3. Cellular pertussis vaccine containing a Bordetella pertussis strain that produces a nontoxic pertussis toxin molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, I; Pizza, M; Giovannoni, F; Volpini, G; Bartalini, M; Olivieri, R; Rappuoli, R; Nencioni, L

    1992-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis 165-9K/129G, which produces a nontoxic form of pertussis toxin (PT), was used to prepare a whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. The in vivo potency and the serological response induced by this vaccine were comparable to those of the conventional DTP vaccine which contains active PT. The toxic activities induced by PT such as leukocytosis, histamine sensitivity, and potentiation of anaphylactic reactions, which are present in the conventional DTP vaccine, were absent in the new vaccine. These results suggest that the introduction of a whole-cell vaccine containing B. pertussis 165-9K/129G would induce the same immunity as the conventional vaccine and would avoid the administration of a harmful toxin to children. PMID:1541530

  4. Analysis of the chromosomal location of two copies of a Bordetella pertussis insertion sequence.

    PubMed

    McPheat, W L; Hanson, J H; Livey, I; Robertson, J S

    1989-07-01

    IS481v1 and IS481v2 are two copies of a Bordetella pertussis insertion sequence element. We have shown that IS481v1 is located within 3 kbp of the start of the adenylate cyclase gene whilst IS481v2 is immediately adjacent to the end of the agglutinogen 2 gene and provides the stop codon for that gene. In addition, IS481v1 and IS481v2 were present at these two specific sites in nine strains of B. pertussis, including two Phase IV strains which expressed neither adenylate cyclase nor agglutinogen 2 and three Phase I strains which did not express agglutinogen 2. The loss of expression in these strains is not the result of DNA rearrangements at the sites of IS481v1 or IS481v2. PMID:2552259

  5. Immuno-electronmicroscopy of fimbriae-like structures on Bordetella pertussis serotype 1.3.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, J H; Namork, E; Frøholm, L O

    1988-04-01

    Fimbriae-like filaments were demonstrated on the surface of Bordetella pertussis, serotype 1.3, by negative staining and electronmicroscopy. Immunoelectronmicroscopy with a monoclonal antibody specific for strains possessing agglutinogen 3, and colloidal gold, gave strong labelling of these structures. However, incubation with adsorbed polyclonal anti-agglutinogen 3 serum gave only weak labelling of the distal parts of the filaments and of the bacterial surface. The different binding patterns of the two antisera suggested that the epitopes involved were dissimilar. Thus, agglutinogen 3, as defined by conventional adsorbed sera, appeared to be associated with the fimbriae-like structures but was not necessarily identical to the fimbrial subunit protein. The monoclonal antibody, however was more likely directed against the subunits of the fimbriae-like structures on serotype 1.3 bacteria. PMID:2895814

  6. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis V. Separation of Agglutinogen 1 and Mouse-Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Ross, R F; Munoz, J

    1971-02-01

    Agglutinogen 1 of Bordetella pertussis strain 353/Z (serotype 1) was separated from protective antigen and histamine-sensitizing factor by starch-block electrophoresis. Most of the agglutinogen 1 migrated towards the cathode in starch-block electrophoresis, although some remained near the origin. Fractions containing most of the agglutinogen 1 were free of detectable mouse-protecting or histamine-sensitizing activities. Agglutinogen 1 from a serotype 1, 3 B. pertussis strain (J20) migrated similarly to the agglutinogen 1 from strain 353/Z. All agglutinogen 3 activity was found at the point of application in the starch block. No clear relationship was found between agglutinogen 1 and mouse-protecting antigen or histamine-sensitizing factor. PMID:16557960

  7. Efficacy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A J; Paton, J C

    1987-01-01

    We examined the diagnostic efficacy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for class-specific antibodies to Bordetella pertussis in acute-phase sera collected from 1,240 patients with suspected pertussis. A total of 833 serum specimens (67%) yielded positive results. The proportion of positive results increased to 77% if a second (convalescent-phase) serum was also tested. By comparison, a bacterial agglutination test for B. pertussis antibodies was positive in only 21% of acute-phase specimens and 50% of paired specimens. The high proportion of acute-phase sera which were ELISA positive indicates that a measurable serologic response has usually occurred by the time the diagnosis is suspected. Thus, the ELISA is potentially the most rapid means of laboratory confirmation of B. pertussis infection. PMID:2891724

  8. Biological activities of pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis strains of various agglutinogen types.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M

    1984-01-01

    Pertussigen prepared from Bordetella pertussis strains of various agglutinogen types was found to have similar biological activities in mice, and to give precipitin lines of identity in agar diffusion tests. The doses required to induce histamine hypersensitivity ranged from 0.9 to 9.5 ng, and to induce leukocytosis from 124 to 190 ng. When pertussigen was detoxified by treatment with glutaraldehyde, it protected mice from intracerebral challenge with B. pertussis at doses of from 12.7 to 24.4 micrograms. The results showed that all smooth strains of B. pertussis produced pertussigen that was biologically and serologically similar, and that it was produced independently of fimbrial hemagglutinin. PMID:6088952

  9. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis V. Separation of Agglutinogen 1 and Mouse-Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ross, R. F.; Munoz, J.

    1971-01-01

    Agglutinogen 1 of Bordetella pertussis strain 353/Z (serotype 1) was separated from protective antigen and histamine-sensitizing factor by starch-block electrophoresis. Most of the agglutinogen 1 migrated towards the cathode in starch-block electrophoresis, although some remained near the origin. Fractions containing most of the agglutinogen 1 were free of detectable mouse-protecting or histamine-sensitizing activities. Agglutinogen 1 from a serotype 1, 3 B. pertussis strain (J20) migrated similarly to the agglutinogen 1 from strain 353/Z. All agglutinogen 3 activity was found at the point of application in the starch block. No clear relationship was found between agglutinogen 1 and mouse-protecting antigen or histamine-sensitizing factor. Images PMID:16557960

  10. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: nucleotide sequence and crucial role in adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Relman, D A; Domenighini, M; Tuomanen, E; Rappuoli, R; Falkow, S

    1989-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin is a surface-associated adherence protein of Bordetella pertussis, which is a component of some new acellular pertussis vaccines. The nucleotide sequence of an open reading frame that encompasses the filamentous hemagglutinin structural gene, fhaB, suggests that proteolytic processing is necessary to generate the mature 220-kDa filamentous hemagglutinin product. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide is found within filamentous hemagglutinin that may be involved in its adherence properties. An internal in-frame deletion in fhaB, encompassing the RGD region, causes loss of B. pertussis-binding to ciliated eukaryotic cells, confirming a potential role for this protein in host-cell binding and infection. Images PMID:2539596

  11. [Identification of the open reading frame coding transposase of Bordetella pertussis RS-element].

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, V V; Sivov, I G; Umiarov, A M; Siniashina, L N; Bol'shakova, T N; Dobrynina, O Iu; Molchanova, M L; Amelina, I P; Rudnev, I A; Karataev, G I

    2004-01-01

    A computer-aided analysis of the repeating sequence of Bordetella pertussis chromosome (RSBP3) revealed 3 open reading frames, one of whose (ORF1) can code a protein whose structure and properties are similar to those of transposasas, i.e. enzymes in charges for the traveling of migrating genetic elements of pro- and eukaryote. Mutants of the RSBP3 insertion sequence with the affected and unaffected ORF1 sequence were constructed in order to substantiate the above assumption. Two independent experimental models (formation of inter-plasmid co-integrates and of co-integrates between plasmid and E. coli chromosome) were used to show that the RSBP3-stimulated formation of co-integrates is only true for plasmids containing RSBP3 with the unaffected ORF1 sequence. An activity of the Hpr protein (a component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase) was proven to influence the formation process of inter-plasmid co-integrates. PMID:15164716

  12. Effects of inactivated Bordetella pertussis on phosphodiesterase in the lung of ovalbumin sensitized and challenged rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Juan; Song, Shun-De; Chen, Jun-Chun; Wang, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ya-Li; Xie, Qiang-Min; Chen, Ji-Qiang; Li, Zi-Gang; Tang, Hui-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper indicated that inactivated Bordetella pertussis (iBp) can enhance the lung airway hyperreactivity of the rats sensitized and challenged with OVA. The mechanisms were involved in the upregulation of cAMP-PDE activity and PDE4A, PDE4D, and PDE3 gene expression in the lungs. But only PDE4 activity was different between the OVA and OVA+iBp groups, and PDE4D expression was significantly increased in iBp rats alone. So, our data suggested that cosensitization with OVA and iBp affects lung airway reactivity by modulating the lung cAMP-PDE activity and PDE4D gene expression. PMID:25120928

  13. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yuk Joseph; Ho, Pak-Leung; Wong, Kar-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a common veterinary pathogen. In both domestic and wild animals, this bacterium causes respiratory infections including infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Human infections are rare and have been documented in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe an extremely-low-birth-weight infant with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. This is the first report that describes the microorganism's responsibility in causing nosocomial infection in a preterm neonate. He recovered uneventfully after a course of meropenem. It is possible that the bacteria colonize the respiratory tracts of our health care workers or parents who may have had contact with pets and then transmitted the bacterium to our patient. Follow-up until 21 months of age showed normal growth and development. He did not suffer from any significant residual respiratory disease. PMID:23705092

  14. Clinical outbreak of Bordetella avium infection in two turkey breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B J; Ghazikhanian, G Y; Mayeda, B

    1986-01-01

    An acute upper respiratory disease was observed in two broad-breasted white (BBW) turkey primary breeder flocks. Associated clinical signs included sneezing, depression, and a deep dry cough originating from large conducting airways. Morbidity reached approximately 15-20% of the hens in an affected house. None of the turkeys died, and total feed consumption was not affected. A minimal effect upon egg production was noticed. Sera from an acutely affected flock exhibited a marked rise in titer to Bordetella avium compared with preinfection sera samples. In Case 1, B. avium was isolated in pure culture from affected birds. In Case 2, B. avium was diagnosed by serological results and clinical signs; bacteriological examination was not attempted. The findings presented here are consistent with an acute clinical outbreak of B. avium-induced turkey rhinotracheitis (turkey coryza) in BBW turkey breeder hens. PMID:3729868

  15. Mouse and pig models for studies of natural and vaccine-induced immunity to Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kingston H G; Gerdts, Volker

    2014-04-01

    The increasing incidence of whooping cough in many developed countries has been linked with waning immunity induced after immunization with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. The rational design of an improved aP vaccine requires a full understanding of the mechanism of protective immunity and preclinical studies in animal models. Infection of mice and pigs with Bordetella pertussis has many features of the infection seen in humans and has already provided valuable information on the roles of innate and adaptive immune responses in protection. Recent findings in these models have already indicated that it may be possible to develop an improved aP vaccine based on a formulation that includes a Toll-like receptor agonist as an adjuvant. PMID:24626866

  16. Active-site mobility revealed by the crystal structure of arylmalonate decarboxylase from Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Kuettner, E Bartholomeus; Keim, Antje; Kircher, Markus; Rosmus, Susann; Sträter, Norbert

    2008-03-21

    Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) from Bordetella bronchiseptica catalyzes the enantioselective decarboxylation of arylmethylmalonates without the need for an organic cofactor or metal ion. The decarboxylation reaction is of interest for the synthesis of fine chemicals. As basis for an analysis of the catalytic mechanism of AMDase and for a rational enzyme design, we determined the X-ray structure of the enzyme up to 1.9 A resolution. Like the distantly related aspartate or glutamate racemases, AMDase has an aspartate transcarbamoylase fold consisting of two alpha/beta domains related by a pseudo dyad. However, the domain orientation of AMDase differs by about 30 degrees from that of the glutamate racemases, and also significant differences in active-site structures are observed. In the crystals, four independent subunits showing different conformations of active-site loops are present. This finding is likely to reflect the active-site mobility necessary for catalytic activity. PMID:18258259

  17. Stable expression of pertussis toxin in Bordetella bronchiseptica under the control of a tightly regulated promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, A; Staendner, L H; Rohde, M; Piatti, G; Timmis, K N; Guzmán, C A

    1997-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) is an essential component of accellular vaccines against whooping cough. However, the industrial production of PT from Bordetella pertussis is impaired by slow growth and poor yields. To overcome these problems, we have constructed a minitransposon containing the tox operon under the control of a tightly regulated promoter responsive to an aromatic inducer. The expression cassettes have been integrated into the chromosome of Bordetella bronchiseptica 5376 and ATCC 10580 bvg. Five recombinant clones containing the tox operon under the control of the Psal promoter, which is activated by the product of nahR, were further characterized. The recombinant clones expressed PT after only 3 h of induction with sodium salicylate at levels similar to those of B. pertussis grown for 24 h. The stability of the engineered phenotype was 100% after 72 h of growth without selective pressure. The growth pattern was not modified either under noninducing conditions or in the presence of the inducer at low concentrations, suggesting that strain performance would not be affected in bioreactors when uncoupled from gene expression. Recombinant PT, which was localized mainly in the periplasm, was purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was immunologically indistinguishable from wild-type PT and retained its biological activity as determined by the CHO cell-clustering test. These recombinant clones appear to be useful tools for the cost-effective production of PT under conditions of improved biosafety, as demonstrated by the inducible expression of PT uncoupled from the bacterial biomass in a nonvirulent and fast-growing B. bronchiseptica background. PMID:8979346

  18. Outer membrane protein OmpQ of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for mature biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Natalia; Villalba, María Inés; Parisi, Gustavo; Arnal, Laura; Serra, Diego Omar; Aguilar, Mario; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of colonizing the respiratory tract of diverse animals and chronically persists inside the hosts by forming biofilm. Most known virulence factors in Bordetella species are regulated by the BvgAS two-component transduction system. The Bvg-activated proteins play a critical role during host infection. OmpQ is an outer membrane porin protein which is expressed under BvgAS control. Here, we studied the contribution of OmpQ to the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica. We found that the lack of expression of OmpQ did not affect the growth kinetics and final biomass of B. bronchiseptica under planktonic growth conditions. The ΔompQ mutant strain displayed no differences in attachment level and in early steps of biofilm formation. However, deletion of the ompQ gene attenuated the ability of B. bronchiseptica to form a mature biofilm. Analysis of ompQ gene expression during the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica showed a dynamic expression pattern, with an increase of biofilm culture at 48 h. Moreover, we demonstrated that the addition of serum anti-OmpQ had the potential to reduce the biofilm biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we showed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, evidence of the contribution of OmpQ to a process of importance for B. bronchiseptica pathobiology. Our results indicate that OmpQ plays a role during the biofilm development process, particularly at later stages of development, and that this porin could be a potential target for strategies of biofilm formation inhibition. PMID:26673448

