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Sample records for patch test series

  1. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  2. Patch tests*

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida; Ferreira, Alessandra Lindmayer

    2013-01-01

    Patch tests were introduced as a diagnostic tool in the late nineteenth century. Since then, they have improved considerably becoming what they are today. Patch tests are used in the diagnostic investigation of contact dermatitis worldwide. Batteries or series previously studied and standardized should be used in patch testing. The methodology is simple, but it requires adequate training for the results to be correctly interpreted and used. Despite having been used for over a century, it needs improvement like all other diagnostic techniques in the medical field. PMID:24474094

  3. Evaluation of Suspected Cosmetic Induced Facial Dermatoses with the Use of Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic Series Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Gupta, Astha; Soodan, Puneet Singh; Gahalaut, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Awareness about skin beauty or cosmetic elegance has received worldwide attention in the present day youth oriented society. Along with careful detailed history and thorough examination patch test is considered cornerstone in diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients suspected clinical diagnosis of contact facial dermatitis due to attended the Department of Dermatology, were included in a hospital based study. The patch test was applied on the upper back of using 32 allergens present in Indian cosmetic series and 20 known allergens in Indian standard battery series procured from Systopic Pharmaceutical Ltd, after applying the patch test, the patient was asked to come after 48h and 72h for reading the results of the patch test. Results: Out of 50 patients there were 32 (64%) females (housewives 36%) patients and 18 (36%) male (farmers 12%). Itching was the most common presenting symptom in 39 patients (78%) least was hypopigmentation and pain in 2%. Forehead was the most common site of involvement in 25 patients (50%) least were cheeks in 15 patients (30%). Erythema was the commonest morphological presentation seen in 36 patients (72%). Hair dye was suspected in maximum number of patients that is 13 (26%). Most common antigen showing patch test positivity was paraphenylenediamine in nine patients (18%). There are significantly more chances of developing positive test reaction with Indian standard series compared to cosmetic series. (p=.0053 using Fischer Exact test). Conclusion: In India there is no legislation regarding labeling ingredients on cosmetics as in the western countries, so labelling of the contents of cosmetic products should be the main challenge in cosmetic dermatitis is to identify. PMID:25954688

  4. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges. PMID:26080054

  5. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; de Castro, Paulo Carrara

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  6. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; Castro, Paulo Carrara de

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  7. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization. PMID:27262363

  8. [Patch testing: historical aspects].

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, J-M

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the key points in the history of patch testing, which spans more than a century, starting with the first description of the method by J. Jadassohn in 1895. Special attention is paid to the contribution of French schools in this field, which led to the foundation of the Groupe d'études et de recherches en dermato-allergologie (GERDA). PMID:19686889

  9. Routine patch testing with paraben esters.

    PubMed

    Menné, T; Hjorth, N

    1988-09-01

    Paraben esters are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetics and topical medicaments. Their sensitization potential is low, based on both experimental and human experience. A paraben mixture is included in the ICDRG standard series, and in patch test studies, approximately 1% of eczema patients react to it. The present study confirms this frequency in 8020 patients patch tested consecutively. Testing with the individual paraben esters was employed as confirmation, which makes it unlikely that the excited skin syndrome is a significant problem in this context. It remains undetermined whether the present paraben mixture is the optimal patch test material for diagnosing paraben sensitivity. PMID:3191679

  10. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible. PMID:24030367

  11. Easier patch testing with TRUE Test.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Maibach, H I

    1989-03-01

    TRUE Test, a standardized, ready-to-apply patch test system, is made from polyester covered with a film of allergens incorporated in a hydrophilic polymer. The patches are mounted on nonwoven cellulose tape with acrylic adhesive, covered with siliconized plastic, and packed in an air-tight and light-impermeable envelope. When the test strip is taped on the skin, perspiration hydrates the film and transforms it to a gel, which causes the allergen to be released. The first panel of 12 allergens and allergen mixes is standardized and tested for stability in vitro and in vivo. The accuracy of the test panel has been certified in international multicenter studies by comparing it with present patch test techniques. A second panel of 11 more allergens was completed in 1988. The two test panels include the full standard panel of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. PMID:2918115

  12. Aeroallergen Patch Testing in Patients of Suspected Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bisen, Nelee; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS) between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8%) showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary. PMID:24891655

  13. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  14. Patch testing with cement containing iron sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Fregert, S; Gruvberger, B

    1990-01-01

    Addition of iron sulfate to cement means transformation of water-soluble hexavalent chromium into nonwater-soluble trivalent chromium. This has been the basis for preventive measures concerning sensitization to hexavalent chromium (chromate) in cement. For some years, iron sulfate has been added to cement manufactured in the Scandinavian countries. In the present in vivo study, cements with and without iron sulfate were compared concerning their capacity to elicit allergic patch-test reactions in eight chromate-hypersensitive individuals. No patch-test reactions were obtained from a water extract of cement with iron sulfate when appropriately buffered. PMID:2137395

  15. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  16. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  17. Skin reactivity to metallic cobalt in patients with a positive patch test to cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    de Fine Olivarius, F; Menné, T

    1992-10-01

    458 consecutive patients were patch tested with a metallic cobalt disc as a supplement to the standard series. 23 patients had a positive reaction to CoCl2 1% pet. Of these, 19 were tested with the cobalt disc. 11 had a positive reaction and 5 a questionable reaction. There were no positive reactions to the cobalt disc in patients with a negative patch test to CoCl2 1% pet. Patch testing with CoCl2 1% pet. diagnoses all patients with allergy to metallic cobalt, but the test method is limited by a high number of irritant and questionable reactions. PMID:1451489

  18. Reproducibility of patch tests: comparison of identical test allergens from different commercial sources.

    PubMed

    Schiessl, Claudia; Wolber, Carola; Strohal, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The reproducibility of patch tests is an important determinant of the clinical value of this diagnostic procedure. The aim of the present study was to delineate comparatively the efficiency and reproducibility of identical test reagents from 2 different commercial sources. Purchased in duplicate from brial and Boots-Hermal, 30 allergens from the European standard and an extension series were simultaneously applied to Finn Chambers and affixed next to each other. Out of 2070 paired patch tests in 71 patients, 97.2% presented with concordant-negative results. 60 patch tests were classified as allergic with 95% concordant-positive results. From these paired positive patches, a subgroup of 13 (22.8%) corresponding allergens presented with minor differences in the visible strength of the allergic reaction. Generated by cobalt chloride, formaldehyde and 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol in 1 patient each, discordant results, i.e. 1 positive and 1 negative test in parallel, were found in only 5%. Taken together, we were able to demonstrate that patch test preparations from 2 different companies exhibited a high level of reproducibility. This standardized quality of test reagents from different suppliers provides useful information on several aspects of everyday practice. PMID:15059100

  19. Value of Gluten Patch Test in Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hosein; Zandieh, Fariborz; Akhavan, Paria; Taherian, Rouzbeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective Celiac disease is an intestinal disorder identified by mucus inflammation, villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. This disorder can be controlled by elimination of gluten from daily diet. Patients with celiac disease are at greater risk of gastrointestinal malignancy and non-Hodgkin lymphoma than are the general population. This study tries to present the value of gluten patch test for diagnosis of celiac disease. Methods In this investigation, the study population was divided into case and control groups. The case group consisted of patients with celiac disease. The control group were patients involved in celiac disease but suffering from other gastrointestinal disorders. Both gluten patch and placebo patch were attached to the skin between the scapulas. The results were read twice: 48 hours and 96 hours after the patch was applied. Patients who showed irritation reactions were withdrawn from this study. The results were analysed by SPSS software, Spearman's test, chi square, and Mann–Whitney tests. Findings The value obtained from the gluten patch test after 96 hours are as follows: specification at 95%, sensitivity at 8%, positive prediction value at 67%, and negative prediction value at 43%. Conclusion It can be concluded that the gluten patch test is not an efficient test for screening of celiac disease, however, it can be useful for diagnosis of celiac disease if employed and studied with clinical symptoms and serologic and biopsy tests. Furthermore, we should doubt our judgment if the result of gluten patch test for the patient with celiac disease is positive. PMID:23056837

  20. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye. PMID:24678750

  1. Membrane Vibration Tests Using Surface-Bonded Piezoelectric Patch Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasper, James L.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the status of on-going work at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the dynamics of thin membranes. The test article is a one-meter square pre-tensioned Kapton membrane that incorporates small surface-bonded piezoelectric patches strategically positioned to excite many modes. It is shown that PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and MFC (macro fiber composite) piezoelectric patch actuators provide adequate excitation energy to obtain modal frequencies and mode shapes. Results from modal tests performed on the membrane using piezoelectric patches of different sizes and positions are discussed.

  2. [Should metal alloy discs be used for patch testing in suspected metal implant intolerance reaction?].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Geier, J; Dickel, H; Diepgen, T; Hillen, U; Kreft, B; Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Mahler, V

    2015-11-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, patch testing should not be done in a prophylactic-prophetic approach. Pre-implant patch testing should only be performed to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a reported respective history. In the case of implant-in particular arthroplasty-related complications like, for example, pain, effusion, skin changes, reduced range of motion, or loosening, orthopedic-surgical differential diagnostics should be performed first. Allergological workup of suspected metal implant allergy should be done with the DKG baseline series which contains nickel-, cobalt- and chromium-preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing proved that this approach does not give reliable information about metal allergy. Positive patch test reactions to the discs cannot be assigned to a specific metal within the disc alloy components. Furthermore, availability of such metal discs might be an invitation to uncritical testing. Accordingly, due to lack of benefit in comparison to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs. PMID:26438196

  3. Benzyl salicylate: a survey of consumer patch-test sensitization.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, K A; Booman, K A; Dorsky, J; Rothenstein, A S; Sedlak, R I; Steltenkamp, R J; Thompson, G R

    1983-12-01

    The potential of benzyl salicylate, an important fragrance and flavour ingredient, to induce hypersensitivity or to elicit reactions to pre-existing hypersensitivity in the general population was evaluated by analysing patch-test data. Results obtained from fragrance and formulator companies for a total of 10,538 patch tests on benzyl salicylate alone, on a variety of household and personal care consumer products and on fragrance blends containing benzyl salicylate were analysed as part of this survey. No induced or elicited responses directly attributable to benzyl salicylate were observed in the 35 patch tests on benzyl salicylate alone, or in the 10,503 patch tests on consumer products or fragrance blends containing benzyl salicylate. The highest concentration of benzyl salicylate tested in the consumer-product tests was 2 X 10(-1)%, and benzyl salicylate alone was tested at 10% in ethanol. This study indicates that benzyl salicylate has a very low potential to induce hypersensitivity ('induced' reactions) or to elicit reactions presumably attributable to pre-existing sensitization ('elicited' reactions) and thus supports the safe use of benzyl salicylate in consumer products and fragrance blends. PMID:6686578

  4. Contact sensitization in 1094 children undergoing patch testing over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, Stefania; Giusti, Francesca; Pepe, Patrizia; Mantovani, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Contact sensitization in children is frequent. However, because exposure to sensitizing agents varies rapidly, it is of utmost importance to perform a periodic evaluation of patch test results. Our purpose was to compare our data on contact sensitization in children during the past 7 years to our previous 1988-1994 findings, in order to identify emerging allergens and update our pediatric series. From 1995 to 2001, 1094 consecutive children were examined. Of these, 997 patients were patch tested with our pediatric series, which includes 30 allergens, whereas 97 underwent patch testing with 46 allergens. A total of 570 children proved allergic (52.1%). The highest sensitization rate was observed in children under 3 years of age. No differences between atopic dermatitis patients and nonatopic ones were observed in the sensitization rate. Neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, and ammoniated mercury gave most of the positive responses. With respect to 1988-1995 data, allergy to substances such as neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, ammoniated mercury, propolis, potassium dichromate, and thiuram mix proved more frequent. In conclusion, as sensitization rates to different allergens show great variations over time, periodic evaluations of patch test results in children is necessary in order to update the test trays. PMID:15660887

  5. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  6. Patch testing with components of water-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Koch, Patrick; Aschoff, Roland; Richter, Gerhard; Becker, Detlef; Eckert, Christian; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs) may cause both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Several well-known MWF allergens are available for patch testing, but considering the wide variety of possible components used in MWF, our diagnostic arsenal covers only a small part of potential allergens. We therefore selected 13 frequently used MWF components that might be sensitizers and had not yet been tested routinely. In 5 centres, 233 dermatitis patients with present or past occupational exposure to MWF were patch tested with this and other panels. Only 7 patients showed positive reactions to the study panel. Allergic reactions to the emulsifier diglycolamine [syn. 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol] were seen in 5 patients, and 1 patient each reacted positively to 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (AEPD) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Clinical relevance of the reactions to diglycolamine was unequivocally proven by its presence in the MWF from the patients' workplace in 3 cases. Diglycolamine seems to be an important MWF allergen, independently from monoethanolamine and diethanolamine. A test concentration of 1% petrolatum (pet.) appears to be appropriate. The importance of AEPD and MDEA as MWF allergens still remains to be established. The lack of positive test reactions to the other MWF components tested may be due to their low-sensitizing potential or too low a patch test concentration being used. PMID:14641356

  7. Impulse Testing of Corporate-Fed Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel method for detecting faults in antenna arrays. The method, termed Impulse Testing, was developed for corporate-fed patch arrays where the element is fed by a probe and is shorted at its center. Impulse Testing was devised to supplement conventional microwave measurements in order to quickly verify antenna integrity. The technique relies on exciting each antenna element in turn with a fast pulse (or impulse) that propagates through the feed network to the output port of the antenna. The resulting impulse response is characteristic of the path through the feed network. Using an oscilloscope, a simple amplitude measurement can be made to detect faults. A circuit model of the antenna elements and feed network was constructed to assess various fault scenarios and determine fault-detection thresholds. The experimental setup and impulse measurements for two patch array antennas are presented. Advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed along with applications to other antenna array topologies

  8. Adhesion testing of polyurethane matrix patches for transdermal delivery of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Dittgen, M; Gansen, P

    2012-06-01

    The 180 degrees peel test was applied to measure adhesion of three experimental polyurethane (PU) matrix patches and one commercial patch, Testopatch, on human volunteers skin. Comparing the results with those measurements on stainless steel or leather, a significant correlation between the leather data and the skin measurements was found. In contrary to results from stainless steel tests, all of the PU patches achieved better adhesion on skin than the commercial patch. PMID:22822549

  9. Single doses of local betamethasone do not suppress allergic patch test reactions to nickel sulfate.

    PubMed

    Molander, Gerd; Petman, Leena; Kannas, Liisa; Lauerma, Antti I

    2004-04-01

    Topical corticosteroids are usually banned on test areas prior to patch testing. The previous literature on the effect of topical corticosteroids is conflicting. Patients allergic to nickel sulfate were patch tested on 4 sites with nickel on day (D) 0. Intracutaneous betamethasone was injected to test sites on D-1, D0 and D1. NaCl injection on D-1 was control. The patch test reactions were evaluated clinically and with laser Doppler. There were no differences in patch test reaction intensities on sites treated with intracutaneous betamethasone as compared to control. A single local dose of potent corticosteroid does not suppress allergic patch reactions to nickel. The current practice of avoiding topical corticosteroid use prior to patch testing should be re-evaluated. PMID:15186376

  10. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients: Clinical Recommendations Based on Expert Consensus Opinion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T; Hanifin, Jon M; Simpson, Eric L; Boguniewicz, Mark; Watsky, Kalman L; Lugo-Somolinos, Aida; Hamann, Carsten R; Eberting, Cheryl Lee; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure to patch test when appropriate may result in overlooking an important and potentially curable complicating comorbidity. In this article, we present consensus recommendations regarding when to perform patch testing in the AD patient, best practices, and common pitfalls. Patch testing should be considered in AD patients with dermatitis that fails to improve with topical therapy; with atypical/changing distribution of dermatitis, or pattern suggestive of ACD; with therapy-resistant hand eczema in the working population; with adult- or adolescent-onset AD; and/or before initiating systemic immunosuppressants for the treatment of dermatitis. A suggested patch testing algorithm for AD patients is provided. PMID:27427820

  11. DKG statement on the use of metal alloy discs for patch testing in suspected intolerance to metal implants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Geier, Johannes; Dickel, Heinrich; Diepgen, Thomas; Hillen, Uwe; Kreft, Burkhard; Schnuch, Axel; Szliska, Christiane; Mahler, Vera

    2015-10-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, 'prophetic'/prophylactic patch testing should not be performed. Pre-implant patch testing should only be done to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a corresponding history. In case of implant-related complications - in particular following replacement arthroplasty - such as pain, effusion, skin lesions, reduced range of motion or implant loosening, orthopedic causes should be ruled out first. Workup of suspected metal implant allergy should then be done using the DKG standard series, which includes nickel, cobalt, and chromium preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing have shown this particular approach to be ineffective with respect to providing reliable information on metal allergy. Any positive reaction in such tests cannot be assigned to a specific metal contained within the alloy. Furthermore, there is a risk of broad and indiscriminate use of these readily available discs. Accordingly, given the lack of additional benefit compared to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs. PMID:26408461

  12. Patch testing a patient with allergic contact hand dermatitis who is taking infliximab.

    PubMed

    Rosmarin, David; Bush, Michelle; Scheinman, Pamela L

    2008-07-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed allergic contact hand dermatitis while receiving infliximab infusions for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Patch testing showed multiple positive allergens. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful patch testing in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockade therapy. TNF-alpha blockers do not necessarily suppress allergic contact hypersensitivity and are not an absolute contraindication to patch testing. PMID:18468722

  13. Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Allergy Plays a Role in Atopic Eczema as Shown in the Atopy Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma is rather well established, the role of allergy in atopic eczema (AE) is still controversial. By a technique called atopy patch test, aeroallergens like house dust mite, animal dander, or pollen were proven as relevant trigger factors in a subgroup of patients with AE. The atopy patch test is an epicutaneous patch test with such allergens known to elicit IgE-mediated reactions, and used for the evaluation of eczematous skin reactions. In a series of single-center and multicenter studies, a method was developed, standardized, and compared with other diagnostic techniques (radioallergosorbent test, skin prick test) in AE patients. With regard to clinical history, the most specific results were obtained with the atopy patch test (allergen-dependent, 69%-92%), whereas sensitivity was higher for skin prick test (range, 69%-82%) and specific IgE (range, 65%-94%). The characterization of a patient subgroup with relevant IgE-mediated allergy may lead to more efficient avoidance and eventually even specific immunotherapy strategies in the management of AE. PMID:23283386

  14. [Effect of cignolin and infrared irradiation on the patch test and lymphocyte transformation test].

    PubMed

    Eter, J; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G

    1990-09-01

    In a study on the effect of anthralin and infrared irradiation (IR) on the allergic patch test in vivo and the lymphocyte transformation test in vitro, we observed that anthralin enhanced the local test reaction. Our findings suggest an additive reaction of toxic anthralin dermatitis and allergic test reaction. Immunohistology showed that additional treatment with anthralin resulted in elevated numbers of the OKT-6+ dendritic cells in the epidermis. Anthralin in concentrations of greater than or equal to 10(-5) M inhibited the lymphocyte transformation in vitro. IR irradiation-either before or during patch testing-did not significantly influence the allergic test reaction or the lymphocyte transformation, if the temperature was adjusted to 37 degrees C. In comparison to convective heat, we found no specific effect of IR irradiation. PMID:2264370

  15. The association between size of test chamber and patch test reaction: a statistical reanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, O; Pfahlberg, A; Geier, J; Brasch, J; Uter, W

    1999-01-01

    A recent study by Brasch and co-workers reported on the association between size of test chamber and patch test reaction. The investigators interpreted their data on 495 patients as having conclusively shown that standard preparations of fragrance mix, wool wax alcohols, Kathon CG and formaldehyde led to more positive test reactions when large Finn Chambers were used for patch testing. We have scrutinized the statistical aspects of this study and conclude that the authors should have adopted a statistical approach suitable to analyse dependent samples. After explaining the correct methodological way of dealing with quadratic contingency tables formed by 2 dependent samples, we reanalyze the data accordingly and compare the results to those of the original paper. Based on this reanalysis, the conclusions are more complex: the reaction pattern for the fragrance mix and wool wax alcohols is significantly different between small and large test chambers; however, this discrepancy arises primarily from changing weak positive reactions with small chambers to strong positive reactions with large chambers. For formaldehyde, no relationship between chamber size and patch test reaction was found in the data, while for Kathon CG, statistical evidence is borderline that more positive test reactions are yielded by large test chambers than by small ones. PMID:9928799

  16. Outline test plan for test series I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The overall technical objectives for the Phase 1 programme of the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility were presented in a draft document ''Phase 1 Research Programme: Baseline and Modified Option Cases'', produced in May 1979 and discussed at subsequent Technical Committee Meetings. The technical objectives for Test Series 1 presented in this document have developed from those outlined in the May 79 baseline; all the changes from the earlier outline are recorded. The data collection systems expected to be used are also presented. It is planned to carry out experiments to meet the objectives in three sub-series each along a different ''good fluidisation'' line determined at high, medium and low velocities. The high velocity sub-series has four runs including the original design conditions for Tube Bank 'A'. The medium velocity sub-series has seven runs and involves operating Tube Bank 'A' at what are to be its optimum operating conditions. The low velocity sub-series has six runs including the CURL Link Test operating conditions.

  17. European Society of Contact Dermatitis guideline for diagnostic patch testing - recommendations on best practice.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E; Bircher, Andreas; Bruze, Magnus; Cannavó, Alicia; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Gonçalo, Margarida; Goossens, An; John, Swen M; Lidén, Carola; Lindberg, Magnus; Mahler, Vera; Matura, Mihály; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Serup, Jørgen; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Thyssen, Jacob P; Vigan, Martine; White, Ian R; Wilkinson, Mark; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    The present guideline summarizes all aspects of patch testing for the diagnosis of contact allergy in patients suspected of suffering, or having been suffering, from allergic contact dermatitis or other delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and mucosal conditions. Sections with brief descriptions and discussions of different pertinent topics are followed by a highlighted short practical recommendation. Topics comprise, after an introduction with important definitions, materials, technique, modifications of epicutaneous testing, individual factors influencing the patch test outcome or necessitating special considerations, children, patients with occupational contact dermatitis and drug eruptions as special groups, patch testing of materials brought in by the patient, adverse effects of patch testing, and the final evaluation and patient counselling based on this judgement. Finally, short reference is made to aspects of (continuing) medical education and to electronic collection of data for epidemiological surveillance. PMID:26179009

  18. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  19. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in the Podlasie region

    PubMed Central

    Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997

  20. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  1. False-positive, follicular and irritant patch test reactions to metal salts.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Rystedt, I

    1985-02-01

    853 hard metal workers were patch tested with nickel sulphate 5%, potassium dichromate 0.5% and cobalt chloride 1%, each in petrolatum. Non-allergic reactions appeared in 6.5% of the nickel tests, 13% of the chromium tests and 18.3% of the cobalt tests. Most of the individuals with positive, poral or pustular reactions were retested with serial dilutions of metal salts in pet. and in water. The accuracy of a positive initial nickel reaction was 83%, a chromium reaction 40% and a cobalt reaction 62%. The nonallergic reactions were partly reproducible and correlated with both the type of patch test material and with individual factors. Weak and moderately strong positive patch test reactions to metal salts may be irritant and should be checked with serial dilution tests or at least be retested. A reduction of the cobalt chloride concentration from 1% to 0.5% in the standard test material is discussed. PMID:3157537

  2. Inferring local competition intensity from patch size distributions: a test using biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland vegetation is inherently patchy. This patchiness goes on to impact ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Recently, researchers have proposed that dryland vegetation patch sizes follow a power law which is due to local plant facilitation. It is unknown what patch size distribution prevails when competition predominates over facilitation, or if such a pattern could be used to detect competition. We investigated this question in an alternative vegetation type, mosses and lichens of biological soil crusts, which exhibit a smaller scale patch-interpatch configuration. This micro-vegetation is characterized by competition for space. We proposed that multiplicative effects of genetics, environment and competition should result in a log-normal patch size distribution. When testing the prevalence of log-normal versus power law patch size distributions, we found that the log-normal was the better distribution in 53% of cases and a reasonable fit in 83%. In contrast, the power law was better in 39% of cases, and in 8% of instances both distributions fit equally well. We further hypothesized that the log-normal distribution parameters would be predictably influenced by competition strength. There was qualitative agreement between one of the distribution's parameters (μ) and a novel intransitive (lacking a 'best' competitor) competition index, suggesting that as intransitivity increases, patch sizes decrease. The correlation of μ with other competition indicators based on spatial segregation of species (the C-score) depended on aridity. In less arid sites, μ was negatively correlated with the C-score (suggesting smaller patches under stronger competition), while positive correlations (suggesting larger patches under stronger competition) were observed at more arid sites. We propose that this is due to an increasing prevalence of competition transitivity as aridity increases. These findings broaden the emerging theory surrounding dryland patch size distributions

  3. Patch testing with oxidized R-(+)-limonene and its hydroperoxide fraction.

    PubMed

    Matura, Mihály; Goossens, An; Bordalo, Olivia; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Magnusson, Kerstin; Wrangsjö, Karin; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2003-07-01

    R-(+)-Limonene is an ubiquitous allergen in our environment. It is one of the most widely used fragrance materials not only in fine fragrances but also most often incorporated in domestic and occupational products. Although the non-oxidized R-(+)-limonene itself is not allergenic, it easily forms allergenic products due to autoxidation during handling and storage. 2273 patients at 4 dermatological clinics in Europe were patch tested between 1997 and 1999 in 2 steps. First, the oxidation mixture of R-(+)-limonene and 1 selected allergen fraction of the mixture, the limonene hydroperoxides, were tested in 2 different vehicles in consecutive patients. A diverging frequency of positive patch test reactions was observed in the 4 clinics. 3.8% of the consecutive patients tested reacted to oxidized R-(+)-limonene in 2 clinics, 6.5% in the 3rd, whereas 0.3% in the 4th clinic. In 2 of the centres, different but significant concomitant positive response rates to other allergens were observed; e.g. to fragrance materials and to colophonium. However, in the total test population, 57% of the limonene-allergic subjects did not react to any of the fragrance allergy markers used in the standard series. In the 2nd step, patients showing positive reactions were retested, also including additional separate allergens of the limonene oxidation mixture (carvone and limonene oxide). 60% of the limonene-allergic patients showed positive results at retesting. The limonene hydroperoxide fraction was proved to be the most important allergen of the oxidation mixture, showing positive reactions in around 60% of the limonene-allergic patients at both test sessions. Testing limonene oxide and carvone separately resulted in very few positive reactions. 3% oxidized R-(+)-limonene in non-stabilized petrolatum is most suitable when using only 1 test preparation for diagnosis of contact allergy to oxidized limonene. Our data give clinical support to the European classification of R

  4. Patch-test-induced "flare-up" reactions to neomycin at prior biopsy sites.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Barland, Chantal; ElSaie, Mohamed L

    2008-01-01

    "Recall dermatitis" classically refers to the uncommon phenomenon of chemotherapy-induced reactivation of skin damage originally induced by radiotherapy months or years earlier. We compare this condition to ectopic flare-up reactions presenting as dermatitis at existing or previous sites by an inducing agent. Enhanced sensitization of an existent allergen by patch testing is rarely described. We describe a case of a 61-year-old man's developing localized allergic contact dermatitis at previous neomycin-treated sites following the diagnosis of neomycin sensitivity on patch testing, which we attribute to a "flare-up" phenomenon. PMID:19134429

  5. Predictive patch testing of "Medigloves" on humans using the repeated insult technique.

    PubMed

    Timpatanapong, P; Charuwichitratana, S; Rajatanavin, N; Sakuntapai, A

    1991-01-01

    The predictive patch tests using the repeated insult technique with pieces of ETO sterilized "Medigloves" on 200 human subjects showed negative allergic reactions in all cases. Therefore, the sensitizing potential of "Medigloves" is quite low, if any. Mild to severe forms of miliaria rubra were occasionally observed in about one fourth of the subjects during the induction and challenge periods since the weather was quite warm and humid. However, three subjects who developed more pronounced miliaria rubra on the skin underneath rubber-glove squares were selected for provocative use tests. The results were negative in all cases. A subject who showed a false-positive allergic reaction also showed negative results in a provocative use test and in patch tests with standard rubber chemicals and pieces of "Medigloves" from various batches. Occlusive patch tests for 72 hours with Mediglove pieces from the same batch used in the initial test challenge phase were repeatedly negative when performed during the cool time of the year. In tropical countries, predictive closed patch tests employing solid occlusive materials should be done during cool weather in order to prevent or minimize the occurrence of miliaria. In hot weather, this is a common source of false positive reactions. PMID:2026980

  6. Nondestructive testing of surface-bonded piezoelectric patch actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Johannes K.; Krohn, Nils; Nixdorf, Klaus; Luetze, Steffen; Herold-Schmidt, Ursula; Busse, Gerhard

    1999-07-01

    Introduction of new technologies to aerospace applications necessarily requires methods of non-destructive testing suitable to evaluate structural integrity. This important task also occurred when it was decided to develop and manufacture a large Fin-Box-Demonstrator equivalent to a fighter aircraft tail equipped with surface bonded piezoceramic actuators between DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - Military Aircraft Division and DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology. The objective of this project is to prove that structural vibrations of a fighter aircraft tail fin due to buffeting can be damped actively by means of surface bonded piezoceramic actuators.

