Introduction: In Colombia, information on cancer morbidity at the population level is limited. Incidence estimates for most regions are based on mortality data. To improve the validity of these estimates, it is necessary that other population-based cancer registries, as well as Cali, provide cancer risk information. Objective: To describe the incidence and cancer mortality in the municipality of Pasto within the 1998-2007 period. Methods: The study population belongs to rural and urban areas of the municipality of Pasto. Collection, processing, and systematization of the data were performed according to internationally standardized parameters for population-based cancer registries. The cancer incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age, and tumor Results: During the 1998-2007 period 4,986 new cases of cancer were recorded of which 57.7% were in female. 2,503 deaths were presented, 52% in female. Neoplasm-associated infections are the leading cause of cancer morbidity in Pasto: stomach cancer in males and cervical cancer in females. Discussion: Cancer in general is a major health problem for the population of the municipality of Pasto. The overall behavior of the increasing incidence and cancer mortality in relation to other causes of death show the need to implement and strengthen prevention and promotion programs, focusing especially on tumors that produce greater morbidity and mortality in the population.
Bravo, Luis Eduardo; HidalgoTroya, Arsenio; Jurado, Daniel Marcelo; Bravo, Luisa Mercedes
Paleomagnetic results obtained from the sedimentary fill at the Sima del Elefante site in Atapuerca, Spain, reveal a geomagnetic reversal, interpreted as the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (0.78 Ma). The uppermost lithostratigraphic units (E17 through E19), which contain Mode II and III archaeological assemblages, display normal polarity magnetization, whereas the six lowermost units (E9 through E16) yield negative latitudinal virtual geomagnetic pole positions. Units E9 through E13, all of which display reverse magnetic polarity, contain Mode I (Oldowan) lithic tools, testifying to the presence of humans in the early Pleistocene (0.78-1.77 Ma). PMID:16249015
Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Rosas, Antonio; Benito, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E; Huguet, R
The initiation and evolution of the Central Andes has been the subject of controversy, and several important mechanic and dynamic models have been proposed. The timing and duration of deformation across the plateau is one of the key parameters to evaluate those models. We document structural and sedimentological data from the Pasto Ventura Basin of the southern Puna Plateau, a bedrock-bounded intermountain basin which contains ~350 m of sedimentary strata. U-Pb geochronology of zircons in interbedded volcanic ash layers and 40 Ar/39Ar geochronology of deformed lava flows helps constrain the age of deformation. We divide the Cenozoic sedimentary strata in the Pasto Ventura Basin into 5 units. T1 is an eolian sandstone, with strong eolian cross bedding. Dated volcanic ashes within the T1 yield ages of 7.88±0.58 Ma and 7.77±0.42 Ma (Schoenbohm and Carrapa, in review). This is the youngest sedimentary unit. T2 is composed of fine to medium sandstone with parallel lamination. T3 is red mudstone with thin (less than 0.5 m) fine sandstone interbedded layers. T4 is a conglomerate-rich sedimentary unit and is exposed in the southern region of the basin. Volcanic ashes from this unit yield ages of ~9.5 Ma. T5 is exposed a small area in the northwestern part of the mapping area and is inferred to be the oldest sediments that are found in this region. Detailed mapping reveals the structural complexity in the Pasto Ventura region, especially within the sedimentary units. The major structure in the map is a west-dipping thrust fault that brings the metamorphic bedrock to the surface, and transfers into a blind thrust along strike to the south. This fault is a member of the previously identified El Peñón-Pasto Ventura fault group (Allmendinger et al., 1989). An interbedded volcanic ash layer is truncated by this fault and the age of it will provide the onset timing of the thrust faulting in the Pasto Ventura region. A secondary west-dipping thrust fault developed to the east of the major thrust and deformed the related sedimentary units. This secondary thrust fault transfers to a blind thrust to the south as well and is replaced by a series of anticline-syncline pairs. A basaltic andesite body (Nb) is brought to the surface by an anticline and is inferred to be part of the bedrock of the basin. Thus the age of Nb will constrain the timing of onset sedimentation and deformation in Pasto Ventura Basin. We also identified a number of syn-depositional structures. Two interbedded volcanic ash layers from a logged section along an internal unconformity yield ages of 9.8±0.1 Ma (below unconformity) and 9.99±0.12 Ma (above unconformity). This indicates deformation in the Pasto Ventura Basin must have been underway around 10 Ma. We will provide ~12 new volcanic ash ages and one Ar-Ar flow age for the Pasto Ventura Basin. By conducting structural analysis, we will be able to refine the timing of deformation in this location of the southern Puna Plateau. In the context of other regional data, this will shed light on the proposed mechanical and geodynamic processes operating in the southern Puna Plateau.
Zhou, R.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Cosca, M. A.
ObjectiveThis article characterises the burden of childhood injuries and provides examples of evidence–based injury prevention strategies developed using a citywide injury surveillance system in Pasto, Colombia.MethodsFatal (2003-2007) and non-fatal (2006-2007) childhood injury data were analysed by age, sex, cause, intent, place of occurrence, and disposition.ResultsBoys accounted for 71.5% of fatal and 64.9% of non-fatal injuries. The overall fatality rate for
Victoria Espitia-Hardeman; Nagesh N Borse; Ann M Dellinger; Carmen Elena Betancourt; Alba Nelly Villareal; Luz Diana Caicedo; Carlos Portillo
The multicyclic Pastos Grandes Caldera Complex in SW Bolivia was the site of two supereruptions. Over 2500 km3 of magma were erupted during the 5.45×0.02 Ma Chuhuilla, and the 2.89 × 0.01 Ma Pastos Grandes Ignimbrites resulting in confocal nested calderas. In addition, each cycle has associated lava flows and domes and plutonic xenoliths allowing the complete magmatic cycle from preclimatic magma assembly to pluton formation to be investigated. U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of the volcanic and plutonic counterparts, collected with SIMS, reveal the zircon crystallization periods associated with each supereruption cycle. Heterogeneous zircon population ages were deconvolved to identify autocryst populations that reveal age ranges for the Chuhuilla and Pastos Grandes magma cycles are ~1.3 and ~1.2 Ma respectively. Zircon chemistry reveals that both magma cycles show a clear trend of decreasing Zr/Hf with increasing Yb/Gd, implicating co-crystallization of titanite and amphibole with zircon in both pre and post-climactic magma stages. Ti-in-zircon model temperatures vary over nearly identical ranges (~150°C) in both magma cycles. Thus zircon chronochemistry reveals strikingly consistent thermal and compositional conditions during to confocal supereruption magmatic cycles separated by nearly 3 Ma. These supereruption cycles occurred during the period of maximum thermal maturity of the APVC magmatic system connoting that the zircon chronochemistry records the strongly chemically and thermally buffered melt-rich lifetimes for these systems during the peak of an ignimbrite flare-up.
Kaiser, J. F.; de Silva, S. L.; Schmitt, A. K.
Recent normal and strike-slip faulting on the Puna Plateau of NW Argentina has been linked to lithospheric foundering, gravitational spreading, plate boundary forces and a decrease in crustal shortening from north to south. However, the timing, kinematics and rate of extension remain poorly constrained. We focus on the Pasto Ventura region (NW Argentina) located on the southern Puna Plateau and recent deformation (<1 Ma). Field mapping and kinematic analysis across offset volcanic cinder cones show that the overall extension direction is subhorizontal, is oriented NE-SW to NNE-SSW, and occurs at a slow, time-integrated rate of 0.02 to 0.08 mm/yr since at least 0.8-0.5 Ma. A regional compilation from this study and existing data shows that recent extension across the Puna Plateau is subhorizontal but varies in azimuthal orientation dramatically. Data from the Pasto Ventura region are consistent with a number of models to explain normal and strike-slip faulting on the Puna Plateau, all of which likely influence the region. Some role for lower lithospheric foundering through dripping appears to be seen based on the regional extension directions and ages of mafic volcanism in the southern Puna Plateau.
Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Cosca, Michael
Gualas Glacier is an outlet glacier of the Northern Patagonian Icefield (NPI), one of the largest temperate ice bodies on Earth. NPI is nourished by moisture from the Pacific Ocean, which is transported by the southern hemisphere Westerlies and results in year-round precipitation. This system also creates a strong West to East gradient due to the rain shadow effect of the Andes (Warren, 1993). Most glaciers of the NPI, including Gualas Glacier, are currently receding from their historical maximum position, which was reached during the northern hemisphere Little Ice Age (LIA) (Harrison and Winchester, 2000). However, virtually nothing is known about the Holocene behavior of NPI outlet glaciers prior to the LIA, although it is generally assumed that they followed the pattern of Neoglacial advances described for the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI) by Mercer (1965, 1968, 1976). The lack of data in this sensitive area of the Patagonian Andes, the only continental cordillera in the Southern Hemisphere that intersects the entire Westerly Wind Belt, limits our understanding of climate processes that relate mid-latitude circulation patterns with low and high latitudes as well as the inter-hemispheric coupling of climate changes. We present the results of a marine geological survey at Golfo Elefantes, the depositional basin of Gualas Glacier. The dataset includes swath bathymetry, single channel seismic data and sediment cores analyses. The studied sedimentary record spans, with some hiatuses, at least the last 10.5 Ka. No evidences of ice proximal or till deposits were found in the area, and seismic records show no evidence of basin-wide erosional hiatuses. This implies that the arcuate terminal moraines that occur along the edges of Golfo Elefantes, which have been suggested to represent Neoglacial advances of Gualas Glacier, were instead formed during the waning stages of the local LGM (Late Pleistocene) after ~12.6 ka according to paleogeographical reconstructions (Turner, 2005). Between 10.5 and 4.3 ka, the basin filled with fine-grained sediments deposited from low concentration density currents to form subhorizontal layers that filled topographic lows. A depositional hiatus of unknown duration, but likely spanning ~2400-3300 years, separates early Holocene sediments from late Holocene strata (<1-1.9 ka) that were deposited from high density turbidity flows. Estimates of sediment flux, based on Syvitski et al.’s (2007) model for sediment discharge imply that low sediment discharge occurred during the early Holocene, whereas the middle-late Holocene was characterized by periods when sediment discharge was several times higher than predicted by this model. This excess sediment discharge is interpreted as the result of purging of sediments stored either in proglacial lakes or in the subglacial environment of Gualas Glacier, in addition to increased sediment flux caused by increased precipitation.
Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.; Anderson, J. B.; Bertrand, S.; Wellner, J. S.
The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum" level of the Gran Dolina cave (Atapuerca) that has yielded H. antecessor remains at ca 960 ky. When compared with Orce localities of similar age (i.e. Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3) that have yielded strong evidence of hominin presence (mainly lithic industries), it appears that they have a fairly similar environmental pattern, having in common a good representation of woodland and water-edge areas, even though dry environments are more developed in Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3 than in Sima del Elefante and Gran Dolina. H. antecessor may have thus lived under a warm-humid climate in a patchy landscape mainly composed of humid meadows and riparian woodlands. Such a landscape may have provided favourable conditions for a high diversity of large mammals, as well as for hiding and escaping from large carnivores.
Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald
The experiment was carried at the Agrarian Sciences Institute of the Alfenas University - UNIFENAS, located in Alfenas, South of Minas Gerais State. The aim of this work was to qualify the chemical composition elephant grass silage produced with five different levels of dried citrus pulp. The elephant grass (Cameroon cultivar) was used with one year of age whose area
ROSANA CRISTINA PEREIRA; VERA LÚCIA BANYS; ALEXANDRE CHRISTÓFARO SILVA; RICARDO GONÇALVES; ANDRADE PEREIRA
Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO2 (Enano-TiO2) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO2. In this study, Enano-TiO2 was found to
Zhuanxi Luo; Zhenhong Wang; QunShan Wei; Changzhou Yan; Feng Liu
PRIMEROS REGISTROS DE LA ORCA PIGMEA Feresa attenuata (Cetacea, Delphinidae) Y DEL CACHALOTE ENANO Kogia simus (Cetacea, Physeteridae) EN ECUADOR CONTINENTAL FIRST RECORD OF PYGMY KILLER WHALE Feresa attenuata (Cetacea, Delphinidae) AND DWARF SPERM WHALE Kogia simus (Cetacea, Physeteridae) ON THE ECUADOREAN CONTINENTAL COAST
A young specimen of pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), 91 cm long, stranded in San Pedro, Province of Guayas (80°44'W, 01050'S) in 27 April 1992. The animal was frozen and examined after. 20 days. External measurements and photographs of the specimen are presented.
Fernando Félix; Ben Haase; Jorge Samaniego
The objective of this trial was to evaluate the chemical composition and fungal microbiota of different proportions of elephantgrass and mesquite pod silages: 100:0, 67:33, 34:66, and 0:100, respectively. A complete randomized design with four replications per treatment was used. The material was ensiled in PVC silos and remained sealed during a 120-days period. After opening the silos, silage samples
Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Adriana Guim; Iraci Saraiva Souza; Krystyna Gourlach Lira; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos Santos; José Carlos Batista Dubeux Júnior
To evaluate the nutritive value and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silages with increasing soursop by-product (SB) addition levels (0; 5; 10; 15 and 20%), this work was carried out. A completely ramdomized design with four replicates was adopted. In the silages elaboration, 20 silos of PVC with 100 mm of diameter and 340 mm of length were used,
JÚNIOR RÉGIS; BATISTA CYSNE; JOSÉ NEUMAN; MIRANDA NEIVA; JOSEMIR DE SOUZA GONÇALVES
The work investigated whether different genetic constitutions of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) trees af- fected volume, concentration and total sugar (sucrose equivalents) of nectar secreted by their flowers, as well as pro- bable changes with time in nectar characteristics. Samples of nectar were collected from 1- and 2-day-old flowers, bagged and unbagged, at anthesis and when bees (Apis mellifera L.)
BRENO MAGALHÃES FREITAS
The aim of the present study was to determine a seasonal growth curve in order to define the optimum harvesting time of an alfalfa - orchard grass sward during the different seasons of the year. To this end, a seasonal growth analysis was carried out. Twenty four (24) plots (3 x 3 m) were allocated in a completely randomized design
Alfonso Hernández-Garay; Jorge Pérez Pérez; José G. Herrera
Producción de forraje y componentes del rendimiento del pasto Brachiaria humidicola CIAT 6133 con diferente manejo de la defoliación Effect of defoliation management on herbage yield in Isleño grass (Brachiaria humidicola CIAT 6133)
In order to evaluate the effect of cutting height (9, 12, and 15 cm) and frequency (3, 4, and 5 wk -rainy season- and 5, 6 and 7 wk -dry and windy seasons) a randomized block design with a 3x3 factorial arrangement and three replicates was used to study Brachiaria humidicola attributes: herbage accumulation, growth rate (GR), leaf mass (LM),
Daniel Martínez Méndez; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Javier Francisco Enríquez Quiroz; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Sergio S. González Muñoz; José Guadalupe Herrera Haro
LA CITOCININA BAP RETRASA SENESCENCIA, AUMENTA ANTIOXIDANTES, PROTEINA Y CRECIMIENTO EN EL PASTO OVILLO (Dactylis glomerata L.) THE CYTOKININ BAP DELAYS SENESCENCE AND INCREASES ANTIOXIDANTS, PROTEIN AND GROWTH IN ORCHARD GRASS (Dactylis glomerata L.)
Senescence is one of the main causes in the reduction of forage nutritive quality and green area. Cytokinins promote delay of leaf senescence, but little is known of their effect on regulation of oxidative stress in forages. This study assessed the effect of the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on growth, senescence, soluble protein (PS) ascorbic acid (AA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and
Claudia Y. Wilson-García; Hilda A. Zavaleta-Mancera; Humberto López-Delgado; Alfonso Hernández-Garay; Programa Nacional de Papa
Análisis morfológico de la diversidad del pasto navajita (Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Steud.), en Chihuahua, México Morphological analysis of blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths) diversity in Chihuahua, Mexico
An efficient morphologic characterization of plants includes evaluation of forage traits. The objective was to analyze morphologic diversity in native populations of blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Steud.) in Chihuahua. In 2006, 173 ecotypes were collected in Chihuahua and transplanted in La Campana Experimental Site. Ecotypes were evaluated through morphological traits and their population structure
Carlos Morales Nieto; Luis Madrid Pérez; Alicia Melgoza Castillo; Martín Martínez
Biochemical characterization of the eelgrass Zostera marina at its southern distribution limit in the North Pacific [Caracterizacio??n bioqui??mica del pasto marino Zostera marina en el li??mite sur de su distribucio??n en el Paci??fico Norte
The eelgrass Zostera marina L. is distributed along the Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) where it is exposed to a wide range of irradiances and temperatures that could promote changes in its biochemical composition. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize the variations in the levels of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, ash and calories in the shoots of Z. marina from the north (San Quintin) and south (Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio lagoons) of the peninsula. Temperature in the southern lagoons was 5-6??C higher than in the northern lagoon; likewise, in situ irradiance was two-fold greater in the south than in the north. As a result of the lower irradiance levels, the concentration of chlorophyll in the shoots of Z. marina was twice as high (1.7 mg gWW-1) in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones (0.8 mg gWW-1). Similar to chlorophyll levels, the concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the shoots was greater in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones, suggesting that the high levels of chlorophyll are enough to compensate for the low irradiance levels and to maintain a positive carbon balance at San Quintin. On the other hand, the levels of proteins in the shoots from the north of the peninsula were slightly lower than those from the southern populations. In general, these results suggest that the different environmental conditions to which Z. marina is exposed along the peninsula impact its biochemical composition.