  19. Isotype and antigen specificity of pertussis agglutinins following whole-cell pertussis vaccination and infection with Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, C M; O'Brien, C H; Wassilak, S; Deforest, A; Meade, B D

    1994-01-01

    Elevated agglutinin titers have been shown to correlate with protection from disease following whole-cell pertussis vaccination, but the isotype and antigen specificity of human agglutinating antibodies is unknown. In 13 immunoassays, immunoglobulin G antifimbria antibodies had the strongest correlation with agglutinin titers following culture-proven infection with Bordetella pertussis (R' = 0.79; P < 0.0001) and following whole-cell pertussis vaccination (R' = 0.87, P < 0.0001). PMID:7509316

  20. The importance of agglutinin production in mice in the determination of the definitive serotype of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Bronne-Shanbury, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    A schedule for the routine serotyping of strains of Bordetella pertussis based on agglutinin production in mice to the K-antigens has been worked out. Mice have been found as satisfactory as rabbits but far more economical for the production of the very small volumes of serum which are required. Agglutinin production, used in conjunction with direct agglutination, provides definitive information about serotype. PMID:177702

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract infections in dogs and cats across Europe: ComPath results.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ian; Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2016-08-15

    ComPath is a pan-European resistance monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin - 93.9%; 3 isolates confirmed mecA-positive) but only 59.2%, 73.5% and 87.8% susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Bordetella bronchiseptica (48/215, 22.3%), streptococci (36/215, 16.7%), Escherichia coli (24/215, 11.2%) and Pasteurella multocida (23/215, 10.7%) were also found in dog RTI. There are no breakpoints for Bordetella bronchiseptica. Most streptococci were penicillin- chloramphenicol-, ampicillin- and pradofloxacin-susceptible. None were enrofloxacin-resistant but 6 isolates (16.7%) were of intermediate susceptibility. The least active agent against streptococci was tetracycline (47.2% susceptible). For E. coli, 37.5% were ampicillin-susceptible but 83.3% were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-susceptible. Only chloramphenicol showed susceptibility>90% against E. coli, with 66.7% tetracycline-susceptible and 79.2% to 87.5% susceptibility to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pradofloxacin. P. multocida were susceptible to pradofloxacin (no other breakpoints are available). The main pathogen from cats was P. multocida (82/186, 44.1%), where only pradofloxacin has breakpoints (100% susceptible). Streptococci were also collected from cats (25/186, 13.4%) and were >90% susceptible to all antimicrobials except tetracycline (36% susceptible). Most susceptibility was calculated with human-derived breakpoints and some antimicrobials had no breakpoints. Therefore predictions of clinical utility

  2. An occurrence of equine transport pneumonia caused by mixed infection with Pasteurella caballi, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Y; Komae, H; Ide, H; Nakagawa, H; Yoshida, Y; Kamada, M; Kataoka, Y; Nakazawa, M

    1993-06-01

    An acute death occurred in a racehorse with pneumonia after long-distance transportation in December, 1990. Pasteurella caballi, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus were isolated from the lung at high rate. Specific antigens of these bacteria were also demonstrated immunohistologically in the pneumonic lesion. These findings indicated that the disease is equine transport pneumonia caused by a mixed infection of the three bacterial species. This is the first report on the isolation of P. caballi and S. suis from a racehorse in Japan. PMID:8357920

  3. Septic arthritis caused by a gram-negative bacterium representing a new species related to the Bordetella-Alcaligenes complex.

    PubMed

    Kronvall, G; Hanson, H S; von Stedingk, L V; Törnqvist, E; Falsen, E

    2000-03-01

    A knee-joint exudate culture yielded on two occasions a gram-negative bacterium. Regular methods for speciation did not provide an identification. The infection was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The unknown isolate, CCUG 36768, was subjected to further investigation, including 16S rDNA sequencing, protein profiling, cellular fatty acid analysis, and various biochemical tests, in order to produce a species identification. The 1469 bp-long 16S rDNA sequence did not reveal identity with any known species sequence. CCUG 36768 clustered in a group of species, including Alcaligenes defragrans, Denitrobacter permanens, Taylorella equigenitalis, Alcaligenes faecalis, and four strains of Alcaligenes species without a specific species name. Bordetella species also showed a high degree of similarity with CCUG 36768. Protein profiling, cellular fatty acid analysis and computer-assisted analysis of biochemical profiles indicated similarity with Bordetella-Alcaligenes species, often close to B. holmesii and B. avium. API 20 NE indicated the profile of Moraxella species of poor identity. It is concluded that CCUG 36768 represents a new bacterial species of pathogenic potential in humans. It is related to the Bordetella-Alcaligenes group. Powerful new methods for speciation are available and it is recommended that unknown isolates from normally sterile sites be submitted for further analysis. Several isolates are required for the definition of new species. PMID:10752687

  4. Specificity of bovine serum antibody to capsular carbohydrate antigens from Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    McVey, D S; Loan, R W; Purdy, C W; Shuman, W J

    1990-01-01

    A more complete understanding of the bovine immune response to antigens of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 1, will improve control of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Sera were obtained from blood samples of calves as they transited the market system of eastern Tennessee and were transported to a feedlot in Texas. The clinical histories and performance data were recorded and compared with serologic findings. The calves underwent a natural challenge of BRD. Serologic and bacteriologic evaluation indicated that P. haemolytica A1 was a significant component of the challenge. Serum antibody titers against P. haemolytica A1 capsular antigens (in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemolysin-in-gel test) increased by day 15 and continued at high levels through day 56. The animals that remained free of BRD had higher initial serum antibody concentrations than those that succumbed to BRD. The specificity of the immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) anticapsular antibody to P. haemolytica A1 increased from day 8 to day 29 as evidenced by a decrease in P. haemolytica A2 absorption inhibition from 60% (day 8) to 15% (day 29). However, IgA, IgG2, and IgM were more serotype specific on both days 8 and 29. There were no significant changes in anti-P. haemolytica A2 antibody titers. Both in vitro complement-dependent bacteriolysis and C3 deposition on the surface of the bacteria increased significantly (P less than 0.01) in a serotype-specific fashion from day 8 to day 29. These calves showed a humoral immune response to capsular polysaccharide antigens of P. haemolytica A1. Such a response may be an important component of immunity to BRD. PMID:2199487

  5. Alterations in bovine platelet function and acute phase proteins induced by Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheryk, L A; Hooper-McGrevy, K E; Gentry, P A

    1998-01-01

    Platelet function was assessed by aggregometry in 10 Holstein calves before and after exposure to Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) by intrabronchial challenge. At 24 h after exposure the platelets had become more reactive to stimulation with known platelet agonists such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) and the platelet aggregates that formed were more resistant to disaggregation. The activation of platelets was an early response in the challenged calves as platelet function had returned to pretreatment levels 72 h after exposure to the bacteria while the acute phase reactant proteins, haptoglobin and fibrinogen, were approaching their peak values and alpha 2-macroglobulin levels had also risen significantly (P < 0.05) at this time. The plasma levels of these proteins were still elevated and albumin levels were depressed 6 d post-treatment. At post-mortem all calves exhibited pneumonic tissue damage. When P. haemolytica leukotoxin was added directly to bovine platelet suspensions both spontaneous aggregation and an increase in the aggregation response to ADP and PAF stimulation were observed. The morphological appearance of the platelet aggregates exhibited the typical pattern for bovine platelets with 2 distinct zones of cells being visible within each aggregate. One zone contained platelets in which the cytoplasmic granules were still evident and the other zone contained irregularly shaped platelets devoid of granular content. In the latter zone, discrete gaps, or pores, were evident in the plasma membrane of numerous platelets. This pore formation is characteristic of leukotoxin action and is not observed in ADP or PAF induced aggregates. Images Figure 2. PMID:9442932

  6. Induction of inflammatory cytokines in bovine alveolar macrophages following stimulation with Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, H S; Maheswaran, S K; Lin, G; Townsend, E L; Ames, T R

    1995-01-01

    Bovine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) cDNAs were generated by reverse transcription and then by PCR amplification from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated alveolar macrophage RNA. The amplified cDNAs were cloned into pPow and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. The expressed proteins were confirmed as TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis and bioassays. We then used the cloned genes as probes in Northern (RNA) blots and investigated the kinetics of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression in bovine alveolar macrophages stimulated with purified LPS from Pasteurella haemolytica 12296. The effect of LPS on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta gene expression was dose dependent, and induction was observed at a concentration of 0.01 microgram/ml. Both TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression were detectable within 0.5 h after stimulation with 1 microgram of LPS per ml, peaked at 1 to 2 h, steadily declined up to 16 h, and were undetectable by 24 h. Secreted TNF-alpha measured by bioassay peaked at 4 h and accumulated at a lesser concentration in conditioned medium throughout the 24 h. By contrast, secreted IL-1 beta was induced at 8 h and reached a maximal concentration at 24 h after stimulation. The ability of LPS to induce TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta gene expression and secretion of bioactive proteins were suppressed by polymyxin B. Our findings support a role for LPS from P. haemolytica in the induction of inflammatory cytokines in bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. PMID:7822000

  7. Evaluation of Level of Agreement in Bordetella Species Identification in Three U.S. Laboratories during a Period of Increased Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Adria D.; Bowden, Katherine E.; Faulkner, Amanda E.; Seaton, Brent L.; Lembke, Bryndon D.; Cartwright, Charles P.; Martin, Stacey W.; Tondella, M. Lucia

    2015-01-01

    While PCR is the most common method used for detecting Bordetella pertussis in the United States, most laboratories use insertion sequence 481 (IS481), which is not specific for B. pertussis; therefore, the relative contribution of other Bordetella species is not understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proportion of other Bordetella species misidentified as B. pertussis during a period of increased pertussis incidence, determine the level of agreement in Bordetella species detection between U.S. commercial laboratories and the CDC, and assess the relative diagnostic sensitivity of CDC's PCR assay when using a different PCR master mix. Specimens collected between May 2012 and May 2013 were tested at two U.S. commercial laboratories for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis detection. Every fifth specimen positive for IS481 and/or IS1001 with cycle threshold (CT) values of ≤35 was sent to CDC for PCR testing that identifies Bordetella species. Specimens with indeterminate or negative results in the CDC PCR were tested using an alternate PCR master mix. Of 755 specimens, there was agreement in species identification for 83.4% (n = 630). Of the specimens with different identifications (n = 125), 79.2% (n = 99) were identified as indeterminate B. pertussis at CDC. Overall, 0.66% (n = 5) of the specimens were identified as B. holmesii or B. bronchiseptica at CDC. Of 115 specimens with indeterminate or negative results, 46.1% (n = 53) were B. pertussis positive when tested by an alternate master mix, suggesting a possible increase in assay sensitivity. This study demonstrates good agreement between the two U.S. commercial laboratories and CDC and little misidentification of Bordetella species during the 2012 U.S. epidemic. PMID:25809969

  8. Induction of CD18-mediated passage of neutrophils by Pasteurella haemolytica in pulmonary bronchi and bronchioles.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M R; Brogden, K A; Florance, A F; Kehrli, M E

    1999-02-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of cattle that incites extensive infiltrates of neutrophils into the lung. In addition to the parenchymal damage caused by factors released by P. haemolytica, neutrophils contribute to the pathologic changes in the lungs. Molecules which mediate neutrophil infiltration into the lungs during P. haemolytica pneumonia are poorly characterized. To determine whether the CD18 family (beta2-integrin) of leukocyte adhesion molecules mediates initial passage of neutrophils into the pulmonary bronchi and bronchioles of lungs infected with P. haemolytica, three Holstein calves homozygous for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) (CD18-deficient neutrophils), and three age- and breed-matched control calves (normal CD18 expression) were inoculated with P. haemolytica A1 via a fiberoptic bronchoscope and euthanized at 2 h postinoculation. Sections of lung were stained for neutrophils, and the intensity of neutrophilic infiltration was determined by computerized image analysis. Significantly fewer (P < 0.05) neutrophils infiltrated the lumen, epithelium, and adventitia of bronchioles and bronchi in lungs of calves with BLAD compared to normal calves, which had dense infiltrates within these sites at 2 h postinoculation. The reduced infiltration in calves with BLAD occurred despite the presence of an extremely large number of neutrophils in peripheral blood that is typical for these calves. The large number of neutrophils in the blood of calves with BLAD is probably a physiologic response that can occur without microbial colonization, since one calf with BLAD that was raised under germ-free conditions had large numbers of neutrophils in the blood that were similar to those in a calf with BLAD that was raised conventionally. Neutrophil counts in the germ-free and conventionally reared calves with BLAD were much higher than those in the three normal calves raised under germ-free conditions. The work in this study

  9. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 is a receptor for Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin in bovine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, S; Hsuan, S L; Kannan, M S; Walcheck, B; Wang, J F; Kehrli, M E; Lally, E T; Sieck, G C; Maheswaran, S K

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin (Lkt) causes cell type- and species-specific effects in ruminant leukocytes. Recent studies indicate that P. haemolytica Lkt binds to bovine CD18, the common subunit of all beta2 integrins. We designed experiments with the following objectives: to identify which member of the beta2 integrins is a receptor for Lkt; to determine whether Lkt binding to the receptor is target cell (bovine leukocytes) specific; to define the relationships between Lkt binding to the receptor, calcium elevation, and cytolysis; and to determine whether a correlation exists between Lkt receptor expression and the magnitude of target cell cytolysis. We compared Lkt-induced cytolysis in neutrophils from control calves and from calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), because neutrophils from BLAD-homozygous calves exhibit reduced beta2 integrin expression. The results demonstrate for the first time that Lkt binds to bovine CD11a and CD18 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]). The binding was abolished by anti-CD11a or anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Lkt-induced calcium elevation in bovine alveolar macrophages (BAMs) was inhibited by anti-CD11a or anti-CD18 MAb (65 to 94% and 37 to 98%, respectively, at 5 and 50 Lkt units per ml; P < 0.05). Lkt-induced cytolysis in neutrophils and BAMs was also inhibited by anti-CD11a or anti-CD18 MAb in a concentration-dependent manner. Lkt bound to porcine LFA-1 but did not induce calcium elevation or cytolysis. In neutrophils from BLAD calves, Lkt-induced cytolysis was decreased by 44% compared to that of neutrophils from control calves (P < 0.05). These results indicate that LFA-1 is a Lkt receptor, Lkt binding to LFA-1 is not target cell specific, Lkt binding to bovine LFA-1 correlates with calcium elevation and cytolysis, and bovine LFA-1 expression correlates with the magnitude of Lkt-induced target cell cytolysis. PMID:10603370