  7. Patch test results in children and adolescents. Study from the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Dermatology Clinic, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patch testing is an efficient method to identify the allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the results of patch tests in children and adolescents comparing these two age groups' results. METHODS Cross-sectional study to assess patch test results of 125 children and adolescents aged 1-19 years, with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, in a dermatology clinic in Brazil. Two Brazilian standardized series were used. RESULTS Seventy four (59.2%) patients had "at least one positive reaction" to the patch test. Among these positive tests, 77.0% were deemed relevant. The most frequent allergens were nickel (36.8%), thimerosal (18.4%), tosylamide formaldehyde resin (6.8%), neomycin (6.4%), cobalt (4.0%) and fragrance mix I (4.0%). The most frequent positive tests came from adolescents (p=0.0014) and females (p=0.0002). There was no relevant statistical difference concerning contact sensitizations among patients with or without atopic history. However, there were significant differences regarding sensitization to nickel (p=0.029) and thimerosal (p=0.042) between the two age groups under study, while adolescents were the most affected. CONCLUSION Nickel and fragrances were the only positive (and relevant) allergens in children. Nickel and tosylamide formaldehyde resin were the most frequent and relevant allergens among adolescents. PMID:26560213

  8. Mighty Eagle 'Rocks' Flight Testing Series

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, recently completed a series of test objectives – even going as high as 100 feet for several free flights. The vehicle is a three-legged protot...

  9. Multi-frac test series. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R A; Warpinski, N R; Finley, S J; Shear, R C

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a series of five full-scale tests performed to evaluate various multi-frac concepts. The tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in horizontal boreholes drilled in ash-fall tuff from a tunnel under 1300 ft of overburden.

  10. Degradation of triglycidyl isocyanurate as a cause of false-negative patch test reaction.

    PubMed

    Erikstam, U; Bruze, M; Goossens, A

    2001-01-01

    Triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) is mainly used in polyester-based powder paints, but also in laminates, insulating varnishes, coatings and adhesives. Several cases of contact allergy to TGIC have been reported during the last 10 years. Contact allergy to TGIC has developed in a factory producing the chemical, in a factory producing powder paints containing TGIC, and in industries using powder coating. In this paper, we report a man who developed a work-related dermatitis when working on the painting of metal frames. He was exposed to polyester powder pigments containing TGIC. When patch tested, he was negative to TGIC (prepared in 1988) 3x and positive to polyester powder pigment. Only when a new test preparation of fresh TGIC powder was tested, was a positive reaction obtained. Chemical analyses showed that there was no TGIC in the test preparation from 1988, and that in the TGIC powder from 1988, there was only 30% of the expected amount of TGIC. The investigations, clinical and chemical, strongly indicate degradation of TGIC in the test preparation and powder. Both substances and the test preparations made from them may change over time. Therefore, if a false-negative reaction due to a test preparation is strongly suspected, we recommend a re-test of the patient with a new test preparation of fresh material. As a general rule, patch testing should be performed with fresh substances and test preparations made from them, unless their stability and durability are known. PMID:11156005

  11. Patch testing with patients' own cosmetics and toiletries--results of the IVDK*, 1998-2002.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Balzer, Christina; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter J; Schnuch, Axel

    2005-10-01

    Patch test results with products brought in by the patients collected by the members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between 1998 and 2002 were analysed. 5911 patients were patch tested with their own cosmetics and toiletries during this period. The 34 082 single test preparations applied to these 5911 patients were manually assigned to 1 of 26 categories, based on the EU Classification Annex I to 76/768/EEC, which had been further refined. The leave-on product category most commonly tested was 'creams, emulsions, lotions, gels and oils for the skin' (n = 3621 tested, n = 312 positive). The rinse-off product type most commonly tested was 'bath and shower preparations' (n = 1333 tested, n = 71 positive). In one-third of patients tested positive to these products, no other positive test result was observed. In the remainder, positive reactions to the fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae resin, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, (chloro-)methylisothiazolinone, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diole and further ingredients of cosmetics and toiletries were more common than in product-negative patients. However, in view of the potential for false-positive reactions mainly to rinse-off products, the results must be interpreted with caution. In conclusion, testing of patients' own products can be regarded as efficient and safe, if in accordance with current recommendations. PMID:16191021

  12. Outcome of a second patch test reading of TRUE Tests® on D6/7.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-02-01

    Background. Two readings of patch test reactions are recommended. Objectives. To evaluate the outcome of a second patch test reading of TRUE Test® allergens on D6/7 in relation to negative or doubtful reactions on D3/4. Methods. This was a retrospective investigation of patch test data from January 1992 to October 2011 from consecutive eczema patients tested with the TRUE Test® panels. Results. In the period of nearly 20 years, a total of 9997 patients were tested. The total number of positive reactions to the 29 allergens was 6509; 4.4% were positive on D6/7 and negative on D3/4; and 9.1% were positive on D6/7 after a doubtful (?+) reaction on D3/4. Neomycin was the most frequent allergen giving delayed positive reactions (57%), followed by budesonide (42%) and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate (31%). Conclusion. A total of 4.4% of positive TRUE Test® reactions would be missed, and 9.1% might be missed, if only one reading was performed on D3/4. The results emphasize that many doubtful reactions at D3/4 may develop into positive reactions at a later reading. This may have important implications for evaluation of the clinical relevance of the test result. PMID:23289880

  13. The role of patch testing in the evaluation of orthopedic implant-related adverse effects: current evidence does not support broad use.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Glen H

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of skin patch testing to evaluate patients for orthopedic, implant-related adverse effects. This may be done preoperatively to avoid implanting a material to which an individual may be allergic or postoperatively to implicate sensitivity as a cause for implant failure. There is emerging evidence that patch testing might have utility in the workup of implant-related adverse events; however, the level of evidence at the present time is weak and based only on a collection of case reports, series, and retrospective cohort studies (level IV evidence as per United States Department of Health and Human Services guidelines); there are no randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) with which to guide medical decision making. Recent reports have advocated that patch testing be broadly used in the preoperative evaluation of all patients self-reporting a history of metal sensitivity. In addition, several authors have advocated that patch test results should guide preoperative implant selection and postoperative implant removal. It is the opinion of this author that these recommendations are premature, lacking robust clinical evidence, and unfeasible given the broad-reaching logistical impact and societal costs involved. More robust clinical data are needed, and thorough cost-benefit analyses must be performed before such far-reaching and costly systematic practices should be broadly implemented. PMID:23665834

  14. Review of magnetostrictive patch transducers and applications in ultrasonic nondestructive testing of waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kwon, Young Eui

    2015-09-01

    A magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) is a transducer that exploits the magnetostrictive phenomena representing interactions between mechanical and magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials. Since MPT technology was mainly developed and applied for nondestructive ultrasonic testing in waveguides such as pipes and plates, this paper will accordingly review advances of this technology in such a context. An MPT consists of a magnetic circuit composed of permanent magnets and coils, and a thin magnetostrictive patch that works as a sensing and actuating element which is bonded onto or coupled with a test waveguide. The configurations of the circuit and magnetostrictive patch therefore critically affect the performance of an MPT as well as the excited and measured wave modes in a waveguide. In this paper, a variety of state-of-the-art MPT configurations and their applications will be reviewed along with the working principle of this transducer type. The use of MPTs in wave experiments involving phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is also briefly introduced. PMID:26048175

  15. Test/analysis comparison of piezoelectric patch local behavior for vibroacoustic active control application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florens, Corine; Balmes, Etienne; Clero, Franck

    2007-04-01

    To predict the effect of active control on aircraft or helicopter trim panels, made with honeycomb sandwich composite, one approach consists in modeling the panel by Finite Element Method. FEM with shell elements for the laminate and volume elements for the core is classically used in industry; in a previous study the homogenized modeling approach has been validated. The aim of the present paper is to make a test/analysis comparison of the dynamic behavior of a honeycomb core sandwich beam actuated by a piezoelectric patch. More precisely, the behavior in the vicinity of the piezoelectric actuator is characterized, in order to validate the modeling approach of honeycomb sandwich composite equipped with piezoelectric patches.

  16. Technical Manual: 2002 Series GED Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezzelle, Carol; Setzer, J. Carl

    2009-01-01

    This manual was written to provide technical information regarding the 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests. Throughout this manual, documentation is provided regarding the development of the GED Tests, data collection activities, as well as reliability and validity evidence. The purpose of this manual is to provide evidence…

  17. Patch Testing with Main Sensitizers Does Not Detect All Cases of Contact Allergy to Oxidized Lavender Oil.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Christensson, Johanna Bråred

    2016-06-15

    Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained from lavender (Lavendula angustifolia). The main components linalool and linalyl acetate have been shown to autoxidize in contact with oxygen in the air, forming sensitizing hydroperoxides. Patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were consecutively patch-tested with oxidized lavender oil 6% pet., oxidized linalyl acetate 6% pet., and oxidized linalool 6% pet. to investigate the frequency of contact allergy to oxidized lavender oil, and the pattern of concomitant reactions to oxidized linalool and oxidized linalyl acetate. Positive reactions to oxidized lavender oil were found in 2.8% of the patients. Among those, 56% reacted to oxidized linalool and/or oxidized linalyl acetate, while 52% reacted to the fragrance markers of the baseline series. Oxidized lavender oil showed among the highest frequencies of contact allergy to studied essential oils. A well-standardized preparation of oxidized lavender oil could be a useful tool for diagnosis of contact allergy to fragrances. PMID:26671837

  18. Use of the cytosensor microphysiometer to predict results of a 21-day cumulative irritation patch test in humans.

    PubMed

    Landin, Wendell E; Mun, Greg C; Nims, Raymond W; Harbell, John W

    2007-09-01

    The cytosensor microphysiometer (mu phi) was investigated as a rapid, relatively inexpensive test to predict performance of skin cleansing wipes on the human 21-day cumulative irritation patch test (21CIPT). It indirectly measures metabolic rate changes in L929 cells as a function of test article dose, by measuring the acidification rate in a low-buffer medium. The dose producing a 50% reduction in metabolic rate (MRD50), relative to the baseline rate, is used as a measure of toxicity. The acute toxicity of the mu phi assay can be compared to the chronic toxicity of the 21CIPT, which is based largely on the exposure of test agents to the epidermal cells, resulting in damage and penetration of the stratum corneum leading to cell toxicity. Two series of surfactant-based cleansing wipe products were tested via the mu phi assay and 21CIPT. The first series, consisting of 20 products, was used to determine a prediction model. The second series of 38 products consisted of routine product development formulas or marketed products. Comparing the results from both tests, samples with an MRD50 greater than 50 mg/ml provided a 21CIPT score consistent with a product that performs satisfactorily in the market. When the MRD50 was greater than 78 mg/ml, the 21CIPT score was usually zero. The mu phi may be more sensitive than the 21CIPT for ranking minimally irritating materials. The mu phi assay is useful as a screen for predicting the performance of a wet wipes formula on the 21CIPT, and concurrently reduces the use of animals for safety testing in a product development program for cleansing wipes. PMID:17475442

  19. Testing metapopulation concepts: effects of patch characteristics and neighborhood occupancy on the dynamics of an endangered lagomorph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Metapopulation ecology is a field that is richer in theory than in empirical results. Many existing empirical studies use an incidence function approach based on spatial patterns and key assumptions about extinction and colonization rates. Here we recast these assumptions as hypotheses to be tested using 18 years of historic detection survey data combined with four years of data from a new monitoring program for the Lower Keys marsh rabbit. We developed a new model to estimate probabilities of local extinction and colonization in the presence of nondetection, while accounting for estimated occupancy levels of neighboring patches. We used model selection to identify important drivers of population turnover and estimate the effective neighborhood size for this system. Several key relationships related to patch size and isolation that are often assumed in metapopulation models were supported: patch size was negatively related to the probability of extinction and positively related to colonization, and estimated occupancy of neighboring patches was positively related to colonization and negatively related to extinction probabilities. This latter relationship suggested the existence of rescue effects. In our study system, we inferred that coastal patches experienced higher probabilities of extinction and colonization than interior patches. Interior patches exhibited higher occupancy probabilities and may serve as refugia, permitting colonization of coastal patches following disturbances such as hurricanes and storm surges. Our modeling approach should be useful for incorporating neighbor occupancy into future metapopulation analyses and in dealing with other historic occupancy surveys that may not include the recommended levels of sampling replication.

  20. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  1. In pursuit of defining clinical relevance of positive patch tests results.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya; Stone, Stephen P; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2007-01-01

    According to the current classification of clinical relevance of the positive patch test reactions, the positive results of patients who are allergic to various allergens that are not responsible for the present dermatitis do not fit into the category of "relevant to present dermatitis" but should be defined as "relevant to a preceding bout of dermatitis." This seems to us inappropriate and misleading because reexposure to the sensitizing agent would quickly revert their reaction to "relevant to present dermatitis." We suggest an alternative possibility to the current division of the various types of clinical relevance, namely, "relevance to a present allergy other than the presenting dermatitis." PMID:17870528

  2. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  3. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  4. Noninvasive in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy is effective in differentiating allergic from nonallergic equivocal patch test reactions.

    PubMed

    Slodownik, D; Levi, A; Lapidoth, M; Ingber, A; Horev, L; Enk, C D

    2015-04-01

    Patch testing is the gold standard for the validation of contact dermatitis. It relies on the subjective scoring by an evaluator of the inflammatory reaction induced by an allergen applied to the skin. Equivocal reactions imply faint erythema and could represent allergic, irritant, or negative reactions. They constitute approximately 1 % of the positive reactions encountered in patch test practice. Histological evaluation of the equivocal reaction has proven helpful for the correct interpretation but is however time consuming, and its invasive nature is often unacceptable to the patient. In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a novel, noninvasive imaging technique which permits real-time visualization of skin structures and lesions at a resolution close to that obtained by conventional histology. CLSM has been successfully applied for the differentiation between clinically clear-cut allergic and irritant patch test reactions. The objective of this study is to determine the relevance of CLSM in differentiating between allergic, irritant, and negative equivocal patch test reactions. Fifteen patients who underwent patch testing in our clinic were observed as having 20 equivocal reactions. All 20 reactions were evaluated using in vivo CLSM and compared with adjacent normal skin. In vivo CLSM evaluation revealed that 8 of the 20 equivocal reactions (40 %) showed confocal patterns consistent with the patterns encountered in positive allergic reactions. Anamnestic exposure, i.e., detailed assessment of previous related contact with these allergens, confirmed high relevance rates. In vivo CLSM is useful in differentiating between allergic, irritant, and negative equivocal patch test reactions, a differentiation that cannot be made by conventional clinical patch test reading. PMID:25604734

  5. Using a spatio-temporal dynamic state-space model with the EM algorithm to patch gaps in daily riverflow series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2005-09-01

    A spatio-temporal linear dynamic model has been developed for patching short gaps in daily river runoff series. The model was cast in a state-space form in which the state variable was estimated using the Kalman smoother (RTS smoother). The EM algorithm was used to concurrently estimate both parameter and missing runoff values. Application of the model to daily runoff series in the Volta Basin of West Africa showed that the model was capable of providing good estimates of missing runoff values at a gauging station from the remaining time series at the station and at spatially correlated stations in the same sub-basin.

  6. Clutter sensitivity test under controlled field conditions Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-27

    Theoretical research, controlled laboratory tests, and these field test results show that nonmetallic (and metallic) shallowly buried objects can be detected and imaged with the Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor. The sensor can be modeled as a high Q cavity which capitalizes on its resonant condition sensitivity to scattered waves from buried objects. When the RMPA sensor is swept over a shallowly buried object, the RMPA fed-point impedance (resistance), measured with a Maxwell bridge, changes by tens of percent. The significant change in unprocessed impedance data can be presented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphical displays over the survey area. This forms silhouette images of the objects without the application of computationally intensive data processing algorithms. Because RMPA employed electromagnetic waves to illuminate the shallowly buried object, a number of questions and issues arise in the decision to fund or deny funding of the reconfiguration of the RMPA technology into a nonmetallic (metallic) land mine detector.

  7. Adhesion molecules in atopic dermatitis: patch tests elicited by house dust mite.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Linse, F; Pals, S T; Heller, R; Moths, C; Neumann, C

    1997-10-01

    Different T-helper subsets, which are characterized by the secretion of distinct cytokines (Th1, Th2), have been found in house dust mite-exposed skin of sensitized individuals and in nickel-specific T lymphocytes from nickel contact allergic and non-allergic individuals. In order to evaluate the role which adhesion molecules may play in the homing of different T-cell subsets into allergen-exposed skin of atopic and normal individuals, we compared the expression pattern of adhesion molecules in patch test reactions to house dust mite antigen (D.pt.), nickel sulfate (Ni) and the irritant anthralin. Biopsies were taken at various time points after application of these agents and studied by immuncytochemistry. To exclude an endogenous difference in adhesion molecule expression in atopic and non-atopic skin, sequential biopsies from Ni patch tests of 2 normal individuals were also included in this study. The expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, CD31, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 on endothelial cells and other cells in the skin was quantified by microscopic evaluation. Skin homing T cells were also quantified using antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, UCHL-1, L-selectin and the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA). Independent of the eliciting substance, all lesions showed an upregulation of all adhesion molecules tested, with the exception of CD62. The appearance of E-selectin and an increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression were first observed at 12 h after application of the various agents. In parallel, the number of CLA+ and L-selectin+ lymphocytes increased steadily. No principle differences could be established between the various types of skin reactions in atopic individuals, nor did the skin of patients with AD differ from normal controls. Our results provide evidence that differential expression of adhesion molecules does not play a major part in observed differential homing of Th1 and Th2-cell subsets into patch test sites provoked by house dust mite and nickel sulfate in atopic

  8. Intradermal Tests for Diagnosis of Drug Allergy are not Affected by a Topical Anesthetic Patch.

    PubMed

    Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Ferreira, Ana; Cernadas, Josefina R

    2014-09-01

    The use of topical anesthesia to perform intradermal tests (IDTs) for drug allergy diagnosis was never investigated. We aimed to determine the effects of a topical anesthetic patch containing prilocaine-lidocaine on wheal size of IDT with drugs. Patients who had positive IDT as part of their investigation process of suspected drug hypersensitivity were selected. IDT were performed according to guidelines. Anesthetic patch (AP) was placed and the same prior positive IDT, as well as positive histamine skin prick test (SPT) and negative (saline IDT) controls, were performed in the anesthetized area. Patients with negative IDT were also included to check for false positives with AP. Increase in wheals after 20 minutes both with and without AP was recorded and compared. 45 IDT were performed (36 patients), of which 37 have been previously positive (14 antibiotics, 10 general anesthetics, 6 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 3 iodinated contrasts, 3 anti-Hi-histamines and 1 ranitidine). Mean histamine SPT size without the AP was 4.7 mm [95%CI (4.4-5.1]), and 4.6 mm [95%CI(4.2-5.0)] with anesthesia. Mean wheal increase in IDT for drugs without the anesthesia was 4.5 mm [95%CI(3.3-5.7)] and with anesthesia was 4.3 mm [95%CI(2.8-5.8)]. No statistical significant differences were observed between skin tests with or without AP for histamine SPT (P=0.089), IDT with saline (P=0.750), and IDT with drugs (P=0.995). None of the patients with negative IDT showed positivity with the AP, or vice-versa. The use of an AP containing prilocaine-lidocaine does not interfere with IDT to diagnose drug allergy, and no false positive tests were found. PMID:25229004

  9. Discrepancy in patch test results with wool wax alcohols and Amerchol L-101.

    PubMed

    Matthieu, L; Dockx, P

    1997-03-01

    Wondering why Amerchol L-101 (containing wool wax alcohols obtained from the hydrolysis of wool fat) appears as a test material (100%) in a cosmetics series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB), as wool wax alcohols were already tested in the European standard series, we added Amerchol L-101 (100%) systematically to the standard series. From 8 April 1991 to 28 February 1992, a total of 393 patients were tested: 3.05% (n = 12) showed positive test results (+, +2, +3) for wool wax alcohols as well as Amerchol L-101 (100%), 0.3% (n = 1) for wool wax alcohols only, and 11.1% (n = 44) for Amerchol L-101 (100%) only. Thus, the positive tests for Amerchol L-101 (100%) had a higher frequency of 3.4 compared to those for wool wax alcohols. In the meantime, we also added Amerchol L-101 50% (Trolab) to the standard series. Of all patients tested (n = 223) 2.7% (n = 6) had positive reactions to wool wax alcohols and 12.1% (n = 27) to Amerchol L-101 100% and/or 50%. Thus, positive reactions to Amerchol L-101 (100% and 50%) were 4.5 higher, whereas the rate of concordancy decreased. It is remarkable that 8 patients only had a positive reaction to Amerchol L-101 50% and 9 only to Amerchol L-101 100%. It seems that we miss many diagnoses in contact allergy by using only the standard wool wax alcohols test (30%). PMID:9145265

  10. Identification and testing of early indicators for N leaching from urine patches.

    PubMed

    Vogeler, Iris; Cichota, Rogerio; Snow, Val

    2013-11-30

    Nitrogen leaching from urine patches has been identified as a major source of nitrogen loss under intensive grazing dairy farming. Leaching is notoriously variable, influenced by management, soil type, year-to-year variation in climate and timing and rate of urine depositions. To identify early indicators for the risk of N leaching from urine patches for potential usage in a precision management system, we used the simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator) to produce an extensive N leaching dataset for the Waikato region of New Zealand. In total, nearly forty thousand simulation runs with different combinations of soil type and urine deposition times, in 33 different years, were done. The risk forecasting indicators were chosen based on their practicality: being readily measured on farm (soil water content, temperature and pasture growth) or that could be centrally supplied to farms (such as actual and forecast weather data). The thresholds of the early indicators that are used to forecast a period for high risk of N leaching were determined via classification and regression tree analysis. The most informative factors were soil temperature, pasture dry matter production, and average soil water content in the top soil over the two weeks prior to the urine N application event. Rainfall and air temperature for the two weeks following urine deposition were also important to fine-tune the predictions. The identified early indicators were then tested for their potential to predict the risk of N leaching in two typical soils from the Waikato region in New Zealand. The accuracy of the predictions varied with the number of indicators, the soil type and the risk level, and the number of correct predictions ranged from about 45 to over 90%. Further expansion and fine-tuning of the indicators and the development of a practical N risk tool based on these indicators is needed. PMID:24064140

  11. Atopy patch test for the diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Matthew I; Brown-Whitehorn, Terri A; Pawlowski, Nicholas A; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2006-08-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is thought to be a non-IgE mediated food allergy syndrome. Affected infants typically demonstrate gastrointestinal symptoms after hours after ingestion of the offending food. Traditional allergy testing is not useful for this disorder because tests for food specific IgE are routinely negative. A diagnostic oral food challenge (OFC) is the only method to confirm the diagnosis of FPIES. This prospective study was undertaken to determine whether the atopy patch test (APT) is able to predict the results of the OFC. Nineteen infants with suspected FPIES by clinical history underwent APT to the suspected foods. After APT was performed, subjects underwent OFC to determine whether FPIES was present. The results of APT and OFC were compared and used to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the APT. APT predicted the results of oral food challenges in 28/33 instances. There were 16 cases of FPIES confirmed by oral food challenges. In all 16 cases of FPIES, the APT was positive to the suspected food. However, the APT was positive in five instances where the oral food challenge was negative. All 12 patients with a negative APT had a negative oral food challenge to the suspected food. APT appears to be a promising diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPIES. PMID:16846453

  12. Supplementary information on Series II Test A-5 test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    Test planning and test preparation for LLTR Series II Test A-5 are continuing at GE and ETEC. The main objective for this test is to obtain data on the type and magnitude of steam tube blowout failures resulting from worst case leak conditions under the superheater hot standby condition (i.e., the plant condition considered most susceptible to steam tube blowout failures from wastage/overheating). A corollary objective is to add large quantities of steam (i.e. approx. 330 lbs) to simulate the amount that could be added in a plant system (such as CRBRP) before pressure would build up in the intermediate Heat Transport System to blow the expansion tank rupture disc. This report recommends the preferred method for operating the LLTR primary/secondary steam systems for Test A-5. i.e., Option 5 - Common Supply Tanks for Primary and Secondary Systems.

  13. Are contact allergens stable in patch test preparations? Investigation of the degradation of d-limonene hydroperoxides in petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, U; Magnusson, K; Karlberg, O; Karlberg, A T

    1999-03-01

    Several of the products formed after oxidation of d-limonene exhibit strong contact allergenic properties. Some, e.g., the hydroperoxides, are unstable compounds. In this study, we have examined whether the limonene hydroperoxides are chemically stable in white petrolatum used for patch testing. We found that the stability of the hydroperoxides was strongly dependent on whether or not the petrolatum was stabilized with alpha-tocopheryl acetate. In the presence of this antioxidant, the hydroperoxides were degraded to a greater extent. The hydroperoxides were shown to be directly reduced to the corresponding alcohols by this agent. On the other hand, the compounds where shown to be stable in non-stabilized petrolatum throughout clinical patch testing for a period of 6 weeks, provided that the preparations were stored in a refrigerator when not used. Thus, it is recommended that vehicles without alpha-tocopheryl acetate are used when peroxy or hydroperoxy compounds are patch tested or used in sensitization experiments. However, it is important to limit the storage time so that optimal conditions are at hand. A fast method was developed to enable isolation and quantification of the hydroperoxides in white petrolatum. This analytical method may also be applicable to other compositions of patch test preparations. PMID:10073439

  14. Pre-treatment of nickel test areas with sodium lauryl sulfate detects nickel sensitivity in subjects reacting negatively to routinely performed patch tests.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Motolese, A; Belletti, B

    1996-02-01

    A fair % of patients with a clinical history of nickel allergy show negative patch test results. To improve the response rate to NiSO4 5% pet. patch tests, a testing procedure utilizing pre-treatment of the test area by a 24-h application of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was introduced. 46 women with a clinical history of nickel sensitivity, who exhibited negative reactions to nickel sulfate 5% pet. patch tests, were studied. Patients underwent 6 patch tests on adjacent sites on the volar surface of the forearms. 4 patch tests were performed with a 72-h application of 40 mg nickel sulfate 5% pet. While 1 of these patch tests served as control, 3 test areas underwent 24-h pre-treatment with 40 microliters SLS, 1 with 0.1% and 2 with 0.5% solution. To evaluate differences in the reactivity to SLS plus nickel sulfate related to the site on the forearm, 0.5% SLS pre-treatment was performed both on a proximal and on a distal test site. At the 72-h evaluation, 19 subjects out of 46 showed positive reactions to nickel sulfate 5% pet. at skin sites pre-treated with 0.1% SLS, whereas 23 patients reacted positively at 0.5% SLS pre-treated areas. Echographic values of skin thickness and of hypo-echogenic dermal areas at positive pre-treated nickel test areas were higher than at control test areas, confirming the clinical evidence of an increased response to NiSO4 after SLS pre-treatment. The inflammatory reaction, as evaluated clinically and echographically, was much higher at distal skin areas (0.1% SLS and distal 0.5% SLS) than at proximal 0.5% SLS ones. PMID:8681564

  15. Food allergy-related paediatric constipation: the usefulness of atopy patch test.

    PubMed

    Syrigou, Ekaterini I; Pitsios, Constantinos; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Chouliaras, Georgios; Kitsiou, Sofia; Kanariou, Mary; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the implication of food allergy as a cause of paediatric constipation and to determine the diet period needed to tolerate the constipation-causing foods. Fifty-four children aged 6 months to 14 years (median, 42 months) suffering from chronic constipation (without anatomic abnormalities, cοeliac disease or hypothyroidism), unresponsive to a 3-month laxative therapy, were prospectively evaluated. All participants were evaluated for allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, rice, corn, potato, chicken, beef and soy, using skin tests (SPT), serum specific IgE and atopy patch test (APT). A withdrawal of the APT-positive foods was instructed. Thirty-two children had positive APT; 15 were positive to one; six, to two and 11, to three or more food allergens, wheat and egg being the commonest. After withdrawing the APT-positive foods for an 8-week period, constipation had improved in 28/32 children, but a relapse of constipation was noticed after an oral food challenge, so they continued the elimination diet. Tolerance to food allergens was achieved in only 6/28 after 6 months, compared to 25/28 after 12 months and to all after a 2-year-long elimination. Food allergy seems to be a significant etiologic factor for chronic constipation not responding to treatment, in infants and young children. APT was found to be useful in evaluating non-IgE allergy-mediated constipation, and there was no correlation of APT with IgE detection. Tolerance was adequately achieved after 12 months of strict food allergen elimination. PMID:21347849

  16. Usefulness of Atopy Patch Test on a child with milk protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Scaparrotta, A; Di Pillo, S; Consilvio, N P; Attanasi, M; Cingolani, A; Rapino, D; Cerasa, M; Pucci, N; Di Gioacchino, M; Chiarelli, F

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a child affected by milk-protein induced enterocolitis, in which oral challenge with corn was performed without symptoms after a negative specific Atopy Patch Test. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon nonIgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity of infancy, characterized by severe vomiting and diarrhea arising within 1 to 3 hours after ingestion of the causative food. Little is known about the pathophysiology of FPIES. The absence of food-specific IgE as demonstrated by negative skin prick tests suggests that the disease is not caused by an early onset IgE-mediated reaction. Atopy Patch Test has been described as sensitive and predictive in this syndrome. The hypothesis on the immunological pathogenesis has been discussed on the basis of literature data. PMID:24067480

  17. Salmon Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

  18. The NASA B-757 HIRF Test Series: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.

  19. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 3 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting a series of flight tests to acheive the following objectives: 1.) Validate results previously collected during project simulations with live data 2.) Evaluate TCAS IISS interoperability 3.) Test fully integrated system in a relevant live test environment 4.) Inform final DAA and C2 MOPS 5.) Reduce risk for Flight Test Series 4.