Cabello-Pasini, A.; Muniz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D. H.
INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE CHUFA (Cyperus esculentus) Y PASTO BERMUDA (Cynodon dactylon) CON MULCH VEGETAL PROVENIENTE DE CENTENO (Secale cereale) EN VIDES Growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) by a mulch derived from rye (Secale cereale) in grapevines
Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005) were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) growing on the planted row produced by a mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless) and
Juan Ormeño-Núñez; Gerardo Pino-Rojas; Farouk Garfe-Vergara
EFECTO DE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN CON LEUCAENA (Leucaena leucocephala LAM. DE WIT) SOBRE LA DEGRADABILIDAD RUMINAL DEL PASTO ALEMÁN (Echinochloa polystachya H.B.K. HITCH) Effect of Leucaena Supplementation (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. De Wit) on Ruminal Degradability of Aleman-Grass (Echinochloa polystachya H.B.K. Hitch)
To evaluate the effects of Leucaena supplementation on in situ ruminal dry matter (DM) degradability of Aleman-grass (AG), DM potential degradability (a+b), soluble fraction (a), maximum degradability (DM), degradation rate (c), ruminal pH and am- monia nitrogen, three ruminal cannulated Criollo Limonero steers were fed at 14-day adaptation period (F1) and samples were taken during the following 4-day period (F2).
Juan Vergara-López; Ángel Rodríguez-Petit; Carlos Navarro; Ángel Atencio
One of the major issues concerning development activities among groups of traditional livestock producers is that of common pastures and the overgrazing that is often associated with this type of land tenure. Worries about competitive behavior among pasto...
K. A. Jamtgaard L. Jimenez-Zamalloa
A review of the available data is used to discuss the origins of the Lower Paleolithic industries without Acheulean bifaces and the Acheulean biface technologies in Western Eurasia. The recent discoveries of the earliest hominid fossils (Dmanisi and Sima del Elefante) suggest that the first Homo to enter Western Eurasia were Homo habilis-rudolfensis hominids originated from Africa and bearing a
Vladimir Doronichev; Liubov Golovanova
This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…
Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania
RESUMO - Foram utilizados quatro bovinos da raça holandesa canulados no rúmen, distribuídos em blocos, ao acaso, alimentados a pasto de coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon). Os animais foram suplementados com ração concentrada contendo grãos de soja moídos colocados no rúmen, às sete e às dezoito horas. Em todos os animais foram incubados sacos de náilon com amostras de cada tratamento: grãos
Leandro das Dores Ferreira da Silva; Bruno Mazzer de Oliveira Ramos; Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti; Marco Antônio da Rocha; Fábio Lucas Zito de Moraes
(1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (firstname.lastname@example.org), (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases
E. Faber; C. Morán; J. Poggenburg; G. Garzón; M. Teschner; F. H. Weinlich
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether acid suppression and bismuth medications interfere with the performance of diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection.METHODS: Sixty patients with previous diagnoses of atrophic gastritis and H. pylori infection made in gastric biopsies taken at Hospital Departmental, Pasto, Colombia, were enrolled in the study. 13C breath urea test (UBT) and stool
Luis E. Bravo; J. Luis Realpe; Cristina Campo; Robertino Mera; Pelayo Correa
Polygenetic, silicic collapse calderas such as Cerro Galán, Pastos Grandes, La Pacana, Vilama, Negra Muerta, Farallón Negro, Cerro Guacha, among others are common in the central Andes. Here we describe in detail the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in NW Argentina, which comprises two caldera-forming episodes occurred at 17.15 Ma and 10.3 Ma, respectively. We analyse the significance of its structural
Ivan A. Petrinovic; Joan Martí; Gerardo J. Aguirre-Diaz; Silvina R. Guzmán; Adelina Geyer; Pablo Grosse; Natalia Salado Paz
OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of virulence-associated genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in two Colombian populations with contrasting gastric cancer risk but with similar H. pylori infection prevalence.METHODS:Gastric biopsies were taken from 241 subjects from the high gastric cancer risk area of Pasto and from 93 subjects from the low risk area of Tumaco. Four gastric
Luis E Bravo; Leen-Jan van Doorn; J. Luis Realpe; Pelayo Correa
Banana starches (BS) were isolated from Enano, Morado, Valery and Macho cultivars. The BS possessed B-type crystallinity and an amylose content varying from 19.32 to 26.35%. Granules had an oval morphology with different major-to-minor axis ratios, exhibiting both mono- and bi-modal distributions and mean particle sizes varying from 32.5 to 45 ?m. BS displayed zeta-potential values ranging between -32.25 and -17.32 mV, and formed gels of incipient to moderate stability. The enthalpy of gelatinization of BS affected the crystalline order stability within the granules. In-vitro digestibility tests showed fractions as high as 68% of resistant starch. Rheological oscillatory tests at 1 Hz showed that BS dispersions (7.0%, w/w) exhibited Type III behaviour, attributed to the formation of a continuous phase complex three-dimensional amylose gel reinforced by swollen starch granules acting as fillers. Amylose content and granules morphology were the main factors influencing the BS properties. PMID:24299760
Utrilla-Coello, R G; Rodríguez-Huezo, M E; Carrillo-Navas, H; Hernández-Jaimes, C; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J
The origin of somatic embryos obtained from meristematic apexes of the Musa (AAA) clone "Gran enano" was analyzed through histological and morphological studies during the various development phases of the process. The research point out that somatic embryos developed directly from perivascular parenchyma cells of the leaves. Histological sections of globular embryos showed a radial disposition to cell and the existence of an epidermal layer that surrounds the embryo completely. When citocinine (Z or BA) was added, some embryos remained in globular stage with mild signs of enlargement but with no later development of invagination. Other's embryos reached the invagination stage; and some reached the enlargement stage with active photosynthetic tissues. However there were no to generation of complete plant regardless of additional treatment, such as "osmotic shock" or the additions of GA3--At present do not have an explanations for this results. Therefore, additional experiment should be in early, intermediate and later stages of somatic embryogenesis, in order to understand the mechanisms underlying the lack of development of plants from somatics embryos. PMID:11220222
Vidal, M C; Vargas, T E; de García, E
The Neogene ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) in the central Andes produced calderas and ignimbrites covering >70,000 km2 in Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina and totaling >11,000 km3 of magma. One of the questions related to this extraordinary occurrence is how long it took for these ignimbrites to be emplaced. In an effort to determine this, we have combined field correlations, high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and characteristic remanent magnetism (ChRM) to constrain the dates of the eruptions. Herein we present the paleomagnetic data and preliminary interpretations, including the definition of two new super-eruptions in the APVC (including the youngest yet identified in the APVC). Several ignimbrites occupy similar stratigraphic positions. The Pastos Grandes and Tara Ignimbrites erupted 2.8-3.5 Ma, while the Chuhuilla, Alota, and Guacha Ignimbrites date between 5.3 and 5.6 Ma. The Pastos Grandes and Tara Ignimbrites have similar ChRM directions. The ChRM directions of the Alota and Guacha Ignimbrites are clearly distinct but the Chuhuilla Ignimbrite data have very large dispersion. The thermal demagnetization reveals a single component in nearly all the samples, which may indicate that the ignimbrites were emplaced above the magnetite Curie temperature. Current efforts center on refining and reducing the errors on the ChRM directions. AMS was used to determine flow directions and thus define the source areas for ignimbrites. The 3.51 Ma Tara Ignimbrite, first recognized as ponded ignimbrite in La Pacana caldera and thought to be erupted from there, is sourced in the Guacha caldera of Bolivia, likely from the western dome complex, which yields similar dates. Great thicknesses of Tara Ignimbrite are ponded within the Guacha caldera, and also around Cerro Zapaleri. This is the youngest super-eruption in the central APVC. The Pastos Grandes caldera was previously thought to have formed during the Chuhuilla Ignimbrite eruption at 5.45 Ma. Our AMS data show the Pastos Grandes Ignimbrite was erupted from the Pastos Grandes caldera and new dates show it was emplaced at 2.89 Ma, corroborated by the ChRM data. It is exposed over 6000 km2 with a volume of >800 km3, making it the youngest super-eruption in the APVC. This may have been the reactivation of the caldera after a ~2.5 million year hiatus in ignimbrite-forming eruptions. Our AMS data confirm that the Guacha, Laguna Colorado, and Vilama ignimbrites come from their eponymous calderas, with some topographic effects upon the flow directions.