  10. Construction of Bordetella pertussis strains that overproduce genetically inactivated pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Zealey, G R; Loosmore, S M; Yacoob, R K; Cockle, S A; Herbert, A B; Miller, L D; Mackay, N J; Klein, M H

    1992-01-01

    Nontoxic analogs of pertussis toxin (PT), produced by in vitro mutagenesis of the tox operon, are immunogenic and protective against infection by Bordetella pertussis. The moderate levels of PT production by B. pertussis, however, make it the limiting antigen in the formulation of multicomponent, acellular, recombinant whooping cough vaccines. To increase production of the highly detoxified Lys9Gly129 PT analog by B. pertussis, additional copies of the mutated tox operon were integrated into the bacterial chromosome at the tox or fha locus by unmarked allelic exchange. Recombinant strains produced in this way secreted elevated levels of the PT analog proportional to gene dosage. The strains were stable during 10-liter fermentations, and yields of up to 80 mg of PT analog per liter were obtained under production-scale conditions. The nontoxic analog was purified and shown to be indistinguishable from material obtained from a B. pertussis strain that contained only a single copy of the toxLys9Gly129 operon. Such strains are therefore suitable for large-scale, industrial production of an acellular whooping cough vaccine containing a genetically detoxified PT analog. Images PMID:1539974

  11. Effects of Bordetella pertussis components on IgE and IgG1 responses.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, K

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dermonecrotic toxin (DNT), fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA), K-agglutinogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis on the production of IgE and IgG1 antibodies to hen egg albumin (Ea) was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The IgE antibody contents were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in the skin of Lewis rats, while the IgG1 antibody contents were determined by PCA reactions on the skin of mice using sera that had been heated for 3 hr at 56 C to destroy the IgE antibodies. Among the B. pertussis components tested, pertussigen was the most effective adjuvant for increasing the IgE and IgG1 antibodies to Ea. LPS also moderately increased both types of antibodies, and FHA slightly increased the IgG1 titers. When LPS was given 5 days before Ea, it suppressed both IgE and IgG1 titers while FHA had only slight adjuvant action on both type of antibodies. When each of the components was tested for its ability to modify the adjuvant action of pertussigen, it was found that only DNT interfered significantly with the adjuvanticity of pertussigen when given on the day of immunization with Ea. When the components were given 5 days before Ea, DNT produced significant suppression of only the IgG1 response. LPS, FHA, and K-agglutinogen did not significantly affect the adjuvant action of pertussigen. PMID:6321910

  12. Pertussis antibodies in the sera of children exposed to Bordetella pertussis by vaccination or infection.

    PubMed

    Dolby, J M; Stephens, S

    1973-03-01

    Low agglutinin titres to pertussis suspensions were found in 99% of sera from a group comprising healthy adults and non-vaccinated, non-infected infants of 1-6 months of age. These are attributable to agglutinins to heat-stable antigens and/or heat labile agglutinogen 1, and cross-absorption tests must be done on the sera in order to distinguish between the two. Agglutinins to agglutinogens 2 and 3 were found in only about 20% of adult sera. Bactericidal antibody was low in titre or absent in all sera from non-exposed individuals.Raised bactericidal antibody titres and the presence of agglutinins 2 and 3 were attributed to exposure to Bordetella pertussis antigens, either as vaccine or as infection. The variation, amongst both vaccinated and infected children, was very great. A vaccinated child who became ill responded to the infection in much the same way as a non-vaccinated child. We were unable to relate the immunity of the child to the titres either of agglutinins or of the bactericidal antibody.The protective ability of sera from vaccinated or infected children measured in mice against small, lethal brain infections was also unrelated to the state of immunity in the children, but this protective ability was correlated with the complement-mediated bactericidal antibody titres of the sera.The distribution of agglutinins, bactericidal antibody, and anti-haemagglutinin in serum IgG and IgM was different in vaccinated and infected children. PMID:4348456

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of protective outer membrane protein P.69 from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Charles, I G; Dougan, G; Pickard, D; Chatfield, S; Smith, M; Novotny, P; Morrissey, P; Fairweather, N F

    1989-01-01

    Protein P.69 is localized on the outer membrane of Bordetella pertussis and is one of the virulence factors believed to contribute to the disease state of whooping cough. We demonstrate that protein synthesis of P.69 is under genetic control of the vir locus. Using oligonucleotide probes derived from the protein sequence of a cyanogen bromide fragment, we have cloned the gene for P.69 from B. pertussis CN2992. Analysis of the DNA sequence reveals a G + C-rich gene capable of encoding a protein of 910 amino acids with a Mr of 93,478, suggesting that P.69 is a processed form of a larger precursor. In common with some of the genes in the pertussis toxin operon, the sequence CCTGG was found 5' to the ATG initiation codon. At the 3' end, 29 bases after the TAA stop codon, the sequence GTTTTTCCT was found and may have some function in transcription termination. A full-length clone of the gene for P.69 carried by the cosmid pBPI69 was unable to direct the expression of P.69 protein in an Escherichia coli host. The generation of P.69-fusion products allowed the detection of P.69-specific protein products synthesized in E. coli. Images PMID:2542937

  14. Subcellular localization and immunological detection of proteins encoded by the vir locus of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Stibitz, S; Yang, M S

    1991-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the central regulatory locus vir of Bordetella pertussis predicts that three gene products, BvgA, BvgB, and BvgC, are encoded. Features of the predicted primary structures of these proteins and their homology to other two-component systems suggest that BvgA is located in the cytoplasm, BvgB is located in the periplasm, and BvgC spans the inner membrane. We have used gene fusions to the phoA and lacZ genes of Escherichia coli to investigate the subcellular localization and membrane topology of these proteins. PhoA fusion proteins were also purified and used to raise antibodies that allowed visualization of the vir-encoded polypeptides by Western immunoblotting. Our results have largely confirmed the predictions of the DNA sequence, with the exception that BvgB and BvgC were found to constitute one larger protein that was homologous to the sensor class of two-component systems. We propose that this protein be named BvgS (for sensor) and that its gene be named bvgS. Images PMID:2066330

  15. The specificity of antisera against Bordetella pertussis examined by bacterial agglutination.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, J H; Frøholm, L O; Kjennerud, U

    1987-12-01

    The specificity of conventional, adsorbed antisera against agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3 of Bordetella pertussis was examined by slide agglutination and by agglutination in microtitre wells. Unadsorbed hyperimmune sera showed higher agglutinating activity against autologous or homologous cells than against cells of heterologous serotype. Adsorption of sera with heterologous cells increased the serotype specificity considerably. In spite of extensive adsorption, these anti-agglutinogen sera were still found to cross-react with B. parapertussis and/or B. bronchiseptica strains. Adsorption experiments with B. pertussis hyperimmune sera against serotype 1-, 1.2-, and 1.3-organisms demonstrated that the cross-reacting surface antigens differed from the agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3. Thus, in making species-specific reagents for diagnostic use it may be of value to include adsorption with B. parapertussis and probably with B. bronchiseptica. Limited data indicated that there is no need to use B. avium for adsorption. The agglutination assays were also used to test three monoclonal antibodies stated to be specific for the agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Some anomalous behaviour for the anti-agglutinogen 1 reagent was found, whereas the anti-agglutinogen 2 and 3 reagents corresponded well with the present polyclonal factor sera. PMID:2894108

  16. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the effect of vaccination on the evolution of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yinghua; Liu, Bin; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksila, Kirsi; Tan, Yajun; Feng, Lu; Kallonen, Teemu; Wang, Lichan; Peng, Ding; He, Qiushui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    Herd immunity can potentially induce a change of circulating viruses. However, it remains largely unknown that how bacterial pathogens adapt to vaccination. In this study, Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, was selected as an example to explore possible effect of vaccination on the bacterial pathogen. We sequenced and analysed the complete genomes of 40 B. pertussis strains from Finland and China, as well as 11 previously sequenced strains from the Netherlands, where different vaccination strategies have been used over the past 50 years. The results showed that the molecular clock moved at different rates in these countries and in distinct periods, which suggested that evolution of the B. pertussis population was closely associated with the country vaccination coverage. Comparative whole-genome analyses indicated that evolution in this human-restricted pathogen was mainly characterised by ongoing genetic shift and gene loss. Furthermore, 116 SNPs were specifically detected in currently circulating ptxP3-containing strains. The finding might explain the successful emergence of this lineage and its spread worldwide. Collectively, our results suggest that the immune pressure of vaccination is one major driving force for the evolution of B. pertussis, which facilitates further exploration of the pathogenicity of B. pertussis. PMID:26283022

  17. Identification of two bvg-repressed surface proteins of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Stenson, T H; Peppler, M S

    1995-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, has the ability to modulate its phenotype in response to environmental conditions by using the BvgAS sensory transduction system which is encoded by the vir locus (now known as bvg). The BvgAS system is part of a large family of two-component sensory transduction systems which are common to a number of pathogenic bacteria. Although much is known about the proteins which exist in the B. pertussis virulent (X-mode or phase I) phenotype, relatively little is known about the proteins produced in the avirulent (C-mode or phase III) phenotype. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing techniques to demonstrate the existence of at least 22 vir-repressed molecules which are increased in the avirulent phenotype. In addition, a series of monoclonal antibodies which are specific for the surface of avirulent B. pertussis were developed. Using immunological and protein techniques, we characterized two of these antigens as surface-exposed proteins. One of these antigens is expressed only in B. pertussis but not in the related species B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. The other antigen is also present in B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica but is expressed at lower levels which are not regulated by bvg. The identification and characterization of vir-repressed proteins (and the genes which encode and regulate them) may help elucidate a physiological role for modulation of this obligate human pathogen. PMID:7558280

  18. The location of surface antigens of Bordetella pertussis by immuno-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, L A; Dowsett, A B; Irons, L I; Robinson, A

    1985-01-01

    Immuno-electron microscopy using colloidal gold-tagged monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) has been used to detect antigens on the surface of Bordetella pertussis cells. McAbs to serotype-specific agglutinogens 2 and 3 labelled fimbriae in a serotype-specific manner. An attempt was made to determine whether individual fimbriae of serotype 1.2.3 cells bear both antigens 2 and 3. In double labelling experiments, individual cells were found to label with McAbs to antigen 2 (3 nm gold) and to antigen 3 (15 nm gold). Many fimbriae labelled with only one of these reagents, but there were instances where both labels could have been attached to the same fimbria. No fimbrial labelling was obtained with McAb to agglutinogen 1. Gold-tagged McAbs to filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) labelled neither the fimbriae nor the surface of B. pertussis cells. Unfixed cells on electron microscope grids appeared to shed FHA readily. After fixation, a small proportion of cells bore aggregates of FHA which labelled specifically with anti-FHA McAb-gold. Results with one McAb to lymphocytosis promoting factor indicated that this antigen may be more intimately associated with the surface of B. pertussis than is FHA. PMID:2872100

  19. Purification of serotype 2 fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis and their identification as a mouse protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J M; Cowell, J L; Steven, A C; Manclark, C R

    1985-01-01

    Fimbriae were removed from Bordetella pertussis by mechanical shearing and purified by successive precipitations with ammonium sulfate, pH 6.0 phosphate buffer, and magnesium chloride. Electron microscopy showed the purified fimbriae to be long filamentous structures (5 nm in diameter) which aggregated into bundles at pH 6.0. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the purified fimbriae gave a single protein subunit with a molecular weight of 22,000. The purified fimbriae did not have hemagglutinating activity when assayed with a variety of erythrocytes and were shown to be antigenically and structurally distinct from the filamentous hemagglutinin of B. pertussis. The purified fimbriae were identified as serotype 2 agglutinogens as antibody to the purified fimbriae agglutinated B. pertussis strains serotyped as 1.2.4, 1.2.3, or 1.2.3.6, but did not agglutinate serotypes 1.3.6. Immunization of mice with the purified fimbriae (14 micrograms) protected them from a lethal respiratory infection with strain 18323 (agglutinogen serotype 1.2.3.4.6) or with strain 432 (serotype 1.3.6). Immunization of mice with purified fimbriae containing 0.02% LPF also protected them from a lethal intracerebral infection with 18323. The ED50 was about 13 micrograms. Fimbriae containing less than 0.005% LPF did not protect mice from intracerebral challenge. PMID:2872103

  20. Antibodies to Bordetella pertussis in human colostrum and their protective activity against aerosol infection of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Oda, M; Cowell, J L; Burstyn, D G; Thaib, S; Manclark, C R

    1985-01-01

    Colostrum samples from Indonesian mothers were assayed for antibodies which agglutinate Bordetella pertussis and for antibodies to the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting factor of B. pertussis. Agglutinins were assayed by a microtiter method, and 36 of 58 samples tested (62%) had titers above 1:10 (range, less than 1:10 to 1:160). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected anti-filamentous hemagglutinin in 39 of 60 samples (65%) and anti-lymphocytosis-promoting factor in 26 of 60 samples assayed (43%). A total of 52 samples (87%) were positive for at least one of these antibodies. Pooled colostrum samples were separated by affinity chromatography into fractions enriched secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) or IgG and examined for their ability to passively protect suckling mice from aerosol challenge with B. pertussis. Samples (160 micrograms of protein) were given intraperitoneally 90 min before challenge. Death, rate of gain in body weight, and leukocytosis were used as indicators of illness. Colostrum containing anti-lymphocytosis-promoting factor or agglutinins was protective, whereas colostrum lacking these but containing anti-filamentous hemagglutinin gave little protection. The sIgA-enriched and IgG-enriched fractions appeared to be equal in their ability to protect against respiratory challenge with B. pertussis. PMID:2857154

  1. Invasion of HeLa 229 cells by virulent Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Ewanowich, C A; Melton, A R; Weiss, A A; Sherburne, R K; Peppler, M S