  20. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  1. Comparison of some tests for convergence of positive series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourchtein, Ludmila; Bourchtein, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    In this survey, aimed at professors and students of undergraduate analysis courses, two hierarchies of tests are considered. The first is originated from the ratio test and the second from the root test. The test construction techniques are exposed and relations between the tests in each family are discussed. The examples of convergent and divergent series clarify the range of application for each of the introduced tests and situations when they are not conclusive. The behaviour of the partial sums of these series is illustrated geometrically and the level of complexity of each series is evaluated in terms of the rate of its convergence or divergence.

  2. Ciprofloxacin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis mimicking bullous drug eruption confirmed by a positive patch test.

    PubMed

    Hausermann, P; Scherer, K; Weber, M; Bircher, A J

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of an 80-year-old woman presenting with ciprofloxacin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) confirmed by a positive patch test. Cutaneous morphology, course and histological findings were consistent with a definite diagnosis according to the AGEP validation score of the EuroSCAR study group. We point to the rarity of quinolone-induced AGEP and discuss immunological mechanisms, the value of in vivo and in vitro tests as well as the main differential diagnosis. Furthermore, we highlight in this particular case the challenging differentiation from bullous drug eruption. PMID:16205075

  3. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on ... of hGH indicates a problem either in the hypothalamus or the pituitary. Additional testing can illustrate the ...

  4. Ford Aerospace High-G Test Series II and III

    SciTech Connect

    Beshears, D.L.

    1987-03-01

    A series of tests is being conducted on electronic and optical components and assemblies to determine how well they operate after periods of constant high acceleration. This testing is being performed for the Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation in support of the Air Force Space and Technology Center Sagittar Program. This final report documents the second and third series of tests which consisted of 47 test runs. The tests included the evaluation of some packaging techniques in an effort to extend the load capacity of a Panasonic lithium battery. Other tests conducted in Series II consisted of accelerating two receiver units (one with a gallium arsenide lens and the other with a zinc sulfide lens) to various G levels up to 120,281 G's. The qualification target for each of these units is 120,000 G's. In Test Series III, it was possible to further extend the Panasonic lithium battery life by not only encapsulating the battery in Castolite plastic, but also enclosing the entire assembly in an aluminum housing. The other components tested in Test Series III included two receiver units (one with a germanium lens and the other a 19-mm Kodak zinc sulfide lens), a 40-mm hybrid controller, a zinc sulfide lens assembly, an Altus lithium battery, a germanium filter, and two detectors. The qualification target for the 2 batteries and the 40-mm hybrid controller is 120,000 G's, while the qualification target for each of the other components tested in Series III is 140,000 G's.

  5. Eosinophilic airway disease in a patient with a negative skin prick test, but a positive patch test with platinum salts--implications for medical surveillance.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Fartasch, Manigé; Sander, Ingrid; Van Kampen, Vera; Raulf, Monika; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old woman with a topic dermatitis since adolescence who developed work-related hand eczema, cough and runny nose 12 years after she had started working as a laboratory technician at a precious metals refinery. While skin prick test with sodium hexachloroplatinate (SPTPt ) was negative, patch testing with ammonium tetrachloroplatinate was positive after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. Inhalation challenge with sodium hexachloroplatinate yielded cough, mild shortness of breath, and a maximal decrease of FEV1 of 8% from baseline 24 hr after the challenge. Significant increases of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, exhaled nitric monoxide and sputum eosinophils were documented after the challenge. We conclude that eosinophilic airway disease due to platinum salts may occur in SPTPt negative subjects. Both, patch testing and inhalation challenge with platinum salts should be considered in SPT negative subjects with occupational exposure to precious metal salts and work-related allergic symptoms. PMID:26010732

  6. Methyl esterification of 15-hydroperoxyabietic acid does not affect the patch-test result in colophonium allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Bråred-Christensson, Johanna; Börje, Anna; Harambasic, Elma; Matura, Mihàly

    2007-06-01

    Colophonium (gum rosin) consists of numerous compounds. We have previously shown that abietic acid (Fig. 1), the major compound in gum rosin, is oxidized to strong contact allergens at air exposure (1). The most potent allergen identified is 15-hydroperoxyabietic acid (15-HPA, Fig. 1), which was isolated as its methyl ester (Fig. 1) and used for patch testing (2, 3). The aim of this study was to confirm the previous postulate that methyl esterification of the carboxyl group in 15-HPA does not affect the allergenic activity. PMID:17577378

  7. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R H; Jones, A K; Nimick, K G

    1982-04-01

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10{sup -5} sec{sup -1}, atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively.

  8. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  9. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  10. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  11. Results of tests of K5NA and a revised formulation of EPDM/cork patch material in MSFC Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    During prelaunch procedures at Kennedy Space Center some of the EPDM Thermal Protection System material was damaged on the Solid Rocket Booster stiffener stubs. The preferred solution was to patch the damaged areas with a cork-filled epoxy patching compound. Before this was done, however, it was requested that this patching technique be checked out by testing it in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility. Two tests were run in the HFG in 1980. The results showed the patch material to be adequate. Since that time, the formulation of the cork-filled epoxy material has been changed. It became necessary to retest this concept to be sure that the new material is as good as or better than the original material. In addition to the revised formulation material, tests were also made using K5NA as the patch material. The objectives of the tests reported herein were to: (1) compare the thermal performance of the original and the new cork-filled epoxy formulations, and (2) compare the K5NA closeout material to these epoxy materials. Material specifications are also discussed.

  12. Children with Atopic Dermatitis Should Always be Patch-tested if They Have Hand or Foot Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Olhardt, Sanna; Rådehed, Jeanette; Svensson, Åke

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease among children in industrialised countries. Many factors influence this disease in a negative way and contact allergy is one such factor. The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of contact allergy among children with the diagnosis atopic dermatitis. Contact allergy was found in 22/82 children (26.8%), the most common from Amerchol L101 (11.0%), potassium dichromate (7.3%), and nickel sulfate (4.9%). A statistically significant difference in contact allergy frequency was demonstrated for those with hand and/or foot eczema compared to those without. Children with atopic dermatitis who suffer from hand and/or foot dermatitis should always be patch-tested to evaluate whether they have a relevant contact allergy and thus allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:25367826

  13. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-7 results. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, D.E.; Amos, J.C.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report evaluates the test A-7 data and assesses the capability of the analytical methodology (as a result of Series I program) to predict the thermal/hydraulic phenomena associated with a large SWR event occurring after the sodium system pressure has increased to near the rupture disc burst pressure due to a smaller size leak event. Evaluation of intertest examination data to determine the extent of test article damage resulting from test A-7 is also included.

  14. Con-Patch: When a Patch Meets Its Context.

    PubMed

    Romano, Yaniv; Elad, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Measuring the similarity between the patches in images is a fundamental building block in various tasks. Naturally, the patch size has a major impact on the matching quality and on the consequent application performance. Under the assumption that our patch database is sufficiently sampled, using large patches (e.g., 21 × 21 ) should be preferred over small ones (e.g., 7 × 7 ). However, this dense-sampling assumption is rarely true; in most cases, large patches cannot find relevant nearby examples. This phenomenon is a consequence of the curse of dimensionality, stating that the database size should grow exponentially with the patch size to ensure proper matches. This explains the favored choice of small patch size in most applications. Is there a way to keep the simplicity and work with small patches while getting some of the benefits that large patches provide? In this paper, we offer such an approach. We propose to concatenate the regular content of a conventional (small) patch with a compact representation of its (large) surroundings-its context. Therefore, with a minor increase of the dimensions (e.g., with additional ten values to the patch representation), we implicitly/softly describe the information of a large patch. The additional descriptors are computed based on a self-similarity behavior of the patch surrounding. We show that this approach achieves better matches, compared with the use of conventional-size patches, without the need to increase the database-size. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on three distinct problems: 1) external natural image denoising; 2) depth image super-resolution; and 3) motion-compensated frame-rate up conversion. PMID:27295669

  15. Con-Patch: When a Patch Meets Its Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Yaniv; Elad, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Measuring the similarity between patches in images is a fundamental building block in various tasks. Naturally, the patch-size has a major impact on the matching quality, and on the consequent application performance. Under the assumption that our patch database is sufficiently sampled, using large patches (e.g. 21-by-21) should be preferred over small ones (e.g. 7-by-7). However, this "dense-sampling" assumption is rarely true; in most cases large patches cannot find relevant nearby examples. This phenomenon is a consequence of the curse of dimensionality, stating that the database-size should grow exponentially with the patch-size to ensure proper matches. This explains the favored choice of small patch-size in most applications. Is there a way to keep the simplicity and work with small patches while getting some of the benefits that large patches provide? In this work we offer such an approach. We propose to concatenate the regular content of a conventional (small) patch with a compact representation of its (large) surroundings - its context. Therefore, with a minor increase of the dimensions (e.g. with additional 10 values to the patch representation), we implicitly/softly describe the information of a large patch. The additional descriptors are computed based on a self-similarity behavior of the patch surrounding. We show that this approach achieves better matches, compared to the use of conventional-size patches, without the need to increase the database-size. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on three distinct problems: (i) External natural image denoising, (ii) Depth image super-resolution, and (iii) Motion-compensated frame-rate up-conversion.

  16. Using a spatio-temporal dynamic state-space model with the EM algorithm to patch gaps in daily riverflow series, with examples from the Volta Basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2005-04-01

    A spatio-temporal linear dynamic model has been developed for patching short gaps in daily river runoff series. The model was cast in a state-space form in which the state variable was estimated using the Kalman smoother (RTS smoother). The EM algorithm was used to concurrently estimate both parameter and missing runoff values. Application of the model to daily runoff series in the Volta Basin of West Africa showed that the model was capable of providing good estimates of missing runoff values at a gauging station from the remaining series at the station and at spatially correlated stations in the same sub-basin.

  17. Iranian rainfall series analysis by means of nonparametric tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaee, P. Hosseinzadeh

    2014-05-01

    The study of the trends and fluctuations in rainfall has received a great deal of attention, since changes in rainfall patterns may lead to floods or droughts. The objective of this study was to analyze the annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall time series at seven rain gauge stations in the west of Iran for a 40-year period (from October 1969 to September 2009). The homogeneity of the rainfall data sets at the rain gauge stations was checked by using the cumulative deviations test. Three nonparametric tests, namely Kendall, Spearman, and Mann-Kendall, at the 95 % confidence level were used for the trend analysis and the Theil-Sen estimator was applied for determining the magnitudes of the trends. According to the homogeneity analysis, all of the rainfall series except the September series at Vasaj station were found to be homogeneous. The obtained results showed an insignificant trend in the annual and seasonal rainfall series at the majority of the considered stations. Moreover, only three significant trends were observed at the February rainfall of Aghajanbolaghi station, the November series of Vasaj station, and the March rainfall series of Khomigan station. The findings of this study on the temporal trends of rainfall can be implemented to improve the water resources strategies in the study region.

  18. An experimental test of the effects of food resources and hydraulic refuge on patch colonization by stream macroinvertebrates during spates.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Junjiro N; Richardson, John S

    2006-01-01

    1. The passive or active movement of organisms between habitat patches plays important roles in achieving ecosystem resilience to disturbance and long-term control of population levels. However, causal mechanisms of disturbance-induced movements of mobile biota across heterogeneous habitat patches at a relatively short time-scale are little understood. 2. We experimentally tested the effects of food resource values on macroinvertebrate colonization of hydraulic refugia from spates in a second-order creek. Experimental cages were colonized by macroinvertebrates with combinations of resource types (natural or polyester leaves), and extent of exposure to stream flow (exposed to or sheltered from current); one half of each set was collected before and after a spate. This experiment was repeated over three spates of varying magnitude and seasonal contexts. 3. Pre-spate colonization was consistently greater for the cages with natural leaves relative to artificial leaves regardless of the extent of flow exposure. Two autumn spates with relatively low and stable antecedent flow conditions caused large movements of organic matter and macroinvertebrates across the stream, showing community-level accumulations into hydraulically sheltered patches independent of food treatment. The smallest spate with high and variable antecedent flows during winter resulted in negligible responses, which we interpret to be a result of depletion of easily transportable organic matter and organisms. 4. Two detritivorous taxa, the mayfly Paraleptophlebia spp. and stonefly Despaxia augusta (Banks) were the most responsive to autumn spates, and had disproportionately higher colonization rates of cages when provided with natural leaves during the largest autumn spate. Preferential settlement in food-enriched hydraulic refugia was attributable to taxon-specific mobility related to efficient acquisition of detritus resource, whose availability varies spatially and temporally. 5. Our findings suggest

  19. Epidural Blood Patch Performed for Severe Intracranial Hypotension Following Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery. Retrospective Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tanweer, Omar; Kalhorn, Stephen P.; Snell, Jamaal T.; Lieber, Bryan A.; Agarwal, Nitin; Huang, Paul P.; Sutin, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial hypotension (IH) can occur following lumbar drainage for clipping of an intracranial aneurysm. We observed 3 cases of IH, which were all successfully treated by epidural blood patch (EBP). Herein, the authors report our cases. PMID:27065093

  20. Epidural Blood Patch Performed for Severe Intracranial Hypotension Following Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery. Retrospective Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tanweer, Omar; Kalhorn, Stephen P; Snell, Jamaal T; Wilson, Taylor A; Lieber, Bryan A; Agarwal, Nitin; Huang, Paul P; Sutin, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Intracranial hypotension (IH) can occur following lumbar drainage for clipping of an intracranial aneurysm. We observed 3 cases of IH, which were all successfully treated by epidural blood patch (EBP). Herein, the authors report our cases. PMID:27065093

  1. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nine. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 1.] Tests M1-M13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of the first 13 tests are provided. Skills to be tested include: (1) reading a table; (2) using a biological key; (3) identifying chemical symbols; (4) identifying parts of a human body; (5) reading a line graph; (6) identifying electronic and…

  2. Time-series Deployment of Chemical Sensor Data-logger in a Riftia Patch at Tica Vent (EPR 9\\deg50'N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, C.; Foustoukos, D.

    2004-12-01

    An in-situ chemical sensor array was deployed in a Riftia pachyptila patch at Tica diffuse flow vent area during a recent submersible investigation with Atlantis/Alvin (At-11-7) to the EPR 9\\deg50'N region. Chemical and temperature data were recorded continuously during the 13-day study to quantify short-term time series trends. Biological activity at Tica is unusually robust, which likely relates to a combination of chemical and physical factors in the vent ecosystem. The electrochemical array in the sensor unit consisted of pH, dissolved H2 and H2S electrodes, which made use of Ir, Pt and Ag base metal components respectively. The sensor measurements were referenced to dissolved Cl in the fluid using a junctioned Ag/AgCl electrode. A Ti sheathed E-type thermocouple was included to provide simultaneous temperature data. Moreover, the sensor array was coupled to a data-logging system through a high pressure conducting cable, which allowed continuous data scanning and recording at an interval of 5 seconds. Owing to the functionality of the inductively coupled communication link (ICL) between the sensor and the data logger, we were able to use real time temperature readings in the submersible to guide deployment. The warmest temperatures were observed at the fractured rock base of the tubeworm colony, which is where the sensor package was deployed. Temperature, however, varied systematically from approximately 10 to 20\\deg C throughout the 13-day experiment. Chemical data were generally in phase with temperature with the more extreme departures from ambient conditions associated with temperature maxima. In general, the lowest pH values were approximately 0.5 units less than ambient seawater, while dissolved H2S concentrations ranged from 10 and 100 μ mol/kg. The mean value of dissolved H2S was in the range of 20-30 μ mol/kg in excellent agreement with that actually measured using conventional approaches. Dissolved H2 concentrations, in contrast, were orders of

  3. Application of Near-Field Microwave and Millimeter Wave Nondestructive Testing for Evaluation of Fiber Breakage and Orientation Evaluation in CFRP Composite Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2005-04-01

    Near-field microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation techniques have been successfully used for detecting defects such as disbond and delamination in complex composite structures. This paper presents the results of fiber breakage detection and fiber orientation determination in carbon fiber reinforced polymer patches which are used in aerospace industry and civil infrastructure.

  4. Rocket vehicle targeting for the PLACES ionospheric plasma test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollstin, L. R.

    1984-02-01

    The PLACES (Position Location And Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon- and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

  5. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Ten. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 2.] Tests M14-M26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 14 through 26 include: (14) calculating an average; (15) identifying parts of the scientific method; (16) reading a geological map; (17) identifying elements, mixtures and compounds; (18) using Ohm's law in calculation; (19) interpreting…

  6. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eleven. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 3.] Tests M27-M38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 27 through 38 include: (27) reading a grid plan; (28) identifying common invertebrates; (29) characteristics of invertebrates; (30) identifying elements; (31) using scientific notation part I; (32) classifying minerals; (33) predicting the…

  7. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twelve. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 4.] Tests M39-M50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 39 through 50 include: (39) using a code; (40) naming the parts of a microscope; (41) calculating density and predicting flotation; (42) estimating metric length; (43) using SI symbols; (44) using s=vt; (45) applying a novel theory; (46)…

  8. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Thirteen. Mastery Testing Program. [Mastery Tests Series 5.] Tests M51-M65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 51 through 65 include: (51) interpreting atomic and mass numbers; (52) extrapolating from a geological map; (53) matching geological sections and maps; (54) identifying parts of the human eye; (55) identifying the functions of parts of a…

  9. Operation WIGWAM, series volume, oceanic test. 1st edition

    SciTech Connect

    Weary, S.E.; Ozeroff, W.J.; Sperling, J.L.; Collins, B.

    1980-05-30

    This report describes the activities of DoD participants in the atmospheric nuclear test series, Operation WIGWAM, which involved only one deep underwater shot in the Pacific, approximately 500 miles southwest of San Diego, CA. WIGWAM was essentially a single service operation with minimal AEC and contractor participation. The various levels at which Dod personnel participated within the Joint Task Group 7 are identified.

  10. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible. PMID:22943875

  11. Pretreatment of the test area with 1-day occlusion improves the response rate to NiSO4 5% pet. patch tests in subjects with a positive history of nickel allergy.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Manzini, B M; Belletti, B

    1995-09-01

    A group of 58 women, aged 18 to 51 years, with a clinical history of nickel allergy, who exhibited equivocal or negative reactions to nickel sulfate 5% pet. patch tests performed on the skin of the back, were recruited consecutively from the patch test clinic from September 1993 to June 1994. In order to improve the response rate to NiSO4 5% pet. patch tests, a testing procedure utilizing pretreatment of the test area by 1-day (24-h) occlusion was introduced. Patients underwent 2 patch tests on adjacent sites of the volar surface of both forearms. 3 of the patch tests were performed with 40 mg nickel sulfate 5% pet., whereas a control test was carried out by occluding with an empty chamber. 2 of the nickel sulfate test sites were pretreated with 1-day occlusion performed with an empty chamber. A visual grading system and echographic measurement were used to quantify the responses 30-40 min after patch test removal. Echographic evaluations were carried out using a 20 MHz B-scanner. Measurement of skin thickness and determination of the hypoechogenic dermal area, both considered to be parameters of inflammation, were used to evaluate the intensity of the allergic reaction. At the 3-day (72-h) evaluation, 19 subjects out of 58 clearly showed positive reactions to nickel sulfate 5% pet. at pre-occluded skin sites. Moreover, values of skin thickness and of 0-30 areas at positive pre-occluded nickel test areas were higher in respect to control test areas, confirming clinical evidence of increased response to NiSO4 after occlusion. PMID:8565454

  12. Approaches to Language Testing. Advances in Language Testing Series: 2. Papers in Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This volume, one in a series on modern language testing, collects four essays dealing with current approaches to lanquage testing. The introduction traces the development of language testing theory and examines the role of linguistics in this area. "The Psycholinguistic Basis," by E. Ingram, discusses some interpretations of the term…

  13. Rapid Levothyroxine Absorption Testing: A Case Series of Nonadherent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Mamtha; Jhingan, Ram M.; Rubin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonadherence to levothyroxine therapy is one cause of persistent hypothyroidism. To distinguish nonadherence from malabsorption, a levothyroxine absorption test is required. Typically, this test measures the serum free thyroxine (FT4) response to 1000 mcg of oral levothyroxine over 4 to 24 hours. Published data indicate that serum levels of FT4 are at or near their peak 2 hours after levothyroxine ingestion. Objectives: We present the successful completion of 2-hour levothyroxine absorption testing in 3 patients as a retrospective case series. Patients and Methods: Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were drawn at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after 1000 mcg of oral levothyroxine. Results: In all 3 cases, baseline thyroid function indicated the patients had taken their prescribed doses of levothyroxine prior to the absorption test. Despite high baseline levels both FT3 and FT4 increased during each absorption test, providing more evidence of adequate levothyroxine absorption. Subsequently, patients achieved normal TSH levels on lower doses of levothyroxine. Conclusions: Levothyroxine absorption testing over 2 hours may offer a more rapid alternative to the commonly used longer protocols to rule out malabsorption. Scheduling a levothyroxine absorption test may induce some patients to start adhering to levothyroxine therapy. PMID:26633982

  14. Fluid flow measurements of Test Series A and B for the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

    1987-12-01

    The degree of waste isolation achieved by a repository seal system is dependent upon the fluid flow characteristics, or permeability, of the seals. In order to obtain meaningful, site-specific data on the performance of various possible seal system components, a series of in situ experiments called the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) are being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report contains the results of gas flow, tracer penetration, and brine flow tests conducted on concrete seals in vertical (Test Series A) and horizontal (Test Series B) configurations. The test objectives were to evaluate the seal performance and to determine if there existed scaling effects which could influence future SSSPT designs. 3 refs., 77 figs.

  15. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-03-14

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  16. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-6 results. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, J.C.; Knittle, D.E.; Chen, K.; Odegaard, T.K.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-06-01

    Series II test A-6 employed a DEG tube rupture located 222.9 inches above the bottom of the LLTI shroud at the periphery of the tube bundle. The test yielded a peak pressure at the leak site of 340 psia and peak measured temperatures of 2150/sup 0/F. The initial acoustic pressure spike measured upstream of the RD-1 rupture disc assembly of 295 psia was insufficient to burst the upstream rupture membrane. (The LLTV was supposed to be completely filled with sodium. However, review of test data has indicated that approx. 8 ft/sup 3/ of gas was present in the upper region of the LLTV at the time of test. The presence of this gas in the test article contributed to the reduction in the magnitude of the acoustic pressure spike.) The acoustic pressure spikes diminished and a gradual system pressure rise controlled by the compression of the cover gas in the surge tank occurred. When the system pressure increased to 340 psia about 6.5 seconds after leak initiation, the upstream rupture disc burst followed by burst of the downstream disc about 54 milliseconds later.

  17. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patch. Each patch is stuck onto a thin plastic liner and a separate rigid plastic film. Do not open the pouch in advance, ... cut the patch into pieces. Peel the thin plastic liner off of the printed side of the ...

  18. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... still remove the patch at your regular patch removal time. Do not apply extra patches to make ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Do not refrigerate or ...

  19. Rivastigmine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... still remove the patch at your regular patch removal time. If it is almost time for the ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any patches ...

  20. Materials Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04, 05, and 06

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Lyle, J; Wong, K

    2006-03-23

    The purpose of this work is to examine the environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of detonating a confined explosive test apparatus that has been designed to maximize the dynamics of impact on beryllium metal components for Contained Firing Facility (CFF) applications. A combination of experimental collection and evaluation methods were designed and implemented to provide an evaluation of immediately postdetonation by-products reflecting a potential worst-case scenario beryllium aerosolization explosive event. The collective Material Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04 - 06 provided explosive devices designed to scale for the dedicated METS firing tank that would provide a post-detonation internal environment comparable to the CFF. The experimental results provided appropriate information to develop operational parameters to be considered for conducting full-scale beryllium-containing experimental tests with similar designs within CFF and B801A. These operational procedures include the inclusion of chelating agents in pre-shot CFF cardboard containers with a minimum of 600 gallons content, an extended time period post-test before purging the CFF chamber, and an adaptation of approaches toward applications of the scrubber and HEPA systems during the post-shot sequence for an integrated environmental, safety, and health approach. In addition, re-entry and film retrieval procedures will be adapted, in line with abatement techniques for cleaning the chamber, that will be required for work inside a CFF that will contain an elevated concentration of spherical and highly aerosolizable beryllium particulate.

  1. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  2. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge testing in Tank 241-S-106

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on Tank 241-S-106 (S-106) during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge`s measuring wire broke. An investigation has been started to determine how the wire broke. This test plan identifies a qualification test that is part of this investigation. This test will also provide evidence as to the location and extent of potential corrosion on the measuring wire due to tank environment. The results from this testing will provide data for better material selections. This test will involve placing the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauge back into service with the same type of measuring wire (316 stainless steel) that originally broke on August 11, 1994. The gauge will be operated for 14 days. At the end of the 14-day test, the wire shall be sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis.

  4. Ecotoxicological test systems proceedings of a series of workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, A.S.

    1981-06-01

    A series of six workshops was conducted by the Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to identify laboratory methods and data evaluation techniques for predicting the environmental effects of chemical substances. Methods were evaluated for their potential for standardization and for use in the ecological hazard and risk assessment processes under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The workshops addressed assessment and policy requirements of multispecies toxicology test procedures, mathematical models useful in hazard and risk assessments, and methods for measuring effects of chemicals on terrestrial and aquatic population interactions and ecosystem properties. The workshops were primarily used as a mechanism to gather information about research in progress. This information was part of the data base used to prepare a critical review of laboratory methods for ecological toxicology.

  5. Series of well tests helps determine remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, R.K.

    1987-02-23

    Short duration well tests, conducted at various states of depletion, when analyzed together can provide excellent reservoir characterization. Such may not be possible from conventional analysis of the individual tests. This observation can be demonstrated by the analysis of two build-up tests and one shut-in pressure survey conducted at various stages of depletion in Well X. This well was completed in the Wilcox (Lobo) trend, a series of geopressured, low permeability sands. Fracture stimulation resulted in improved deliverability which deteriorated with time. A study was undertaken to evaluate remedial procedures for improved deliverability; therefore, it was important to identify the reservoir system. P/Z vs. cumulative gas production data indicated the following possibilities: 1. Water drive gas reservoir; 2. Donut-shaped composite reservoir with deteriorating permeability; 3. Layered reservoir. If the reservoir is a water drive gas reservoir with limited reserves, possibly no workover is needed. If, on the other hand, it is a donut-shaped composite reservoir with deteriorating permeabilities and sufficient reserves, refrac is necessary. Last, if the reservoir is found to be layered with most reserves present in the damaged layer(s), then cleaning the damaged perforations is all that is required.

  6. Summary of results from the Series 2 and Series 3 NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] bare fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1987-11-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project is studying dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent nuclear fuel in Nevada Test Site groundwater. Specimens were tested for multiple cycles in J-13 well water. The Series 2 tests were run in unsealed silica vessels under ambient hot cell air (25{sup 0}C) for five cycles for a total of 34 months. The Series 3 tests were run in sealed stainless steel vessels at 25{sup 0}C and 85{sup 0}C for three cycles for a total of 15 months. Selected summary results from Series 2 and Series 3 tests with bare fuel specimens are reported. Uranium concentrations in later test cycles ranged from 1 to 2 {mu}g/ml in the Series 2 Tests versus about 0.1 to 0.4 {mu}g/ml in Series 3 with the lowest concentrations occurring in the 85{sup 0}C tests. Preferential release of fission products Cs, I, Sr and Tc, and activation product C-14, was indicated relative to the actinides. Tc-99 and Cs-137 activities measured in solution after Cycle 1 increased linearly with time, with the rate of increase greater at 85{sup 0}C than at 25{sup 0}C. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Sixteen. Mastery Testing Program. Series 6. Tests M66-M91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, print masters of tests 66 through 91 are provided. Among the areas covered are: carbon compounds; evolution; map reading; genetics; energy; chemical formulae; electricity; graphs; metric measures; solubility; and physical separations. Many tests contain…

  8. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-04-26

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

  9. Evaluation of LLTR Series II tests A-1A and A-1B test results. [Large Leak Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Shoopak, B F; Amos, J C; Norvell, T J

    1980-03-01

    The standard methodology, with minor modifications provides conservative yet realistic predictions of leaksite and other sodium system pressures in the LLTR Series II vessel and piping. The good agreement between predicted and measured pressures indicates that the TRANSWRAP/RELAP modeling developed from the Series I tests is applicable to larger scale units prototypical of the Clinch River steam generator design. Calculated sodium system pressures are sensitive to several modeling parameters including rupture disc modeling, acoustic velocity in the test vessel, and flow rate from the rupture tube. The acoustic velocity which produced best agreement with leaksite pressures was calculated based on the shroud diameter and shroud wall thickness. The corresponding rupture tube discharge coefficient was that of the standard design methodology developed from Series I testing. As found in Series I testing, the Series II data suggests that the leading edge of the flow in the relief line is two phase for a single, doubled-ended guillotine tube rupture. The steam generator shroud acts as if it is relatively transparent to the transmission of radial pressures to the vessel wall. Slightly lower sodium system maximum pressures measured during Test A-1b compared to Test A-1a are attributed to premature failure (failure at a lower pressure) of the rupture disc in contact with the sodium for test A-1b. The delay in failure of the second disc in Test A-1b, which was successfully modeled with TRANSWRAP, is attributed to the limited energy in the nitrogen injection.

  10. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the patch. Each patch is stuck onto a thin plastic liner and a separate rigid plastic film. Do not open the pouch in advance, because ... to cut the patch into pieces. Peel the thin plastic liner off of the printed side ... one piece of the plastic film from the sticky side of the patch. Be ...