Ort, M. H.; de Silva, S. L.; Jiménez, N.
La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.
Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim
The Orce region has one of the best late Pliocene and early Pleistocene continental paleobiological records of Europe. It is situated in the northeastern sector of the intramontane Guadix-Baza Basin (Granada, Andalusia, southern Spain). Here we describe a new fossil hominin tooth from the site of Barranco León, dated between 1.02 and 1.73 Ma (millions of years ago) by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), which, in combination with paleomagnetic and biochronologic data, is estimated to be close to 1.4 Ma. While the range of dates obtained from these various methods overlaps with those published for the Sima del Elefante hominin locality (1.2 Ma), the overwhelming majority of evidence points to an older age. Thus, at the moment, the Barranco León hominin is the oldest from Western Europe. PMID:23481345
Toro-Moyano, Isidro; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Agustí, Jordi; Souday, Caroline; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Fajardo, Beatriz; Duval, Mathieu; Falguères, Christophe; Oms, Oriol; Parés, Josep Maria; Anadón, Pere; Julià, Ramón; García-Aguilar, José Manuel; Moigne, Anne-Marie; Espigares, María Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Palmqvist, Paul
The Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain, is known from many prehistoric and palaeontological sites documenting human prehistory in Europe. Three major sites, Gran Dolina, Galería and Sima del Elefante, range in age from the oldest hominin of Western Europe dated to 1.1 to 1.3 Ma (millions of years ago) at Sima del Elefante to c.a. 0.2 Ma on the top of the Galería archaeological sequence. Recently, a chronology based on luminescence methods (Thermoluminescence [TL] and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence [IRSL]) applied to cave sediments was published for the Gran Dolina and Galería sites. The authors proposed for Galería an age of 450 ka (thousands of years ago) for the units lower GIII and GII, suggesting that the human occupation there is younger than the hominid remains of Sima de los Huesos (>530 ka) around 1 km away. In this paper, we present new results obtained by combined Electron Spin Resonance/Uranium-series (ESR/U-series) dating on 20 herbivorous teeth from different levels at the Galería site. They are in agreement with the TL results for the upper part of the stratigraphic sequence (GIV and GIIIb), in the range of between 200 and 250 ka. But for the GIIIa to GIIb levels, the TL ages become abruptly older by 200 ka while ESR ages remain relatively constant. Finally, the TL and ESR data agree in the lowest part of the section (GIIa); both fall in the range of around 350–450 ka. Our results suggest a different interpretation for the GII, GIII and GIV units of Galería and the upper part of Gran Dolina (TD10 and TD11) than obtained by TL. The ESR/U-series results are supported by a Bayesian analysis, which allows a better integration between stratigraphic information and radiometric data.
Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bischoff, James L.; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Ollé, Andreu; Quilles, Anita; Ghaleb, Bassam; Moreno, Davinia; Dolo, Jean-Michel; Shao, Qingfeng; Vallverdú, Josep; Carbonell, Eudald; María Bermúdez de Castro, Jose; Arsuaga, Juan Luis
Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes at Galeras Volcano were relocated using the waveform catalog waveform and preliminary phase arrival data compiled by the monitoring network at Observatorio Volcanológico y Sismológico de Pasto. Several routines were developed in MATLAB, mainly to prepare waveforms, calculate differential travel times, and identifying seismic families; and the HypoDD program was implemented, which allowed performing the relocations. The procedure resulted in the detection of 10 swarm-type families and 4 spatial-type families of earthquakes, which reveal a fault of 1.6 km bounding the Urcunina Caldera, and a ring fault of 1.8 km in diameter, adjacent to the crater. Reductions in the range 56.84% - 87.48% were achieved in the hypocentral parameters uncertainties as compared to uncertainties in traditional locations, to finally obtain an alternative image of the Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes distribution Galeras Volcano VG with a significantly lower uncertainty.
Lizarazo C, M. J.; Alvarado, H.; Sanchez, J. J.
Background Helicobacter pylori infected children from coastal Tumaco, Colombia have more parasitism, and adults have lower gastric cancer risk compared to high altitude Pasto/Tuquerres residents. Because helminth and Toxoplasma gondii infections alter helicobacter gastritis in rodent models, we determined if seropositivity to Ascaris lumbricoides or T. gondii was associated with Th2-IgG1 or Th1-IgG2 responses to H. pylori. Methods Sera (240) from the two populations were evaluated for A. lumbricoides and T. gondii seropositivity and results correlated with IgE and IgG isotype responses to H. pylori. Results Most Tumaco children and adults were seropositive for A. lumbricoides (89%, 66%), T. gondii (59%, 98%) or both (45%, 66%). In contrast, seropositivity among Pasto/Tuquerres children was much lower (9% A. lumbricoides, 11% T. gondii and 2% dual positive) but increased in adults (58% A. lumbricoides, 82% T. gondii and 41% dual positive). A. lumbricoides seropositivity correlated with elevated IgE and anti-inflammatory Th2-IgG1 responses to H. pylori, while Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity was linked to elevated IgE, pro-inflammatory Th1-IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses to H. pylori. Individuals with high T. gondii titers had reduced Th1-IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses to Helicobacter pylori. Conclusions Results support regional differences for childhood parasitism and indicate A. lumbricoides and T. gondii infections may impact inflammatory responses to H. pylori and partially explain differences in gastric cancer risk in Colombia.
Ek, Courtney; Whary, Mark T.; Ihrig, Melanie; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Fox, James G.
Scarabaeinae specimens were collected with the use of pitfall traps baited with human excrement, rotten meat and rotting banana, between May 2009 and April 2010, in three forest fragments in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 'Morro do Elefante' (MOEL), 'Morro do Cerrito' (MOCE) and 'Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria' (UFSM). A total of 19,699 individuals belonging to 33 species were collected. Canthidium aff. trinodosum Boheman, 1858, Canthon latipes Blanchard, 1845, Dichotomius assifer (Eschscholtz 1822), Eurysternus caribaeus (Herbst 1789), Canthidium sp. and Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845, were the most abundant species. MOEL showed the greatest richness, MOCE the greatest abundance, while UFSM showed the lowest values of richness and abundance. The greatest similarity (qualitative and quantitative) was found between MOEL and MOCE, while the lowest occurred between MOCE and UFSM. Only 51% of the species were common to all three fragments. The richness and abundance of Scarabaeinae were positively correlated with the air temperature. The richness of the fragment decreased according to the smaller size and the greater degree of disturbance of vegetation structure. PMID:23828347
Da Silva, Pedro G; Vaz-De-Mello, Fernando Z; Di Mare, Rocco A
The Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) of the Central Andes has produced prodigious silicic volcanism (at least 11,000 km3 of magma) over the last 10 Ma including some of the largest known ignimbrites on Earth. Despite excellent exposure, little previous work had been conducted on the timing and distribution of ignimbrite volcanism in the Lípez region of southwestern Bolivia, the heart of the APVC. To address this deficiency we have performed ~612 single crystal laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses from 39 pumice and bulk matrix samples collected from the main ignimbrite units within the Lípez region. Geochemistry of pumice and mineral samples, and paleomagnetic data are also being used to correlate individual ignimbrite units. Our new 40Ar/39Ar results establish new or refined eruption ages (with 2? error) from the Vilama caldera at 8.41±0.02 Ma, Pastos Grandes caldera at 5.45±0.02 and 2.94±0.01 Ma, and Guacha caldera at 5.65±0.01, and 3.57±0.02 Ma. New ages were also determined for eruptions from the Panizos ignimbrite shield (6.86±0.03 Ma), Juvina ignimbrite shield (5.23±0.01 Ma), and the Laguna Colorado ignimbrite shield (2.21±0.05 and 1.95±0.03 Ma). The oldest ignimbrite we have found in the area is 10.33±0.64 Ma, a local unit beneath the Vilama ignimbrite. The youngest units have been identified west of the Guacha caldera with eruption ages of 1.70±0.6 Ma and 0.70±0.01 Ma. These results demonstrate that ignimbrite-producing eruptions in the Lípez region span the age of APVC volcanism previously established, with the largest eruptions occurring from long-lived, cyclic supervolcano caldera systems like Guacha and Pastos Grandes. The aggregate data from the APVC support the hypothesis that the APVC developed predominantly during distinct pulses of massive ignimbrite eruptions at ~8, 6, and 4 Ma and attest to episodic behavior of the magmatic system. Ignimbrites of <1 Ma, the cyclical nature of activity, and the continued geothermal presence and active local surface deformation suggest that the magma system of the APVC remains active and may produce further volcanism.