    1989-01-01

    Phase-dependent invasive behavior of Bordetella pertussis was demonstrated by recovery of viable organisms from gentamicin-treated HeLa cell monolayers and by transmission electron microscopy. Several mutants of B. pertussis with Tn5 or Tn5 lac inserted into various vir-regulated genes were evaluated for differences in their invasive abilities. Mutants lacking filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin, and two as yet uncharacterized vir-regulated products had levels of invasion significantly lower than that of the parent strain BP338. In contrast, invasion by mutants lacking adenylate cyclase toxin was significantly increased compared with that of wild-type B. pertussis. This increase in invasion was eliminated when concentrations of intracellular cyclic 3'-5' AMP were stimulated by treating HeLa cells with cholera toxin or forskolin. Entry of B. pertussis occurred through a microfilament-dependent phagocytic process, as evidenced by the marked reduction in uptake following treatment of HeLa cells with cytochalasin D. Invasion was inhibited with polyclonal anti-B. pertussis and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin antisera. In addition, a monoclonal antibody against lipooligosaccharide A reduced uptake by 65.5%. The preservation of HeLa cell integrity and the limited replication of intracellular bacteria suggest that invasion may represent a means by which B. pertussis evades an active host immune response. Images PMID:2547718

  2. Mouse-protecting and histamine-sensitizing activities of pertussigen and fimbrial hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, J J; Arai, H; Cole, R L

    1981-01-01

    We compared the protective activities of fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertussigen and their respective antibodies in mice infected intracerebrally with Bordetella pertussis. We found that mice were protected by a 1.7-microgram/mouse dose of pertussigen which was free of detectable FHA and was detoxified by treatment with glutaraldehyde. A pertussigen preparation made from cells grown in shake cultures that did not contain demonstrable FHA protected mice at a dose of 1.4 microgram/mouse. FHA at a dose of 10 microgram/mouse protected mice from intracerebral infection, but it also sensitized mice to histamine at a dose of 2 micrograms/mouse, which indicated that it was contaminated with pertussigen. When FHA was obtained free of demonstrable pertussigen, it failed to sensitize mice to histamine at a dose of 30 micrograms/mouse and to protect mice from infection at a dose of 12 micrograms/mouse (largest doses tested). Passive protection tests with antisera known to contain antibodies to pertussigen protected mice from intracerebral infection, whereas sera lacking anti-pertussigen antibodies but containing high concentrations of anti-FHA antibodies did not protect mice. The most important antigen for the immunization of mice against intracerebral infection with B. pertussis appears to be pertussigen. Images PMID:6260681

  3. Pertussis antibodies in the sera of children exposed to Bordetella pertussis by vaccination or infection

    PubMed Central

    Dolby, Jean M.; Stephens, Susan

    1973-01-01

    Low agglutinin titres to pertussis suspensions were found in 99% of sera from a group comprising healthy adults and non-vaccinated, non-infected infants of 1-6 months of age. These are attributable to agglutinins to heat-stable antigens and/or heat labile agglutinogen 1, and cross-absorption tests must be done on the sera in order to distinguish between the two. Agglutinins to agglutinogens 2 and 3 were found in only about 20% of adult sera. Bactericidal antibody was low in titre or absent in all sera from non-exposed individuals. Raised bactericidal antibody titres and the presence of agglutinins 2 and 3 were attributed to exposure to Bordetella pertussis antigens, either as vaccine or as infection. The variation, amongst both vaccinated and infected children, was very great. A vaccinated child who became ill responded to the infection in much the same way as a non-vaccinated child. We were unable to relate the immunity of the child to the titres either of agglutinins or of the bactericidal antibody. The protective ability of sera from vaccinated or infected children measured in mice against small, lethal brain infections was also unrelated to the state of immunity in the children, but this protective ability was correlated with the complement-mediated bactericidal antibody titres of the sera. The distribution of agglutinins, bactericidal antibody, and anti-haemagglutinin in serum IgG and IgM was different in vaccinated and infected children. PMID:4348456

  4. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the effect of vaccination on the evolution of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinghua; Liu, Bin; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksila, Kirsi; Tan, Yajun; Feng, Lu; Kallonen, Teemu; Wang, Lichan; Peng, Ding; He, Qiushui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    Herd immunity can potentially induce a change of circulating viruses. However, it remains largely unknown that how bacterial pathogens adapt to vaccination. In this study, Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, was selected as an example to explore possible effect of vaccination on the bacterial pathogen. We sequenced and analysed the complete genomes of 40 B. pertussis strains from Finland and China, as well as 11 previously sequenced strains from the Netherlands, where different vaccination strategies have been used over the past 50 years. The results showed that the molecular clock moved at different rates in these countries and in distinct periods, which suggested that evolution of the B. pertussis population was closely associated with the country vaccination coverage. Comparative whole-genome analyses indicated that evolution in this human-restricted pathogen was mainly characterised by ongoing genetic shift and gene loss. Furthermore, 116 SNPs were specifically detected in currently circulating ptxP3-containing strains. The finding might explain the successful emergence of this lineage and its spread worldwide. Collectively, our results suggest that the immune pressure of vaccination is one major driving force for the evolution of B. pertussis, which facilitates further exploration of the pathogenicity of B. pertussis. PMID:26283022

  5. Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae: critical adhesins with unrealized vaccine potential.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erich V; Cotter, Peggy A

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is transmitted exclusively from human to human. While vaccination against B. pertussis has been successful, replacement of the whole cell vaccine with an acellular component vaccine has correlated with reemergence of the disease, especially in adolescents and infants. Based on their presumed importance in mediating adherence to host tissues, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbria (FIM) were selected as components of most acellular pertussis vaccines. In this review, we describe the biogenesis of FHA and FIM, recent data that show that these factors do, in fact, play critical roles in adherence to respiratory epithelium, and evidence that they also contribute to persistence in the lower respiratory tract by modulating the host immune response. We also discuss shortcomings of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and the possibility that FHA and FIM could serve as effective protective antigens in next-generation vaccines. PMID:26416077

  6. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10766.001 PMID:26650353

  7. Mucosal immunization with filamentous hemagglutinin protects against Bordetella pertussis respiratory infection.

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, R D; Amsbaugh, D F; Leef, M F

    1992-01-01

    Mucosal immunization of mice with purified Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), by either the respiratory or the gut route, was found to protect against B. pertussis infection of the trachea and lungs. Intranasal immunization of BALB/c and (C57BL/6 x C3H/HeN)F1 adult female mice with FHA prior to B. pertussis aerosol challenge resulted in a 2 to 3 log reduction in number of bacteria recovered from the lungs and the tracheas of immunized mice in comparison to unimmunized controls. Intraduodenal immunization of adult mice with FHA before infection also resulted in approximately a 2 log reduction in the recovery of bacteria from the lungs and the tracheas of immunized mice in comparison to unimmunized controls. Immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G anti-FHA were both detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of mucosally immunized mice. Limiting dilution analysis revealed a 60-fold increase in the frequency of FHA-specific B cells isolated from the lungs of mice immunized intranasally with FHA in comparison to unimmunized control mice. These data suggest that both gut and respiratory mucosal immunization with a major adhesin of B. pertussis generates a specific immune response in the respiratory tract that may serve as one means of mitigating subsequent B. pertussis respiratory infection. Images PMID:1548072

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against the Outer Membrane Protein of Bordetella avium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guanhua; Liang, Manfei; Zuo, Xuemei; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Fanxia; Yang, Shifa

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of coryza and rhinotracheitis in poultry. This respiratory disease is responsible for substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. avium isolated from diseased chickens. BALB/c mice were immunized with the extracted B. avium OMPs. Then the splenocytes from immunized mice and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused using PEG 4000. Three stable hybridoma clones (designated as 3G10, 4A3, and 4E8) were produced via indirect ELISA and three rounds of subcloning. The MAbs were classified as IgG1, and can recognize the 58 kDa OMP band by Western blot assays. No MAb cross-reactivity with chicken Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella was observed. A double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) was developed using the rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture antibody and MAb 4A3 as the detection antibody. Under the DAS-ELISA, the minimum detectable concentration of B. avium was 1×104 CFU/mL, and no cross-reactivity occurred with chicken Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Results showed that the DAS-ELISA has good sensitivity and specificity. Clinical application showed the DAS-ELISA was more sensitive than the plate agglutination test. This study may be used to develop a quick and specific diagnostic kit, analyze epitopes, and establish systems for typing B. avium. PMID:23909425

  9. Bordetella parapertussis PagP Mediates the Addition of Two Palmitates to the Lipopolysaccharide Lipid A

    PubMed Central

    Hittle, L. E.; Jones, J. W.; Hajjar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica PagP (PagPBB) is a lipid A palmitoyl transferase that is required for resistance to antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing in a murine model of infection. B. parapertussis contains a putative pagP homolog (encoding B. parapertussis PagP [PagPBPa]), but its role in the biosynthesis of lipid A, the membrane anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has not been investigated. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that wild-type B. parapertussis lipid A consists of a heterogeneous mixture of lipid A structures, with penta- and hexa-acylated structures containing one and two palmitates, respectively. Through mutational analysis, we demonstrate that PagPBPa is required for the modification of lipid A with palmitate. While PagPBB transfers a single palmitate to the lipid A C-3′ position, PagPBPa transfers palmitates to the lipid A C-2 and C-3′ positions. The addition of two palmitate acyl chains is unique to B. parapertussis. Mutation of pagPBPa resulted in a mutant strain with increased sensitivity to antimicrobial peptide killing and decreased endotoxicity, as evidenced by reduced proinflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to the hypoacylated LPS. Therefore, PagP-mediated modification of lipid A regulates outer membrane function and may be a means to modify interactions between the bacterium and its human host during infection. PMID:25422302

  10. Induction of Bordetella pertussis-specific immune memory by DTPa vaccines.

    PubMed

    Morel, Sandra; Denoël, Philippe; Godfroid, Fabrice; Cortvrindt, Caroline; Vanderheyde, Nathalie; Poolman, Jan

    2011-04-18

    Several vaccines are available against pertussis, differing by the number of Bordetella pertussis antigens that they contain as well as their formulation. The GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK Bio) tricomponent DTPa vaccine (DTPa3, Infanrix™), and the Sanofi-Pasteur (SP) five-component formulation (DTPa5, Pediacel™) were shown to have comparable short-term efficacy in clinical trials. However, potential differences in long-term protection were recently suggested, which might reflect the elicitation of different specific immune memory by the two vaccines. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate in mice the immune responses against B. pertussis, and particularly the establishment of specific B cell memory after immunization with DTPa3 and DTPa5 vaccines. Whereas intranasal challenge experiments showed similar protection with both vaccines, DTPa3 induced higher antibody levels to FHA and PRN than DTPa5. Further, the frequency of memory B cells was investigated by B cell ELISPOT. Higher frequencies of PT- and PRN-specific memory B cells were evidenced after vaccination with DTPa3, compared with DTPa5. Although the origin of such difference is unclear, the use of two different adjuvants (aluminum phosphate versus hydroxide) is proposed as a possible explanation. In conclusion, this study proposes that the induction of higher levels of B. pertussis antigen-specific memory B cells with DTPa3 participate to the suggested longer persistence of protection observed with this vaccine, as compared with DTPa5. PMID:21382483

  11. Siderophore production and membrane alterations by Bordetella pertussis in response to iron starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Agiato, L A; Dyer, D W

    1992-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis was grown in iron (Fe)-free defined medium to limit the growth of the organism. Doubling times of the Fe-starved organism increased by approximately 1 h, and a 40% reduction in the final extent of growth in Fe-depleted medium was observed. Under these conditions, a hydroxamate siderophore named bordetellin was secreted by B. pertussis. Lactoferrin and transferrin supported growth of B. pertussis even when the protein was sequestered inside dialysis tubing. This suggested that binding of lactoferrin and transferrin to B. pertussis was not essential and that bordetellin production plays a major role in Fe uptake. Solid-phase dot blot assays indicated weak binding of lactoferrin to the cell surface, consistent with previous reports of a lactoferrin receptor. Three new proteins of 97, 77, and 63 kDa were synthesized in response to Fe starvation. Fe-inducible proteins of 103, 72, 24, 21, and 18 kDa were also observed. The synthesis of lipopolysaccharide was also altered by Fe availability. Images PMID:1309510

  12. Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in a kidney-pancreas transplant patient after exposure to recently vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Gisel, J J; Brumble, L M; Johnson, M M

    2010-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is an uncommon cause of respiratory infection in humans generally occurring in immunocompromised individuals exposed to infected animals. A 61-year-old female underwent a kidney-pancreas transplant 7 years before presentation. Postoperative immunosuppression was achieved with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. The patient was doing well until she developed a small bowel obstruction secondary to adhesions. She underwent surgical adhesiolysis without complications. Two weeks postoperatively the patient developed pneumonia. She failed to respond to repeated courses of antibiotics, and thus, diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. BAL cultures grew B. bronchiseptica. Further investigation revealed that the patient's dogs had recently received a live-attenuated B. bronchiseptica intranasal vaccination. The patient recovered after 21 days of therapy with doxycycline based upon in vitro susceptibility testing. B. bronchiseptica is an uncommon but recognized human pathogen. It most commonly affects immunocompromised individuals. Here, we report a culture-proven case of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia in an immunocompromised host residing in a household with her dogs who had recently received live-attenuated, intranasal B. bronchiseptica vaccinations. As polymerase chain reaction testing was not performed comparing the isolated strain to the vaccination strain, the association is presumptive. This report expands the spectrum of immunocompromised hosts to include renal-pancreas transplant patients who have developed infection from B. bronchiseptica, while illustrating the risks associated with animal contacts and attenuated vaccines in the immunosuppressed population. PMID:19874567

  13. T-cell immune responses to Bordetella pertussis infection and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Giorgio; Cassone, Antonio; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2015-10-01

    The recent immunological investigations, stemming from the studies performed in the nineties within the clinical trials of the acellular pertussis vaccines, have highlighted the important role played by T-cell immunity to pertussis in humans. These studies largely confirmed earlier investigations in the murine respiratory infection models that humoral immunity alone is not sufficient to confer protection against Bordetella pertussis infection and that T-cell immunity is required. Over the last years, knowledge of T-cell immune response to B. pertussis has expanded broadly, taking advantage of the general progress in the understanding of anti-bacterial immunity and of refinements in methods to approach immunological investigations. In particular, experimental models of B. pertussis infection highlighted the cooperative role played by T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells for protection. Furthermore, the new baboon experimental model suggested a plausible explanation for the differences observed in the strength and persistence of protective immunity induced by the acellular or whole-cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection in humans, contributing to explain the upsurge of recent pertussis outbreaks. Despite the progress, open questions remain, the answer to them will possibly provide better tools to fight one of the hardest-to-control vaccine preventable disease. PMID:26242279

  14. Fed-batch cultivation of Bordetella pertussis: metabolism and Pertussis Toxin production.

    PubMed

    Thalen, Marcel; Venema, Marian; Dekker, Anita; Berwald, Luc; van den IJssel, Jan; Zomer, Bert; Beuvery, Coen; Martens, Dirk; Tramper, Johannes