  11. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  12. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks. PMID:10387579

  13. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  14. Non-invasive monitoring and quantitative analysis of patch test reactions by reflectance spectrophotometry, laser Doppler flowmetry and transepidermal water loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova; Arase, Seiji

    2008-02-01

    Reflectance spectrophotometry (RS), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) techniques were simultaneously used to non-invasively monitor skin colour (SC), skin blood flow (SBF) and barrier function damage (BFD) in routinely patch-tested Japanese patients in dermatology clinic. The analytical quality, reliability and reproducibility of each technique were compared and analyzed in correlated to visual scoring patch test (PT) reactions as negative (-), doubtful (+?), weak (+) and strong (++/+++) at 48- and 72-hour monitoring. An attempt was made to quantify predominant in the clinic "+?"- and "+'"-PT-reactions. The relationship between 48 h and 72 h measurements in different reaction groups was poor for TEWL, LDF showed a tendency to decrease at 72 h, but good for RS. A correlation between visual scorings and instrumental mean values was poor for TEWL, good for LDF and excellent for RS. So, measurements by RS were the most statistically significant to non-invasively monitor and quantify doubtful, weak and strong PT reactions, accordingly providing continuous data grading of reaction intensity suitable in the clinic. Moreover, monitoring of SC changes was the most reliable parameter for the quantitative distinguishing of doubtful and weak reactions in pigmented skin.

  15. Reliability of a flushing questionnaire and the ethanol patch test in screening for inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and alcohol-related cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Ohmori, T; Kumagai, Y; Higuchi, S; Ishii, H

    1997-12-01

    Molecular epidemiology of esophageal and upper aerodigestive tract cancers revealed that alcohol is more carcinogenic in persons with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) than in those with active ALDH2. A simple questionnaire has been developed to screen for the facial flushing that occurs in persons with inactive ALDH2 when they drink even a single glass of beer. In this study, 266 of 284 consecutive male Japanese clinic patients (age > or = 50 years) completed the flushing questionnaire, and 239 underwent the ethanol patch test (a cutaneous model for the flushing response). Blinded genotyping showed inactive ALDH2 for 94.4% (102 of 108) of subjects who reported always flushing (early in their drinking history or currently) and for 47.7% (21 of 44) of those who reported sometimes flushing, whereas 95.6% (109 of 114) of subjects reporting that they never exhibited facial flushing had active ALDH2. When all three categories of flushing (current always, former always, and sometimes) were collapsed into one, the questionnaire's sensitivity and specificity for identifying inactive ALDH2 were 96.1 and 79.0%, respectively, compared with 72.4 and 71.4% for the ethanol patch test. The results suggest the utility of this simple flushing questionnaire in daily practice, as well as large-scale studies to assess cancer risks associated with drinking and ALDH2 and for activities aimed at preventing alcohol-related cancer. PMID:9419411

  16. Relay test program. Series 2 tests: Integral testing of relays and circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing.

  17. Scopolamine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patch from its protective pouch. To expose the adhesive surface of the patch, the clear plastic protective ... peeled off and discarded. Contact with the exposed adhesive layer should be avoided to prevent contamination of ...

  18. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... that area. Use scissors to remove the outer seal from the package. Then pull apart the zipper seal. Remove up to three patches from the package and press the zipper seal tightly together. The remaining patches may dry out ...

  19. Metal Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  20. Pre-test evaluation of LLTR Series II Test A-6. [Large Leak Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, D

    1980-11-01

    Purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A6 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Facility (LLTF) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center. A6 is part of a test program being conducted to evaluate the effects of leaks produced by a double-ended guillotine rupture of a single tube. A6 will provide data on the CRBR prototypical double rupture disc performance.

  1. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

  2. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells.

  3. What Makes a Coursebook Series Stand the Test of Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illes, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Intriguingly, at a time when the ELT market is inundated with state-of-the-art coursebooks teaching modern-day English, a 30-year-old series enjoys continuing popularity in some secondary schools in Hungary. Why would teachers, several of whom are school-based teacher-mentors in the vanguard of the profession, purposefully choose materials which…

  4. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40%) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Theresa A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four Pu-238O2-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40 percent) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions.

  6. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Extended series test program large fragment tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.

    1989-08-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electric power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electric power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory was modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents, and an extended series safety test program was initiated. The program included a series of large fragment tests that simulated the collision of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragments, generated in an SRB motor case rupture or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action, with the GPHS-RTG. The tests indicated that fueled clads, inside a converter, will not breach or release fuel after a square (142 cm on a side) SRB fragment impacts flat-on at velocities up to 212 m/s, and that only the leading fueled capsules breach and release fuel after the square SRB fragment impacts the modules, inside the converter, edge-on at 95 m/s. 8 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

  8. J-2X Engine Ready For Second Test Series

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse video of the installation of J-2X engine 10001 in the A-2 test-stand at Stennis, complete with clamshell assembly and nozzle extension. With these enhancements test engineers will measur...

  9. Current Developments in Language Testing. Anthology Series 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anivan, Sarinee, Ed.

    The selection of papers on language testing includes: "Language Testing in the 1990s: How Far Have We Come? How Much Further Have We To Go?" (J. Charles Alderson); "Current Research/Development in Language Testing" (John W. Oller, Jr.); "The Difficulties of Difficulty: Prompts in Writing Assessment" (Liz Hamp-Lyons, Sheila Prochnow); "The Validity…

  10. Patch voltage clamp of squid axon membrane.

    PubMed

    Fishman, H M

    1975-12-01

    A small area (patch) of the external surface of a squid axon can be "isolated" electrically from the surrounding bath by means of a pair of concentric glass pipettes. The seawater-filled inner pipette makes contact with the axon and constitutes the external access to the patch. The outer pipette is used to direct flowing sucrose solution over the area surrounding the patch of membrane underlying the inner pipette. Typically, sucrose isolated patches remain in good condition (spike amplitude greater than 90 mV) for periods of approximately one half hour. Patches of axon membrane which had previously been exposed to sucrose solution were often excitable. Membrane survival of sucrose treatment apparently arises from an outflow of ions from the axon and perhaps satellite cells into the interstitial cell space surrounding the exolemma. Estimate of the total access resistance (electrode plus series resistance) to the patch is about 100 komega (7 omega cm2). Patch capacitance ranges from 10-100 pF, which suggests areas of 10(-4) to 10(-5) cm2 and resting patch resistances of 10-100 Momega. Shunt resistance through the interstitial space exposed to sucrose solution, which isolates the patch, is typically 1-2 Momega. These parameters indicate that good potential control and response times can be achieved on a patch. Furthermore, spatial uniformity is demonstrated by measurement of an exoplasmic isopotential during voltage clamp of an axon patch. The method may be useful for other preparations in which limited membrane area is available or in special instances such as in the measurement of membrane conduction noise. PMID:1214276

  11. The Building Blocks of State Testing Programs. Statement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Arnold; Pedulla, Joseph; Clarke, Marguerite

    To ensure that educational tests do the least harm and bring the greatest good to the education of elementary and secondary school students, it is important that parents, teachers, educational administrators, and policy makers be actively involved in test construction and use. The purpose of this Statement is to provide a checklist of some…

  12. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  13. The NASA B-757 HIRF test series: Low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Zacharias, R.A.; Pennock, S.T.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.

    1995-07-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical and experimental for the assessment of electromagnetic effects i n transports, for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs, and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. A series of fly-by experiments were conducted in early 1995 in which the NASA B-757 was flown in the vicinity of a Voice of America station ({approximately}25 MHz), a fixed transmitter driving an LP array (172 MHz), and an ASRF radar at Wallops Island (430 MHz). In this paper, the overall test program is defined with particular attention to the on-the-ground portion. It is described in detail with presentation of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation will also be presented.

  14. A Closer Look at Standardized Tests. Research Series No. 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Donald; And Others

    To help teachers in comparing the content of their instruction with the content of standardized tests, a taxonomy of elementary school mathematics was developed. The taxonomy consisted of matrix with three dimensions; (1) mode of presentation (how questions are asked); (2) nature of material (type of numbers or mathematical terms); and (3)…

  15. PX series AMTEC cell design, testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, C.A.; Sievers, R.K.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    PX (Pluto Express) cell testing and analysis has shown that AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion) cells can reach the power levels required by proposed RPS (Radioisotope Power Supply) system designs. A major PX cell design challenge was to optimize the power and efficiency of the cell while allowing a broad operational power range. These design optimization issues are greatly dependent on the placement of the evaporation zone. Before the PX-2 and PX-4 cells were built, the results from the PX-1, ATC-2 (artery test cell) and design analysis indicated the need for a thermal bridge between the heat input surface of the cell and the structure supporting the evaporation zone. Test and analytic results are presented illustrating the magnitude of the power transfer to the evaporation zone and the effect of this power transfer on the performance of the cell. Comparisons are also made between the cell test data and analytic results of cell performance to validate the analytic models.

  16. Biostatistics Series Module 2: Overview of Hypothesis Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference) is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric) and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two) at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test. While this may be

  17. Biostatistics Series Module 2: Overview of Hypothesis Testing.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference) is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric) and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two) at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test. While this may be

  18. General-purpose heat source development: Safety verification test program. Titanium bullet/fragment test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.

    1986-06-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four 238PuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must be able to survive fragment impact. In this test series we investigated the response of bare, simulant-fueled (UO2) clads to the impact of high-energy titanium alloy fragments. We determined that 425m/s is the threshold impact velocity of a 3.25-g titanium bullet that will cause direct mechanical failure of a bare fueled clad.

  19. General-purpose heat source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Titanium bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-06-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must be able to survive fragment impact. In this test series we investigated the response of bare, simulant-fueled (UO/sub 2/) clads to the impact of high-energy titanium alloy fragments. We determined that 425m/s is the threshold impact velocity of a 3.25-g titanium bullet that will cause direct mechanical failure of a bare fueled clad. 40 figs.

  20. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and

  1. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  2. X-0557 modified Steven tests : series I and II /.

    SciTech Connect

    Straight, J. W.; Osborn, M. A.; Coulter, W. L.; Mang, J. T.; Anderson, M. C.; Idar, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). These have been investigated using different experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, including, but not limited to the drop weight impact, Taylor anvil impact, Susan,1 and more recently, the Steven and Modified Steven tests.2-8 Ideally, the data will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. Our overall objectives for these experiments were to (1) evaluate the HE reaction threshold behavior for two different lots of X-0557, and (2) characterize the degree of reaction violence relative to a detonation. This report summarizes our single impact test results on the two different lots of X-0557 in Modified Steven targets.

  3. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2000-09-12

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature.

  4. Trend tests in time series with missing values: A case study with imputation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. Rosário; Cordeiro, Clara

    2013-10-01

    Testing for trend is an important problem, especially when one is dealing with environmental time series. The tests considered here are the usual t-test and the Mann-Kendall test, a nonparametric version widely used because it requires fewer assumptions. The aim is to assess the performance of two trend tests in time series with autocorrelation after an imputation method is applied to estimate the missing observations. The performance of the trend tests will be illustrated for some well-known data sets existing in R software.

  5. Material Evaluation Test Series 07, 08A, and 09A

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Koester, C; Lyle, J

    2006-04-11

    This research effort examines the post-detonation environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of experimental explosive tests with mercury. Specific experimental information is necessary for the evaluation of post-detonation by-products in comparison with those potentially resulting from mercury-bearing material accumulation in biomass accumulation areas, such as landfills, from batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and fluorescent lights (Lindberg et al 2001). This will assist in determining appropriate abatement techniques for cleaning the work environment and environmental mitigation to determine waste stream components and risk assessment protocol. Determination of the by-products for personal protection equipment and personal exposure monitoring parameters are also part of this experimental work.

  6. Fentanyl Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain, pain after an operation or medical or dental procedure, or pain that can be controlled by medication that is ... transdermal patch.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the ... to prevent or treat constipation while you are using fentanyl patches.

  7. A Survey of Patch Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhill, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Patch methods are someshow a response to the fact that surface geometry is local, that is, only small parts of a surface are created at a time. The two categories of patches, transfinite patches and finite dimensional patches are examined and a discussion of trivariate patches is presented.

  8. Nickel-Related Intestinal Mucositis in IBS-Like Patients: Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and Oral Mucosa Patch Test in Use.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Raffaele; Puzzono, Marta; Rosato, Edoardo; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Greco, Francesca; Picarelli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) is often the trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like gastrointestinal disorders: its ingestion may cause allergic contact mucositis, identifiable by means of oral mucosa patch test (omPT). OmPT effectiveness has been proven, but it is still an operator-dependent method. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) was tested to support omPT in Ni allergic contact mucositis diagnosis. Group A: 22 patients with intestinal/systemic symptoms related to the ingestion of Ni-containing foods. Group B: 12 asymptomatic volunteers. Ni-related symptoms and their severity were tested by a questionnaire. All patients underwent Ni omPT with clinical evaluation at baseline (T0), after 30 min (T1), after 2 h (T2), and after 24-48 h (T3). LDPI was performed to evaluate the mean mucosal perfusion at T0, T1, and T2. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and Bonferroni multiple-comparison test. All 22 Ni-sensitive patients (group A) presented oral mucosa hyperemia and/or edema at T2. Eight out of the same 22 patients presented a local delayed vesicular reaction at T3 (group A1), unlike the remaining 14 out of 22 patients (group A2). All 12 patients belonging to control group B did not show any alteration. The mean mucosal perfusion calculated with LDPI showed an increase in both subgroups A1 and A2. In group B, no significant perfusion variations were observed. LDPI may support omPT for diagnostic purposes in Ni allergic contact mucositis. This also applies to symptomatic Ni-sensitive patients without aphthous stomatitis after 24-48 h from omPT and that could risk to miss the diagnosis. PMID:26899317

  9. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  10. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products. PMID:20136876

  11. Shot Apple 2, a test of the TEAPOT series, 5 May 1955. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Rohrer, S.

    1981-11-25

    This report describes the activities of more than 2,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot APPLE 2, the thirteenth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 5 May 1955 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VI, AFSWP, AFSWC, AEC, Test Groups, and the Air Weather Service. The largest activity was the test of an armored task force, Task Force RAZOR, which involved approximately 1,000 troops.

  12. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  13. Ground testing on the nonvented fill method of orbital propellant transfer: Results of initial test series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a series of no-vent fill experiments conducted on a 175 cu ft flightweight hydrogen tank. The experiments consisted of the nonvented fill of the tankage with liquid hydrogen using two different inlet systems (top spray, and bottom spray) at different tank initial conditions and inflow rates. Nine tests were completed of which six filled in excess of 94 percent. The experiments demonstrated a consistent and repeatable ability to fill the tank in excess of 94 percent using the nonvented fill technique. Ninety-four percent was established as the high level cutoff due to requirements for some tank ullage to prevent rapid tank pressure rise which occurs in a tank filled entirely with liquid. The best fill was terminated at 94 percent full with a tank internal pressure less than 26 psia. Although the baseline initial tank wall temperature criteria was that all portions of the tank wall be less than 40 R, fills were achieved with initial wall temperatures as high as 227 R.

  14. Ground testing of the nonvented fill method of orbital propellant transfer - Results of initial test series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a series of no-vent fill experiments conducted on a 175 cu ft flightweight hydrogen tank. The experiments consisted of the nonvented fill of the tankage with liquid hydrogen using two different inlet systems (top spray, and bottom spray) at different tank initial conditions and inflow rates. Nine tests were completed of which six filled in exceess of 94 percent. The experiments demonstrated a consistent and repeatable ability to fill the tank in excess of 94 percent using the nonvented fill technique. Ninety-four percent was established as the high level cutoff due to requirements for some tank ullage to prevent rapid tank pressure rise which occurs in a tank filled entirely with liquid. The best fill was terminated at 94 percent full with a tank internal pressure less than 26 psia. Although the baseline initial tank wall temperature criteria was that all portions of the tank wall be less than 40 R, fills were achieved with initial wall temperatures as high as 227R.

  15. Atopy patch tests are useful to predict oral tolerance in children with gastrointestinal symptoms related to non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, R; Granata, V; Di Costanzo, M; Pezzella, V; Leone, L; Passariello, A; Terrin, G; Troncone, R; Berni Canani, R

    2013-02-01

    Atopy patch tests (APTs) have been proposed for the diagnostic approach in children with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and gastrointestinal symptoms. We aimed to investigate the benefit of APTs in predicting oral tolerance in these patients. We prospectively evaluated 172 subjects with a sure diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated CMA and gastrointestinal symptoms (97 boys, 56.4%; age, 6.37 m; range, 2-12 m). At diagnosis, 113/172 (65.7%) children had positive APTs to cow's milk proteins (CMP). After 12 months of exclusion, diet APTs were repeated immediately before OFC. APTs significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the OFC outcome (r 0.579). Diagnostic accuracy was sensitivity of 67.95%, specificity of 88.3%, PPV of 82.81%, NPV of 76.85%, and a +LR of 5.80. APTs are a valuable tool in the follow-up of children with non-IgE-mediated CMA-related gastrointestinal symptoms by contributing in determining whether an OFC can safely be undertaken. PMID:23205566

  16. Nicotine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patches are used to help people stop smoking cigarettes. They provide a source of nicotine that reduces ... cause harm to the fetus.do not smoke cigarettes or use other nicotine products while using nicotine ...

  17. Diclofenac Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... and making sure not to cut the zipper seal just below it. Pull apart the zipper seal on the envelope and remove one patch. Reseal the envelope by squeezing the zipper seal together. Make sure the envelope is closed tightly ...

  18. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patches are used to relieve the pain of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pains, or ... in your eye, wash it with plenty of water or saline solution. Wash your hands after handling ...

  19. Rotigotine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance) including shaking of parts of the body, stiffness, slowed movements, and problems with balance. Rotigotine transdermal patches are also used to treat ...

  20. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... that was covered by the patch seizures motion tics or verbal tics believing things that are not ...

  1. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  2. DyninstAPI Patches

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-04-01

    We are seeking a code review of patches against DyninstAPI 8.0. DyninstAPI is an open source binary instrumentation library from the University of Wisconsin and University of Maryland. Our patches port DyninstAPI to the BlueGene/P and BlueGene/Q systems, as well as fix DyninstAPI bugs and implement minor new features in DyninstAPI.

  3. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  4. Tunable circular patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, G.-L.; Sengupta, D. L.

    1985-10-01

    A method to control the resonant or operating frequencies of circular patch antennas has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. It consists of the placement of passive metallic or tuning posts at approximate locations within the input region of the antenna. Comparison of measured and analytical results seems to establish the validity of a theoretical model proposed to determine the input performance of such circular patch antennas.

  5. PatchSurfers: Two methods for local molecular property-based binding ligand prediction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Bures, Mark Gregory; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-15

    Protein function prediction is an active area of research in computational biology. Function prediction can help biologists make hypotheses for characterization of genes and help interpret biological assays, and thus is a productive area for collaboration between experimental and computational biologists. Among various function prediction methods, predicting binding ligand molecules for a target protein is an important class because ligand binding events for a protein are usually closely intertwined with the proteins' biological function, and also because predicted binding ligands can often be directly tested by biochemical assays. Binding ligand prediction methods can be classified into two types: those which are based on protein-protein (or pocket-pocket) comparison, and those that compare a target pocket directly to ligands. Recently, our group proposed two computational binding ligand prediction methods, Patch-Surfer, which is a pocket-pocket comparison method, and PL-PatchSurfer, which compares a pocket to ligand molecules. The two programs apply surface patch-based descriptions to calculate similarity or complementarity between molecules. A surface patch is characterized by physicochemical properties such as shape, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic potentials. These properties on the surface are represented using three-dimensional Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a series expansion of a 3 dimensional function. Utilizing 3DZD for describing the physicochemical properties has two main advantages: (1) rotational invariance and (2) fast comparison. Here, we introduce Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer with an emphasis on PL-PatchSurfer, which is more recently developed. Illustrative examples of PL-PatchSurfer performance on binding ligand prediction as well as virtual drug screening are also provided. PMID:26427548

  6. Frequent occurrence of T cell–mediated late reactions revealed by atopy patch testing with hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Raffaela; Moritz, Katharina; Marth, Katharina; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Blatt, Katharina; Hoermann, Gregor; Brodie, Tess M.; Kaider, Alexandra; Valent, Peter; Sallusto, Federica; Wöhrl, Stefan; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Late allergic reactions are common in the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy and even occur with allergy vaccines with reduced IgE reactivity. Objective We sought to study atopy patch test (APT) reactions and T-cell responses to the recombinant birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and recombinant hypoallergenic T-cell epitope–containing Bet v 1 fragments in patients with birch pollen allergy with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods A clinical study was conducted in 15 patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (group 1), 5 patients with birch pollen allergy without AD (group 2), 5 allergic patients without birch pollen allergy (group 3), and 5 nonallergic subjects (group 4) by performing skin prick tests and APTs with rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments. T-cell, cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)+ and CCR4+ T-cell and cytokine responses were studied by thymidine uptake, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining, and Luminex technology, respectively. Results rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induced APT reactions in not only most of the patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (11/15) but also in most of those without AD (4/5). Patients with birch pollen allergy with AD had higher Bet v 1–specific proliferation of CLA+ and CCR4+ T cells compared with patients with birch pollen allergy without AD. There were no differences in Bet v 1–specific CLA+ and CCR4+ proliferation and cytokine secretion in patients with and without APT reactions. Conclusion Hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induce T cell–dependent late reactions not only in patients with birch pollen allergy with AD but also in those without AD, which can be determined based on APT results but not based on in vitro parameters. PMID:26518092

  7. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  8. Enraf series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.A.

    1995-05-08

    This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer`s instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area.

  9. Development and evaluation of a tampering resistant transdermal fentanyl patch.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bing; Engqvist, Håkan; Bredenberg, Susanne

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing number of misuse and abuse of opioids, the resistance to tampering becomes an important attribute for transdermal opioid patches. In this study, drug-containing geopolymer granules were integrated into an adhesive matrix to improve the resistance of fast drug release against some common abuse techniques. Bench testing showed that fentanyl loaded geopolymer granules had better resistance to tampering compared to a commercial fentanyl patch. Moreover, in a pilot in vivo study on a few rats, the granules showed potential to give similar drug plasma concentrations as the commercial fentanyl patch. After integrating geopolymer granules into an adhesive matrix, the new patch showed a better resistance against the investigated tampering tests compared with the commercially available patch. In this study, we showed that incorporating drug loaded geopolymer granules into a patch adhesive has potential to improve the resistance of the fentanyl patch against tampering without compromising the drug release. PMID:25913120

  10. Sperm Patch-Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

  11. Statistical decision from k test series with particular focus on population genetics tools: a DIY notice.

    PubMed

    De Meeûs, Thierry

    2014-03-01

    In population genetics data analysis, researchers are often faced to the problem of decision making from a series of tests of the same null hypothesis. This is the case when one wants to test differentiation between pathogens found on different host species sampled from different locations (as many tests as number of locations). Many procedures are available to date but not all apply to all situations. Finding which tests are significant or if the whole series is significant, when tests are independent or not do not require the same procedures. In this note I describe several procedures, among the simplest and easiest to undertake, that should allow decision making in most (if not all) situations population geneticists (or biologists) should meet, in particular in host-parasite systems. PMID:24444592

  12. Orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio test for failure detection and isolation. [for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steven R.; Walker, Bruce K.

    1990-01-01

    A new failure detection and isolation algorithm for linear dynamic systems is presented. This algorithm, the Orthogonal Series Generalized Likelihood Ratio (OSGLR) test, is based on the assumption that the failure modes of interest can be represented by truncated series expansions. This assumption leads to a failure detection algorithm with several desirable properties. Computer simulation results are presented for the detection of the failures of actuators and sensors of a C-130 aircraft. The results show that the OSGLR test generally performs as well as the GLR test in terms of time to detect a failure and is more robust to failure mode uncertainty. However, the OSGLR test is also somewhat more sensitive to modeling errors than the GLR test.

  13. STS-62 crew patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-62 crew patch depicts the world's first reusable spacecraft on its sixteenth flight. Columbia is in its entry-interface attitude as it prepares to return to Earth. The varied hues of the rainbow on the horizon connote the varied, but complementary, nature of all the payloads united on this mission. The upward-pointing vector shape of the patch is symbolic of America's reach for excellence in its unswerving pursuit to explore the frontiers of space. The brilliant sunrise just beyond Columbia suggests the promise that research in space holds for the hopes and dreams of future generations. The STS-62 insignia was designed by Mark Pestana.

  14. Image inpainting by patch propagation using patch sparsity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongben; Sun, Jian

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel examplar-based inpainting algorithm through investigating the sparsity of natural image patches. Two novel concepts of sparsity at the patch level are proposed for modeling the patch priority and patch representation, which are two crucial steps for patch propagation in the examplar-based inpainting approach. First, patch structure sparsity is designed to measure the confidence of a patch located at the image structure (e.g., the edge or corner) by the sparseness of its nonzero similarities to the neighboring patches. The patch with larger structure sparsity will be assigned higher priority for further inpainting. Second, it is assumed that the patch to be filled can be represented by the sparse linear combination of candidate patches under the local patch consistency constraint in a framework of sparse representation. Compared with the traditional examplar-based inpainting approach, structure sparsity enables better discrimination of structure and texture, and the patch sparse representation forces the newly inpainted regions to be sharp and consistent with the surrounding textures. Experiments on synthetic and natural images show the advantages of the proposed approach. PMID:20129864

  15. Analytical solutions for rotating vortex arrays involving multiple vortex patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren; Marshall, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A continous two-parameter family of analytical solutions to the Euler equations are presented representing a class of steadily rotating vortex arrays involving N+1 interacting vortex patches where N ≥ 3 is an integer. The solutions consist of a central vortex patch surrounded by an N-fold symmetric alternating array of satellite point vortices and vortex patches. One of the parameters governs the size of the central patch, the other governs the size of the N satellite patches. In the limit where the areas of the satellite vortex patches tend to zero, the solutions degenerate to the exact solutions of Crowdy (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 469, 2002, p. 209). Limiting states are found in which cusps form only on the central patch, only on the satellite patches, or simultaneously on both central and satellite patches. Contour dynamics simulations are used to check the mathematical solutions and test their robustness. The linear stability of a class of "point-vortex models" (in which the patches are replaced by point vortices) are also studied in order to examine the stability of the distributed-vorticity configurations to pure-displacement modes. On the other hand, a desingularization of all point vortices to Rankine vortices leads to a class of "quasi-equilibria" consisting purely of interacting vortex patches close to hydrodynamic equilibrium.

  16. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  17. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, Patrick C.; Moody, Donald A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71'' (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G's at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G's was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  18. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of {ital Title} 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, {open_quote}{open_quote}Part 71{close_quote}{close_quote} (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, {ital Transit} {ital Drop} {ital Procedure} (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G{close_quote}s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G{close_quote}s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Nitroglycerin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... verapamil (Calan, Isoptin); ergot-type medications such as bromocriptine (Parlodel), cabergoline, dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45, Migranal), ... at any time, especially if you have been drinking alcoholic beverages. To ... during your treatment with nitroglycerin patches.you should know that you ...

  20. Progress report on LLTR Series II Test A-2 (Part 1). [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Freede, W.J.; Neely, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains a complete set of valid and final digital and analog data plots for LLTR Series II, Test A-2. Included is an Accuracy Statement regarding this data as required by Revision 0 of the GE Test Request, Specification No. 23A2062. The Series II, Sodium-Water Reaction Test A-2 was performed in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). This was the third of three planned double-edged guillotine (DEG) rupture tests of a single tube which will be followed by a number of small leak tests. The test article is the LLTI which is a full-size diameter internals, shortened in length and prototypic of the CRBR steam generator. It is installed in the Large Leak Test Vessel (LLTV). The overall test program was formulated by General Electric (GE) as Test Requester to establish steam generator design and to verify analytical models/codes to estimate the effect of large leak accidents in an LMFBR demonstration plant steam generator and system.

  1. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  2. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

  3. Semiautomatic validation of RR time series in an ECG stress test database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos, Jairo; García, David; Astudillo, Darwin; Palacio-Baus, Kenneth; Medina, Rubén.; Wong, Sara

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports an automatic method for characterizing the quality of the RR-time series in the stress test database known as DICARDIA. The proposed methodology is simple and consists in subdividing the RR time series in a set of windows for estimating the quantity of artifacts based on a threshold value that depends on the standard deviation of RR-time series for each recorded lead. In a first stage, a manual annotation was performed considering four quality classes for the RR-time series (Reference lead, Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless Lead). Automatic annotation was then performed varying the number of windows and threshold value for the standard deviation of the RR-time series. The metric used for evaluating the quality of the annotation was the Matching Ratio. The best results were obtained using a higher number of windows and considering only three classes (Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless). The proposed methodology allows the utilization of the online available DICARDIA Stress Test database for different types of research.

  4. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  5. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Robert; Sak, James

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  6. NASA Boeing 757 HIRF test series low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Pennock, S.T.; Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.L.

    1996-08-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transports; for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs; and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/ Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants in this project were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. The tests were performed over a five week period during September through November, 1994. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. This report and the associated test plan that is included as an appendix represent a definition of the overall on-the-ground test program. They include descriptions of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. In this report, a detailed description of each executed test is provided, as is the data identification (data id) relating the specific test with its relevant data files. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation are also presented. The test plan which guided the execution of the tests, a test report by UIE Inc., and the report describing the concrete pad characterization are included as appendices.

  7. CPS Test Trend Review: Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, 2001. Research Data Brief. Academic Productivity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Todd

    This report tracks student performance on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) in the Chicago Public Schools' (CPS) elementary schools in 2001. To make valid cross-year comparisons, this update adjusts statistics reported by the CPS by establishing a common procedure over time for including bilingual education students. Test scores are tracked by…

  8. Time series autoregressive integrated moving average modeling of test-day milk yields of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Macciotta, N P; Cappio-Borlino, A; Pulina, G

    2000-05-01

    Monthly test-day milk yields of 1200 dairy Sarda ewes were analyzed by time-series methods. Autocorrelation functions were calculated for lactations within parity classes and altitude of location of flocks. Spectral analysis of the successions of data was developed by Fourier transformation, and different Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average models were fitted. The separation of deterministic and stochastic components highlighted the autoregressive feature of milk production pattern. The forecasting power of autoregressive integrated moving average models was tested by predicting total milk production for a standardized lactation length of 225 d from only a few test-day records. Results indicated a greater forecasting capacity in comparison with standard methods and suggested further development of time-series analysis for studying lactation curves with more sophisticated methods, such as wavelet decomposition and neural network models. PMID:10821585

  9. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D. A.; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1985-03-01

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations.