Salisbury, M.; de Silva, S. L.; Jicha, B.; Singer, B.; Jiménez, N.; Ort, M.
Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)
Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr. [University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States)
Volca??n Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new 14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.
Banks, N. G.; Calvache, V. , M. L.; Williams, S. N.
The incoming Sentinel missions have been designed to be the first remote sensing satellite system devoted to operational services. In particular, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 sensor, dedicated to globally acquire over land in the interferometric mode, guarantees an unprecedented capability to investigate and monitor the Earth surface deformations related to natural and man-made hazards. Thanks to the global coverage strategy and 12-day revisit time, jointly with the free and open access data policy, such a system will allow an extensive application of Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) techniques. In such a framework, European Commission has been funding several projects through the GMES and Copernicus programs, aimed at preparing the user community to the operational and extensive use of Sentinel-1 products for risk mitigation and management purposes. Among them, the FP7-DORIS, an advanced GMES downstream service coordinated by Italian National Council of Research (CNR), is based on the fully exploitation of advanced DInSAR products in landslides and subsidence contexts. In particular, the DORIS project (www.doris-project.eu) has developed innovative scientific techniques and methodologies to support Civil Protection Authorities (CPA) during the pre-event, event, and post-event phases of the risk management cycle. Nonetheless, the huge data stream expected from the Sentinel-1 satellite may jeopardize the effective use of such data in emergency response and security scenarios. This potential bottleneck can be properly overcome through the development of modern infrastructures, able to efficiently provide computing resources as well as advanced services for big data management, processing and dissemination. In this framework, CNR and ESA have tightened up a cooperation to foster the use of GRID and cloud computing platforms for remote sensing data processing, and to make available to a large audience advanced and innovative tools for DInSAR products generation and exploitation. In particular, CNR is porting the multi-temporal DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) into the ESA G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) and CIOP (Cloud Computing Operational Pilot) platforms (Elefante et al., 2013) within the SuperSites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) project, which aim is contributing to the development of an ecosystem for big geo-data processing and dissemination. This work focuses on presenting the main results that have been achieved by the DORIS project concerning the use of advanced DInSAR products for supporting CPA during the risk management cycle. Furthermore, based on the DORIS experience, a sustainability model for Core and Downstream Copernicus services based on the effective exploitation of cloud platforms is proposed. In this framework, remote sensing community, both service providers and users, can significantly benefit from the Helix Nebula-The Science Cloud initiative, created by European scientific institutions, agencies, SMEs and enterprises to pave the way for the development and exploitation of a cloud computing infrastructure for science. REFERENCES Elefante, S., Imperatore, P. , Zinno, I., M. Manunta, E. Mathot, F. Brito, J. Farres, W. Lengert, R. Lanari, F. Casu, 2013, "SBAS-DINSAR Time series generation on cloud computing platforms". IEEE IGARSS Conference, Melbourne (AU), July 2013.
Manunta, Michele; Calò, Fabiana; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Farres, Jordi; Guzzetti, Fausto; Imperatore, Pasquale; Lanari, Riccardo; Lengert, Wolfgang; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco
Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is an effective technique to estimate and monitor ground displacements with centimetre accuracy . In the last decade, advanced DInSAR algorithms, such as the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS)  one that is aimed at following the temporal evolution of the ground deformation, showed to be significantly useful remote sensing tools for the geoscience communities as well as for those related to hazard monitoring and risk mitigation. DInSAR scenario is currently characterized by the large and steady increasing availability of huge SAR data archives that have a broad range of diversified features according to the characteristics of the employed sensor. Indeed, besides the old generation sensors, that include ERS, ENVISAT and RADARSAT systems, the new X-band generation constellations, such as COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X, have permitted an overall study of ground deformations with an unprecedented detail thanks to their improved spatial resolution and reduced revisit time. Furthermore, the incoming ESA Sentinel-1 SAR satellite is characterized by a global coverage acquisition strategy and 12-day revisit time and, therefore, will further contribute to improve deformation analyses and monitoring capabilities. However, in this context, the capability to process such huge SAR data archives is strongly limited by the existing DInSAR algorithms, which are not specifically designed to exploit modern high performance computational infrastructures (e.g. cluster, grid and cloud computing platforms). The goal of this paper is to present a Parallel version of the SBAS algorithm (P-SBAS) which is based on a dual-level parallelization approach and embraces combined parallel strategies , . A detailed description of the P-SBAS algorithm will be provided together with a scalability analysis focused on studying its performances. In particular, a P-SBAS scalability analysis with respect to the number of exploited CPUs has been carried out on real data acquired by ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed sensors. Moreover, the P-SBAS performances with respect to the size of the input dataset will also be investigated. This kind of analysis is essential for assessing the goodness of the P-SBAS algorithm and gaining insight into its applicability to different scenarios. Besides, such results will also become crucial to identify and evaluate how to appropriately exploit P-SBAS to process the forthcoming large Sentinel-1 data stream. References  Massonnet, D., Briole, P., Arnaud, A., "Deflation of Mount Etna monitored by Spaceborne Radar Interferometry", Nature, vol. 375, pp. 567-570, 1995.  Berardino, P., G. Fornaro, R. Lanari, and E. Sansosti, "A new algorithm for surface deformation monitoring based on small baseline differential SAR interferograms", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 2375-2383, Nov. 2002.  Elefante, S., Imperatore, P. , Zinno, I., M. Manunta, E. Mathot, F. Brito, J. Farres, W. Lengert, R. Lanari, F. Casu, "SBAS-DINSAR Time series generation on cloud computing platforms", IEEE IGARSS 2013, July 2013, Melbourne (AU).  Zinno, P. Imperatore, S. Elefante, F. Casu, M. Manunta, E. Mathot, F. Brito, J. Farres, W. Lengert, R. Lanari, "A Novel Parallel Computational Framework for Processing Large INSAR Data Sets", Living Planet Symposium 2013, Sept. 9-13, 2013.
Zinno, Ivana; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Imperatore, Pasquale; Manunta, Michele; Casu, Francesco
The Lido of Venice is an island twelve kilometers long and between a hundred and one thousand meters wide. The citizans of Venice and many turists can't imagine today, what Lido was some centuries ago Initially totally sandy, it was fertilized by means of a continuous supply of Venice's garbage (the "scoasse"). In addition to the "scoasse", damaged foodstuffs and the waste of the vegetable market were also sent to the Lido. Other fertilisers originated from the dung of the cattle and sheep arriving by ship from Dalmatia, which were landed on the Lido, where they could pasture before slaughter to regain weight lost during their voyage. The sheep dung, especially, was important for the proto-industrial production of saltpetre, a material of the greatest strategic importance, like uranium at the present time. Saltpetre is the most important component of gun powder, which was the only explosive known up to the second half of 19th century. There were plans to establish an "artificial nitriary" in the Lido, making use of the garbage and of the animal waste. In all probability, the most bulky item ever buried in the Lido is the corpse of an enraged elephant, which escaped from its cage on the Riva degli Schiavoni where it was performing during the 1819 carnival, and was killed by a cannon shot in a church where it took refuge. The original title of the paper, published in Italian is: V. Giormani, II Lido di Venezia "scoassera" della città. I montoni dalmati e l'elefante del 1819, in Atti del III Convegno nazionale di storia della medicina veterinaria, Lastra a Signa (Firenze), 23-24 settembre 2000, a cura di Alba Veggetti, Brescia, 2001, pp. 333-339. Other information has been added in order to facilitate non-italians readers and articles appearing after the publication of the Proceedings of the Third National Congress for the History of Veterinary Medicine, Lastra a Signa, (Florence), Italy, have also been used. I am deeply grateful to Mrs. Mary Moors for the translation from Italian and for editorial assistance in the production of this article. PMID:15307245
We use surficial data on the timing of contraction and extension, the formation of sedimentary basins, U-Pb geochronology on ashes intercalated with the sedimentary strata, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of basaltic lava flows in two key localities to constrain the lithospheric foundering history of the Puna Plateau, NW Argentina. In the Pasto Ventura region, shortening resulted in the formation and syn-depositional deformation of a sedimentary basin. Intercalated ashes with U-Pb ages of10.5 +/- 0.1 Ma, 9.9 +/- 0.17 Ma, 9.52 +/- 0.17 Ma, 7.88 +/- 0.58 Ma and 7.77 +/- 0.21 Ma indicate deformation continued until at least 7.8 Ma. A reverse fault which has been reactivated as a normal fault cuts two basaltic cinder cones with ages of 0.76 +/- 0.16 Ma and 0.47 +/- 0.03 Ma, indicating extension in the region since at least 0.5 Ma, but more likely ca. 4 Ma based on regional data. In this area there are abundant normal faults and mafic, small-volume lava flows erupted since ca. 7.3 Ma. In contrast, along the west side of the Salar de Arizaro in the northwest Puna, overthrusting of Late Quaternary conglomerates containing a 0.5 +/- 1.1 Ma ash, followed by extensional reactivation of the thrust fault, suggests a shift from contraction to extension at ca. 0.5 Ma. Although mafic volcanism is young and sparse, and normal faulting is infrequent in the Salar de Arizaro, the salar corresponds to a region of geophysically imaged thin crust and mantle lithosphere. We interpret our data to indicate that lithosphere beneath the Puna was removed by multiple "driplets," rather than a single large foundering event: a late Miocene small-scale drip beneath the Pasto Ventura area, followed by a separate Quaternary drip beneath the Salar de Arizaro. The location of paleo-sedimentary basin accumulation and of modern salars may therefore correspond to lithospheric structure. If lithospheric foundering is characterized by multiple, repeating, small-scale driplets, the change in surface elevation as the result of each dripping event is expected to be minimal. Mafic volcanism, characterized by small-volume flows and cinder cones, has a poor preservation potential for recording older foundering events, and geophysical data give us insight only into the most recent events. Our dataset shows evidence of surface deformation and basin accumulation that can be explained by lithospheric processes and provides a structural-temporal scheme that can be exported to other orogenic systems to recognize possible lithospheric processes via the combination of surface analysis and geophysical data.