    2006-12-01

    The production of acellular pertussis in comparison with whole cell pertussis vaccines demands 5-25 times the amount of Bordetella pertussis' virulence factors, such as Pertussis Toxin (PT), to produce the same number of vaccine doses. An increase in the volumetric productivity by employing fed-batch rather than the currently used batch cultivations of B. pertussis could reduce the cost price of acellular pertussis vaccines. This study defined the conditions that enable fed-batch cultivations at high specific PT production. A solution containing lactate and glutamate was fed to the cultures at various rates. The feed rate and whether or not the fed substrates were completely consumed, significantly influenced cellular metabolism. If lactate was detectable in the culture broth while glutamate was not, poly-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) was formed. Any PHB present was metabolized when glutamate became detectable again in the culture liquid. At higher lactate and glutamate concentrations, free fatty acids were produced. Though toxic, free fatty acids were not the reason the cultures stopped growing. By choosing appropriate conditions, a cell density of 6.5 g/L dry weight was reached, i.e. a 7-fold increase compared to batch culture. The metabolic mechanisms behind the formation of PHB and fatty acids are discussed, as well as how to increase the cell density further. The PT production stopped at 12 mg/L, well before growth stopped, indicating that regulatory mechanisms of PT production may be involved. PMID:16500113

  15. Construction and characterization in vivo of Bordetella pertussis aroA mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, M; Maskell, D; Novotny, P; Dougan, G

    1990-01-01

    A DNA fragment encoding a kanamycin resistance determinant was used to insertionally inactivate the cloned aroA gene of Bordetella pertussis in Escherichia coli K-12, and a conjugative shuttle vector system based on the suicide vector pRTP1 was used to deliver the mutations from E. coli back into B. pertussis CN2992FS and BP1. The aroA mutation was introduced by allelic exchange into the chromosome of B. pertussis, resulting in otherwise isogenic parental and aroA mutant pairs. The B. pertussis aroA mutants grew well on laboratory medium supplemented with aromatic compounds but failed to grow on unsupplemented medium. The B. pertussis aroA mutants expressed the normal B. pertussis extracellular, virulence-associated proteins; inactivated, whole-cell vaccines prepared from the mutants protected mice as efficiently as vaccines made from the parent strains against intracerebral challenge with the virulent B. pertussis 18323. Live B. pertussis aroA bacteria inefficiently colonized the lungs of NIH/S mice after they were challenged with aerosol, unlike the wild-type B. pertussis organism. Mice exposed to three separate aerosols of live B. pertussis aroA bacteria were protected against lung colonization after being exposed to an aerosol containing the virulent parental B. pertussis strain. High-level antibodies against B. pertussis rapidly appeared in the sera of mice immunized by aerosol with the B. pertussis aroA strains and challenged with the virulent parent. Images PMID:2407655

  16. Detection of Bordetella pertussis in Infants Suspected to have Whooping Cough

    PubMed Central

    Hajia, Massoud; Rahbar, Mohammad; Fallah, Fatemeh; Safadel, Nooshafarin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Even with high coverage of vaccination programs, Bordetella pertussis is still reported in various countries. It causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in infants while it could be asymptomatic in adults. At the present study, we are going to evaluate the frequency of B. pertussis among received specimens. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 138 children under one year who were suspected to have whooping cough from October 2008 to March in 2011. Nasopharyngeal dacron and rayon swabs and sera were used for PCR and serology respectively. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 1.9± 0.9 months. PCR was positive in 12 cases; ELISA was in agreement with PCR results except in one case that showed the specific antibody at borderline limit. Conclusion: The rate of reported positive results showed that pertussis not only is still present in the community, but the number of the asymptomatic cases who are able to transmit the disease may be considerable. PMID:22754598

  17. Interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Its Lipopolysaccharide with In Vitro Culture of Respiratory Nasal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Andrew M.; Martínez, Nhora; Romero, Stefany; Iregui, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The nasal septa of fetal rabbits at 26 days of gestation were harvested by cesarean section of the does while under anesthesia and then exposed to Bordetella bronchiseptica or its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for periods of 2 and 4 hours. A total of 240 explants were used. The tissues were examined using the Hematoxylin & Eosin technique. Then, semithin sections (0.5 μm) were stained with toluidine blue and examined with indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI) and lectin histochemistry. The most frequent and statistically significant findings were as follows: (1) cell death and increased goblet cell activity when exposed to bacteria and (2) cell death, cytoplasmic vacuolation and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes when exposed to LPS. The lesions induced by the bacterium were more severe than with LPS alone, except for the cytoplasmic vacuolation in epithelial cells. IPI stained the ciliated border of the epithelium with the bacterium more intensely, while LPS lectin histochemistry preferentially labeled the cytoplasm of goblet cell. These data indicate that B. bronchiseptica and its LPS may have an affinity for specific glycoproteins that would act as adhesion receptors in both locations. PMID:23555071

  18. Expression, Purification and Characterization of Three Overlapping Immunodominant Recombinant Fragments from Bordetella pertussis Filamentous Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Arjmand, Mohammad; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Nikbin, Behrooz; Eshraghi, Saeid; Mahdavi, Marzieh; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Background Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is one of the most important immunoprotective antigens of Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) and a major component of the acellular pertussis vaccine. In the present study, three overlapping recombinant fragments from the immunodominant region of FHA were produced and their immunogenicity was investigated. Methods Three overlapping coding sequences of FHA antigen were amplified from B. pertussis genomic DNA by PCR. Amplified fragments were expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) strain and purified through His-tag using Nickel-based chromatography. Purified fragments were characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. In vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation and IFN-γ production were assessed in a limited number of healthy adults vaccinated with a commercial acellular pertussis vaccine in response to all purified FHA fragments by H3-Thymidine incorporation and ELISA, respectively. Results Recombinant FHA segments were successfully cloned and produced at high levels in E. coli BL21(DE3). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses confirmed their purity and reactivity. All three recombinant fragments together with a commercial native FHA were able to induce in vitro PBMC proliferation and IFN-γ production. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that these overlapping recombinant FHA fragments are immunogenic and may prove to be immuno-protective. PMID:23626873

  19. Characterization of a Membrane-active Peptide from the Bordetella pertussis CyaA Toxin*

    PubMed Central

    Subrini, Orso; Sotomayor-Pérez, Ana-Cristina; Hessel, Audrey; Spiaczka-Karst, Johanna; Selwa, Edithe; Sapay, Nicolas; Veneziano, Rémi; Pansieri, Jonathan; Chopineau, Joel; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for whooping cough, secretes several virulence factors, among which is the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in the early stages of human respiratory tract colonization. CyaA invades target cells by translocating its catalytic domain directly across the plasma membrane and overproduces cAMP, leading to cell death. The molecular process leading to the translocation of the catalytic domain remains largely unknown. We have previously shown that the catalytic domain per se, AC384, encompassing residues 1–384 of CyaA, did not interact with lipid bilayer, whereas a longer polypeptide, AC489, spanning residues 1–489, binds to membranes and permeabilizes vesicles. Moreover, deletion of residues 375–485 within CyaA abrogated the translocation of the catalytic domain into target cells. Here, we further identified within this region a peptidic segment that exhibits membrane interaction properties. A synthetic peptide, P454, corresponding to this sequence (residues 454–485 of CyaA) was characterized by various biophysical approaches. We found that P454 (i) binds to membranes containing anionic lipids, (ii) adopts an α-helical structure oriented in plane with respect to the lipid bilayer, and (iii) permeabilizes vesicles. We propose that the region encompassing the helix 454–485 of CyaA may insert into target cell membrane and induce a local destabilization of the lipid bilayer, thus favoring the translocation of the catalytic domain across the plasma membrane. PMID:24064217

  20. Flagellin typing of Bordetella bronchiseptica strains originating from different host species.

    PubMed

    Khayer, Bernadett; Magyar, Tibor; Wehmann, Enikő

    2014-10-10

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a widespread Gram-negative pathogen occurring in different mammal species. It is known to play a role in the aetiology of infectious atrophic rhinitis of swine, canine kennel cough, respiratory syndromes of cats, rabbits and guinea pigs, and sporadic human cases have also been reported. In this study, 93 B. bronchiseptica strains were examined from a broad range of host species and different geographical regions using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of flaA to reveal the possible host-specificity of the flagellin. Eight types (A-H) of flaA were identified, including five newly described ones (D-H). All but one of the 22 B. bronchiseptica strains from swine showed type B fragment pattern. The eighteen Hungarian isolates of canine origin were uniform (type A) while in other countries type B and D were also present in dogs. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 36 representative strains of flaA types revealed four clusters. These clusters correlated with flaA PCR-RFLP types and host species, especially in pigs and dogs. The revealed diversity of the strains isolated from human cases indicated possible zoonotic transmissions from various animal sources. PMID:25153650

  1. Infection of Newborn Piglets with Bordetella pertussis: a New Model for Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, S.; Brownlie, R.; Korzeniowski, J.; Buchanan, R.; O'Connor, B.; Peppler, M. S.; Halperin, S. A.; Lee, S. F.; Babiuk, L. A.; Gerdts, V.

    2005-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough. This bacterium is a human pathogen that under experimental conditions also infects selected rodents and primates. Here, we show for the first time that newborn piglets can be infected with B. pertussis when it is delivered intrapulmonarily. Infected piglets displayed fever and respiratory symptoms, such as nasal discharge, nonparoxysmal coughing, and breathing difficulties. Eventually, all infected animals developed severe bronchopneumonia, which in some cases was combined with a fibrinous pleuritits. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of large numbers of B. pertussis cells within airways, adhering to the epithelial lining or phagocytosed by macrophages and neutrophils. Viable bacteria were reisolated from bronchoalveolar lavages and lung lesions for more than 10 days postinfection. The systemic presence of pertussis toxin was shown by hypoglycemia, lymphocytosis, and induction of a clustered pattern of CHO cells by serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Thus, a large-animal model for pertussis was developed, which should complement existing rodent models for identifying the immune responses relevant to the design of new vaccines. In particular, this model should help researchers analyze the roles of both maternal and mucosal immunity in disease protection against pertussis and should ultimately assist in the design of new vaccines for early life protection. PMID:15908393

  2. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. PMID:26650353

  3. Better colonisation of newly emerged Bordetella pertussis in the co-infection mouse model study.

    PubMed

    Safarchi, Azadeh; Octavia, Sophie; Luu, Laurence Don Wai; Tay, Chin Yen; Sintchenko, Vitali; Wood, Nicholas; Marshall, Helen; McIntyre, Peter; Lan, Ruiting

    2016-07-25

    Molecular epidemiological data indicates that the resurgence of pertussis (whooping cough) in populations with high vaccine coverage is associated with genomic adaptation of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of the disease, to vaccine selection pressure. We have previously shown that in the period after the introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine (ACV), the majority of circulating strains in Australia switched to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) cluster I (carrying ptxP3/prn2), replacing SNP cluster II (carrying ptxP1/prn3). In this study, we carried out an in vivo competition assay using a mouse model infected with SNP cluster I and II B. pertussis strains from Australia. We found that the SNP cluster I strain colonised better than the SNP cluster II strain, in both naïve and immunised mice, suggesting that SNP cluster I strains had better fitness regardless of immunisation status of the host, consistent with SNP cluster I strains replacing SNP cluster II. Nevertheless, we found that ACV enhanced clearance of both SNP cluster I and II strains from the mouse respiratory tract. PMID:27346304

  4. Pertactin negative Bordetella pertussis demonstrates higher fitness under vaccine selection pressure in a mixed infection model.

    PubMed

    Safarchi, Azadeh; Octavia, Sophie; Luu, Laurence Don Wai; Tay, Chin Yen; Sintchenko, Vitali; Wood, Nicholas; Marshall, Helen; McIntyre, Peter; Lan, Ruiting

    2015-11-17

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease in humans caused by Bordetella pertussis. The use of acellular vaccines (ACV) has been associated with the recent resurgence of pertussis in developed countries including Australia despite high vaccination coverage where B. pertussis strains that do not express pertactin (Prn), a key antigenic component of the ACV, have emerged and become prevalent. In this study, we used an in vivo competition assay in mice immunised with ACV and in naïve (control) mice to compare the proportion of colonisation with recent clinical Prn positive and Prn negative B. pertussis strains from Australia. The Prn negative strain colonised the respiratory tract more effectively than the Prn positive strain in immunised mice, out-competing the Prn positive strain by day 3 of infection. However, in control mice, the Prn positive strain out-competed the Prn negative strain. Our findings of greater ability of Prn negative strains to colonise ACV-immunised mice are consistent with reports of selective advantage for these strains in ACV-immunised humans. PMID:26432908

  5. Role of phosphoglucomutase of Bordetella bronchiseptica in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and virulence.