  10. Testing for nonlinearity in time series: The method of surrogate data

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J.; Galdrikian, B.; Longtin, A. ); Eubank, S.; Farmer, J.D. Santa Fe Inst., NM )

    1991-01-01

    We describe a statistical approach for identifying nonlinearity in time series; in particular, we want to avoid claims of chaos when simpler models (such as linearly correlated noise) can explain the data. The method requires a careful statement of the null hypothesis which characterizes a candidate linear process, the generation of an ensemble of surrogate'' data sets which are similar to the original time series but consistent with the null hypothesis, and the computation of a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. The idea is to test the original time series against the null hypothesis by checking whether the discriminating statistic computed for the original time series differs significantly from the statistics computed for each of the surrogate sets. We present algorithms for generating surrogate data under various null hypotheses, and we show the results of numerical experiments on artificial data using correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and forecasting error as discriminating statistics. Finally, we consider a number of experimental time series -- including sunspots, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and fluid convection -- and evaluate the statistical significance of the evidence for nonlinear structure in each case. 56 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Overview of the 6 Meter HIAD Inflatable Structure and Flexible TPS Static Load Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Greg; Kazemba, Cole; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Hughes, Steve; Cassell, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil

    2014-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). At the beginning of 2014, a 6m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 6m HIAD structure was constructed in a stacked toroid configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber reinforced thin films, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile woven structural straps to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for displacement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The centerbody of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide many data sets including: deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load

  12. Polymer concrete patching manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, J. J.; Bartholomew, J.

    1982-06-01

    The practicality of using polymer concrete to repair deteriorated portland cement concrete bridge decks and pavements was demonstrated. This manual outlines the procedures for using polymer concrete as a rapid patching material to repair deteriorated concrete. The process technology, materials, equipment, and safety provisions used in manufacturing and placing polymer concrete are discussed. Potential users are informed of the various steps necessary to insure successful field applications of the material.

  13. Growing vortex patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren; Marshall, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    This paper demonstrates that two well-known equilibrium solutions of the Euler equations—the corotating point vortex pair and the Rankine vortex—are connected by a continuous branch of exact solutions. The central idea is to "grow" new vortex patches at two stagnation points that exist in the frame of reference of the corotating point vortex pair. This is done by generalizing a mathematical technique for constructing vortex equilibria first presented by Crowdy [D. G. Crowdy, "A class of exact multipolar vortices," Phys. Fluids 11, 2556 (1999)]. The solutions exhibit several interesting features, including the merging of two separate vortex patches via the development of touching cusps. Numerical contour dynamics methods are used to verify the mathematical solutions and reveal them to be robust structures. The general issue of how simple vortex equilibria can be continued continuously to more complicated ones with very different vortical topologies is discussed. The solutions are examples of exact solutions of the Euler equations involving multiple interacting vortex patches.

  14. The Use of Time Series Analysis and t Tests with Serially Correlated Data Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolich, Mark J.; Weinstein, Carol S.

    1981-01-01

    Results of three methods of analysis applied to simulated autocorrelated data sets with an intervention point (varying in autocorrelation degree, variance of error term, and magnitude of intervention effect) are compared and presented. The three methods are: t tests; maximum likelihood Box-Jenkins (ARIMA); and Bayesian Box Jenkins. (Author/AEF)

  15. Evaluation of dental material series from patients with dental prostheses and suspicion of delayed hypersensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Fernanda Cortinhas; Cunha, Victor do Espirito Santo; Hahnstadt, Ruppert Ludwig; Pires, Mário Cezar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with oral sensitivity are common in our practice. Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent etiologies. OBJECTIVES Evaluate oral contact dermatitis using the Brazilian standard series and complementary dental series in patients using dental prostheses, with or without oral complaints. Determine specific dental Brazilian series. METHODS Patients using dental prostheses with or without oral complaints realized patch tests. Brazilian standard series and complementary dental series were used according to ICDRG recommendations. The results were analysed according to age, sex, race, atopic conditions and symptoms associated. RESULTS From 54 patients tested, 34 (63%) were positive at least to one substance. Nineteen had oral complaints, such as burning mouth, itch or oral erythema. There was no association between atopic condition and tests results. Without the oral series, just 23(42,6%) patients had a positive result. Using the Brazilian standard series with the complementary dental series we improved the positivity of the patch test to 47%. CONCLUSION In patients using prostheses and with oral complaints, patch tests with Brazilian standard series with complementary dental series improve the tests positivity. PMID:27192511

  16. Using exogenous variables in testing for monotonic trends in hydrologic time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    One approach that has been used in performing a nonparametric test for monotonic trend in a hydrologic time series consists of a two-stage analysis. First, a regression equation is estimated for the variable being tested as a function of an exogenous variable. A nonparametric trend test such as the Kendall test is then performed on the residuals from the equation. By analogy to stagewise regression and through Monte Carlo experiments, it is demonstrated that this approach will tend to underestimate the magnitude of the trend and to result in some loss in power as a result of ignoring the interaction between the exogenous variable and time. An alternative approach, referred to as the adjusted variable Kendall test, is demonstrated to generally have increased statistical power and to provide more reliable estimates of the trend slope. -from Author

  17. Accuracy testing using thick source alpha-particle spectroscopy for the U and Th series estimations.

    PubMed

    Michael, C T; Zacharias, N; Hein, A

    2010-01-01

    The new technique for the calculation of U and Th based on the alpha particle spectrum taken from a thick sample by using a silicon detector (PIPS) is tested and some technical problems are encountered and also some notifications for better accuracy are addressed. This technique which is mainly developed to be used for dose rate determination in TL, OSL and ESR dating applications, gives also the possibility for detecting and estimating possible disequilibrium in U and Th series. PMID:19900816

  18. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  19. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS. [Integrated Tiger Series (ITS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method.

  20. Comparative study of patches for liquid cooled garments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chambers, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were performed on 12 cooling patches of various designs to establish criteria for the evaluation of their performance in liquid-cooled suits in industrial, military and aerospace applications. The thermal effectiveness value was 0.088 for patch designs with a double spiral flow pattern, and 0.075 for patch designs with a parallel flow pattern. The ratio of thermal energy transfer rate to cooling-medium pumping power requirement is indicated as the prime performance characteristic to be considered in the selection and rating of cooling patches.

  1. REACTIVITY INITIATED ACCIDENT TEST SERIES TEST RIA 1-4 EXPERIMENT PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, S. K.; Martinson, Z. R.

    1980-02-01

    The results of the pretest analyses for Test RIA 1-4 are presented. Test RIA 1-4 consists of a 3x3 array of previously irradiated MAP! fuel rods. The rods have 5.7% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in zircaloy-4 cladding with an average burnup of 5300 MWd/t. The objective for Test RIA 1-4 is to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following RIA event for a radial-average peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g UO{sub 2}). Radial averaged peak fuel enthalpies of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g) 1077 J/g {257 cal/g), and 978 J/g (234 cal/g) for the corner, side, and center fuel rods, respectively, are planned to be achieved during a 2.7 ms reactor period power burst. The results of the FRAP-T5 analyses indicate that all nine rods will fail within 26 ms from the start of the power burst due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. All of the rods will undergo partial fuel melting. All rods will operate under extended film boiling (>30 sec) conditions and about 70% of the cladding length is expected to be molten. Approximately 15% of the cladding thickness will be oxided. Fuel swelling due to fission gas release and melting combined with fuel and cladding fragmentation, will probably produce a complete coolant flow blockage within the flow shroud.

  2. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-10-21

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality.

  3. Dynamics of equatorial irregularity patch formation, motion, and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, J.; Mullen, J.P.; Whitney, H.E.; MacKenzie, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Using scintillation observations from a series of equatorial propagation paths as well as backscatter and airglow data, the development, motion, and decay of equatorial irregularity patches have been studied. Assembling the results of earlier studies in the field with our observations, we find the following: the patch has limited east-west dimensions with a minimum of 100 km. Several patches may be melded together to reach an extent of 1500 km. Its magnetic north-south dimensions are often greater than 2000 km; the most intense irregularities (as evidenced by the Jicamarca radar at the dip equator) are from 225 to 450 km in altitude, although irregularities are found as high as 1000 km. The patch initially has a westward expansion following the solar terminator, then, maintaining its integrity, moves eastward. Evidence over a limited series of experiments suggests that premidnight patches are formed within 1 1/2 hours after ionospheric sunset in the absence of special magnetic conditions. From Ascension Island (approx.16 /sup 0/S dip latitude) the individual patches can be clearly distinguished. The decay of patches in the midnight time period was studied, pointing to a rapid decrease in scintillation intensity in this time period.

  4. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y. Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  5. Misuse Study of Latch Attachment: A Series of Frontal Sled Tests

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G’s when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G’s, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

  6. Misuse study of latch attachment: a series of frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

  7. VISAR Validation Test Series at the Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Covert, Timothy Todd

    2007-02-01

    A velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was recently deployed at the light initiated high explosive facility (LIHE) to measure the velocity of an explosively accelerated flyer plate. The velocity data from the flyer plate experiments, using the vendor's fringe constant of 100m/s/fringe, were consistently lower than model predictions. The goal of the VISAR validation test series was to confirm the VISAR system fringe constant. A low velocity gas gun was utilized to impact and accelerate a target at the LIHE facility. VISAR velocity data from the accelerated target was compared against an independent velocity measurement. The data from this test series did in fact reveal the fringe constant was significantly higher than the vendor's specification. The correct fringe constant for the LIHE VISAR system has been determined to be 123 m/s/fringe. The Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility recently completed a Phase I test series to develop an explosively accelerated flyer plate (X-Flyer). The X-Flyer impulse technique consists of first spraying a thin layer of silver acetylide silver nitrate explosive onto a thin flyer plate. The explosive is then initiated using an intense flash of light. The explosive detonation accelerates the flyer across a small air gap towards the test item. The impact of the flyer with the test item creates a shock pulse and an impulsive load in the test unit. The goal of Phase I of the X-Flyer development series was to validate the technique theory and design process. One of the key parameters that control the shock pulse and impulsive load is the velocity of the flyer at impact. To measure this key parameter, a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was deployed at the LIHE facility. The VISAR system was assembled by Sandia personnel from the Explosive Projects and Diagnostics department. The VISAR was a three leg, push-pull system using a fixed delay cavity. The primary optical components consisted of

  8. Statistics for Patch Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingee, K. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the application of remote sensing it is common to investigate processes that generate patches of material. This is especially true when using categorical land cover or land use maps. Here we view some existing tools, landscape pattern indices (LPI), as non-parametric estimators of random closed sets (RACS). This RACS framework enables LPIs to be studied rigorously. A RACS is any random process that generates a closed set, which encompasses any processes that result in binary (two-class) land cover maps. RACS theory, and methods in the underlying field of stochastic geometry, are particularly well suited to high-resolution remote sensing where objects extend across tens of pixels, and the shapes and orientations of patches are symptomatic of underlying processes. For some LPI this field already contains variance information and border correction techniques. After introducing RACS theory we discuss the core area LPI in detail. It is closely related to the spherical contact distribution leading to conditional variants, a new version of contagion, variance information and multiple border-corrected estimators. We demonstrate some of these findings on high resolution tree canopy data.

  9. Tiling Motion Patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-05-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a non-trivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly-complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieved the level of complexity far beyond the current state-of-the-art animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:23669532

  10. Tiling motion patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:24029911

  11. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  12. Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the

  13. Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulations Using Real Test Taker Responses. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiang Bo; Pan, WeiQin; Harris, Vincent

    A considerable amount of data on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has been conducted using simulated data. However, most researchers would agree that simulations may not fully reflect the reality of examinee performance on a test. This study used maximum likelihood procedures to investigate the accuracy and efficiency of examinee ability…

  14. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, Henry

    1988-01-01

    A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

  15. General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

  16. Effects of coastal transport on larval patches: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Houser, Letise T.; Steppe, Cecily N.; Garvine, Richard W.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2006-03-01

    We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the evolution and transport of patches of blue crab larvae in the mouth of Delaware Bay. The observations consisted of larval collections and surface salinity measurements taken along a moving spatial grid whose origin was determined by a satellite-tracked drifter. Examination of field observations revealed a slender larval patch that was aligned with salinity contours. Measurement of the salting rate of the larval patch indicated that the patch moved through the offshore edge of a buoyant plume due to wind-driven upwelling circulation. A numerical model that provided realistic simulations of the flow field at the mouth of Delaware Bay and the adjoining coastal ocean was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the movement and evolution of the patch. We conducted a series of simulations in which we separately examined the effects of tides, buoyancy-driven flow, and wind-driven transport. Results showed that both tides and buoyancy-driven flow tend to elongate an initially square fluid element. Although winds alone have little effect on the shape of a patch, wind-driven flow can effectively move a patch through a complex flow field in which the deformation by tides and buoyancy-driven circulation can have significant effects. This study represents the first observation and analysis of a larval patch that remains intact while moving through the edge of a buoyant plume. It provides new insight into the shape of larval patches in Delaware Bay and any region with strong buoyancy- and tidally-driven flow, suggesting that typical larval patches may not be characterized by equal across- and alongshelf dimensions but instead tend to be slender shapes that are aligned with the flow field.

  17. Bright patches on Ariel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Distinct bright patches are visible on Ariel, the brightest of Uranus' five largest satellites. Voyager 2 obtained this image Jan. 22, 1986, from a distance of 2.52 million kilometers (1.56 million miles). The clear-filter image, obtained with the narrow-angle camera, shows a resolution of 47 km (29 miles). Ariel is about 1,300 km (800 mi) in diameter. This image shows several distinct bright areas that reflect nearly 45 percent of the incident sunlight; on average, the satellite displays a reflectivity of about 25-30 percent. The bright areas are probably fresh water ice, perhaps excavated by impacts. The south pole of Ariel is slightly off center of the disk in this view. Voyager 2 will obtain its best views of the satellite on Jan. 24, at a closest-approach distance of 127,000 km (79,000 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  18. Granuloma annulare, patch type.

    PubMed

    Victor, Frank C; Mengden, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    A 64-year-old man was referred to the Bellevue Hospital Center Dermatology Clinic for evaluation of an asymptomatic eruption on his left inner arm, which had been present for 4 months and was unresponsive to topical anti-fungal therapy. One month after the initial eruption, 2 similar, asymptomatic lesions appeared on the right inner arm. The lesions were slowly expanding. A biopsy specimen from the left medial arm was consistent with interstitial granuloma annulare. The patient's clinical presentation was consistent with patch-type granuloma annulare. He was treated with a mid-potency topical glucocorticoid twice daily for 4 weeks without benefit. Since the eruption was asymptomatic, treatment was discontinued. PMID:18627757

  19. A 727/JT8D-100 series engine exhaust system propulsion performance model test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugan, W. J.; Kern, P. R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented from testing one-eighth scale models of the Pratt and Whitney aircraft reference and Boeing nozzles for the JT8D-100 series mixed flow engines. The objective of the test was to obtain the nozzle velocity and flow coefficients for the reference configurations and compare these with the Boeing configurations which incorporated a longer splitter between the fan and primary flows. A further comparison was made between the JT8D-100 series nozzles and the Boeing JT8D-9/727 production nozzle performance. A statistical analysis was used to compare configurations which showed the performance (velocity coefficient) of the reference and the Boeing configuration was the same for the JT8D-109. It also showed no difference between reference and the Boeing configuration for the JT8D-115 and no difference for the JT8D-117 nozzles. Bypass ratio (match) was shown to be equally dependent on splitter position as on nozzle area within the range investigated. The nozzles were very similar in flow coefficient within an engine family. Excellent profile data was recorded. The effects of swirl on the nozzle performance was examined and found to degrade the velocity and flow coefficients.

  20. Evaluating the Clinical Utility of the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT): A Clinical Series.

    PubMed

    Suesse, Mareike; Wong, Vivien W C; Stamper, Laura L; Carpenter, Katherine N; Scott, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Performance validity tests (PVTs) are not widely used beyond medico-legal contexts in the UK. A UK survey suggests clinicians have reservations about their accuracy in clinical settings. This study sought to explore the validity of PVTs in an acute adult neuropsychology setting and to establish a potential "false positive" (FP) base rate. Failures on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) in a consecutive clinical series of 405 patients were evaluated systematically and allocated to groups depending on clinical context. All failures were checked against the test's "dementia profile". Of the 405 participants, 329 passed the MSVT (81.2%), while 76 participants (18.8%) failed based on standard criteria. A 5.2% rate of potentially 'unexplained' failures was found. Other reasons for failure were classified as: presumed malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (4.6%), dementia/significant cognitive impairment (3.7%), technical/visual problems (1.8%), and "unexplained failure" with contributory factors (2.4%). These results suggest test specificity between 0.95 and 0.90. Most of the clinically significantly impaired patients matched the dementia profile (86.7%). Our results support the sensitivity, but not the specificity, of the dementia profile. However, approximately 1 in 20 patients failed the MSVT despite an otherwise unremarkable neuropsychological presentation; moreover, mood and pain may affect MSVT performance. Clinical implications for interpreting test scores are discussed. PMID:25798743

  1. Stress field sensitivity of a composite patch repair as a result of varying patch thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siener, Michael P.

    The feasibility of increasing the efficiency of a composite scarf joint and, hence, of the composite patch repair, was investigated by using single lap joint configurations based on a variety of patch material thicknesses and stiffnesses, and testing for the elastic response and the strength capability. Stress analyses of these configurations were carried out and compared to the results from tests. It was found that, by reorienting plies in the principal stress direction, it is possible to reduce the number of plies and thickness required to form a usable composite repair patch. The results also show that it may be necessary to incorporate the nonlinear adhesive behavior into the model to account for the extensional response of the adherends.

  2. Economic downturns and male cesarean deliveries: a time-series test of the economic stress hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of the recent Great Recession, increasing attention has focused on the health consequences of economic downturns. The perinatal literature does not converge on whether ambient economic declines threaten the health of cohorts in gestation. We set out to test the economic stress hypothesis that the monthly count of cesarean deliveries (CD), which may gauge the level of fetal distress in a population, rises after the economy declines. We focus on male CD since the literature reports that male more than female fetuses appear sensitive to stressors in utero. Methods We tested our ecological hypothesis in California for 228 months from January 1989 to December 2007, the most recent data available to us at the time of our tests. We used as the independent variable the Bureau of Labor Statistics unadjusted total state employment series. Time-series methods controlled for patterns of male CD over time. We also adjusted for the monthly count of female CD, which controls for well-characterized factors (e.g., medical-legal environment, changing risk profile of births) that affect CD but are shared across infant sex. Results Findings support the economic stress hypothesis in that male CD increases above its expected value one month after employment declines (employment coefficient = -24.09, standard error = 11.88, p = .04). Additional exploratory analyses at the metropolitan level indicate that findings in Los Angeles and Orange Counties appear to drive the State-level relation. Conclusions Contracting economies may perturb the health of male more than female fetuses sufficiently enough to warrant more CD. Male relative to female CD may sensitively gauge the cohort health of gestations. PMID:24906208

  3. Heat and process flow analysis of the proof of concept testing series

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ying-Ming

    1994-12-31

    The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by MSE, Inc. MSE personnel were responsible for the integration of topping cycle components for the national coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) development program, In the spring of 1992, a prototypic: 50-MW, pressurized, slag rejecting coal-fired combustor (CFC) was installed in the integrated topping cycle test train. Testing during the past year emphasized obtaining comprehensive data on the performance of the 1A{sub 4} MHD generator, including both combustor and channel/diffuser DVT for the purposes of gaining increased understanding of coal-fired MHD power generation. Actual test progress at the CDIF will be discussed elsewhere. A large amount of data has been collected as part of the proof-of-concept (POC) MHD test series in recent months. Some of the data collected last year have been analyzed and reported. This paper reports results for previous and new study subjects on the new data collected since June 1992.

  4. Aircraft control surface failure detection and isolation using the OSGLR test. [orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnice, W. F.; Motyka, P.; Wagner, E.; Hall, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio (OSGLR) test in detecting and isolating commercial aircraft control surface and actuator failures is evaluated. A modification to incorporate age-weighting which significantly reduces the sensitivity of the algorithm to modeling errors is presented. The steady-state implementation of the algorithm based on a single linear model valid for a cruise flight condition is tested using a nonlinear aircraft simulation. A number of off-nominal no-failure flight conditions including maneuvers, nonzero flap deflections, different turbulence levels and steady winds were tested. Based on the no-failure decision functions produced by off-nominal flight conditions, the failure detection and isolation performance at the nominal flight condition was determined. The extension of the algorithm to a wider flight envelope by scheduling on dynamic pressure and flap deflection is examined. Based on this testing, the OSGLR algorithm should be capable of detecting control surface failures that would affect the safe operation of a commercial aircraft. Isolation may be difficult if there are several surfaces which produce similar effects on the aircraft. Extending the algorithm over the entire operating envelope of a commercial aircraft appears feasible.

  5. Tank Tests of NACA Model 40 Series of Hulls for Small Flying Boats and Amphibians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The NACA model 40 series of flying-boat hull models consists of 2 forebodies and 3 afterbodies combined to provide several forms suitable for use in small marine aircraft. One forebody is the usual form with hollow bow sections and the other has a bottom surface that is completely developable from bow to step. The afterbodies include a short pointed afterbody with an extension for the tail surfaces, a long afterbody similar to that of a seaplane float but long enough to carry the tail surfaces, and a third obtained by fitting a second step in the latter afterbody. The various combinations were tested in the NACA Tank by the general method over a suitable range of loadings. Fixed-trim tests were made for all speeds likely to be used and free-to-trim tests were made at low speeds to slightly beyond the hump speed. The characteristics of the hulls at best trim angles have been deduced from the data of the tests at fixed trim angles and are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients applicable to any size hull.

  6. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norelgestromin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin. One patch is applied once a week for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ... new patch on the same day of the week (the Patch Change Day). Apply a new patch ...

  7. Fuel performance improvement program: description and characterization of HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 test rods

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Barner, J.O.; Welty, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    The fabrication process and as-built characteristics of the HBWR Series H-2 and H-3 test rods, as well as the three packed-particle (sphere-pac) rods in HBWR Series H-4 are described. The HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 tests are part of the irradiation test program of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Fifteen rods were fabricated for the three test series. Rod designs include: (1) a reference dished pellet design incorporating chamfered edges, (2) a chamfered, annular pellet design combined with graphite-coated cladding, and (3) a sphere-pac design. Both the annular-coated and sphere-pac designs include internal pressurization using helium.

  8. Design and evaluation of a 3 million DN series-hybrid thrust bearing. [stability tests and fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Winn, L. W.; Eusepi, M.

    1976-01-01

    The bearing, consisting of a 150-mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid-film bearing, was fatigue tested. Test conditions were representative of a mainshaft ball bearing in a gas turbine engine operating at maximum thrust load to simulate aircraft takeoff conditions. Tests were conducted up to 16000 rpm and at this speed an axial load of 15568 newtons (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the series-hybrid bearing principle, the effective ball bearing speed was reduced to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. It was concluded that a speed reduction of this magnitude results in a ten-fold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful evaluation of fluid-film bearing lubricant supply failure was performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm. A complete and smooth changeover to full-scale ball bearing operation was effected when the oil supply to the fluid-film bearing was cut off. Reactivation of the fluid-film oil supply system resulted in a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  9. The Interrupted Time Series as Quasi-Experiment: Three Tests of Significance. A Fortran Program for the CDC 3400 Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sween, Joyce; Campbell, Donald T.

    Computational formulae for the following three tests of significance, useful in the interrupted time series design, are given: (1) a "t" test (Mood, 1950) for the significance of the first post-change observation from a value predicted by a linear fit of the pre-change observations; (2) an "F" test (Walker and Lev, 1953) of the hypothesis that one…

  10. Frozen Gaussian series representation of the imaginary time propagator theory and numerical tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dong H.; Shao Jiushu; Pollak, Eli

    2009-07-28

    Thawed Gaussian wavepackets have been used in recent years to compute approximations to the thermal density matrix. From a numerical point of view, it is cheaper to employ frozen Gaussian wavepackets. In this paper, we provide the formalism for the computation of thermal densities using frozen Gaussian wavepackets. We show that the exact density may be given in terms of a series, in which the zeroth order term is the frozen Gaussian. A numerical test of the methodology is presented for deep tunneling in the quartic double well potential. In all cases, the series is observed to converge. The convergence of the diagonal density matrix element is much faster than that of the antidiagonal one, suggesting that the methodology should be especially useful for the computation of partition functions. As a by product of this study, we find that the density matrix in configuration space can have more than two saddle points at low temperatures. This has implications for the use of the quantum instanton theory.

  11. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1985-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

  12. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  13. Patch forest: a hybrid framework of random forest and patch-based segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongliu; Gillies, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    The development of an accurate, robust and fast segmentation algorithm has long been a research focus in medical computer vision. State-of-the-art practices often involve non-rigidly registering a target image with a set of training atlases for label propagation over the target space to perform segmentation, a.k.a. multi-atlas label propagation (MALP). In recent years, the patch-based segmentation (PBS) framework has gained wide attention due to its advantage of relaxing the strict voxel-to-voxel correspondence to a series of pair-wise patch comparisons for contextual pattern matching. Despite a high accuracy reported in many scenarios, computational efficiency has consistently been a major obstacle for both approaches. Inspired by recent work on random forest, in this paper we propose a patch forest approach, which by equipping the conventional PBS with a fast patch search engine, is able to boost segmentation speed significantly while retaining an equal level of accuracy. In addition, a fast forest training mechanism is also proposed, with the use of a dynamic grid framework to efficiently approximate data compactness computation and a 3D integral image technique for fast box feature retrieval.

  14. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. PMID:26603048

  15. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  16. a New Category Stream Cipher Using Novel and Tested Pseudorandom Character Series with Dynamic Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralee, Krishnan C. R.

    2008-10-01

    This symmetric key algorithm and its implementation convert manually entered password into mathematical expression, which is further used to generate an infinitely non-repetitive sequence of presumably random characters. These random series of characters are used to encrypt the data. This encrypted data stream is in turn swapped by dividing the data, block by block and the size of the blocks keep changing from the beginning of the data to the end of the data. The swapping commences from the beginning of the encryption and proceeds. The size of the block for swapping is narrow compared to the full length of the data and entirely depends on the one of the earlier characters which has already got swapped away from its initial position. All the characters will be mapped uniquely to mathematical expressions of a set of parameters in a pool of 256 expressions. These expressions corresponding to all characters in a password are added together to obtain a resultant expression. The above mentioned expressions corresponding to each character are further modified in advance (before summing up together) by including a `position index'. This is inevitable to take care of the repetition of characters within a password and also in the case of a permutated password. In the case of permutated passwords, the random characters generated should be different in each case. In another words, each character and its position in the password have its own unique identity. Two pools of mathematical expressions are employed, coupled with different initiations to the parameters, to get a couple of pseudorandom character series, one's value being fed to the other. These are XORed together giving rise to a random series passing the popularly available randomness tests done by Nernst and Die hard. The initiating vector will be using, possibly the system time, and annexed with the original password to get the modified password. The system is similar to the conventional IV manipulation. The swapping

  17. Dating fault-associated Quaternary material from the Nevada Test Site using uranium-series methods

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.

    1981-09-01

    Accumulations of secondary carbonate in the arid southern Great Basin are frequently associated with or disturbed by Basin and Range faults. In appropriate situations, these materials may be dated by uranium-series disequilibrium techniques using a combined chemical-leach and graphical correction procedure to account for included detrital material. The dates provide a minimum, a maximum, or a bracket of ages for tectonic activity on the faults investigated. Carbonates (e.g., travertine, calcrete, and caliche) were dated from the Carpetbag, Yucca, Boundary, and Cane Spring Faults at the Nevada Test Site. Multiple ages obtained from the same fault were always in correct relative order where stratigraphic relationships were known. Many of the ages obtained agree with age estimates based on geomorphology. A bracket of ages obtained for three samples from the Carpetbag Fault suggest that the last natural movement occurred more than 37,000 but less than 93,000 yr ago. A maximum age of 35,000 yr is obtained for natural movement on the Yucca Fault. A total of six repeatedly disturbed carbonate samples could provide only an obviously high maximum age of 217,000 yr for movement on the Boundary Fault. Tufaceous travertines from the Cane Spring Fault and a related normal fault suggest a probable low-minimum age of 41,000 yr for the last movement. Initial attempts were made to determine the potential for age dating fault zone secondary silica using uranium-series disequilibrium techniques. The old ages obtained (greater than or equal to 700,000 yr) support the contention that most Quaternary tectonism has been restricted to areas of recent subsidence, the deep alluvial basins. These results also validate recent attempts to determine U-Pb ages for uraniferous opals.