Schoenbohm, L. M.; Carrapa, B.
(1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (email@example.com), (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases are extracted from the fumarolic vapour through a short pipe. After the water has been condensed the gas passes over sensors for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and radon. Other parameters measured are temperature of the fumarolic vapour, fumarolic pressure, temperature of the ambient air and the ambient atmospheric pressure. The signals of the sensors are digitised in the electronics. The digital data are transmitted every 6 seconds by a telemetry system to the observatory down in the city of Pasto via a repeater station at the rim of the Galeras. The system at the volcano is powered by batteries connected to solar panels. Data are stored in the observatory, they are plotted and compared with all the other information of the multi-parameter station. Although the various compounds of the gas system are well preserved for the very aggressive environment close to the fumarole some problems still remain: Sulphur often plugs the pipe to the sensors and requires maintenance more often than desired. As the volcano is most of the time in clouds the installed solar power system (about 400 Watts maximum power) does not enable to run the system at the fumarole (consumption about 15 Watts) continuously during all nights. Despite these still existing problems some results have been obtained encouraging us to continue the operation of the system, to further develop the technical quality and to increase the number of fumaroles included into a growing monitoring network. In March 2000 seismic activity in the crater increased accompanied by a small eruption. Several hours before the eruption occurred the usually high CO2-concentration of the fumarolic gas was no longer constant as before but started to oscillate. It continued to oscillate until the seismic events started. Then the CO2-concentration as well as the radon counts decreased and the pressure of the fumarolic vapour increased. Some hours later the seismic activity ceased and the CO2 and radon readings increased again. From other observations it is suggested that meteorological parameters like wind direction and wind speed at the volcano do influence the pressure and flow regime in the conduits of the fumarole. The observations made so far are important to improve the understanding of processes within the volcano. However, more “events” have to be waited for during the coming years before processes in the volcano can be modelled.
Faber, E.; Morán, C.; Poggenburg, J.; Garzón, G.; Teschner, M.; Weinlich, F. H.
Polygenetic, silicic collapse calderas such as Cerro Galán, Pastos Grandes, La Pacana, Vilama, Negra Muerta, Farallón Negro, Cerro Guacha, among others are common in the central Andes. Here we describe in detail the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in NW Argentina, which comprises two caldera-forming episodes occurred at 17.15 Ma and 10.3 Ma, respectively. We analyse the significance of its structural setting, composition, size and the subsidence style of both caldera episodes. Our results reveal that the caldera eruptions had a tectonic trigger. In both cases, an homogeneous dacitic crystal-rich (>60 vol. % of crystals) reservoir of batholitic size became unstable due to the effect of increasing regional transpression, favouring local dilation throughout minor strike slip faults from which ring faults nucleated and permitted caldera collapse. Both episodes are similar in shape, location and products of the resulting calderas. The 17.15 Ma caldera has an elliptical shape (17 × 14 km) and is elongated in a N30° trend; both intracaldera and extracaldera ignimbrites covered an area of around 620 km2 with a minimum volume estimate of 138 km3 (DRE). The 10.3 Ma episode generated another elliptical caldera (19 ×14 km), with the same orientation as the previous one, from which intracaldera and outflow ignimbrites covered a total area of about 1,700 km2, representing a minimum eruption volume of 341 km3 (DRE). In this work we discuss the significance of the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in comparison with other well known examples from the central Andes in terms of tectonic setting, eruption mechanisms, and volumes of related ignimbrites. We suggest that our kinematic model is a common volcano-tectonic scenario during the Cenozoic in the Puna and Altiplano, which may be applied to explain the origin of other large calderas in the same region.
Petrinovic, Ivan A.; Martí, Joan; Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo J.; Guzmán, Silvina R.; Geyer, Adelina; Grosse, Pablo; Salado Paz, Natalia
The European and African contribution to the pre-existing Native American background has influenced the complex genetic pool of Colombia. Because colonisation was not homogeneous in this country, current populations are, therefore, expected to have different proportions of Native American, European and African ancestral contributions. The aim of this work was to examine 11 urban admixed populations and a Native American group, called Pastos, for 32 X chromosome indel markers to expand the current knowledge concerning the genetic background of Colombia. The results revealed a highly diverse genetic background comprising all admixed populations, harbouring important X chromosome contributions from all continental source populations. In addition, Colombia is genetically sub-structured, with different proportions of European and African influxes depending on the regions. The samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts have a high African ancestry, showing the highest levels of diversity. The sample from the South Andean region showed the lowest diversity and significantly higher proportion of Native American ancestry than the other samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts, Central-West and Central-East Andean regions, and the Orinoquian region. The results of admixture analysis using X-chromosomal markers suggest that the high proportion of African ancestry in the North Pacific coast was primarily male driven. These men have joined to females with higher Native American and European ancestry (likely resulting from a classic colonial asymmetric mating type: European male x Amerindian female). This high proportion of male-mediated African contributions is atypical of colonial settings, suggesting that the admixture occurred during a period when African people were no longer enslaved. In the remaining regions, the African contribution was primarily female-mediated, whereas the European counterpart was primarily male driven and the Native American ancestry contribution was not gender biased.