    PubMed

    West, N P; Jungnitz, H; Fitter, J T; McArthur, J D; Guzmán, C A; Walker, M J

    2000-08-01

    The phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-encoding gene of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. An insertion mutant of the wild-type B. bronchiseptica strain BB7865 which disrupted LPS biosynthesis was created and characterized (BB7865pgm). Genetic analysis of the mutated gene showed it shares high identity with PGM genes of various bacterial species and forms part of an operon which also encompasses the gene encoding phosphoglucose isomerase. Functional assays for PGM revealed that enzyme activity is expressed in both bvg-positive and bvg-negative strains of B. bronchiseptica and is substantially reduced in BB7865pgm. Complementation of the mutated PGM gene with that from BB7865 restored the wild-type condition for all phenotypes tested. The ability of the mutant BB7865pgm to survive within J774. A1 cells was significantly reduced at 2 h (40% reduction) and 24 h (56% reduction) postinfection. BB7865pgm was also significantly attenuated in its ability to survive in vivo following intranasal infection of mice, being effectively cleared from the lungs within 4 days, whereas the wild-type strain persisted at least 35 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase, urease, and acid phosphatase were unaffected in the PGM-deficient strain. In contrast, the inability to produce wild-type LPS resulted in a reduced bacterial resistance to oxidative stress and a higher susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P. PMID:10899872

  6. The Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Repeat-in-Toxin (RTX) Domain Is Immunodominant and Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianzhe; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a multifunctional virulence factor secreted by Bordetella species. Upon interaction of its C-terminal hemolysin moiety with the cell surface receptor αMβ2 integrin, the N-terminal cyclase domain translocates into the host cell cytosol where it rapidly generates supraphysiological cAMP concentrations, which inhibit host cell anti-bacterial activities. Although ACT has been shown to induce protective immunity in mice, it is not included in any current acellular pertussis vaccines due to protein stability issues and a poor understanding of its role as a protective antigen. Here, we aimed to determine whether any single domain could recapitulate the antibody responses induced by the holo-toxin and to characterize the dominant neutralizing antibody response. We first immunized mice with ACT and screened antibody phage display libraries for binding to purified ACT. The vast majority of unique antibodies identified bound the C-terminal repeat-in-toxin (RTX) domain. Representative antibodies binding two nonoverlapping, neutralizing epitopes in the RTX domain prevented ACT association with J774A.1 macrophages and soluble αMβ2 integrin, suggesting that these antibodies inhibit the ACT-receptor interaction. Sera from mice immunized with the RTX domain showed similar neutralizing activity as ACT-immunized mice, indicating that this domain induced an antibody response similar to that induced by ACT. These data demonstrate that RTX can elicit neutralizing antibodies and suggest it may present an alternative to ACT. PMID:25505186

  7. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Required for Virulence of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Bibova, Ilona; Skopova, Karolina; Masin, Jiri; Cerny, Ondrej; Hot, David; Sebo, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative pathogen causing the human respiratory disease called pertussis or whooping cough. Here we examined the role of the RNA chaperone Hfq in B. pertussis virulence. Hfq mediates interactions between small regulatory RNAs and their mRNA targets and thus plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation of many cellular processes in bacteria, including production of virulence factors. We characterized an hfq deletion mutant (Δhfq) of B. pertussis 18323 and show that the Δhfq strain produces decreased amounts of the adenylate cyclase toxin that plays a central role in B. pertussis virulence. Production of pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin was affected to a lesser extent. In vitro, the ability of the Δhfq strain to survive within macrophages was significantly reduced compared to that of the wild-type (wt) strain. The virulence of the Δhfq strain in the mouse respiratory model of infection was attenuated, with its capacity to colonize mouse lungs being strongly reduced and its 50% lethal dose value being increased by one order of magnitude over that of the wt strain. In mixed-infection experiments, the Δhfq strain was then clearly outcompeted by the wt strain. This requirement for Hfq suggests involvement of small noncoding RNA regulation in B. pertussis virulence. PMID:23980112

  8. Comparative efficacy of intranasal and oral vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J A; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Shields, S; Wappel, S; Bowers, A; Lacoste, S; Xu, Z; Ball, E

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the comparative efficacy of vaccines administered intranasally or orally to protect puppies from disease subsequent to experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a randomized controlled trial was performed using 48 approximately 8-week-old specific pathogen free, Bb naive Beagle puppies. Puppies were randomized into three groups and administered vaccines containing Bb intranasally or orally, or a placebo intranasally. Twenty-one days later, all dogs were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of Bb. Clinical signs, nasal bacterial shedding and immune responses were monitored for 28 days after challenge. Intranasally vaccinated puppies had significantly lower rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing (i.e. were less sick clinically) than control puppies. The distinction between the orally vaccinated puppies and the control puppies was less consistent. The orally vaccinated puppies had less coughing and less retching than the control puppies, but nasal discharge and sneezing did not differ from control animals. Orally vaccinated puppies had higher rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing than the intranasally vaccinated puppies. Although both intranasal and oral Bb vaccines stimulated immune responses associated with disease sparing following Bb infection, the intranasal route of delivery conferred superior clinical outcomes. The observed difference in clinical efficacy suggests the need to question the rationale for the use of currently available orally administered Bb vaccines. PMID:27256028

  9. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in European countries during the period 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    van Gent, M; Heuvelman, C J; van der Heide, H G; Hallander, H O; Advani, A; Guiso, N; Wirsing von Kőnig, C H; Vestrheim, D F; Dalby, T; Fry, N K; Pierard, D; Detemmerman, L; Zavadilova, J; Fabianova, K; Logan, C; Habington, A; Byrne, M; Lutyńska, A; Mosiej, E; Pelaz, C; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, K; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Economopoulou, A; He, Q; Mooi, F R

    2015-04-01

    Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, pertussis is still an endemic disease, with regular epidemic outbreaks. With the exception of Poland, European countries have replaced whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) by acellular vaccines (ACVs) in the 1990s. Worldwide, antigenic divergence in vaccine antigens has been found between vaccine strains and circulating strains. In this work, 466 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected in the period 1998-2012 from 13 European countries were characterised by multi-locus antigen sequence typing (MAST) of the pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP) and of the genes coding for proteins used in the ACVs: pertussis toxin (Ptx), pertactin (Prn), type 2 fimbriae (Fim2) and type 3 fimbriae (Fim3). Isolates were further characterised by fimbrial serotyping, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed a very similar B. pertussis population for 12 countries using ACVs, while Poland, which uses a WCV, was quite distinct, suggesting that ACVs and WCVs select for different B. pertussis populations. This study forms a baseline for future studies on the effect of vaccination programmes on B. pertussis populations. PMID:25527446

  10. Role of Phosphoglucomutase of Bordetella bronchiseptica in Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    West, Nicholas P.; Jungnitz, Heidrun; Fitter, John T.; McArthur, Jason D.; Guzmán, Carlos A.; Walker, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    The phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-encoding gene of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. An insertion mutant of the wild-type B. bronchiseptica strain BB7865 which disrupted LPS biosynthesis was created and characterized (BB7865pgm). Genetic analysis of the mutated gene showed it shares high identity with PGM genes of various bacterial species and forms part of an operon which also encompasses the gene encoding phosphoglucose isomerase. Functional assays for PGM revealed that enzyme activity is expressed in both bvg-positive and bvg-negative strains of B. bronchiseptica and is substantially reduced in BB7865pgm. Complementation of the mutated PGM gene with that from BB7865 restored the wild-type condition for all phenotypes tested. The ability of the mutant BB7865pgm to survive within J774.A1 cells was significantly reduced at 2 h (40% reduction) and 24 h (56% reduction) postinfection. BB7865pgm was also significantly attenuated in its ability to survive in vivo following intranasal infection of mice, being effectively cleared from the lungs within 4 days, whereas the wild-type strain persisted at least 35 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase, urease, and acid phosphatase were unaffected in the PGM-deficient strain. In contrast, the inability to produce wild-type LPS resulted in a reduced bacterial resistance to oxidative stress and a higher susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P. PMID:10899872

  11. Dose Response of Attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1-Induced Protection in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Nathalie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mahieux, Severine; Locht, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious vaccines, the incidence of whooping cough is still high in many countries and is even increasing in countries with high vaccine coverage. Most severe and life-threatening pertussis cases occur in infants who are too young to be sufficiently protected by current vaccine regimens. As a potential solution to this problem, we have developed an attenuated live Bordetella pertussis vaccine strain, named BPZE1. Here, we show that after a single administration, BPZE1 induces dose-dependent protection against challenge with virulent B. pertussis in low-dose and in high-dose intranasal mouse lung colonization models. In addition, we observed BPZE1 dose-dependent antibody titers to B. pertussis antigens, as well as cell-mediated immunity, evidenced by the amounts of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) released from spleen cells upon stimulation with B. pertussis antigens. These two parameters may perhaps be used as readouts in clinical trials in humans that are currently being planned. PMID:20107007

  12. Purification design and practice for pertactin, the third component of acellular pertussis vaccine, from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenglan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qi; Li, Zhengjun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Songping; Zhang, Guifeng; Ma, Guanghui; Luo, Jian; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-07-25

    Development of acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) requires purification of several components from Bordetella pertussis. While the components pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) have been successfully purified, the third component, pertactin, proves to be a difficult target due to its very low concentration. In order to solve its purification problem, we performed the surface potential analysis with GRASP2 program. The results demonstrated that there are two major charge patches, one negative and one positive, which are located separately on this linear protein. For this special feature, we designed a dual ion exchange chromatography strategy including an anionic exchange and a cationic exchange process for separation of pertactin from the heat extract of B. pertussis. The initial anionic exchange chromatography concentrated the product from 1.7% to 14.6%, with recovery of 80%. The second cationic exchange chromatography increased the purity to 33%, with recovery of 83%. The final purification was accomplished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, yielding a purity of 96%. The total recovery of the three columns was 61%. Characterization of the purified antigen was performed with CD, intrinsic fluorescence, HP-SEC and western-blot, showing that the purified protein kept its natural conformation and immune-reactivity. The rationally designed process proved to be feasible, and it is suitable for large-scale preparation of the third aPV component pertactin. PMID:27302339

  13. The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of serum antibodies to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin (leukotoxin) in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, D A; Confer, A W; Hall, S M; Gentry, M J; Panciera, R J

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of bovine serum antibodies to the cytotoxin (leukotoxin) of Pasteurella haemolytica. A partially purified, cytotoxic, and immunogenic protein obtained from supernatants of logarithmic-phase P. haemolytica was used as the ELISA antigen. Preadsorption of sera with various cytotoxic, somatic, and capsular antigen preparations demonstrated that the assay was specific for anticytotoxin antibodies. ELISA anticytotoxin titers had a strong, significant correlation to cytotoxin-neutralizing-antibody titers. The ELISA, however, was more rapid and allowed for greater numbers of samples to be run than did the neutralization technique. ELISA anticytotoxin titers were high in cattle vaccinated with a live P. haemolytica vaccine, whereas unvaccinated cattle and cattle receiving a P. haemolytica bacterin had low ELISA anticytotoxin titers. A significant positive correlation between ELISA titers and resistance to experimental bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis was present. PMID:3745419

  15. Expression, purification and immunologic analysis of three Pasteurella haemolytica A1 28-30 kDa lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Dabo, S M; Confer, A W; Styre, D; Murphy, G L

    1994-09-01

    Three genes, tandemly arranged on the Pasteurella haemolytica A1 chromosome and encoding similar 28-30 kDa proteins, were previously cloned and sequenced by our laboratory. In this study, we demonstrate that the cloned genes encode lipoproteins, as previously suggested by DNA sequence analysis. To further analyze the bovine immune response to these proteins, the individual genes were cloned separately into an expression vector and recombinant forms of the three proteins were purified after expression in Escherichia coli. Sera from cattle vaccinated with live P. haemolytica or P. haemolytica bacterins and from cattle naturally exposed to P. haemolytica recognized each of the recombinant proteins. Vaccination with live or killed whole bacteria did not elicit an immune response of the same quality as that which developed in response to natural infection. A statistically significant correlation existed between resistance to challenge and a high antibody response to one of these three proteins. PMID:7700132

  16. Biochemical and immunological properties of two forms of pertactin, the 69,000-molecular-weight outer membrane protein of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, J W; Eckhardt, T; Reilly, P A; Scott, J V; Cowell, J L; Metcalf, T N; Mountzouros, K; Gibbons, J J; Siegel, M

    1993-01-01

    Two apparent isoforms of the virulence-associated 69,000-molecular-weight protein pertactin were purified from Bordetella pertussis. Mass spectrometry showed a difference of 2,060 Da, which may result from differential C-terminal cleavage of a larger precursor. Both forms were protective in a mouse model, eliciting bactericidal antibodies and reducing respiratory tract colonization. Images PMID:8478113

  17. Expression of bvg-repressed genes in Bordetella pertussis is controlled by RisA through a novel c-di-GMP signaling pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BvgAS two component system of Bordetella pertussis controls virulence factor expression. In addition, BvgAS controls expression of the bvg-repressed genes through the action of the repressor, BvgR. The transcription factor RisA is inhibited by BvgR, and when BvgR is not expressed RisA induces th...

  18. A role for the sensor kinase PlrS in controlling the response of Bordetella bronchiseptica to increased CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of Bordetella bronchiseptica to colonize the rodent respiratory tract requires the sensor kinase PlrS, which is presumably part of a two-component regulatory system. Microarray analysis revealed that PlrS influences the expression of several genes required for virulence, including those ...

  19. Cyclic di-GMP regulation of the bvg-repressed genes and the orphan response regulator RisA in Bordetella pertussis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors is activated by the BvgAS two-component system. Under modulating growth conditions BvgAS indirectly represses another set of genes through the action of BvgR, a bvg-activated protein. BvgR blocks activation of the response regulator RisA which is ...

  20. Reduced Virulence of a Bordetella bronchiseptica Siderophore Mutant in Neonatal Swine

    PubMed Central

    Register, Karen B.; Ducey, Thomas F.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Dyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    One means by which Bordetella bronchiseptica scavenges iron is through production of the siderophore alcaligin. A nonrevertible alcaligin mutant derived from the virulent strain 4609, designated DBB25, was constructed by insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene into alcA, one of the genes essential for alcaligin biosynthesis. The virulence of the alcA mutant in colostrum-deprived, caesarean-delivered piglets was compared with that of the parent strain in two experiments. At 1 week of age, piglets were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline, 4609, or DBB25. Two piglets in each group were euthanatized on day 10 postinfection. The remainder were euthanatized at 21 days postinfection. Clinical signs, including fever, coughing, and sneezing, were present in both groups. Nasal washes performed 7, 14, and 21 days postinoculation demonstrated that strain DBB25 colonized the nasal cavity but did so at levels that were significantly less than those achieved by strain 4609. Analysis of colonization based on the number of CFU per gram of tissue recovered from the turbinate, trachea, and lung also demonstrated significant differences between DBB25 and 4609, at both day 10 and day 21 postinfection. Mild to moderate turbinate atrophy was apparent in pigs inoculated with strain 4609, while turbinates of those infected with strain DBB25 developed no or mild atrophy. We conclude from these results that siderophore production by B. bronchiseptica is not essential for colonization of swine but is required for maximal virulence. B. bronchiseptica mutants with nonrevertible defects in genes required for alcaligin synthesis may be candidates for evaluation as attenuated, live vaccine strains in conventionally reared pigs. PMID:11254568

  1. Characterization of vir-activated TnphoA gene fusions in Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Finn, T M; Shahin, R; Mekalanos, J J

    1991-01-01

    The expression of many of the known virulence determinants of Bordetella pertussis is coordinately regulated by the vir regulatory locus and reduced in response to environmental signals called modulators. We have previously identified eight TnphoA gene fusions in B. pertussis in which the expression of alkaline phosphatase was maximal in the absence of the modulators nicotinic acid and MgSO4. We have termed the genes identified by these fusions vir-activated genes. Here we report the characterization of these TnphoA mutant strains. Four fusion strains were defective in known virulence determinants. For one of these, fusion strain SK39, Southern blot hybridization demonstrated that TnphoA was inserted in the S1 subunit gene of pertussis toxin. Hemagglutination assays, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunoblots identified three fusions strains, SK16, SK75, and SK91, that were defective in filamentous hemagglutinin. Whereas all three filamentous hemagglutinin-defective mutants showed either normal or enhanced colonization, the pertussis toxin-defective mutant showed a marked defect in pulmonary persistence. Of the four other fusion strains, two were deficient in outer membrane proteins. One of these, strain SK8, was defective in a major outer membrane protein of 95 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This strain colonized mouse lungs less well and did not induce lymphocytosis after aerosol challenge. The other strain, SK34, was defective in four outer membrane proteins, three of which were detectable only on a Western blot with polyclonal sera against B. pertussis. Two of our gene fusion strains did not show any defect in identifiable vir-regulated proteins. Images PMID:1652562