  18. Creation of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  19. Periodic creation of polar cap patches from auroral transients in the cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-06-01

    On 24 November 2012, an interval of polar cap patches was identified by an all-sky airglow imager located near the dayside cusp. During the interval, the successive appearance of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs) was detected, which are known to represent ionospheric manifestations of pulsed magnetic reconnections at the dayside magnetopause. All of the patches observed during the interval appeared from these transient auroral features (i.e., there was a one-to-one correspondence between PMAFs and newly created baby patches). This fact strongly suggests that patches can be directly and seamlessly created from a series of PMAFs. The optical intensities of the baby patches were 100-150 R, which is slightly lower than typical patch luminosity on the nightside and may imply that PMAF-induced patches are generally low density. The generation of such patches could be explained by impact ionization due to soft particle precipitation into PMAFs traces. In spite of the faint signature of the baby patches, two coherent HF radars of the SuperDARN network observed backscatter echoes in the central polar cap, which represented signatures of plasma irregularities associated with the baby patches. These indicate that patches created from PMAFs have the potential to affect the satellite communications environment in the central polar cap region.

  20. Effect of patch borders on coercivity in amorphous rare earth-transition metal thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, G.; Fu, H.; Giles, R. C.; Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The coercivity at the micron scale is a very important property of magneto-optical media. It is a key factor that determines the magnetic domain wall movement and domain reversal. How the coercivity is influenced by a special type of patch borders is discussed. Patch formation is a general phenomenon in growth processes of amorphous rare earth transition metal thin films. Different patches may stem from different seeds and the patch borders are formed when they merge. Though little is known about the exact properties of the borders, we may expect that the exchange interaction at the patch border is weaker than that within a patch, since there is usually a spatial gap between two patches. Computer simulations were performed on a 2-D hexagonal lattice consisting of 37 complete patches with random shape and size. From the series of simulations we may conclude that the domain in the patch with borders of 30 percent exchange strength can expand most easily to the whole lattice, because the exchange strength can expand most easily to the whole lattice, because the exchange strength of the border is not too high to prevent the domain from growing within the patch and it is not too low to prevent the domain from expanding beyond the patch.

  1. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline. PMID:24707220

  2. American crew patch of the ASTP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This is the American crew patch of the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) scheduled for July 1975. Of circular design, the patch as a colored border area, outlined in red, with the names of the five crewmen and the words Apollo in English and Soyuz in Russian around an artist's concept of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft about to dock in Earth orbit. The bright Sun and the blue and white Earth are in the background. The white stars on the blue background represent American Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, Vance D. Brand, and Donald K. Slayton. The dark gold stars on the red background represent Soviet Cosmonauts Aleskey A. Leonov, and Valeriy N. Kubasov.

  3. Structural health monitoring of composite repair patches in bridge rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Ghosh, Kumar; Qing, Xinlin; Karbhari, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, there are many issues involving safety on old bridges, aircrafts and other structures, which threaten the lives of the people using those structures, as well as the structures themselves. To prevent future failure, various measures are being taken. Structure rehabilitations with carbon fiber reinforced composite patches have been adopted and demonstrated to be an excellent way to enhance/repair the structures and prolong the service life. However, there are still many problems residing in this kind of technology that remain unsolved, for example, the failure of the interface between composite repair patches and their host structures. This is a critical issue that must be addressed in order to show the viability of composite patches. In order to study debond occurring between composite repair patches and their host structures, a structure health monitoring scheme was demonstrated on a concrete bridge model in the laboratory. The system is based on active sensing with diagnostic lamb waves, in which piezoelectric transducers are used as both sensors and actuators. In the test, six SMART Layers, each having eight piezoelectirc transducers, were integrated with two composite repair strips on the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. For the three diagnostic layers with each composite repair patch, two layers were bonded on the top surface of the patch, and the other is embedded at the interface between the composite repair patch and the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. The loading procedure of the test included three phases. First, the bridge model was preloaded to initiate cracks on the deck slabs and the repair patches were then implemented. Second, the load was raised to reach the shear capacity of the girders of the bridge model and then the repair patches were implemented on those girders. Lastly, the structure was loaded to damage the deck slabs. During the test, the initiation and development of debond between composite repair patches

  4. Pretest Report for the Full Span Propulsive Wing/Canard Model Test in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel Second Series Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1986-01-01

    A full span propulsive wing/canard model is to be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 4 x 7 meter low speed wind tunnel. These tests are a continuation of the tests conducted in Feb. 1984, NASA test No.290, and are being conducted under NASA Contract NAS1-17171. The purpose of these tests is to obtain extensive lateral-directional data with a revised fuselage concept. The wings, canards, and vertical tail of this second test series model are the same as tested in the previous test period. The fuselage and internal flow path have been modified to better reflect an external configuration suitable for a fighter airplane. Internal ducting and structure were changed as required to provide test efficiency and blowing control. The model fuselage tested during the 1984 tests was fabricated with flat sides to provide multiple wing and canard placement variations. The locations of the wing and canard are important variables in configuration development. With the establishment of the desired relative placement of the lifting surfaces, a typically shaped fuselage has been fabricated for these tests. This report provides the information necessary for the second series tests of the propulsive wing/canard model. The discussion in this report is limited to that affected by the model changes and to the second series test program. The pretest report information for test 290 which is valid for the second series test was published in Rockwell report NR 83H-79. This report is presented as Appendix 1 and the modified fuselage stress report is presented as Appendix 2 to this pretest report.

  5. Anomalous transient uplift observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using satellite radar interferometry time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, P.; Buckley, S. M.; Yang, D.; Carle, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    Anomalous uplift is observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using ERS satellite SAR data. Using an InSAR time-series analysis method, we show that an increase in absolute uplift with time is observed between 1997 and 1999. The signal is collocated with past underground nuclear tests. Due to the collocation in space with past underground tests we postulate a nuclear test-related hydrothermal source for the uplift signal. A possible mechanism is presented that can account for the observed transient uplift and is consistent with documented thermal regimes associated with underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site).

  6. Metals Analysis Results for the Structural Qualification Test Series (SQTS) 01 - 05.

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D

    2006-04-11

    Enclosed is the report summarizing the metals analysis results at the Contained Firing Facility (CFF), during SQTS 01 - 05. This metals analysis includes evaluation of a bulk dust and surface swipe sampling protocol during the testing series that obtained samples at 3 primary locations in the CFF chamber area. The sampling protocol for each of the bulk dust samples involves an assessment of the concentration for 20 different metals, the oxidation state of selected metals, a particle size selective analysis, and morphological information. In addition, surface swipes were taken during SQTS 05 on the equipment and personnel door frames to indicate the characteristics of airborne metals due to leakage past the gasket seals. The bulk dust metals analysis indicates a nearly complete conversion of the aluminum casing to an oxide form with an even split between spherical and non-spherical morphology. Size selective analysis shows 83% of the particulates are in the inhalable size range of less than 100 microns and 46% are in the respirable range of less than 10 microns. Combining metals analysis and leakage results indicate the potential for a problematic personal exposure to metals external to the chamber unless modifications are made. Please feel free to call me at 2-8904 if you have any questions or if I may be of further service.

  7. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  8. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  9. Gaussian process test for high-throughput sequencing time series: application to experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Topa, Hande; Jónás, Ágnes; Kofler, Robert; Kosiol, Carolin; Honkela, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) have made it possible to monitor genomes in great detail. New experiments not only use HTS to measure genomic features at one time point but also monitor them changing over time with the aim of identifying significant changes in their abundance. In population genetics, for example, allele frequencies are monitored over time to detect significant frequency changes that indicate selection pressures. Previous attempts at analyzing data from HTS experiments have been limited as they could not simultaneously include data at intermediate time points, replicate experiments and sources of uncertainty specific to HTS such as sequencing depth. Results: We present the beta-binomial Gaussian process model for ranking features with significant non-random variation in abundance over time. The features are assumed to represent proportions, such as proportion of an alternative allele in a population. We use the beta-binomial model to capture the uncertainty arising from finite sequencing depth and combine it with a Gaussian process model over the time series. In simulations that mimic the features of experimental evolution data, the proposed method clearly outperforms classical testing in average precision of finding selected alleles. We also present simulations exploring different experimental design choices and results on real data from Drosophila experimental evolution experiment in temperature adaptation. Availability and implementation: R software implementing the test is available at https://github.com/handetopa/BBGP. Contact: hande.topa@aalto.fi, agnes.jonas@vetmeduni.ac.at, carolin.kosiol@vetmeduni.ac.at, antti.honkela@hiit.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25614471

  10. The Effects of Nutrient Dynamics on Root Patch Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gersani, Mordechai; Ovadia, Ofer; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been recognized to be capable of allocating more roots to rich patches in the soil. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to their sensitivity to absolute differences in nutrient availability, plants are also responsive to temporal changes in nutrient availability. Different roots of the same Pisum sativum plants were subjected to variable homogeneous and heterogeneous temporally – dynamic and static nutrient regimes. When given a choice, plants not only developed greater root biomasses in richer patches; they discriminately allocated more resources to roots that developed in patches with increasing nutrient levels, even when their other roots developed in richer patches. These results suggest that plants are able to perceive and respond to dynamic environmental changes. This ability might enable plants to increase their performance by responding to both current and anticipated resource availabilities in their immediate proximity. PMID:20520811

  11. Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches for Postoperative Pain Control in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Verma, Reetu; Chandra, Girish; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Bogra, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine; its low concentration is sufficient to provide effective pain relief. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch in postoperative pain management. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and taking informed consent from the patients, they were randomized into three groups (n=30 in each group) using a computer generated random number table. Group A: placebo patch; Group B: buprenorphine (10mg) patch and Group C: buprenorphine (20mg) patch. Haemodynamic and analgesic effects were compared by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s post hoc test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results Haemodynamic changes were not statistically different in all the three groups A, B and C, whereas at the end of surgery VAS score of Group A subjects was significantly higher (4.93±0.98) as compared to Group B (1.73±0.64) and Group C (1.40±0.50). On 2nd postoperative day, no pain was reported by the Group C patients and on 4th day after surgery, no pain was reported by Group B patients. Conclusion The transdermal buprenorphine patch (20mg) was effective in attenuating postoperative pain, maintaining haemodynamic stability requiring no rescue analgesia, with fewer postoperative rescue analgesic requirements in low dose of buprenorphine patch (10mg) group. PMID:27504383

  12. Patch Size and Isolation Predict Plant Species Density in a Naturally Fragmented Forest

    PubMed Central

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Montiel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the effects of patch size and isolation on plant species density have yielded contrasting results. However, much of the available evidence comes from relatively recent anthropogenic forest fragments which have not reached equilibrium between extinction and immigration. This is a critical issue because the theory clearly states that only when equilibrium has been reached can the number of species be accurately predicted by habitat size and isolation. Therefore, species density could be better predicted by patch size and isolation in an ecosystem that has been fragmented for a very long time. We tested whether patch area, isolation and other spatial variables explain variation among forest patches in plant species density in an ecosystem where the forest has been naturally fragmented for long periods of time on a geological scale. Our main predictions were that plant species density will be positively correlated with patch size, and negatively correlated with isolation (distance to the nearest patch, connectivity, and distance to the continuous forest). We surveyed the vascular flora (except lianas and epiphytes) of 19 forest patches using five belt transects (50×4 m each) per patch (area sampled per patch = 0.1 ha). As predicted, plant species density was positively associated (logarithmically) with patch size and negatively associated (linearly) with patch isolation (distance to the nearest patch). Other spatial variables such as patch elevation and perimeter, did not explain among-patch variability in plant species density. The power of patch area and isolation as predictors of plant species density was moderate (together they explain 43% of the variation), however, a larger sample size may improve the explanatory power of these variables. Patch size and isolation may be suitable predictors of long-term plant species density in terrestrial ecosystems that are naturally and anthropogenically fragmented. PMID:25347818

  13. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  14. The Effect of Frequency of Testing Upon the Measurement of Achievement in an Intensive Time-Series Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.; Rojas, Carlos A.

    1982-01-01

    Determined effect of testing frequency on data obtained using intensive time-series design. Eighth-grade, earth science student attitudes toward science class and class achievement data were not affected by frequency of data collection. Results of a previous study were also replicated, giving increased confidence in validity of data yielded by the…

  15. Dropping the Devil's Advocate: One Novice Language Tester's Shifting Interactional Practices across a Series of Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyland, Christopher; Greer, Tim; Rettig-Miki, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study employs longitudinal Conversation Analysis (CA) to examine one TA's follow-up contributions in a series of EFL group discussion tests. By tracking the TA's interactional practices across 18 groups, we observe how she adapts her turn design by increasingly aligning towards that of the novice English speakers. The TA initially attempts to…

  16. MS lesion segmentation using a multi-channel patch-based approach with spatial consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechrez, Roey; Goldberger, Jacob; Greenspan, Hayit

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic method for segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the brain. The approach is based on similarities between multi-channel patches (T1, T2 and FLAIR). An MS lesion patch database is built using training images for which the label maps are known. For each patch in the testing image, k similar patches are retrieved from the database. The matching labels for these k patches are then combined to produce an initial segmentation map for the test case. Finally a novel iterative patch-based label refinement process based on the initial segmentation map is performed to ensure spatial consistency of the detected lesions. A leave-one-out evaluation is done for each testing image in the MS lesion segmentation challenge of MICCAI 2008. Results are shown to compete with the state-of-the-art methods on the MICCAI 2008 challenge.

  17. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  18. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-02-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  19. Monocular patching may induce ipsilateral "where" spatial bias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peii; Erdahl, Lillian; Barrett, Anna M

    2009-02-01

    Spatial bias is an asymmetry of perception and/or representation of spatial information - "where" bias -, or of spatially directed actions - "aiming" bias. A monocular patch may induce contralateral "where" spatial bias (the Sprague effect [Sprague, J. M. (1966). Interaction of cortex and superior colliculus in mediation of visually guided behavior in cat. Science, 153(3743), 1544-1547]). However, an ipsilateral patch-induced spatial bias may be observed if visual occlusion results in top-down, compensatory re-allocation of spatial perceptual or representational resources toward the region of visual deprivation. Tactile distraction from a monocular patch may also contribute to an ipsilateral bias. To examine these hypotheses, neurologically normal adults bisected horizontal lines at baseline without a patch, while wearing a monocular patch, and while wearing tactile-only and visual-only monocular occlusion. We fractionated "where" and "aiming" spatial bias components using a video apparatus to reverse visual feedback for half of the test trials. The results support monocular patch-induced ipsilateral "where" spatial errors, which are not consistent with the Sprague effect. Further, the present findings suggested that the induced ipsilateral bias may be primarily induced by visual deprivation, consistent with compensatory "where" resource re-allocation. PMID:19100274

  20. Montage of Apollo Crew Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This montage depicts the flight crew patches for the manned Apollo 7 thru Apollo 17 missions. The Apollo 7 through 10 missions were basically manned test flights that paved the way for lunar landing missions. Primary objectives met included the demonstration of the Command Service Module (CSM) crew performance; crew/space vehicle/mission support facilities performance and testing during a manned CSM mission; CSM rendezvous capability; translunar injection demonstration; the first manned Apollo docking, the first Apollo Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), performance of the first manned flight of the lunar module (LM); the CSM-LM docking in translunar trajectory, LM undocking in lunar orbit, LM staging in lunar orbit, and manned LM-CSM docking in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 through 17 were lunar landing missions with the exception of Apollo 13 which was forced to circle the moon without landing due to an onboard explosion. The craft was,however, able to return to Earth safely. Apollo 11 was the first manned lunar landing mission and performed the first lunar surface EVA. Landing site was the Sea of Tranquility. A message for mankind was delivered, the U.S. flag was planted, experiments were set up and 47 pounds of lunar surface material was collected for analysis back on Earth. Apollo 12, the 2nd manned lunar landing mission landed in the Ocean of Storms and retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) was deployed, and 75 pounds of lunar material was gathered. Apollo 14, the 3rd lunar landing mission landed in Fra Mauro. ALSEP and other instruments were deployed, and 94 pounds of lunar materials were gathered, using a hand cart for first time to transport rocks. Apollo 15, the 4th lunar landing mission landed in the Hadley-Apennine region. With the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), the crew was bale to gather 169 pounds of lunar material. Apollo 16, the 5th lunar

  1. Local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches.

    PubMed

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; Mechant, E; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2011-01-01

    Molecular markers can provide valuable information on the spread of resistant weed biotypes. In particular, tracing local spread of resistant weed patches will give details on the importance of seed migration with machinery, manure, wind or birds. This study investigated the local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches in the southwest region of the province West-Flanders (Belgium). During the summer of 2009, leaf and seed samples were harvested in 27 patches, distributed over 10 sugar beet fields and 1 maize field. The fields were grouped in four local clusters. Each cluster corresponded with the farmer who cultivated these fields. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) procedure identified the Ser264 to Gly mutation in the D1 protein, endowing resistance to metamitron, a key herbicide applied in sugar beet. The majority of the sampled plants within a patch (97% on average) carried this mutation. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed with 4 primer pairs and yielded 270 molecular markers, polymorphic for the whole dataset (303 samples). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that a significant part of the genetic variability was attributed to variation among the four farmer locations (12 %) and variation among Chenopodium album patches within the farmer locations (14%). In addition, Mantel tests revealed a positive correlation between genetic distances (linearised phipt between pairs of patches) and geographic distances (Mantel-coefficient significant at p = 0.002), suggesting isolation-by-distance. In one field, a decreased genetic diversity and strong genetic relationships between all the patches in this field supported the hypothesis of a recent introduction of resistant biotypes. Furthermore, genetic similarity between patches from different fields from the same farmer and from different farmers indicated that seed transport between neighbouring fields is likely to have an important impact on the

  2. The effect of cell design and test criteria on the series/parallel performance of nickel cadmium cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Webb, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Three batteries were operated in parallel from a common bus during charge and discharge. SMM utilized NASA Standard 20AH cells and batteries, and LANDSAT-D NASA 50AH cells and batteries of a similar design. Each battery consisted of 22 series connected cells providing the nominal 28V bus. The three batteries were charged in parallel using the voltage limit/current taper mode wherein the voltage limit was temperature compensated. Discharge occurred on the demand of the spacecraft instruments and electronics. Both flights were planned for three to five year missions. The series/parallel configuration of cells and batteries for the 3-5 yr mission required a well controlled product with built-in reliability and uniformity. Examples of how component, cell and battery selection methods affect the uniformity of the series/parallel operation of the batteries both in testing and in flight are given.

  3. Minimum-test series for the intermediate-size inducer pump in SPTF at ETEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-04

    The overall test program includes pump assembly, installation, testing, removal from the test loop, disassembly and final inspection of the entire pump. Testing will include: checkout tests, head/flow and efficiency characterizations at design and two-loop flow/speed ratios and at selected sodium temperatures; suction performance determination; and a design point endurance test, up to 2000 hours, based on available time. The endurance test will be run at 100 percent NPSH margin. After testing, the pump will be cleaned of sodium, disassembled, and examined to determine the effects of operation at 100 percent NPSH margin for an extended period of time. The testing will be done at Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). Assembly, sodium removal, disassembly, and initial inspection will be performed at Component Handling and Cleaning Facility (CHCF) and sodium testing will be done at Sodium Pump Test Facility (SPTF).

  4. Real-time tracking and targeting computations and rocket vehicle aeroballistics for the PLACES ionospheric plasma test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollstin, L. R.

    The PLACES (Position Location And Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon- and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

  5. Controlling Item Allocation in the Automated Assembly of Multiple Test Forms. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Judith; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Chen, Troy T.

    Automated test assembly is a technology for producing multiple, equivalent test forms from an item pool. An important consideration for test security in automated test assembly is the inclusion of the same items on these multiple forms. Although it is possible to use item selection as a formal constraint in assembling forms, the number of…

  6. Longitudinal Patch-Based Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Prince, Jerry L.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2016-01-01

    Segmenting T2-hyperintense white matter lesions from longitudinal MR images is essential in understanding progression of multiple sclerosis. Most lesion segmentation techniques find lesions independently at each time point, even though there are different noise and image contrast variations at each point in the time series. In this paper, we present a patch based 4D lesion segmentation method that takes advantage of the temporal component of longitudinal data. For each subject with multiple time-points, 4D patches are constructed from the T1-w and FLAIR scans of all time-points. For every 4D patch from a subject, a few relevant matching 4D patches are found from a reference, such that their convex combination reconstructs the subject’s 4D patch. Then corresponding manual segmentation patches of the reference are combined in a similar manner to generate a 4D membership of lesions of the subject patch. We compare our 4D patch-based segmentation with independent 3D voxel-based and patch-based lesion segmentation algorithms. Based on ground truth segmentations from 30 data sets, we show that the mean Dice coefficients between manual and automated segmentations improve after using the 4D approach compared to two state-of-the-art 3D segmentation algorithms.

  7. Improved Image Registration by Sparse Patch-Based Deformation Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Despite of intensive efforts for decades, deformable image registration is still a challenging problem due to the potential large anatomical differences across individual images, which limits the registration performance. Fortunately, this issue could be alleviated if a good initial deformation can be provided for the two images under registration, which are often termed as the moving subject and the fixed template, respectively. In this work, we present a novel patch-based initial deformation prediction framework for improving the performance of existing registration algorithms. Our main idea is to estimate the initial deformation between subject and template in a patch-wise fashion by using the sparse representation technique. We argue that two image patches should follow the same deformation towards the template image if their patch-wise appearance patterns are similar. To this end, our framework consists of two stages, i.e., the training stage and the application stage. In the training stage, we register all training images to the pre-selected template, such that the deformation of each training image with respect to the template is known. In the application stage, we apply the following four steps to efficiently calculate the initial deformation field for the new test subject: (1) We pick a small number of key points in the distinctive regions of the test subject; (2) For each key point, we extract a local patch and form a coupled appearance-deformation dictionary from training images where each dictionary atom consists of the image intensity patch as well as their respective local deformations; (3) A small set of training image patches in the coupled dictionary are selected to represent the image patch of each subject key point by sparse representation. Then, we can predict the initial deformation for each subject key point by propagating the pre-estimated deformations on the selected training patches with the same sparse representation coefficients. (4) We

  8. Language Testing Symposium: A Psycholinguistic Approach. Language and Language Learning [Series], No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alan, Ed.

    Eleven papers on language testing deal with various psycholinguistic aspects ranging from the particular application of language aptitude tests to statistical methods of measurement and evaluation. Several chapters treat the difficulties involved in testing spoken language aptitude and attainment. Contributors to this volume include K. Brown, A.…

  9. Annual CPS Test Trend Review, 2000. Research Data Brief. Academic Productivity Series, 2000 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, John Q.; Rosenkranz, Todd; Bryk, Anthony S.

    This report presents elementary school test trend data for the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), Illinois for 2000 for the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). In spring 2000, ITBS trend data show that mathematics test scores in the CPS elementary schools continue their long-term improvements for all age levels. Positive trends in ITBS reading scores…

  10. Effective Strategies for Dealing with Test Anxiety. Teacher to Teacher Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lisa

    Test anxiety is exceedingly common among learners in adult basic education. Any one or more of the following can cause individuals to experience test anxiety: learned behavior resulting from the expectations of parents, teachers, or significant others; associations that students have built between grades or test performance and personal worth;…

  11. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  12. A Review of State Test Security Laws in 2013. ACT Research Report Series, 2014 (1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Test security has increased in importance in the last few years given high-profile cases of educator misconduct. This paper provides a review of state test security statutes and regulations related to statewide achievement testing using as a framework recent best practices reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education…

  13. A Classical Test Theory Perspective on LSAT Local Item Dependence. LSAC Research Report Series. Statistical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Lynda M.

    This study extended prior Law School Admission Council (LSAC) research related to the item response theory (IRT) local item independence assumption into the realm of classical test theory. Initially, results from the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and two other tests were investigated to determine the approximate state of local item independence…

  14. Development, testing, and certification of the Northrup, Inc., ML series concentrating solar collector model NSC-01-0732

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is presented of the additional development work on the existing ML Series concentrating solar collector for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. This report shows that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.

  15. OpenSSO Project Patches

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-06-08

    These are patches to Sun Microsystems open source OpenSSO project to fix various bugs and incorporate changes for Sandia and NNSA to use the product including fixes to improve OpenSSO's authentication and authorization abilities. These fixes will then by incorporated by Sun into their Sun Access Manager product, which is used by various DOE/NNSA plants and labs. Having Sun maintain these changes will relieve SNL and DOE from the cost of maintaining the changes themselves.

  16. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  17. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Experimental determination of the spatial scale of a prey patch from the predator's perspective.

    PubMed

    Birk, Matthew A; White, J Wilson

    2014-03-01

    Foraging theory predicts that predators should prefer foraging in habitat patches with higher prey densities. However, density depends on the spatial scale at which a "patch" is defined by an observer. Ecologists strive to measure prey densities at the same scale that predators do, but many natural landscapes lack obvious, well-defined prey patches. Thus one must determine the scale at which predators define patches of prey. We estimated the scale at which guppies, Poecilia reticulata, selected patches of zooplankton prey using a behavioral assay. Guppies could choose between two prey arrays, each manipulated to have a density that depended on the spatial scale at which density was calculated. We estimated the scale of guppy foraging by comparing guppy preferences across a series of trials in which we systematically varied the scale associated with "high" prey density. This approach enables the application of foraging theory to non-discrete habitats and prey landscapes. PMID:24241641

  19. General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavone, D.; George, T. G.; Frantz, C. E.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonium containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit.

  20. Contact Hypersensitivity to European Baseline Series and Corticosteroid Series Haptens in a Population of Adult Patients with Contact Eczema.

    PubMed

    Kot, Marek; Bogaczewicz, Jarosław; Kręcisz, Beata; Woźniacka, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Contact eczema (CE) is one of the most common skin diseases and is regarded as a reaction pattern. However, the skin can react in the same way to different stimuli, some of which may act together. The golden standard in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the patch test. Contact allergy to topical corticosteroids is known to be gradually rising, and this represents a significant problem in the treatment of contact eczema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to European Baseline Series and Corticosteroid Series haptens in a population of patients with CE. A group of 126 patients with the clinical diagnosis of contact eczema were patch tested with 28 European Baseline Series allergens and 8 corticosteroid allergens in different concentrations and in different media: 80 (64.5%) women and 46 (36.5%) men, mean age 50.4 years. The average duration of CE was 6.9 years. In total, 65 patients (51.6%) demonstrated an allergic reaction to at least one European Baseline Series allergen, and 22 patients (17.4%) to at least one corticosteroid. The most common allergens giving positive results were nickel sulfate (26.2%), cobalt chloride (15.1%), budesonide (14.3%), potassium dichromate (13.5%), and myroxylon pereirae resin (MPR) (11.9%). According our data, the European Baseline Series tests allow the cause of ACD to be identified in over 50% of cases. PMID:27149128

  1. Effects of Patch-Size on Populations of Intertidal Limpets, Siphonaria spp., in a Linear Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Victoria J.; Johnson, Linda G.; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms with different life-histories and abilities to disperse often utilise habitat patches in different ways. We investigated the influence of the size of patches of rock (separated by stretches of sand) on the density of pulmonate limpets (Siphonaria spp.) along 1500 km of the linear landscape of the South African coastline. We compared the influence of patch-size on two congeneric species with different modes of development, S. serrata a direct developer, and S. concinna a planktonic developer. We tested the spatial and temporal consistency of the effects of patch-size by sampling 7 independent regions spanning the distributional range of both species of limpets, and by sampling one region at monthly intervals for 1 year. Within each region or month, 4 small patches (<20 m in length) interspersed with the 4 large patches (>60 m in length) were sampled. Across the entire geographic range and throughout the year, there were more of both species of limpets in large patches than in small patches. In most regions, there was greater variability in large patches than small patches. Variability within patches in a single region was similar throughout the year, with greater variability of both species in large than in small patches. We found little influence of the mode of development on the response of limpets to patch-size. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding patterns of distribution of species with respect to habitat heterogeneity in linear landscapes, and contradict the idea that organism mobility at an early ontogenetic stage directly affects habitat use. PMID:23284875

  2. Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

  3. Cryogenic infrastructure supplied by Linde Kryotechnik AG for the Series Magnet Test Facility for FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildenbeutel, J.; Fisel, W.; Wilhelm, H. P.; Schroeder, C. H.; Kollmus, H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to test the fast-ramped superconducting magnets for FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), a cryogenic test facility with an equivalent overall capacity of 1.5 kW at 4.4 Kelvin was designed and commissioned at GSI Helmholzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH. For efficient testing of the 108 dipole magnets the cryogenic infrastructure consists of a refrigeration system and four main test benches. Due to the different operating modes and load fluctuations a dedicated process and control concept was developed which allows an independent operation of each test bench and ensures highest efficiency over the whole operating range. The system is designed in a way that one magnet can be cooled down to its operating temperature while simultaneously another magnet is kept at cold state for the measurements. The third and fourth test benches serve for warming up and exchanging the magnets respectively. The high flexibility of the set-up moreover allows the testing of other FAIR magnets like the SIS100 quadrupole modules or the operation of a string configuration. The project was executed in a close collaboration between GSI and Linde Kryotechnik AG. The paper will show the key solutions of the refrigeration system and the test benches and highlight some commissioning results.

  4. Computers and Testing: Steps Toward the Inevitable Conquest. Professional Series 76-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Personnel Research and Development Center.

    This pamphlet reprints three papers and an invited discussion of them, read at a Division 5 Symposium at the 1975 American Psychological Association Convention. The first paper describes a Bayesian tailored testing process and shows how it demonstrates the importance of using test items with high discrimination, low guessing probability, and a…

  5. Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications. Evaluation in Education and Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K., Ed.; Zaal, Jac N., Ed.

    The 14 chapters of this book focus on the technical advances, advances in applied settings, and emerging topics in the testing field. Part 1 discusses methodological advances, Part 2 considers developments in applied settings, and Part 3 reviews emerging topics in the field of testing. Part 1 papers include: (1) "Advances in Criterion-Referenced…

  6. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  7. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  8. Reflections on a Century of College Admissions Tests. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Geiser, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Standardized testing for college admissions has grown exponentially since the first administration of the old "College Boards" in 1901. This paper surveys major developments since then: the introduction of the "Scholastic Aptitude Test" in 1926, designed to tap students' general analytic ability; E.F. Lindquist's creation of the ACT in 1959 as a…

  9. Factors in Performance on the Law School Admission Test. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.; Powers, Donald E.