Ibarra, Adriana; Restrepo, Tomas; Rojas, Winston; Castillo, Adriana; Amorim, Antonio; Martinez, Beatriz; Burgos, German; Ostos, Henry; Alvarez, Karen; Camacho, Mauricio; Suarez, Zuleyma; Pereira, Rui; Gusmao, Leonor
Various strategies for analysing SNP markers and genotyping have been published with the goal of obtaining informative profiles from biological samples that contain only small amounts of template and/or degraded DNA. In this study, a multiplex assay of 52 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to analyse 438 individuals from urban populations from different regions of Colombia, as well as a sample of 50 Native American individuals of the Pastos ethnic group from Nariño. To determine if significant differences in these 52 SNPs exist between the distinct regions of Colombia, genetic distance and admixture analyses were performed based on the available data for 17 different Colombian population groups and for population groups from Africa, Europe and America. The results demonstrate significant differences between the populations from the Southwest Andean, Central-West Andean, Central-East Andean, Orinoquian and northern Colombian Pacific Coast regions. Most of the regions exhibited a European and Native American admixture. One exception is the population from the region of Chocó (on the northern Pacific Coast), which exhibits a high proportion of African admixture (54 %). From the observed genetic backgrounds, it is possible to conclude that a single reference database for the entire country would not be suitable for forensic purposes. The allele frequencies and the forensically relevant parameters were calculated for all of the markers in each Colombian region with significant values for the combined matching probability (power of discrimination ?0.99999999999999990) and the combined probability of exclusion (?0.9990) in trios that were obtained from all of the population groups. PMID:23665814
Ibarra, Adriana; Freire-Aradas, Ana; Martínez, Martha; Fondevila, Manuel; Burgos, German; Camacho, Mauricio; Ostos, Henry; Suarez, Zuleyma; Carracedo, Angel; Santos, Sidney; Gusmão, Leonor
The European and African contribution to the pre-existing Native American background has influenced the complex genetic pool of Colombia. Because colonisation was not homogeneous in this country, current populations are, therefore, expected to have different proportions of Native American, European and African ancestral contributions. The aim of this work was to examine 11 urban admixed populations and a Native American group, called Pastos, for 32 X chromosome indel markers to expand the current knowledge concerning the genetic background of Colombia. The results revealed a highly diverse genetic background comprising all admixed populations, harbouring important X chromosome contributions from all continental source populations. In addition, Colombia is genetically sub-structured, with different proportions of European and African influxes depending on the regions. The samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts have a high African ancestry, showing the highest levels of diversity. The sample from the South Andean region showed the lowest diversity and significantly higher proportion of Native American ancestry than the other samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts, Central-West and Central-East Andean regions, and the Orinoquian region. The results of admixture analysis using X-chromosomal markers suggest that the high proportion of African ancestry in the North Pacific coast was primarily male driven. These men have joined to females with higher Native American and European ancestry (likely resulting from a classic colonial asymmetric mating type: European male x Amerindian female). This high proportion of male-mediated African contributions is atypical of colonial settings, suggesting that the admixture occurred during a period when African people were no longer enslaved. In the remaining regions, the African contribution was primarily female-mediated, whereas the European counterpart was primarily male driven and the Native American ancestry contribution was not gender biased. PMID:24498042
Ibarra, Adriana; Restrepo, Tomás; Rojas, Winston; Castillo, Adriana; Amorim, António; Martínez, Beatriz; Burgos, German; Ostos, Henry; Álvarez, Karen; Camacho, Mauricio; Suarez, Zuleyma; Pereira, Rui; Gusmão, Leonor
Timing of deformation and resulting sedimentation patterns in the Altiplano-Puna Plateau-Eastern Cordillera of the southern Central Andes are the subject of ongoing controversial debate. In the Bolivian Altiplano, sedimentation into a foreland basin system commenced during the Paleocene. Farther south in the Puna and Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina, a lack of data has precluded a similar interpretation. Early Tertiary non-marine sedimentary rocks are preserved within the present day Puna Plateau and Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina. The Salar de Pastos Grandes basin in the Puna Plateau contains more than 2 km of Eocene alluvial and fluvial strata in the Geste Formation, deposited in close proximity to orogenic source terrains. Sandstone and conglomerate petrographic data document Ordovician quartzites and minor phyllites and schists as the main source rocks. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages from both the Geste Formation and from underlying Ordovician quartzite cluster in the 900-1200 Ma (Grenville) and late Precambrian-Cambrian (Panafrican) ranges. Sparse late Eocene (~37-34 Ma) grains are also present; their large size, euhedral shape, and decreasing mean ages upsection suggest that these grains are volcanogenic (i.e. ash fall contamination), derived from an inferred magmatic arc to the west. The Eocene ages corroborate mammalian paleontological dates, defining the approximate begin of deposition of the Geste Formation. Alternatively, these young zircons could be of plutonic origin; however, no Eocene plutons are present in the surrounding source rocks and this interpretation is not likely. From W to E, fluvial rocks of the Quebrada de los Colorados Formation show similar sedimentological features as those observed for the Geste Formation, suggesting a genetic link between the two. Detrital zircon U-Pb data show mainly Panafrican ages, with sparse ages in the 860-935 Ma range and a few mid-Proterozoic ages. More importantly, a significant number of late Eocene-Oligocene ages (ca. 37-32 Ma) are also present, suggesting a similar volcanogenic origin for these grains and time-stratigraphic equivalence to the Geste Formation. The upper conglomeratic part of this formation records western sources mainly composed of volcanic, granitic and quartzitic rocks derived from the proto-Eastern Cordillera. Detrital apatite fission track (AFT) data from the Geste Formation document strong Paleocene and early Eocene signals suggesting active exhumation of western sources. This corroborates AFT data from the Cordillera Domeyko (northern Chile) to the west and the proto-Eastern Cordillera to the east of the study area documenting cooling and exhumation at this time. Combined, these data indicate active Paleocene to Eocene deformation, exhumation, erosion, and sedimentation within the region that corresponds to the present-day Puna Plateau and the Eastern Cordillera.
Carrapa, B.; Decelles, P. G.; Gerhels, G.; Mortimer, E.; Strecker, M. R.
Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV vaccines; and (ii) secondary prevention by increasing the accuracy of cervical cancer screening.
The Iberian pig valued natural resources of the pasture when fattened in mountain. The variability of acorn production is not contained in any line of Spanish agricultural insurance. However, the production of arable pasture is covered by line insurance number 133 for loss of pasture compensation. This scenario is only contemplated for breeding cows and brave bulls, sheep, goats and horses, although pigs are not included. This insurance is established by monitoring ten-day composites Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured by satellite over treeless pastures, using MODIS TERRA satellite. The aim of this work is to check if we can use a satellite vegetation index to estimate the production of acorns. In order to do so, two Spanish grassland locations have been analyzed: regions of Olivenza (Jerez-Oliva) and Merida (Badajoz). The acorns production was evaluated through 2002-2005 gauging conducted by the Grupo Habitat de la Orden (Badajoz). Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same time period to estimate the ten-day composites NDVI at these locations. Finally, meteorological data was obtained from SIAR and MAGRAMA network stations, calculating the ten-day averaged temperature and ten day accumulated precipitation. Considering two accumulated factors, NDVI and temperature, three phenological stages were well defined being the second one which pointed differences among campaigns. Then, accumulated precipitation versus accumulated NDVI was plot for this second phenological stage obtaining maximum differences at 300 mm of cumulative rainfall. Analyzing acorn production with accumulated NDVI in that moment a production function was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. These results will be discussed in detail. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y montaneras en dehesas. I Congreso Iberico de la Dehesa y el Montado. 6-7 Noviembre, 2013, Badajoz. J.A. Escribano Rodriguez, A.M. Tarquis, C.G. Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Pasture Drought Insurance Based on NDVI and SAVI. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-13945, 2012. EGU General Assembly 2012. Juan Escribano Rodriguez, Carmelo Alonso, Ana Maria Tarquis, Rosa Maria Benito, Carlos Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Comparison of NDVI ?elds obtained from different remote sensors. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 15, EGU2013-14153, 2013. EGU General Assembly 2013 Acknowledgements. This work was partially supported by ENESA under project P10 0220C-823.
Escribano, Juan A.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Recuero, Laura; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Palacios, Alicia; Tarquis, Ana M.
The asteroid 2000 ET70 (162421) was discovered by Lincoln Laboratory ETS (LINEAR) in New Mexico on March 8, 2000. Whiteley (2001) classified 2000 ET70 as an X-type object: This asteroid belongs to an ambiguous group that includes objects that are large and dark, metallic.The composition of this asteroid is unknown.The asteroid was at 0.0454430 U.A from the Earth on February 19.85956 (2012) and it will be at approximately 0.1503270 A.U from the Earth on August 21.07061 (2012).The asteroid 2000 ET70 was studied by radar in Arecibo and Goldstone. Shantanu Naidu and Jean-Luc Margot studied this object by Arecibo radar (Feb 13-2012) and they suggest that 2000 ET70 is roughly 1.5 km in diameter and that it has a period of rotation of about 9.5 hours. It has an orbital period of 0.92 years.From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during three days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS. Our observatory’s code at the MPC is “H78”. Pictures of the asteroid were captured with the following equipment: 14” LX200 GPS MEADE (f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope) and STL-1001 SBIG camera.Astrometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.1243231, semi-major axis = 0.94541495 A.U, orbital inclination = 22.32919 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 331.05007 deg, argument of perihelion = 45.20913 deg, orbital period = 0.92 years (335.76 days), mean motion = 1.07218658 deg/d, perihelion distance = 0.82787796 A.U, aphelion distance = 1.06295195 A.U. The parameters were calculated based on 71 observations (2012 Mar. 1-7) with mean residual = 0.262 arcseconds.
Vodniza, Alberto Q.; Pereira, M. R.