  2. Effects of guanidinium hydrochloride on the structure and immunological properties of Bordetella pertussis fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, A M; Irons, L I; Robinson, A; Seabrook, R N

    1992-01-01

    Denaturation of Bordetella pertussis fimbrial preparations by guanidinium hydrochloride (GdnHCl) has been characterized using static light scattering, c.d., fluorescence and antibody recognition. The susceptibility of Fim2 + 3 (a mixed preparation of two fimbrial types) to GdnHCl was found to be highly dependent on pH; as the pH was increased from pH 7.2 to 10.5, the concentration of GdnHCl required to induce 50% denaturation was decreased. At pH 10.5, Fim2 + 3 was denatured by GdnHCl in a three-step pathway comprising: (1) formation of a pre-denaturational intermediate at less than 1.0 M-GdnHCl; (2) dissociation of the fimbrial polymer into subunits between 2 M- and 3.2 M-GdnHCl; and (3) subunit unfolding between 2.8 M- and 3.6 M-GdnHCl. A similar pathway was also found for the denaturation of the individual fimbrial types, Fim2 and Fim3, except that unfolding of either subunit commenced at a lower GdnHCl concentration (2.2 M) than that found for the mixture of fimbriae, Fim2 + 3. The second step in the denaturation pathway, dissociation into subunits, was partially reversible, but the renaturation and reassociation of fully unfolded subunits to form fimbriae-like structures was not achieved. These findings demonstrate that the GdnHCl denaturation of complex polymeric proteins is unlikely to follow a reversible two-state denaturation pathway, and support the involvement of a chaperone-like protein in the folding and assembly of the fimbriae in vivo. Measurement of the ability of anti-fimbrial monoclonal antibodies to recognize intermediates in the denaturation pathway enabled the identification of two types of epitope which were dependent on different aspects of fimbrial tertiary/quaternary structure. PMID:1375451

  3. Lethal infection by Bordetella pertussis mutants in the infant mouse model.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, A A; Goodwin, M S

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of lethal infection of infant mice with Bordetella pertussis were examined. Mutants deficient in vir-regulated genes were tested for the ability to cause a lethal infection in the infant mouse model. Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin and pertussis toxin were required to cause a lethal infection at low doses. Mixed infection caused by challenging the mice with an equal number of pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin mutants at a dose at which neither alone was lethal was also unable to cause a lethal infection. Production of the filamentous hemagglutinin and the dermonecrotic toxin was not required to cause a lethal infection. Nine other mutants in vir-regulated genes whose phenotypes have yet to be determined were also tested. Only two of these mutants were impaired in the ability to cause a lethal infection. Expression of fimbriae does not appear to affect the dose required to cause a lethal infection; however, fimbrial expression was correlated with the later stages of a nonlethal, persistent infection. Growth of the bacteria in MgSO4, a condition which reversibly suppresses expression of the genes required for virulence, did not alter the ability of the bacteria to cause a lethal infection. Auxotrophic mutants deficient in leucine biosynthesis were as virulent as the parental strain; however, mutants deficient in methionine biosynthesis were less virulent. A B. parapertussis strain was much less effective in promoting a lethal infection than any of the wild-type B. pertussis strains examined. A persistent infection in the lungs was observed for weeks after challenge for mice given a sublethal dose of B. pertussis, and transmission from infected infants to the mother was never observed. PMID:2572561

  4. Identification of a 69-kilodalton nonfimbrial protein as an agglutinogen of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Brennan, M J; Li, Z M; Cowell, J L; Bisher, M E; Steven, A C; Novotny, P; Manclark, C R

    1988-12-01

    Cells of Bordetella pertussis BP353, a nonfimbriated Eldering serotype 1.3 strain, were used as an immunogen to produce three monoclonal antibodies, BPE3, BPD8, and BPE8, that agglutinated the immunizing cells, as well as certain other nonfimbriated and fimbriated serotype 3-containing B. pertussis strains. The antibodies did not agglutinate serotype 1 or nontypable B. pertussis cells. These monoclonal antibodies specifically detected a 69-kilodalton (kDa) band on Western blots (immunoblots) containing whole B. pertussis cell lysates of Eldering agglutinogen serotypes 1.3, 1.3.6, 1.2.3.4, and 1.2.3.4.6. This 69-kDa antigen was released from the bacteria by cell incubation for 60 min at 60 degrees C, and it was purified by affinity chromatography with a BPE3-agarose affinity matrix. Purified material was used to produce a polyclonal antiserum that agglutinated all nonfimbriated and fimbriated B. pertussis cells containing serotype 3 agglutinogen. Immunogold electron microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that it is an outer membrane constituent but nonfimbrial in appearance. BPE3 did not detect purified fimbriae on Western blots, and antibodies to these fimbriae did not bind to the 69-kDa component. Although B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis cells were not agglutinated by the monoclonal antibodies, antigenically similar proteins were detected in extracts of the bacteria. These results identify the 69-kDa protein as a nonfimbrial agglutinogen present on all virulent strains of B. pertussis. The monoclonal antibodies described here should be useful for further studies on the structure and function of this protein. PMID:2903126

  5. The major fimbrial subunit of Bordetella pertussis binds to sulfated sugars.

    PubMed Central

    Geuijen, C A; Willems, R J; Mooi, F R

    1996-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae are composed of major and minor subunits, and recently it was shown that the minor fimbrial subunit binds to Vla-5, a receptor located on monocytes (W. Hazenbos, C. Geuijen, B. van den Berg, F. Mooi, and R. van Furth, J. Infect. Dis. 171:924-929, 1995). Here we present evidence that the major subunits bind to sulfated sugars, which are ubiquitous in the respiratory tract. Binding was observed to chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate, and dextran sulfate but not to dextran. Removal of the minor subunit from fimbriae did not significantly affect binding to sulfated sugars, indicating that the major subunit alone is sufficient for this binding. Fimbriae were also able to bind HEp-2 cells, which are known to display glycoconjugates on their surface. This binding was not dependent on the presence of the minor subunit. However, binding was dependent on the sulfation state of the glycoconjugates, since inhibition of the sulfation resulted in a significant reduction of fimbria binding. The specificity of fimbria binding was further characterized by using heparan sulfate-derived disaccharides in inhibition assays. Two disaccharides were highly effective inhibitors, and it was observed that both the degree of sulfation and the arrangement of the sulfate groups on the disaccharides were important for binding to fimbriae. B. pertussis bacteria also bound to sulfated sugars and HEp-2 cells, and analysis of B. pertussis mutants indicated that both filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae were required for this binding. A host protein present in the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, has binding activities similar to those of B. pertussis fimbriae, binding to both Vla-5 and sulfated sugars. Two regions in the major fimbrial subunit were identified which showed similarity with fibronectin peptides which bind to sulfated sugars. Thus, B. pertussis fimbriae exemplify molecular mimicry and may co-opt host processes by mimicking natural ligand

  6. Identification of a 69-kilodalton nonfimbrial protein as an agglutinogen of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, M J; Li, Z M; Cowell, J L; Bisher, M E; Steven, A C; Novotny, P; Manclark, C R

    1988-01-01

    Cells of Bordetella pertussis BP353, a nonfimbriated Eldering serotype 1.3 strain, were used as an immunogen to produce three monoclonal antibodies, BPE3, BPD8, and BPE8, that agglutinated the immunizing cells, as well as certain other nonfimbriated and fimbriated serotype 3-containing B. pertussis strains. The antibodies did not agglutinate serotype 1 or nontypable B. pertussis cells. These monoclonal antibodies specifically detected a 69-kilodalton (kDa) band on Western blots (immunoblots) containing whole B. pertussis cell lysates of Eldering agglutinogen serotypes 1.3, 1.3.6, 1.2.3.4, and 1.2.3.4.6. This 69-kDa antigen was released from the bacteria by cell incubation for 60 min at 60 degrees C, and it was purified by affinity chromatography with a BPE3-agarose affinity matrix. Purified material was used to produce a polyclonal antiserum that agglutinated all nonfimbriated and fimbriated B. pertussis cells containing serotype 3 agglutinogen. Immunogold electron microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that it is an outer membrane constituent but nonfimbrial in appearance. BPE3 did not detect purified fimbriae on Western blots, and antibodies to these fimbriae did not bind to the 69-kDa component. Although B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis cells were not agglutinated by the monoclonal antibodies, antigenically similar proteins were detected in extracts of the bacteria. These results identify the 69-kDa protein as a nonfimbrial agglutinogen present on all virulent strains of B. pertussis. The monoclonal antibodies described here should be useful for further studies on the structure and function of this protein. Images PMID:2903126

  7. Production and characterization of recombinant pertactin, fimbriae 2 and fimbriae 3 from Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough in humans. Pertactin (Prn), fimbriae 2 (Fim2) and fimbriae 3 (Fim3) of B. pertussis are important virulence factors and immunogens which have been included in some acellular pertussis vaccines. In this present study, we cloned, expressed and purified Prn, Fim2 and Fim3, respectively. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the three recombinant proteins (rPrn, rFim2 and rFim3) were investigated in mouse model. Results Three recombinant proteins with amount of 12 to 25 mg/L were produced. Compared to the control mice only immunized with adjuvant, serum IgG antibody responses were significantly induced in the mice immunized with rPrn, rFim2 or rFim3 (P < 0.001 for all three proteins). Furthermore, T cell responses characteristic of increased production of IL-2 and TNF-α (only for rPrn) were elicited in the mice immunized with the three proteins (P < 0.05 for all three proteins). Immunization with rPrn, but not with rFim2 or rFim3, significantly enhanced clearance of bacteria in the lungs of mice after intranasal challenge with B. pertussis (P < 0.05). When tested in a lethal intracerebral infection model, certain protection was observed in mice immunized with rPrn. Conclusions We have developed an efficient method to produce large amounts of rPrn, rFim2, and rFim3 from B. pertussis. The three recombinant proteins induced both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Immunization with rPrn also conferred protection against pertussis in mouse infection models. Our results indicated that the recombinant proteins still retain their immunological properties and highlighted the potential of the recombinant proteins for the future development of the B. pertussis vaccines. PMID:20040101

  8. Direct molecular typing of Bordetella pertussis from nasopharyngeal specimens in China in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Du, Q; Wang, X; Liu, Y; Luan, Y; Zhang, J; Li, Y; Liu, X; Ma, C; Li, H; Wang, Z; He, Q

    2016-07-01

    Data on the molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis are limited in developing countries where whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCVs) have been used. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypes of circulating B. pertussis in China by direct molecular typing of clinical specimens. DNA extracts of 122 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPs) positive for B. pertussis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (targeting IS481 and ptx-Pr) from 2012 to 2013 were used for typing using the multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and also by PCR-based multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of B. pertussis virulence genes (ptxP, prn, and fim3). One hundred and eight DNA extracts (89 %) generated a complete MLVA type (MT). Among the 18 MTs obtained, MT55 (52 %) and MT104 (13 %) were the most common. MT27, which is linked to the ptxP3 allele and is prevalent in many developed countries using acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs), was only found in 7 (6 %) DNA extracts. Eighty-seven DNA extracts (71 %) produced a complete multiantigen sequence typing (MAST) type. Of them, 77 (89 %) had the ptxP1/prn1/fim3-1 allele profile. Four DNA extracts (5 %) had the ptxP3/prn2/fim3-2 profile and 3 (4 %) had the ptxP3/prn1/fim3-2 allele profile. These seven DNA extracts also harbored MT27. Our result shows that B. pertussis circulating in China was different from those found in countries where ACVs have been in use, supporting the notion that selection pressure induced by WCVs and ACVs on the bacterial population differs. PMID:27146879

  9. Cilia-associated bacteria in fatal Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Bassel, Laura L; Harness, Melanie L; Clark, Mary Ellen; Register, Karen B; Caswell, Jeff L

    2016-07-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less recognized. Our study evaluated histologic identification of cilia-associated bacteria as a method for diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. Cases of fatal bronchopneumonia were studied retrospectively, excluding neonates and cases of aspiration pneumonia, minor lung lesions, or autolysis. The study population comprised 36 canine and 31 feline cases of bronchopneumonia. B. bronchiseptica was identified in 8 of 36 canine and 14 of 31 feline cases based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) using serum from a rabbit hyperimmunized with pertactin, PCR testing (Fla2/Fla12), and/or bacterial culture data when available. Of these, IHC was positive in 4 canine and 7 feline cases, PCR was positive in 8 canine and 14 feline cases, and B. bronchiseptica was isolated in 2 of 5 canine and 3 of 9 feline cases tested. Examination of histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin revealed bronchial cilia-associated bacteria in 4 of 36 canine and 5 of 31 feline cases; these were all positive by IHC and PCR. The presence of cilia-associated bacteria had been noted in the pathology report for only 2 of these 9 cases. Thus, the presence of cilia-associated bacteria seems frequently overlooked by pathologists, but is a diagnostically significant feature of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. A specific diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia is important because it suggests primary or opportunistic bacterial pneumonia rather than aspiration pneumonia, and because of the risk of animal-to-animal transmission of B. bronchiseptica, the availability of vaccines for disease prevention, and the potential zoonotic risk to immunocompromised pet owners. PMID:27178716

  10. Bordetella pertussis Naturally Occurring Isolates with Altered Lipooligosaccharide Structure Fail To Fully Mature Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E.; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J. M.; Schuijt, Tim J.; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R.; Han, Wanda G. H.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones. PMID:25348634