    This study was undertaken to clarify the internal structure of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and shed light on the ability or abilities measured by the three item types that make up the test (logical reasoning, analytical reasoning, and reading comprehension). The study used data for two forms of the LSAT for general samples of LSAT…

  10. Dynamic Testing with Tangible Electronics: Measuring Children's Change in Strategy Use with a Series Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Elliott, Julian G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to explore the use of a novel approach that incorporates dynamic testing and tangible electronics in the assessment of children's learning potential and strategy use. Sample: A total of 77 children with a mean age 8.9 years participated in the study; half of them were dynamically tested using graduate prompt techniques; the…

  11. A Critical Appraisal of Intelligent Testing with the WISC-III: Introduction to the Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmann, Gregg M.; Barnett, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes a special journal issue that is intended to provide professionals and other members of the policy-shaping community with information concerning the appropriate role of IQ testing in school psychological services. Suggests that IQ testing is unfounded and has led the field of school psychology astray. (RJM)

  12. A large-scale deforestation experiment: Effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferraz, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Stouffer, P.C.; Bierregaard, R.O.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  13. Profile of GMAT® Testing: Citizenship Report: Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes five-year global GMAT testing trends and includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by citizenship; (2) GMAT exams taken by gender; (3) Mean age of GMAT examinees; (4) Mean GMAT Total score; and (5) GMAT score-sending breakdowns by program type (MBA, non-MBA master's, and doctoral/other), TY2014. This data brief can help build candidate…

  14. Profile of GMAT® Testing: North American Report. Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This Data-to-Go brief summarizes five year GMAT testing trends for US and Canadian residents, and race/ethnicity breakdowns for US citizens. It includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by US region, US state of residence, and race/ethnicity of examinees (US citizens only), (2) GMAT exams taken by Canadian residents, by Canadian province, (3) GMAT exams…

  15. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  16. A contour calculation method for rapid freeform reflector construction with ellipsoid patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Yu, Feihong

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a contour calculation method (CCM) for the freeform reflector design. Conservation of energy relates the light flux from a Lambertian-type point source to a desired irradiance and a discrete spot distribution on a target plane. This relationship determines the edges of the reflector patches, thus, enabling the design of a non-imaging freeform reflector based on a series of ellipsoid patches modeled as NURBS curves in Rhinoceros. As an example, we present a freeform reflector design composed of 6400 ellipsoid patches to illuminate a surface with 94% uniformity. A computer calculation takes 18.5 s.

  17. Qualifciation test series of the indium needle FEEP micro-propulsion system for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharlemann, C.; Buldrini, N.; Killinger, R.; Jentsch, M.; Polli, A.; Ceruti, L.; Serafini, L.; DiCara, D.; Nicolini, D.

    2011-11-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna project (LISA) is a co-operative program between ESA and NASA to detect gravitational waves by measuring distortions in the space-time fabric. LISA Pathfinder is the precursor mission to LISA designed to validate the core technologies intended for LISA. One of the enabling technologies is the micro-propulsion system based on field emission thrusters necessary to achieve the uniquely stringent propulsion requirements. A consortium consisting of Astrium GmbH and the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt (formerly AIT) was commissioned by ESA to develop and qualify the micro-propulsion system based on the Indium Needle FEEP technology. Several successful tests have verified the proper Needle Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) operation and the thermal and mechanical design of subcomponents of the developed system. For all functional tests, the flight representative Power Control Unit developed by SELEX Galileo S.p.A (also responsible for the Micro-Propulsion Subsystem (MPS) development) was used. Measurements have shown the exceptional stability of the thruster. An acceptance test of one Thruster Cluster Assembly (TCA) over 3600 h has shown the stable long term operation of the developed system. During the acceptance test compliance to all the applicable requirements have been shown such as a thrust resolution of 0.1 μN, thrust range capability between 0 and 100 μN, thrust overshoot much lower than the required 0.3 μN+3% and many others. In particular important is the voltage stability of the thruster (±1% over the duration of the testing) and the confirmation of the very low thrust noise. Based on the acceptance test the lifetime of the thruster is expected to exceed 39,000 h generating a total impulse bit of 6300 Ns at an average thrust level of 50 μN. A flight representative qualification model of the Needle FEEP Cluster Assembly (DM1) equipped with one active TCA has performed a qualification program

  18. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, T. A.; England, J. F.; Berenbrock, C. E.; Mason, R. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Lamontagne, J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as "less-than" values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  19. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  20. Tank Tests of Models of Floats for Single-float Seaplanes First Series.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1936-01-01

    Large models of the Mark V and Mark VI floats used for single float seaplanes (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) models 41-A and 41-B, respectively) were tested in the NACA tank to provide general test data for typical single floats and a basis for possible improvements of their form. The resistance of model 41-B was greater than that of model 41-A, either when free to trim or at the best trim angle for each. The resistance of model 35-B (a pointed step hull tested free to trim) was less than either of the models at the hump speed, greater at intermediate planing speeds, and less at the speeds and loads near get-away, although the spray was generally worse owing to the absence of transverse flare. The results of the fixed-trim tests of model 41-A were cross plotted to obtain data at the angle for zero trimming moment and at the best trim angle. The trims assumed by models 41-A and 41-B, when tested free to trim, were found to be excessive at the hump speed. The corresponding trim of model 35-B was found to be approximately 3 degrees lower because of the lower angle of afterbody keel used in this model, and the maximum hump resistance was 15 percent lower.

  1. Profile of GMAT® Testing: Residence Report. Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes five-year global GMAT testing trends and includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by residence; (2) GMAT exams taken by gender; (3) Mean age of GMAT examinees; (4) Mean GMAT Total score; and (5) GMAT score-sending breakdowns by program type (MBA, non-MBA master's, and doctoral/other), TY 2014. This data brief can be used to help build…

  2. Improving effectiveness of coke oven patching

    SciTech Connect

    Withrow, J.A.; McCollum, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    An effective patching program is essential to protect the battery against severe damage which would result from air, foul gas, and fuel gas leaks; and to keep it in operating condition for a reasonable life span. In addition to that basic purpose of patching, other areas such as heating efficiency, coke quality, and emissions performance can benefit from an effective program. Clairton Works and US Steel Research have made improvements in the patching program in several broad categories: equipment used for application of patching material, the patching material itself, and practices used in administration of the patching program. The equipment changes include a pusher machine ram-mounted roof patching unit and a new type of patching buggy for use with materials which tend to settle or cake. New materials have been formulated which develop a ceramic bond on the oven refractories and provide superior adherance. Battery Temperature Profiles, Charging Surveys, and Stack Observation Reports are used on a regular basis to identify critical areas for patching beyond those which can be identified by operating personnel on an incidental basis. This paper reviews each of these improvements in Clairton's patching program in terms of the equipment, materials, and practices per se and also discusses the results of implementing these changes.

  3. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  4. Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Clark Y Biplane Cellules with Special Reference to Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Richard W

    1933-01-01

    The pressure distribution data discussed in this report represents the results of part of an investigation conducted on the factors affecting the aerodynamic safety of airplanes. The present tests were made on semispan, circular-tipped Clark Y airfoil models mounted in the conventional manner on a separation plane. Pressure readings were made simultaneously at all test orifices at each of 20 angles of attack between -8 degrees and +90 degrees. The results of the tests on each wing arrangement are compared on the bases of maximum normal force coefficient, lateral stability at a low rate of roll, and relative longitudinal stability. Tabular data are also presented giving the center of pressure location of each wing.

  5. Testing the heterospecific attraction hypothesis with time-series data on species co-occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio; Botella, Francisco; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2010-01-01

    The distributional patterns of actively moving animals are influenced by the cues that the individuals use for choosing sites into which they settle. Individuals may gather information about habitat quality using two types of strategies, either directly assessing the relevant environmental factors, or using the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics as an indirect measure of habitat quality. We examined patterns of heterospecific attraction with observational time-series data on a community of seven waterbird species breeding in artificial irrigation ponds. We fitted to the data a multivariate logistic regression model, which attributes the presence–absence of each species to a set of environmental and spatial covariates, to the presence of con- and heterospecifics in the previous year and to the presence of heterospecifics in the same year. All species showed a clear tendency to continue breeding in the same sites where they were observed in the previous year. Additionally, the presence of heterospecifics, both in the previous year and in the same year, generally increased the probability that the focal species was found breeding on a given pond. Our data thus give support for the heterospecific attraction hypothesis, though causal inference should be confirmed with manipulative experiments. PMID:20462909

  6. Reading: Tests and Assessment Techniques. Second Edition. United Kingdom Reading Association Teaching of Reading Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pumfrey, Peter D.

    The second edition of this British publication provides details of recent developments in the assessment of reading attainments and the analysis of reading processes. The book begins with a description of various types of reading tests and assessment techniques with consideration given to the purposes for which normative, criterion-referenced, and…

  7. Testing the Handicapped for Employment Purposes: Adaptations for Persons with Dyslexia. Professional Series 76-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijn, Paul

    This report was prepared to provide recommendations for testing adult dyslexics for employment purposes. Since the literature on dyslexia does not deal directly with this topic, the recommendations are based primarily on inferences from what is known about the diagnosis, etiology and treatment of dyslexia in children. A summary of the major…

  8. 77 FR 38282 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... public comment by a notice document published in the Federal Register issue of March 4, 1996 (61 FR 8279... in the Federal Register issue of May 1, 1996 (61 FR 19276) (FRL- ] 5366-3). The test guidelines were... issue of October 26, 2007 (72 FR 60934-60988) (FRL-8106-5). Furthermore, the option of...

  9. Relationship of Bar Examinations to Performance Tests of Lawyering Skills. Rand Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.

    The relationship between scores on a typical bar exam and the ability to practice law was investigated with 485 applicants who took the bar exam and a 2-day performance test involving basic oral and written legal tasks. These tasks consisted of simulated cases; each participant functioned as the attorney for the plantiff in one case and as the…

  10. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  11. Wind Tunnel Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Biplane Wing Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Noyes, Richard

    1929-01-01

    This report is on the changes in forces on each wing of a biplane cellule when either the stagger or the gap is varied. Since each test was carried up to a 90 degree angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning as well as in the structural design of biplane wings.

  12. Validity Evidence for ACT Compass® Placement Tests. ACT Research Report Series 2014 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul A.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    We examined the validity of using Compass® test scores and high school grade point average (GPA) for placing students in first-year college courses and for identifying students at risk of not succeeding. Consistent with other research, the combination of high school GPA and Compass scores performed better than either measure used alone. Results…

  13. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 7. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test series 3. 07. 9 - steady-state film boiling in upflow

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

    1982-05-01

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test series 3.07.9 was designed to provide steady-state film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. This report presents the reduced instrument responses for THTF test series 3.07.9. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  14. ERTS-1 anomalous dark patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Through combined use of imagery from ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 satellites was found that when the sun elevation exceeds 55 degrees, the ERTS-1 imagery is subject to considerable contamination by sunlight even though the actual specular point is nearly 300 nautical miles from nadir. Based on sea surface wave slope information, a wind speed of 10 knots will theoretically provide approximately 0.5 percent incident solar reflectance under observed ERTS multispectral scanner detectors. This reflectance nearly doubles under the influence of a 20 knot wind. The most pronounced effect occurs in areas of calm water where anomalous dark patches are observed. Calm water at distances from the specular point found in ERTS scenes will reflect no solar energy to the multispectral scanner, making these regions stand out as dark areas in all bands in an ocean scene otherwise comprosed by a general diffuse sunlight from rougher ocean surfaces. Anomalous dark patches in the outer parts of the glitter zones may explain the unusual appearance of some scenes.

  15. Exogenous pigment in Peyer's patches

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, N.A.; Crocker, P.R.; Smith, A.P.; Levison, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dark brown granular pigment was found consistently in macrophages in the deep aspect of adult Peyer's patches. Tissue sections from intestinal resections of 35 patients with a variety of pathologic diagnoses and of seven postmortem cases with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease were examined for the presence of this pigment. It was found in all patients over the age of 6 years (34 cases) but was not found in any children below that age (eight cases). Scanning electron microscopy with secondary and backscattered electron imaging and x-ray energy spectroscopy were performed on routine histologic sections. The pigmented macrophages contained aluminum and silicon, diffusely present throughout the cytoplasm, and numerous discrete foci of titanium. Pigment containing these same elements has also been found around dilated submucosal lymphatics, in mesenteric lymph nodes, and in some transmural inflammatory aggregates of Crohn's disease. The pigment probably is derived from the diet and actively taken up by Peyer's patches, which are able to incorporate inert particulate matter.

  16. Assessing error sources for Landsat time series analysis for tropical test sites in Viet Nam and Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Michael; Verbesselt, Jan; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio

    2013-10-01

    Researchers who use remotely sensed data can spend half of their total effort analysing prior data. If this data preprocessing does not match the application, this time spent on data analysis can increase considerably and can lead to inaccuracies. Despite the existence of a number of methods for pre-processing Landsat time series, each method has shortcomings, particularly for mapping forest changes under varying illumination, data availability and atmospheric conditions. Based on the requirements of mapping forest changes as defined by the United Nations (UN) Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) program, the accurate reporting of the spatio-temporal properties of these changes is necessary. We compared the impact of three fundamentally different radiometric preprocessing techniques Moderate Resolution Atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN), Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and simple Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) on mapping forest changes using Landsat time series data. A modification of Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) monitor was used to jointly map the spatial and temporal agreement of forest changes at test sites in Ethiopia and Viet Nam. The suitability of the pre-processing methods for the occurring forest change drivers was assessed using recently captured Ground Truth and high resolution data (1000 points). A method for creating robust generic forest maps used for the sampling design is presented. An assessment of error sources has been performed identifying haze as a major source for time series analysis commission error.

  17. Testing the utility of a geographical profiling approach in three rape series of a single offender: a case study.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Pekka; Zappalà, Angelo; Laukkanen, Manne; Picozzi, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the potential utility of a geographical profiling approach for three separate series of rapes committed by a single offender. Two different mathematical distance-decay functions using either a normal distribution with a mean distance and standard deviation based on previous research or a truncated negative exponential function based on distances between crime sites in the series under investigation were applied to each of the series giving prioritised search areas the accuracy of which was then assessed. The prioritised area that had to be searched before the home base of the offender could be located varied from 7.60 km(2) or 2.15% of the total search area at its best to 15 1.10 km(2) or 42.66% at its worst for the normal distribution based on previous research and from 42.06 km(2) or 11.88% to no improvement when the truncated negative exponential function was used. The functions used showed less predictive ability when the offender was a commuter. Explanations for the variations in the findings as well as suggestions for improvements were outlined in the discussion. PMID:12505470

  18. Scale-dependent feedbacks between patch size and plant reproduction in desert grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svejcar, Lauren N.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Duniway, Michael C.; James, Darren K.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that scale-dependent feedbacks between plant reproductive success and plant patch size govern transitions from highly to sparsely vegetated states in drylands, yet there is scant empirical evidence for these mechanisms. Scale-dependent feedback models suggest that an optimal patch size exists for growth and reproduction of plants and that a threshold patch organization exists below which positive feedbacks between vegetation and resources can break down, leading to critical transitions. We examined the relationship between patch size and plant reproduction using an experiment in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive effort and success of a dominant grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) would vary predictably with patch size. We found that focal plants in medium-sized patches featured higher rates of grass reproductive success than when plants occupied either large patch interiors or small patches. These patterns support the existence of scale-dependent feedbacks in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and indicate an optimal patch size for reproductive effort and success in B. eriopoda. We discuss the implications of these results for detecting ecological thresholds in desert grasslands.

  19. Multistage Adaptive Testing for a Large-Scale Classification Test: Design, Heuristic Assembly, and Comparison with Other Testing Modes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (6)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yi; Nozawa, Yuki; Gao, Xiaohong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Multistage adaptive tests (MSTs) have gained increasing popularity in recent years. MST is a balanced compromise between linear test forms (i.e., paper-and-pencil testing and computer-based testing) and traditional item-level computer-adaptive testing (CAT). It combines the advantages of both. On one hand, MST is adaptive (and therefore more…

  20. Electrochemical cell with a cadmium patch electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.E.; Bloom, S.M.; Hoffman, A.; Norland, K.

    1980-01-22

    A cadmium patch laminar electrode, comprising a dispersion of particulate cadmium in a binder matrix on a conductive plastic substrate is prepared by contacting a zinc patch electrode comprising a dispersion of particulate zinc in a binder matrix on a conductive plastic substrate with an aqueous solution of a cadmium salt. The cadmium patch electrode can be used in a primary electrochemical cell such as that employing a manganese dioxide cathode and a cadmium chloride electrolyte.

  1. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  2. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  3. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, Christos George; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  4. Fuel motions in the multi-pin PFR/TREAT test series

    SciTech Connect

    Doemer, R.C.; Bauer, T.H.; Robinson, W.R.; Wright, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel motions during the early stages of failure were determined for the seven multi-pin PFR/TREAT tests from an integrated analysis of data from the Fast Neutron Hodoscope and the loop instrumentation. It was observed that motion in TUCOP simulations is in two stages; an initial slow movement at failure followed by abrupt dispersal. It was also found that axial movement of fresh fuel begins promptly at initial failure but that pre-irradiated fuel motion is delayed by 15 ms in both TOP and TUCOP simulations.

  5. Transdermal fentanyl patches in small animals.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Egger, Christine M

    2004-01-01

    Fentanyl citrate is a potent opioid that can be delivered by the transdermal route in cats and dogs. Publications regarding transdermal fentanyl patches were obtained and systematically reviewed. Seven studies in cats and seven studies in dogs met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Dogs achieved effective plasma concentrations approximately 24 hours after patch application. Cats achieved effective plasma concentrations 7 hours after patch application. In dogs, transdermal fentanyl produced analgesia for up to 72 hours, except for the immediate 0- to 6-hour postoperative period. In cats, transdermal fentanyl produced analgesia equivalent to intermittent butorphanol administration for up to 72 hours following patch application. PMID:15533967

  6. Evaluation of a series hybrid thrust bearing at DN values to three million. 2: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusepi, M.; Winn, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Results of tests made to determine the experimental performance of a series hybrid bearing are reported. The bearing consists of a 150 mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid film bearing fitting an envelope with an outer radius of 86.4 mm (3.4 in.) and inner radius of 71 mm (2.8 in.). Tests were conducted up to 16,500 rpm, at which speed an axial load of 15,568 N (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the employment of the series hybrid bearing principle, it was possible to reduce the effective ball bearing speed to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. A reduction of this magnitude should result in a tenfold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful simulation of fluid film bearing lubricant supply failure, performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm, resulted in complete and smooth change over to full scale ball bearing operation when the oil supply to the fluid film bearing was discontinued. Reactivation of the fluid film supply system produced a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  7. Using power series expansions of moduli to interpolate between release curves from dynamic tests: Technique and application

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.

    1990-08-01

    Recently an appreciable number of continuous release profiles have been measured from dynamic experiments with geological materials. For each material an empirical generalization of the available release curves may be constructed to allow easy application of the experimental data to problems in much the same way as a linear shock velocity -- particle velocity fit allows easy application of Hugoniot data. This generalization is made in two steps. The first is to compute the Eulerian axial modulus at the Hugoniot pressure and its first three pressure derivatives along the release for each test. This corresponds to a partial Taylor series of the axial modulus, which integrates to give a very close match to the original release. An alternative formulation, which takes volume as the independent variable, fails because that Taylor series does not converge with the rapidity needed for these calculations. The second step is to plot each of these quantities against the Hugoniot pressure for the suite of tests, and fit these data. A release from an arbitrary pressure within the general range of the experimental data may be computed by using the interpolated modulus and its interpolated derivatives. This generalization, which allows volume to be computed as a function of pressure, reproduces the experimental curves fairly well. We present the results of applying this technique to release data for Mini Jade 2 grout, and briefly compare these results with those from several Nevada Test Site tuffs, saturated and dry Indiana Limestone, and aluminum. Finally, we use the generalized Mini Jade 2 data to solve a sample problem, that of estimating the error produced by making the release = Hugoniot'' assumption in the analysis of ground motion gauges in an underground test. 12 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Single-Event Transient Testing of Low Dropout PNP Series Linear Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Philippe; Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    As demand for high-speed, on-board, digital-processing integrated circuits on spacecraft increases (field-programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors in particular), the need for the next generation point-of-load (POL) regulator becomes a prominent design issue. Shrinking process nodes have resulted in core rails dropping to values close to 1.0 V, drastically reducing margin to standard switching converters or regulators that power digital ICs. The goal of this task is to perform SET characterization of several commercial POL converters, and provide a discussion of the impact of these results to state-of-the-art digital processing IC through laser and heavy ion testing

  9. Singular Spectrum Analysis for Astronomical Time Series: Constructing a Parsimonious Hypothesis Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, G.; Kondrashov, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Ghil, M.; Branchesi, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Stratta, G.; Ciszak, M.; Marino, F.; Ortolan, A.

    We present a data-adaptive spectral method - Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis (MC-SSA) - and its modification to tackle astrophysical problems. Through numerical simulations we show the ability of the MC-SSA in dealing with 1/f β power-law noise affected by photon counting statistics. Such noise process is simulated by a first-order autoregressive, AR(1) process corrupted by intrinsic Poisson noise. In doing so, we statistically estimate a basic stochastic variation of the source and the corresponding fluctuations due to the quantum nature of light. In addition, MC-SSA test retains its effectiveness even when a significant percentage of the signal falls below a certain level of detection, e.g., caused by the instrument sensitivity. The parsimonious approach presented here may be broadly applied, from the search for extrasolar planets to the extraction of low-intensity coherent phenomena probably hidden in high energy transients.

  10. Polar cap patches observed during the magnetic storm of November 2003: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, C. E.; Pedersen, T.; Sheehan, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present multi-instrumented measurements and multi-technique analysis of polar cap patches observed early during the recovery phase of the major magnetic storm of 20 November 2003 to investigate the origin of the polar cap patches. During this event, the Qaanaaq imager observed elongated polar cap patches, some of which containing variable brightness; the Qaanaaq digisonde detected abrupt NmF2 fluctuations; the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measured patches placed close to but poleward of the auroral oval-polar cap boundary; and the DMSP-F13 satellite intersected topside density enhancements, corroborating the presence of the patches seen by the imager, the digisonde, and the Sondrestrom ISR. A 2-D cross-correlation analysis was applied to series of two consecutive red-line images, indicating that the magnitude and direction of the patch velocities were in good agreement with the SuperDARN convection patterns. We applied a back-tracing analysis to the patch locations and found that most of the patches seen between 20:41 and 21:29 UT were likely transiting the throat region near 19:41 UT. Inspection of the SuperDARN velocities at this time indicates spatial and temporal collocation of a gap region between patches and large (1.7 km s-1) line-of-sight velocities. The variable airglow brightness of the patches observed between 20:33 and 20:43 UT was investigated using the numerical Global Theoretical Ionospheric Model (GTIM) driven by the SuperDARN convection patterns and a variable upward/downward neutral wind. Our numerical results indicate that variations in the airglow intensity up to 265 R can be produced by a constant 70 m s-1 downward vertical wind.

  11. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID

  12. HotPatch Web Gateway: Statistical Analysis of Unusual Patches on Protein Surfaces

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pettit, Frank K.; Bowie, James U. [DOE-Molecular Biology Institute

    HotPatch finds unusual patches on the surface of proteins, and computes just how unusual they are (patch rareness), and how likely each patch is to be of functional importance (functional confidence (FC).) The statistical analysis is done by comparing your protein's surface against the surfaces of a large set of proteins whose functional sites are known. Optionally, HotPatch can also write a script that will display the patches on the structure, when the script is loaded into some common molecular visualization programs. HotPatch generates complete statistics (functional confidence and patch rareness) on the most significant patches on your protein. For each property you choose to analyze, you'll receive an email to which will be attached a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors (temp. factors) are replaced by patch indices; and the PDB file's Header Remarks will give statistical scores and a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors are replaced by the raw values of the property used for patch analysis (for example, hydrophobicity instead of hydrophobic patches). [Copied with edits from http://hotpatch.mbi.ucla.edu/

  13. Gravity Survey of the Rye Patch KGRA, Rye Patch, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, M. R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in Pershing County Nevada on the west side of the Humboldt Range and east of the Rye Patch Reservoir approximately 200 km northeast of Reno, Nevada. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site. These studies have indicated that geothermal fluid flow primarily occurs along faults and fractures and that two potential aquifers include a sandstone/siltstone member of the Triassic Natchez Pass Formation and a karst zone that occurs at the interface between Mesozoic limestone and Tertiary volcanics. We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 (30 mi2) within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east. The survey included 203 stations that were spaced at 400 m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length (bandpass) filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique. Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a

  14. Formulation, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro study of chitosan/HPMC blends-based herbal blended patches.

    PubMed

    Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Madaka, Fameera; Chusut, Tun; Saingam, Worawan; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2015-02-01

    The current work prepared chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blends and studied the possibility of chitosan/HPMC blended patches for Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The blended patches without/with crude Z. cassumunar oil were prepared by homogeneously mixing the 3.5% w/v of chitosan solution and 20% w/v of HPMC solution, and glycerine was used as plasticizer. Then, they were poured into Petri dish and produced the blended patches in hot air oven at 70 ± 2°C. The blended patches were tested and evaluated by the physicochemical properties: moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and photographed the surface and cross-section morphology under SEM technique. Herbal blended patches were studied by the in vitro release and skin permeation of active compound D. The blended patches could absorb the moisture and became hydrated patches that occurred during the swelling of blended patches. They were eroded and increased by the number of porous channels to pass through out for active compound D. In addition, the blended patches indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients and homogeneous smooth and compact. The blended patches made from chitosan/HPMC blends provide a controlled release and skin permeation behavior of compound D. Thus, the blended patches could be suitably used for herbal medicine application. PMID:25233803

  15. Immunoisolation Patch System for Cellular Transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An immunoisolation patch system, and particularly a patch system comprising multiple immunoisolation microcapsules, each encapsulating biological material such as cells for transplantation, which can be used in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of disease in large animals and humans without the need for immunosuppression.

  16. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. PMID:25560046

  17. Bulkhead interface chassis for optical fiber patching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  18. Tendon graft substitutes-rotator cuff patches.

    PubMed

    Coons, David A; Alan Barber, F

    2006-09-01

    Over the past few years, many biologic patches have been developed to augment repairs of large or complex tendon tears. These patches include both allograft and xenografts. Regardless of their origins, these products are primarily composed of purified type I collagen. Many factors should be considered when choosing an augmentation patch including tissue origin, graft processing, cross-linking, clinical experience, and physical properties. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the sports medicine community with several tendon augmentation grafts: GraftJacket (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN), CuffPatch (Organogenesis, Canton, MA, licensed to Arthrotek, Warsaw, IN), Restore (Depuy, Warsaw, IN), Zimmer Collagen Repair (Permacol) patch (Tissue Science Laboratories Covington, GA, licensed to Zimmer, Warsaw, IN), TissueMend (TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA, licensed to Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Kalamazoo, MI), OrthoADAPT (Pegasus Biologics, Irvine, CA), and BioBlanket (Kensey Nash, Exton, PA). PMID:17135966

  19. Engineered Tissue Patch for Cardiac Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianyi

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Cell therapy can be administered via injections delivered directly into the myocardium or as engineered cardiac tissue patches, which are the subject of this review. Engineered cardiac patches can be created from sheets of interconnected cells or by suspending the cells in a scaffold of material that is designed to mimic the native extracellular matrix. The sheet-based approach produces patches with well-aligned and electronically coupled cardiomyocytes, but cell-containing scaffolds are more readily vascularized by the host's circulatory system and, consequently, are currently more suitable for applications that require a thicker patch. Cell patches can also be modified for the co-delivery of peptides that may promote cell survival and activate endogenous repair mechanisms; nevertheless, techniques for controlling inflammation, limiting apoptosis, and improving vascular growth need continue to be developed to make it a therapeutic modality for patients with myocardial infarction. PMID:26122908

  20. Safe patch version 0.9 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M

    1999-03-01

    The SafePatch version 0.9 provides automated analysis of network-based computer systems to determine the status of security patches and distributes needed patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed and what patches are installed on a system. SafePatch will distribute needed patches to the remote system for later installation. For those patches that are installed, SafePatch checks the permissions and ownership of the files referenced in the patch and reports on the attributes that differ from those recommended by the patch. SafePatch also ensures that the system software is authentic (that is, belonging to either a release of an operating system or a patch). The process SafePatch uses to authenticate the software on a system is more reliable and secure than other vendor-specific tools. SafePatch compares the remote system's files with the files from the patches to determine what is actually installed and what needs to be installed. This approach ensures accurate reporting of a system's patch status. It also allows SafePatch to identify files that do not belong to either the original system distribution (for example, Solaris 2.5) or to any patch. These unidentified files may be customized or trojan. Either way these files should be investigated further to determine their exact origin.