Large silicic volcanic fields (10,000's of km<2>; 1000s- 10,000's of km<3>) are constructed during ignimbrite "flareups": intense periods of volcanism dominated by eruptions of ignimbrites with volumes in excess of 1000 km3. Concordantly, it is being increasingly recognized that cordilleran batholiths are also constructed during these events. Given the strong spatial, geochemical and petrological, and geophysical kinship between silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks it is reasonable to believe that these ignimbrite flare-ups must be accompanied by significant (and more voluminous) plutonic activity at depth and that most long-lived and productive magmatic provinces generate co-genetic volcanic and plutonic rocks, with connections to deeper levels of the crust. Flare-ups thus account for a significant portion of what can be collectively termed "crustal magmatism" - mantle-powered but significantly crust-modified. While the resolution of the temporal record preserved in the plutonism maybe compromised by late stage processes during the waning of a magmatic system, the temporal record of the volcanism provides a higher resolution record of the crustal magmatism. This is explored through the temporal record of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. This record of the flare-up reveals three types of signals. The broadest and dominant signal is that of the flare-up itself, a transient pulse magmatism of the order of 10<7> years that punctuates a background or baseline level of activity. This represents the waxing and waning of the primary thermal "drive" which is the mantle power input. The second signal is system-wide episodicity that operates on a time scale roughly an order of magnitude faster. This is manifested by intense pulses of eruption that last from 10<5> to 10<6> years separated by periods of 2x10<6> years. This is the result of crustal filtering or modulation of the primary mantle signal. The third signal is recorded in individual volcanic systems. Close correspondence between the timing of activity at the three main long-lived caldera complexes, La Pacana, Guacha, and Pastos Grandes is evidenced by major eruptions at 5.5 ± 0.15 Ma, 3.4 ± 0.5 Ma and 1.5 ± 0.2 Ma from each of these. This connotes a systemic "drive" for volcanic activity in these three systems. However, the magmatic systems of each of these centers is unique and any connection must be at depth and is not recorded materially in the erupted products, only temporally. Broad concordance of time scales of operation of the individual caldera systems and system-wide episodicity suggests that the main control on the timing of magmatism and volcanism is crustal modulation. The geophysically imaged low-seismic velocity zone, the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body, at 17 to 20 km, is the most likely modulator where thermal and chemical signals from the mantle/lower crust MASH zone are buffered and eventually translated to pre-eruptive upper crustal magma chambers.
de Silva, S. L.
The salivary glands of the Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821, (syn. H. coagulata, Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were collected and used to produce a cDNA library. Examination by BLASTX analyses identified 2 viral sequences, one a 610-base pair fragment and a second 839-base pair fragment, both of which had significant homology to viruses within the genus Phytoreovirus. Resequencing of the fragments confirmed sequence validities. These sequences were used for in silico protein translation and BLASTP analysis confirming the established homology. While the GWSS is the primary vector of Pierce's disease of grapes, this is the first report that GWSS may be a vector of a phytoreoviruses. Phylogenetic and homology comparisons with BLASTX, BLASTP, and PAUP analyses indicated that the viral sequences isolated from GWSS were closely related to the viruses in the Family Reoviridae, Genus Phytoreovirus, specifically Rice Dwarf Phytoreovirus (RDV). RDV is the only plant reovirus that is not limited to the phloem. Phytoreoviruses are transmitted in a propagative manner by cicadellid leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which acquire and transmit them during feeding. Phytoreoviruses have been reported from Agallian, Agalliopsis, Nephotettix, and Recilia, genera of leafhoppers, with evidence for transovarial transmission. The GWSS, although considered to feed primarily from the xylem, ingests from other plant tissues, such as the phloem and mesophyll during probing similar to other leafhoppers. The feeding behavior and wide host range of the GWSS provides an overlapping condition for these two organisms, leafhopper and virus. GWSS will feed from grasses as a transitory host, and on herbaceous and woody plants as primary hosts, which may favor the acquisition and transmission of Phytoreovirus by this leafhopper. Monitoring for an increase of Phytoreovirus spread in graminaceous crops that are in proximity to vineyards or tree crop orchards, where GWSS occurs, such as in southern California, will provide a better understanding of the potential role of the GWSS as a disease vector in the spread of phytoreoviruses and other plant pathogens. The sequences have been deposited in NCBI database under the accession numbers (EF058280) for GWSS-V1, WHSg013C11 and (EF058281) for GWSS-V2, WHSg024H02. (author) [Spanish] Dos fragmentos de 610 y 839 pares de bases fueron aislados apartir de una genoteca de expresion derivada de las glandulas salivales del cucarron de las alas cristalinas (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, Germar 1821 (syn. H. coagulata) el cual es vector de la enfermedad de Pierce de las uvas. Los resultados de alineamiento utilizando BLASTX, BLASTP y el analisis filogenetico utilizando PAUP indicaron que los fragmentos de DNA estaban relacionado de manera mas cercana a viruses en la familia Reoviridae, genero Phytoreovirus, y especificamente a los virus del enanismo del arroz (RDV) y al virus del tumor de las grietas (WTV). El cucarron de las alas cristalinas es un saltahoja que se alimenta no solo del xilema sino tambien del floema y del mesofilo. Saltahojas del genero Agallian, son los principales vectores de WTV, el cual infecta el floema de plantas dicotiledoneas tumoraciones en las hojas y en las raices. WTV es transmitido por saltahojas y es el unico reovirus que es capaz de infectar tanto tejidos del xilema como del floema. El comportamiento alimentario del GWSS y su amplio rango de hospederos que incluye pastos y plantas herbaceas y lenosas podria proveer la interaccion entre estos dos organismos facilitando la adquisicion y tranmision de fitoreovirus por el GWSS. Un adecuado monitoreo de el incremento en la expansion de reoviruses en cultivos de gramineas asociados al los vinedos en donde GWSS ocurre en regiones tales como el sur de California, y en general el sur de los Estados Unidos, podria proveer un mejor entendimiento del papel del GWSS como vector de fitoreovirus y otros patogenos de plantas. Las sequencias se depositaron en la base de datos NCBI con los siguientes numeros de identificac
Katsar, C.S.; Hunter, W.B. [Subtropical Insect Research Unit, United States Horticultural Research Lab, United States Department Agriculture, ARS, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States)]. E-mail: Whunter@ushrl.ars.usda.gov; Sinisterra, X.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States)
The Teresina-Campo Maior area lies in a presently developing farming and grazing region near the margin of drought-prone northeast Brazil where irrigated farming offers the best potential for economic development. The area comprises 9,700 square kilometers largely of catinga-covered tabular uplands which are drained by the perennial Rio Parnatba. The climate is hot and humid most of the year but with distinct wet and dry seasons. Temperature extremes range from 20?C to 39?C and the annum rainfall averages 1,200 millimeters. The area's ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in sandstone aquifers of six westward-dipping sedimentary rock formations, all part of the Maranhao sedimentary basin. The youngest of these formations, namely the Piaut (Pennsylvarian), Poti (Mississippian), Longa (Upper Devonian), and Cabecas (Middle Devoniar), contain the principal aquifers. Precipitation is the primary source of recharge to these aquifers and is more than sufficient to replenish current withdrawals from wells. Underlying the principal aquifers are the untapped Pimenteiras and Serra Grande Formations (both Lower Devonian) which in areas adjacent to the report area are moderately good to excellent water producers. These aquifers are recharged principally by lateral inflow from the east. Water also occurs in the alluvial deposits (Quaternary) underlying the flood plain of the Rio Parnatba but recurrent and uncontrolled flooding at present (1966) precludes their development. Of little economic importance, because they lie above the zone of saturation, are the thin erosional remnants of the Pastos Bons (Upper Triassic), Matuca, and Pedra de Fogo (both Permian) Formations. There are in the report area about 200 drilled wells most of which are pumped with power-driven engines. The wells range from 40 to 500 meters deep but most do not exceed 150 meters, and practically all are completed open hole. Yields range from 500 liters per day for 6-inch-diameter domestic wells to 240,000 liters per hour for 10-inch high-capacity municipal wells. Although there are many more dug wells than drilled wells, dug wells account for less than 1 percent of the current (1966) draft. The current annual withdrawal from the principal aquifers is approximately 5 million cubic meters of which almost half is used for municipal supply and the rest for rural household and irrigation uses. Additional water for public supply is available from aquifers now being pumped, and larger yields probably could be obtained from rural wells designed to take full advantage of the aquifer. Analyses of 28 samples show that the chemical quality of the water is well below the accepted limits of mineral concentration for most uses. Water from the Longa Formation averages 842 milligrams per liter in total dissolved solids and is more mineralized than that in the Piaul and Port Formations which contain water averaging less than 300 milligrams per liter. The water in the Piaui and Poti aquifers is the most suitable in the area for irrigation and has SAR values of C1-S1 and C2-S1. The quantities of water currently being used for irrigation are relatively small (600,000 cubic meters annually) but will increase substantially when intensive irrigation becomes a reality. Divisio de Hydrogeologia da Superintendancia do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste estimates that about 2,500 million cubic meters of water per year would be needed to irrigate about 250,000 hectares in the Teresina-Campo Maior area (about 25 percent of the total area). This goal, however, is not likely to be realized as the water requirement is five times the estimated natural recharge to the aquifers of the area. Most of the water-bearing formations in the report area have barely been tapped and can be developed a great deal more. In fact, the current annual withdrawal from the principal aquifers is less than 0.0025 percent of a conservative estimate of annual replenishment from rainfall. Additionally, only the
Rodis, Harry G.; Suszczynski, Edison F.