  11. Genetic Analysis of Bordetella pertussis Isolates from the 2008–2010 Pertussis Epidemic in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyaji, Yusuke; Otsuka, Nao; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    A large pertussis epidemic occurred between 2008 and 2010 in Japan. To investigate epidemic strains, we analyzed 33 Bordetella pertussis isolates from the epidemic period by sequencing virulence-associated genes (fim3, ptxP, ptxA, and prn) and performing multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and compared these results with those of 101 isolates from non-epidemic, earlier and later time periods. DNA sequencing of the fim3 allele revealed that the frequency of fim3B was 4.3%, 12.8%, 30.3%, and 5.1% within isolates in 2002–2004, 2005–2007, 2008–2010, and 2011–2012, respectively. The isolation rate of the fim3B strain therefore temporarily increased during the epidemic period 2008–2010. In contrast, the frequencies of the virulence-associated allelic variants, ptxP3, ptxA1, and prn2, increased with time during overall study period, indicating that these variants were not directly involved in the occurrence of the 2008–2010 epidemic. MLVA genotyping in combination with analysis of allele types showed that the prevalence of an MT27d strain temporarily increased in the epidemic period, and that this strain carried virulence-associated allelic variants (fim3B, ptxP3, ptxA1, and prn2) also identified in recent epidemic strains of Australia, Europe, and the US. Phenotypic analyses revealed that the serotype Fim3 strain was predominant (≥87%) during all the periods studied, and that the frequency of adhesion pertactin (Prn) non-expressing B. pertussis decreased by half in the epidemic period. All MT27d strains expressed Prn and Fim3 proteins, suggesting that B. pertussis MT27d strains expressing Prn and Fim3B have the potential to cause large epidemics worldwide. PMID:24124606

  12. Comparison of ribotyping and sequence-based typing for discriminating among isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Register, Karen B; Nicholson, Tracy L; Brunelle, Brian W

    2016-10-01

    PvuII ribotyping and MLST are each highly discriminatory methods for genotyping Bordetella bronchiseptica, but a direct comparison between these approaches has not been undertaken. The goal of this study was to directly compare the discriminatory power of PvuII ribotyping and MLST, using a single set of geographically and genetically diverse strains, and to determine whether subtyping based on repeat region sequences of the pertactin gene (prn) provides additional resolution. One hundred twenty-two isolates were analyzed, representing 11 mammalian or avian hosts, sourced from the United States, Europe, Israel and Australia. Thirty-two ribotype patterns were identified; one isolate could not be typed. In comparison, all isolates were typeable by MLST and a total of 30 sequence types was identified. An analysis based on Simpson's Index of Diversity (SID) revealed that ribotyping and MLST are nearly equally discriminatory, with SIDs of 0.920 for ribotyping and 0.919 for MLST. Nonetheless, for ten ribotypes and eight MLST sequence types, the alternative method discriminates among isolates that otherwise type identically. Pairing prn repeat region typing with ribotyping yielded 54 genotypes and increased the SID to 0.954. Repeat region typing combined with MLST resulted in 47 genotypes and an SID of 0.944. Given the technical and practical advantages of MLST over ribotyping, and the nominal difference in their SIDs, we conclude MLST is the preferred primary typing tool. We recommend the combination of MLST and prn repeat region typing as a high-resolution, objective and standardized approach valuable for investigating the population structure and epidemiology of B. bronchiseptica. PMID:27542997

  13. The Stimulated Innate Resistance Event in Bordetella pertussis Infection Is Dependent on Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Zurita, E.; Moreno, G.; Errea, A.; Ormazabal, M.; Rumbo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The exacerbated induction of innate immune responses in airways can abrogate diverse lung infections by a phenomenon known as stimulated innate resistance (StIR). We recently demonstrated that the enhancement of innate response activation can efficiently impair Bordetella pertussis colonization in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. The aim of this work was to further characterize the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on StIR and to identify the mechanisms that mediate this process. Our results showed that bacterial infection was completely abrogated in treated mice when the LPS of B. pertussis (1 μg) was added before (48 h or 24 h), after (24 h), or simultaneously with the B. pertussis challenge (107 CFU). Moreover, we detected that LPS completely cleared bacterial infection as soon as 2 h posttreatment. This timing suggests that the observed StIR phenomenon should be mediated by fast-acting antimicrobial mechanisms. Although neutrophil recruitment was already evident at this time point, depletion assays using an anti-GR1 antibody showed that B. pertussis clearance was achieved even in the absence of neutrophils. To evaluate the possible role of free radicals in StIR, we performed animal assays using the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which is known to inactivate oxidant species. NAC administration blocked the B. pertussis clearance induced by LPS. Nitrite concentrations were also increased in the LPS-treated mice; however, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthetases did not suppress the LPS-induced bacterial clearance. Taken together, our results show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in the TLR4-dependent innate clearance of B. pertussis. PMID:23630952

  14. Recommendation for a Standardised Method of Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing for Porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Prüller, Sandra; Frömke, Cornelia; Kaspar, Heike; Klein, Günter; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to establish and standardise a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method for porcine Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica isolates from different geographical regions and farms were genotyped by macrorestriction analysis and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One reference and one type strain plus two field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were chosen to analyse growth curves in four different media: cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) with and without 2% lysed horse blood, Brain-Heart-Infusion (BHI), and Caso broth. The growth rate of each test strain in each medium was determined by culture enumeration and the suitability of CAMHB was confirmed by comparative statistical analysis. Thereafter, reference and type strain and eight epidemiologically unrelated field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were used to test the suitability of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method following CLSI-approved performance standards given in document VET01-A4. Susceptibility tests, using 20 antimicrobial agents, were performed in five replicates, and data were collected after 20 and 24 hours incubation and statistically analysed. Due to the low growth rate of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours resulted in significantly more homogeneous minimum inhibitory concentrations after five replications compared to a 20-hour incubation. An interlaboratory comparison trial including susceptibility testing of 24 antimicrobial agents revealed a high mean level of reproducibility (97.9%) of the modified method. Hence, in a harmonization for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours in CAMHB medium with an incubation temperature of 35°C and an inoculum concentration of approximately 5 x 105 cfu/ml was proposed. PMID:25910232

  15. Cooperative phenomena in binding and activation of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Bouhss, A; Krin, E; Munier, H; Gilles, A M; Danchin, A; Glaser, P; Bârzu, O

    1993-01-25

    The catalytic domain of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase located within the first 400 amino acids of the protein can be cleaved by trypsin in two subdomains (T25 and T18) corresponding to ATP-(T25) and calmodulin (CaM)-(T18) binding sites. Reassociation of subdomains by CaM is a cooperative process, which is a unique case among CaM-activated enzymes. To understand better the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we used several approaches such as partial deletions of the adenylate cyclase gene, isolation of peptides of various size, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments. We found that a stretch of 72 amino acid residues overlapping the carboxyl terminus of T25 and the amino terminus of T18 accounts for 90% of the binding energy of adenylate cyclase-CaM complex. The hydrophobic "side" of the helical region situated around Trp242 plays a major role in the interaction of adenylate cyclase with CaM, whereas basic residues that alternate with acidic residues in bacterial enzyme play a much less important role. The amino-terminal half of the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase contributes only 10% to the binding energy of CaM, whereas the last 130 amino acid residues are not at all involved in binding. However, these segments of adenylate cyclase might affect protein/protein interaction and catalysis by propagating conformational changes to the CaM-binding sequence which is located in the middle of the catalytic domain of bacterial enzyme. PMID:8420945

  16. Effects of Bordetella pertussis toxin pretreatment on the antiarrhythmic action of ischaemic preconditioning in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, L; Wainwright, C L; Parratt, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. Bordetella pertussis toxin, which catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of certain guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins), thus functionally uncoupling them from associated receptors, was examined to determine whether it modified the antiarrhythmic effect of ischaemic preconditioning in anaesthetized rats. 2. Pertussis toxin (25 micrograms kg-1, i.p., 48 h prior to heart isolation) attenuated the negative chronotropic effect of acetylcholine (ACh) in rat isolated Langendorff perfused hearts. ACh (10 microM) reduced heart rate by 4% in hearts taken from pertussis toxin-treated animals, compared to a reduction of 57% in hearts taken from animals treated only with vehicle. 3. In anaesthetized rats, ischaemic preconditioning (a single 3 min occlusion of the left main coronary artery followed by 10 min reperfusion) had a pronounced antiarrhythmic effect during a subsequent 30 min period of regional myocardial ischaemia. Compared to hearts receiving only a 30 min period of left coronary occlusion, there was a reduced mortality (67% and 0% for control and preconditioned groups, respectively; P < 0.01) and decreased incidences of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (25 micrograms kg-1, i.p., 48 h previously) did not modify the arrhythmias associated with a 30 min period of regional myocardial ischaemia, neither did it modify the reduction in mortality (from 56% to 0%; P < 0.05) associated with preconditioning. Furthermore, the decrease in total ventricular premature beat count induced by preconditioning seen in controls (from 427 +/- 130 to 95 +/- 45) was also seen in pertussis toxin-treated rats (from 252 +/- 190 to 57 +/- 25).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773535

  17. Specific immunoglobulin A to Bordetella pertussis antigens in mucosal secretion for rapid diagnosis of whooping cough.

    PubMed Central

    Granström, G; Askelöf, P; Granström, M

    1988-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) to Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertussis toxin (PT) was determined in mucosal secretions by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It took 3 to 4 h to complete the ELISA. The upper limits of normal values for age were determined in nasopharyngeal (NPH) secretions from 23 patients with viral infections and in 10 healthy adults working with pertussis patients or cultures. A significant IgA response to FHA was found in 38 of 54 (70%) and to PT in 28 of 54 (52%) NPH secretions from patients with pertussis confirmed by culture, serology, or both. The rate of positive responses to either antigen (44 of 54 [81%]) was significantly higher than that by culture alone (29 of 54 [54%]; P less than 0.01). The rate of positive responses increased from 65% in patients with symptoms for 1 week or less to 87 to 92% in patients with symptoms for 2 or more weeks. The specific IgA response to PT was found in 100% of NPH samples from 17 unimmunized children less than 3 years of age and in only 30% of adults and immunized children greater than 3 years of age. A response to FHA was found in 65 to 73% of the NPH secretions in all age groups. Saliva samples were found to contain specific IgA to FHA and PT in all age groups, but these were of diagnostic value in 50% (11 of 22) of the adult patients. The specificity of the ELISA was 100% (10 of 10 negatives) in NPH secretions from patients with pertussis-like cough who had negative cultures and serology. The results indicate that determination of specific IgA to PT and FHA in NPH aspirates represents a sensitive and rapid diagnostic method for the detection of pertussis. Images PMID:2898484

  18. Survey and Rapid Detection of Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Samples Targeting the BP485 in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Yinghua; Dong, Derong; Li, Huan; Zhao, Xiangna; Li, Lili; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Xuesong; Huang, Simo; Zeng, Ming; Huang, Liuyu; Zhang, Shumin; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is an important human respiratory pathogen. Here, we describe a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of B. pertussis in clinical samples based on a visual test. The LAMP assay detected the BP485 target sequence within 60 min with a detection limit of 1.3 pg/μl, a 10-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 31 non-pertussis respiratory pathogens tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the primers for B. pertussis. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 105 sputum and nasopharyngeal samples collected from the patients with suspected respiratory infections in China, a total of 12 B. pertussis isolates were identified from 33 positive samples detected by LAMP-based surveillance targeting BP485. Strikingly, a 4.5 months old baby and her mother were found to be infected with B. pertussis at the same time. All isolates belonged to different B. pertussis multilocus sequence typing groups with different alleles of the virulence-related genes including four alleles of ptxA, six of prn, four of tcfA, two of fim2, and three of fim3. The diversity of B. pertussis carrying toxin genes in clinical strains indicates a rapid and continuing evolution of B. pertussis. This combined with its high prevalence will make it difficult to control. In conclusion, we have developed a visual detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for rapid B. pertussis detection, especially in situations where resources are poor and in point-of-care tests. PMID:25798436

  19. Molecular Signatures of the Evolving Immune Response in Mice following a Bordetella pertussis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Raeven, René H. M.; Brummelman, Jolanda; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Nijst, Olaf E. M.; Kuipers, Betsy; Blok, Laura E. R.; Helm, Kina; van Riet, Elly; Jiskoot, Wim; van Els, Cecile A. C. M.; Han, Wanda G. H.; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Metz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues for such improvement. The purpose was to elucidate the kinetics of the protective immune response evolving after experimental Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) infection in mice. Data were collected from (i) individual analyses, i.e. microarray, flow cytometry, multiplex immunoassays, and bacterial clearance; (ii) twelve time points during the infection; and (iii) different tissues involved in the immune responses, i.e. lungs, spleen and blood. Combined data revealed detailed insight in molecular and cellular sequence of events connecting different phases (innate, bridging and adaptive) of the immune response following the infection. We detected a prolonged acute phase response, broad pathogen recognition, and early gene signatures of subsequent T-cell recruitment in the lungs. Activation of particular transcription factors and specific cell markers provided insight into the time course of the transition from innate towards adaptive immune responses, which resulted in a broad spectrum of systemic antibody subclasses and splenic Th1/Th17 memory cells against B. pertussis. In addition, signatures preceding the local generation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as IgA in the lungs, considered key elements in protection against B. pertussis, were established. In conclusion, molecular and cellular immunological processes in response to live B. pertussis infection were unraveled, which may provide guidance in selecting new vaccine candidates that should evoke local and prolonged protective immune responses. PMID:25137043

  20. Serum Immunoglobulin G Analysis to Establish a Delayed Diagnosis of Chronic Cough due to Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Jonathan M.; Burtis, Charles C.; Poetker, David M.; Blumin, Joel H.; Frank, Michael O.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Incidence of Bordetella pertussis infection among adults has risen significantly throughout the United States, but pertussis is not often considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic cough in adults. The authors hypothesized that serum IgG testing can establish a diagnosis of pertussis infection late in disease presentation when cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing are not reliable. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods Institutional B pertussis serum IgG and PCR tests were reviewed since 2007. Clinical factors assessed included vaccination history, duration and severity of cough, and general medical history. Results Forty-eight patients had B pertussis fimbrial agglutinogen IgG levels tested since 2007, with a significant increase in positive IgG tests (>27 IU/mL, 3 times the upper limit of normal) since fall 2009. Nineteen patients (39.5%) met IgG criteria for likely recent pertussis infection. Six IgG-positive patients also had PCR swab testing performed, with 50% positive for B pertussis. IgG values were similar for patients with positive or negative B pertussis PCR testing with positive IgG titers. IgG-positive patients were much more likely to have posttussive syncope. Recent vaccination for pertussis within the 3 years prior to IgG testing did not significantly increase IgG levels. Conclusions One-time B pertussis serum IgG testing and patient history can establish a likely diagnosis of recent pertussis infection in the adult patient with chronic cough late in disease presentation when PCR testing is often negative. Pertussis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients with chronic cough. PMID:21987649