  1. Image Quality Assessment Based on Inter-Patch and Intra-Patch Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fei; Lu, Zongqing; Wang, Can; Sun, Wen; Xia, Shu-Tao; Liao, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a full-reference (FR) image quality assessment (IQA) scheme, which evaluates image fidelity from two aspects: the inter-patch similarity and the intra-patch similarity. The scheme is performed in a patch-wise fashion so that a quality map can be obtained. On one hand, we investigate the disparity between one image patch and its adjacent ones. This disparity is visually described by an inter-patch feature, where the hybrid effect of luminance masking and contrast masking is taken into account. The inter-patch similarity is further measured by modifying the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC). On the other hand, we also attach importance to the impact of image contents within one patch on the IQA problem. For the intra-patch feature, we consider image curvature as an important complement of image gradient. According to local image contents, the intra-patch similarity is measured by adaptively comparing image curvature and gradient. Besides, a nonlinear integration of the inter-patch and intra-patch similarity is presented to obtain an overall score of image quality. The experiments conducted on six publicly available image databases show that our scheme achieves better performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:25793282

  2. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    vice versa, with the aid of two RF PIN diodes that act as RF switches. The proposed structure which is simple; consists of a single-layer single fed radiating E-shaped patch and RF switch placed on each of its slots at an appropriate location. The design targets WLAN IEEE 802.11b/g frequency band (2.4- 2.5 GHz) as one example of the wireless applications. The idea is based on the first proposed design. In other words, if one of the switches is ON and the other is OFF, the two slot lengths will become effectively unequal and circular polarization will be obtained. If the states of the two switches are reversed, circular polarization with opposite orientation will be obtained at the same frequency band. Full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS is again used for the analysis. Complete detailed DC biasing circuit of the switches for integration with the antenna is presented. Also, characterizations of the microwave components used in the biasing circuit are discussed. Antenna prototype has been fabricated and tested. Simulation results along with the measured one, for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain agree well, showing wide bandwidth and high gain for the two circularly polarized modes.

  3. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  4. A procedure of landscape services assessment based on mosaics of patches and boundaries.

    PubMed

    Martín de Agar, Pilar; Ortega, Marta; de Pablo, Carlos L

    2016-09-15

    We develop a procedure for assessing the environmental value of landscape mosaics that simultaneously considers the values of land use patches and the values of the boundaries between them. These boundaries indicate the ecological interactions between the patches. A landscape mosaic is defined as a set of patches and the boundaries between them and corresponds to a spatial pattern of ecological interactions. The procedure is performed in two steps: (i) an environmental assessment of land use patches by means of a function that integrates values based on the goods and services the patches provide, and (ii) an environmental valuation of mosaics using a function that integrates the environmental values of their patches and the types and frequencies of the boundaries between them. This procedure allows us to measure how changes in land uses or in their spatial arrangement cause variations in the environmental value of landscape mosaics and therefore in that of the whole landscape. The procedure was tested in the Sierra Norte of Madrid (central Spain). The results show that the environmental values of the landscape depend not only on the land use patches but also on the values associated with the pattern of the boundaries within the mosaics. The results also highlight the importance of the boundaries between land use patches as determinants of the goods and services provided by the landscape. PMID:27233047

  5. Developing a nicotine patch adherence intervention for HIV-positive Latino smokers.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Galvan, Frank H; Tucker, Joan S

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes two phases of formative research that had the goal of developing a treatment designed to improve adherence with the nicotine patch in HIV-positive Latino smokers. Each research phase (Phase I and II) was conducted independent of the other and used different qualitative methods to inform the development of the intervention. Phase I interviewed n=14 smokers who had previous experience using the nicotine patch to gain detailed understanding of how, when, and why they used it; their perceived barriers to using it; and their perspective on ways to improve adherence to it. Phase II provided n=35 smokers with brief smoking cessation treatment and nicotine patches, then interviewed them in "near real time" over a two month period about their use of the patch during a quit attempt (e.g., perceived barriers and facilitators). Authors of the paper extracted relevant themes emerging from the interview transcripts across the two phases. Results indicated that consistent use of the nicotine patch was associated with maintaining high motivation for use (i.e., not necessarily motivation to quit, but motivation to continue patch use); linking its use with established daily routines (e.g., with taking other medications, with brushing teeth); and maintaining realistic expectations for patch efficacy (e.g., that users may still experience some level of craving and/or withdrawal). This information will used to develop and pilot test a brief treatment module that focuses on improving nicotine patch adherence. PMID:27070097

  6. Group-Living Herbivores Weigh Up Food Availability and Dominance Status when Making Patch-Joining Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Stears, Keenan; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Shrader, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus). When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits). However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual’s patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions. PMID:25271889

  7. Effects of Spatial Patch Arrangement and Scale of Covarying Resources on Growth and Intraspecific Competition of a Clonal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in two co-variable resources such as light and water availability is common and can affect the growth of clonal plants. Several studies have tested effects of spatial heterogeneity in the supply of a single resource on competitive interactions of plants, but none has examined those of heterogeneous distribution of two co-variable resources. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (without intraspecific competition) or nine isolated ramets (with competition) of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica under a homogeneous environment and four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal and parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch scale (large and small patches of light and water). Intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth of I. japonica, but at the whole container level there were no significant interaction effects of competition by spatial heterogeneity or significant effect of heterogeneity on competitive intensity. Irrespective of competition, the growth of I. japonica in the high and the low water patches did not differ significantly in the homogeneous treatments, but it was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the heterogeneous treatments with large patches. For the heterogeneous treatments with small patches, the growth of I. japonica was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the presence of competition, but such an effect was not significant in the absence of competition. Furthermore, patch arrangement and patch scale significantly affected competitive intensity at the patch level. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in light and water supply can alter intraspecific competition at the patch level and such effects depend on patch arrangement and patch scale. PMID:27375630

  8. Effects of Spatial Patch Arrangement and Scale of Covarying Resources on Growth and Intraspecific Competition of a Clonal Plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in two co-variable resources such as light and water availability is common and can affect the growth of clonal plants. Several studies have tested effects of spatial heterogeneity in the supply of a single resource on competitive interactions of plants, but none has examined those of heterogeneous distribution of two co-variable resources. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (without intraspecific competition) or nine isolated ramets (with competition) of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica under a homogeneous environment and four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal and parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch scale (large and small patches of light and water). Intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth of I. japonica, but at the whole container level there were no significant interaction effects of competition by spatial heterogeneity or significant effect of heterogeneity on competitive intensity. Irrespective of competition, the growth of I. japonica in the high and the low water patches did not differ significantly in the homogeneous treatments, but it was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the heterogeneous treatments with large patches. For the heterogeneous treatments with small patches, the growth of I. japonica was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the presence of competition, but such an effect was not significant in the absence of competition. Furthermore, patch arrangement and patch scale significantly affected competitive intensity at the patch level. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in light and water supply can alter intraspecific competition at the patch level and such effects depend on patch arrangement and patch scale. PMID:27375630

  9. Patch shape, connectivity, and foraging by oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.; Danielson, Brent J

    2005-06-01

    We examined how corridors and patch shape affect foraging by the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) by deploying foraging trays and live traps in experimental landscapes with 3 different patch types: patches connected with a corridor, unconnected patches with projecting corridorlike portions (winged patches), and unconnected rectangular patches. Corridors did not lead to different levels of activity of P. polionotus among the 3 patch types. Rather, corridors influenced activity by changing patch shape: foraging in seed trays and total number of captures of P. polionotus tended to be greater at the patch center than at the patch edge, but only in connected and winged patches where corridors or wings increased the amount of patch edge relative to the amount of core habitat in the patch. P. polionotus avoided open microhabitats near the patch edge in winged and connected patches, but not open microhabitats near the patch interior, suggesting that predation risk caused shifts in foraging near edges in connected and winged patches. Foraging in corridors and wings was generally low, suggesting that both are high-risk habitats where predation risk is not ameliorated by proximity to vegetative cover. By changing patch shape, corridors caused changes in within-patch activity of P. polionotus, changing foraging patterns and potentially altering the dynamics of P. polionotus and the seeds they consume.

  10. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and loadmore » the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports« less

  11. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and load the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports

  12. Reliability of piezoceramic patch sensors under cyclic mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielicke, Bärbel; Gesang, Thomas; Wierach, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Piezoceramic patch sensors have to withstand the primary stresses and strains of a structure during operation. In the leading project 'Adaptronics' a lifespan of 106 cycles at 0.1% strain was required for sensors applied on components of steel and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP). In order to test the reliability of the patches themselves and of their adhesion on the substrate, special four-point bending tests were carried out under quasistatic loading and under cyclic loading at different strain levels. The specimens consisted in sheets of steel and CFRP as substrates on which the newly developed patches with embedded piezoelectric foils and fibres were glued. In the quasistatic bending tests the performance of each sensor was characterized by measuring the sensor signal (charge) as a function of strain before and after cycling. Damage of the specimens would result in a decreasing slope of the charge-strain-curve after cycling. However, all the specimens tested survived 107 cycles up to 0.12% strain without marked loss of performance.

  13. Evaluation of trommels for waste-to-energy plants: Phase 1 report of the Doncaster and Byker test series

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.

    1981-12-01

    The performance testing of two commercial scale trommels, used for size separation of bulk municipal waste and the first phase of the testwork carried out are reported. The commercial scale trommels examined during this testwork are sited at Doncaster and at Byker. The major difference between the two plants is that raw refuse is processed in the Doncaster plant trommel and pulverised refuse in the Byker plant trommel. Both plants produce a magnetic ferrous fraction as well as a refuse derived fuel prepared by upgrading the intermediate sized product from the rotary screen using air classification, magnetic separation, further size reduction and pelletization. However, they differ in many respects; the feed to the Byker trommel is preshredded (-7'') while that at Doncaster is treated as received and the latter plant also has additional facilities for glass and paper recovery. The report provides detailed accounts of the Byker and Doncaster tests and compares the two screening operations highlighting the effects of the major variables investigated. These results highlight the current lack of understanding of trommel processes in that both series unequivocally demonstrate considerable errors in the design ratings assigned to each unit. Accordingly, the results of the Byker tests relate largely to overloaded conditions, particularly in the fine screen section, while those from the Doncaster tests represent conditions of considerable underloading.Valuable information relating to the effects of trommel speed, installation of lifters and scrolls, aperture size selection and mode of particle presentation to the screen plante has been reported in addition to the experience and methods of interpreting data resulting from the use of surrogate pulses. (MCW)

  14. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain tissue revealed patch-like areas of disorganized neurons. Arrows show a patch of decreased or absent ... autistic brain is speckled with patches of abnormal neurons, according to research partially funded by the National ...

  15. Deformation of vortex patches by boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, A.; Johnson, E. R.; Morrison, P. J.

    2013-02-01

    The deformation of two-dimensional vortex patches in the vicinity of fluid boundaries is investigated. The presence of a boundary causes an initially circular patch of uniform vorticity to deform. Sufficiently far away from the boundary, the deformed shape is well approximated by an ellipse. This leading order elliptical deformation is investigated via the elliptic moment model of Melander, Zabusky, and Styczek [J. Fluid Mech. 167, 95 (1986), 10.1017/S0022112086002744]. When the boundary is straight, the centre of the elliptic patch remains at a constant distance from the boundary, and the motion is integrable. Furthermore, since the straining flow acting on the patch is constant in time, the problem is that of an elliptic vortex patch in constant strain, which was analysed by Kida [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3517 (1981), 10.1143/JPSJ.50.3517]. For more complicated boundary shapes, such as a square corner, the motion is no longer integrable. Instead, there is an adiabatic invariant for the motion. This adiabatic invariant arises due to the separation in times scales between the relatively rapid time scale associated with the rotation of the patch and the slower time scale associated with the self-advection of the patch along the boundary. The interaction of a vortex patch with a circular island is also considered. Without a background flow, the conservation of angular impulse implies that the motion is again integrable. The addition of an irrotational flow past the island can drive the patch towards the boundary, leading to the possibility of large deformations and breakup.

  16. Fault detection using a two-model test for changes in the parameters of an autoregressive time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholtz, P.; Smyth, P.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of a statistical hypothesis testing method for detecting changes in the characteristics of an observed time series. The work is motivated by the need for practical automated methods for on-line monitoring of Deep Space Network (DSN) equipment to detect failures and changes in behavior. In particular, on-line monitoring of the motor current in a DSN 34-m beam waveguide (BWG) antenna is used as an example. The algorithm is based on a measure of the information theoretic distance between two autoregressive models: one estimated with data from a dynamic reference window and one estimated with data from a sliding reference window. The Hinkley cumulative sum stopping rule is utilized to detect a change in the mean of this distance measure, corresponding to the detection of a change in the underlying process. The basic theory behind this two-model test is presented, and the problem of practical implementation is addressed, examining windowing methods, model estimation, and detection parameter assignment. Results from the five fault-transition simulations are presented to show the possible limitations of the detection method, and suggestions for future implementation are given.

  17. A smart composite patch for the repair of aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakha, Kelah; Samuel, Paul; Pines, Darryll J.

    2005-05-01

    Recent interest in bonded composite patch repair technology for aerospace systems is because this method can be carried out at a reduced cost and time and can easily be applied to complex geometric structures. This paper details the development of a dual stiffness/energy sensor for monitoring the integrity of a composite patch used to repair an aluminum structural component. The smart sensor has the ability to predict the elastic field of a given host structure based on the strain state of two sub-sensors integrated into the structure. The present study shows the possibility of using the sensor to deduce the local instantaneous host stiffness. Damaged structures are characterized by a reduction in their elastic stiffness that evolve from microstructural defects. A local smart sensor can be developed to sense the local average properties on a host. In this paper, sensors are attached to a structure and a modified Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method is used to derive the elastic properties of the host. An analytical derivation and a sensitivity analysis for the quasistatic application is given in a papers by Majed, Dasgupta, Kelah and Pines. A summary of the derivation of the dynamic Eshelby tensor is presented. This is of importance because damage detection in structures undergoing vibratory and other motions present a greater challenge than those in quasistatic motion. An in-situ health monitoring active sensor system for a real structure (an aluminum plate with an attached repair patch) under close-to real lifecycle loading conditions is developed. The detection of the onset of any damage to the structure as well as the repair patch and the subsequent monitoring of the growth of this damage constitute important goals of the system. Both experimental and finite element methods were applied. Experimental results are presented for tests of the aluminum plate with the repair patch under monotonic quasi-static and dynamic loading vibratory conditions. In summary, the

  18. Electrostatic patch potentials in Casimir force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between interacting surfaces. The force can be minimized by applying a potential to one of the two surfaces. However, electrostatic patch potentials remain and contribute an additional force which can obscure the Casimir force signal. We will discuss recent measurements of patch potentials made with Heterodyne Amplitude-Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy that suggest patches could be responsible for >1% of the signal in some Casimir force measurements, and thus make the distinction between different theoretical models of the Casimir force (e.g. a Drude-model or a plasma-model for the dielectric response) difficult to discern.

  19. Koch fractal boundary patch over reactive impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy V, Venkateshwar; Sarma, N. V. S. N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the enhancement of bandwidth and miniaturization for patch antennas. Introduction of fractal structure (Square Koch) over reactive impedance surface (RIS) is used to enhance impedance bandwidth while minimizing the patch size. Comparison has been made with those of a single-layer (sub1) antenna and the corresponding dual-layer (RIS) antenna. Approximately double the impedance bandwidth is achieved with the proposed RIS Square Koch antenna 1 when compared with Square Koch antenna 1without RIS. There is a 55 % reduction in the patch size. The simulated results indicate that the presented antennas provide gain of about 2.5dBi over the entire band of frequencies.

  20. Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L.; Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

  1. Testing & Research, Part I. Options in Education: Program Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio. Program No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    Several program transcripts on educational testing from the National Public Radio series, Options in Education, are included in this pamphlet. In "The I.Q. Controversy," Ned Block discusses culturally biased standardized tests. Dr. Harold Hodgkinson, former Director of the National Institute of Education, and Noel Epstein, Education Editor of the…

  2. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C; Colpitts, Bruce G; MacKinley, Pamela; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant or patch. Results confirmed the long residency time on the host plant and showed that close connection of the plant to neighboring plants hastened dispersal between plants. Tracking walking CPB for over 6 h in small potato plots revealed that all types of mixed borders tested (potato/bare ground, potato/timothy and potato/woodland) acted as a strong barrier and retained beetles within the patch. In another experiment in potato patches surrounded by bare ground borders, tracked walking CPB displayed similar behaviour for up to four days. The distribution of turning angles in the CPB walking paths was not uniform and corresponded to beetles following the edge rows of potato patches in response to the crop border barrier or reversing their direction as they reached the end of a row and therefore a border. Patch size had no or little effect on beetle retention in the patch. The relative distribution of counts of tagged beetles detected among small (16 m2), medium (64 m2) and large size (256 m2) patches of potato four days after initial release remained similar to that of numbers released. Even though mixed crop borders were a strong barrier to walking CPB emigrating from potato patches, the departure rate of beetles over time was high. Results suggest that the effect of mixed borders is largely limited to dispersal by walking and does not apply to beetles leaving host patches by flight. The manipulation of crop borders and patch size seem to have limited potential for the management of CPB emigrating from potato fields. PMID:24816717

  3. Physics-Based Correction of Inhomogeneities in Temperature Series: Model Transferability Testing and Comparison to Statistical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa

    2016-04-01

    For the correction of inhomogeneities in sub-daily temperature series, Auchmann and Brönnimann (2012) developed a physics-based model for one specific type of break, i.e. the transition from a Wild screen to a Stevenson screen at one specific station in Basel, Switzerland. The model is based solely on physical considerations, no relationships of the covariates to the differences between the parallel measurements have been investigated. The physics-based model requires detailed information on the screen geometry, the location, and includes a variety of covariates in the model. The model is mainly based on correcting the radiation error, including a modification by ambient wind. In this study we test the application of the model to another station, Zurich, experiencing the same type of transition. Furthermore we compare the performance of the physics based correction to purely statistical correction approaches (constant correction, correcting for annual cycle using spline). In Zurich the Wild screen was replaced in 1954 by the Stevenson screen, from 1954-1960 parallel temperature measurements in both screens were taken, which will be used to assess the performance of the applied corrections. For Zurich the required model input is available (i.e. three times daily observations of wind, cloud cover, pressure and humidity measurements, local times of sunset and sunrise). However, a large number of stations do not measure these additional input data required for the model, which hampers the transferability and applicability of the model to other stations. Hence, we test possible simplifications and generalizations of the model to make it more easily applicable to stations with the same type of inhomogeneity. In a last step we test whether other types of transitions (e.g., from a Stevenson screen to an automated weather system) can be corrected using the principle of a physics-based approach.

  4. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in a general population in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) due to common cosmetic allergens in standard series has been extensively studied; however, the prevalence of contact allergy to other cosmetic allergens other than those in standard series is largely unknown. In this study, the frequency of contact sensitization to a European cosmetic series of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Vellinge, Sweden) in healthy university student volunteers were detected in Beijing. Of 201 students studied, fifty-eight exhibited positive results, and 9 of them reported had cosmetics related dermatitis previously. The total positivity rate was not correlated to gender. The leading allergens were thimerosal (19.4%), shellac (3.0%), cocamidopropyl betaine (2.0%), hexamethylenetetramine (1.5%), dodecyl gallate (1.5%), hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (1.0%) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.0%). The positivity rate of thimerosal patch test in men (9.8%) was lower than that of women (23.6%, P < 0.05, Chi square test), but no difference could be found between the prevalence of other cosmetic allergens in men and women (P > 0.05, Chi square test). These results suggested that some cosmetic-related contact allergies may be missed by just testing patients with the European standard series or T.R.U.E. test system only, we recommend shellac, cocamidopropyl betaine, hexamethylenetetramine and dodecyl gallate as the additionally candidates for patch testing in patients with suspected CACD. PMID:24641608

  5. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norelgestromin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptive patch is a very effective method of birth control, but it does not prevent the spread of ... period, you must use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  6. Scattering from arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, Capers R.

    1992-01-01

    The scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas are examined. The electric field integral equation for a current element on a grounded dielectric slab is developed for a rectangular geometry based on Galerkin's technique with subdomain rooftop basis functions. A shape function is introduced that allows a rectangular grid approximation to the arbitrarily shaped patch. The incident field on the patch is expressed as a function of incidence angle theta(i), phi(i). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the unknown current modes on the patch, and the electromagnetic scattering is calculated for a given angle. Comparisons are made with other calculated results as well as with measurements.

  7. An evaluation of patch connectivity measures.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R

    2009-07-01

    Measuring connectivity is critical to the study of fragmented populations. The three most commonly used types of patch connectivity measures differ substantially in how they are calculated, but the performance of these measures has not been broadly assessed. Here I compare the ability of nearest neighbor (NN), buffer, and incidence function model (IFM) measures to predict the patch occupancy and colonization patterns of 24 invertebrate, reptile, and amphibian metapopulations. I predicted that NN measures, which have been criticized as being overly simplistic, would be the worst predictors of species occupancy and colonization. I also predicted that buffer measures, which sum the amount of habitat in a radius surrounding the focal patch, would have intermediate performance, and IFM measures, which take into account the areas and distances to all potential source patches, would perform best. As expected, the simplest NN measure (distance to the nearest habitat patch, NHi) was the poorest predictor of patch occupancy and colonization. Contrary to expectations, however, the next-simplest NN measure (distance to the nearest occupied [source] patch, NSi) was as good a predictor of occupancy and colonization as the best-performing buffer measure and the general IFM measure Si. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that area-based connectivity measures perform better than distance-based ones, my results indicate that the exclusion of vacant habitat patches from calculations is the key to improved measure performance. I highlight several problems with the parameterization and use of IFM measures and suggest that models based on NSi are equally powerful and more practical for many conservation applications. PMID:19688936

  8. Aspects and applications of patched grid calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert W.; Switzer, George F.; Thomas, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Patched grid calculations within the framework of an implicit, flux vector split upwind/relaxation algorithm for the Euler equations are presented. Aspects of computing on patched grids are discussed including the effect of a metric-discontinuous interface on the convergence rate of the algorithm, and the effect of curvature along an interface. Applications to a converging-diverging nozzle including effects of choking and bypass slots in two dimensions are presented.

  9. Naive Hypothesis Testing for Case Series Analysis with Time-Varying Exposure Onset Measurement Error: Inference for Infection-Cardiovascular Risk in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Sandra M.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Şentürk, Damla

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case series method is useful in studying the relationship between time-varying exposures, such as infections, and acute events observed during the observation periods of individuals. It provides estimates of the relative incidences of events in risk periods (e.g., 30-day period after infections) relative to the baseline periods. When the times of exposure onsets are not known precisely, application of the case series model ignoring exposure onset measurement error leads to biased estimates. Bias-correction is necessary in order to understand the true directions and effect sizes associated with exposure risk periods, although uncorrected estimators have smaller variance. Thus, inference via hypothesis testing based on uncorrected test statistics, if valid, is potentially more powerful. Furthermore, the tests can be implemented in standard software and do not require additional auxiliary data. In this work, we examine the validity and power of naive hypothesis testing, based on applying the case series analysis to the imprecise data without correcting for the error. Based on simulation studies and theoretical calculations, we determine the validity and relative power of common hypothesis tests of interest in case series analysis. In particular, we illustrate that the tests for the global null hypothesis, the overall null hypotheses associated with all risk periods or all age effects are valid. However, tests of individual risk period parameters are not generally valid. Practical guidelines are provided and illustrated with data from patients on dialysis. PMID:23731166

  10. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Oral Patches Containing Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Carvacrol for Treatment of Local Mouth Bacterial Infections and Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Obaidat, Rana M.; Bader, Ammar; Al-Rajab, Wafa; Abu Sheikha, Ghassan; Obaidat, Aiman A.

    2011-01-01

    The specific aim of this work was to prepare mucoadhesive patches containing tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol in an attempt to develop a novel oral drug delivery system for the treatment of mouth infections. The bilayered patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a backing layer and carbopol 934 as a matrix mucoadhesive layer. Patches were prepared with different loading amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity was assessed for the prepared patches using the disc-diffusion method against the yeast Candida albicans and five bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus bronchispti. In this work, we highlighted the possibility of occurrence of a synergistic action between carvacrol and tetracycline. The best formulation was selected based on microbiological tests, drug release, ex-vivo mucoadhesive performance, and swelling index. Physical characteristics of the selected formulations were determined. These included pH, patch thickness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, folding endurance, and patch stability. PMID:21617783

  11. Pericardial patch venoplasty heals via attraction of venous progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hualong; Wang, Mo; Foster, Trenton R; Hu, Haidi; He, Hao; Hashimoto, Takuya; Hanisch, Jesse J; Santana, Jeans M; Xing, Ying; Dardik, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Pericardial patches are commonly used during cardiovascular surgery to close blood vessels. In arteries, patches accumulate arterial progenitor cells; we hypothesized that venous patches would accumulate venous progenitor cells, in the absence of arterial pressure. We developed a novel rat inferior vena cava (IVC) venotomy model and repaired it with a pericardial patch. Cells infiltrated the patch to form a thick neointima by day 7; some cells were CD34(+)/VEGFR2(+) and CD31(+)/Eph-B4(+) consistent with development of venous identity in the healing patch. Compared to arterial patches, the venous patches had increased neointimal thickness at day 7 without any pseudoaneurysms. Addition of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) to increase blood flow on the patch resulted in reduced patch neointimal thickness and proliferation, but neointimal thickness was not reversible with AVF ligation. These results show that rat patch venoplasty is a novel model of aggressive venous neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:27354544

  12. Pulse Dynamics in Endocytic Protein Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-03-01

    During the process of endocytosis in yeast, submicron-sized protein patches assemble, exert forces on the membrane to bend it, and finally disassemble. The patches contain an initial coat that establishes the endocytic site and binds cargo, polymers of the protein actin, ``nucleation-promoting factors'' (NPFs) that catalyze actin polymerization, and curvature-generating proteins. We model the dynamics of protein patches in yeast using a variant of the activator-inhibitor ``Fitzhugh-Nagumo'' model. We treat NPFs as the activator, and polymerized actin as the inhibitor, on the basis of findings that the lifetime of NPF patches is extended when actin polymerization is inhibited. Using this model, we find that as the polymerization rate is reduced, there is a discontinuous transition from protein pulses to persistent patches. We also find, surprisingly, that in some parameter regimes reducing the polymerization rate can increase the polymerized-actin content of the patch. We present data for NPF dynamics budding yeast, which confirm some of the predictions of the model. Supported by NIH under Grant R01-GM107667.

  13. The effects of patch shape and connectivity on nest site selection and reproductive success of the Indigo Bunting.

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Aimee Jean

    2004-07-01

    Description – Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abatract - Habitat fragmentation and its associated effects have been blamed for the recent population declines of many Neotropical migratory bird species. Increased predation and parasitism resulting from edge-related effects have been implicated for poor nesting success in many studies, mostly of forest interior species. However, little attention has been devoted to disturbance-dependent birds. In this study, I examine how patch shape and connectivity in fragmented landscapes affects the reproductive success of disturbance-dependent bird species, specifically the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). I conducted my study in a landscape-scale experimental system of similar-area habitat patches that differed in connectivity and in shape. Shapes differed between edgy and rectangular forms, where edgy patches contained 50% more edge than rectangular patches. I tested whether edgy patches function as ecological traps for species with strong edge preferences, by leading them to select dangerous habitats. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches over rectangular patches, but experienced significantly lower reproductive success in edgy patches early in the season. Although predation pressure intensified in rectangular patches late in the season, seasonal fecundity was still significantly lower in edgy patches, providing the first empirical evidence that edges can function as ecological traps for Indigo Buntings. A second objective of my study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservation corridors for disturbance-dependent bird species. Conservation corridors have become a popular strategy to preserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes, but corridors may also have negative consequences. I tested the hypothesis that corridors can increase nest predation risk in connected patches relative to unconnected patches. Nest predation rates

  14. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in long-term time series and palaeoecological records: deep sea as a test bed.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Doi, Hideyuki; Wei, Chih-Lin; Danovaro, Roberto; Myhre, Sarah E

    2016-05-19

    The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies. We also demonstrate with palaeoecological time-series data that a larger species pool does not enhance ecosystem stability through time, whereas higher abundance as an indicator of higher ecosystem functioning may enhance ecosystem stability. These results suggest that BEF relationships are potentially time scale-dependent. Environmental impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may be much stronger than biodiversity impacts on ecosystem functioning at long, decadal-millennial, time scales. Longer time scale perspectives, including palaeoecological and ecosystem monitoring data, are critical for predicting future BEF relationships on a rapidly changing planet. PMID:27114583

  15. Transdermal nicotine patches do not cause clinically significant gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal motor disorders.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Goldsmith, L J; Ameen, V; D'Angelo, A; Kirby, S L; Prakash, S

    1999-12-01

    Transdermal nicotine delivery systems are widely used in smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether common symptoms of pyrosis and dyspepsia associated with these patches are related to gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal dysmotility. Twenty-seven paid volunteer cigarette smokers (> 15 cigarettes/day) without symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease participated in this single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty subjects completed the study. Subjects underwent three sequential 24-h intraesophageal pH/motor studies (Synectics model T32342084, Shore View, MN). The pH/motility probe was positioned 5 cm above the manometrically determined LES. A placebo patch was applied for the first 24-h study and a 15-mg nicotine patch (Nicotrol) was applied for the initial 16 h (removed for remaining 8 h) of the second 24-h period. A 21-mg nicotine patch (Nicoderm) was applied for another 24-h study period. All subjects consumed an identical, defined diet documented by meal receipts, and refrained from smoking and tobacco use throughout the study periods (CO breath test confirmation). The Wilcoxon, paired t-test, exact McNemar statistical methods were used. The results showed that there were no significant differences in reflux symptoms (pyrosis, chest pain, nausea, dysphagia), supine gastroesophageal reflux (number of episodes, duration, or cumulative acid exposure), or the total number of reflux episodes between placebo and nicotine patch treatment periods. The number of post-prandial upright acid reflux episodes (p = 004) and number of upright acid reflux episodes lasting more than 5 min (p = 0.007) were statistically higher with the placebo patch compared to the active nicotine patches. No differences in intraesophageal pH or motility indices were noted between the two transdermal nicotine patches (Nicotrol, Nicoderm). It was concluded that dyspeptic symptoms in subjects utilizing transdermal nicotine patches are not related to

  16. Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Baker, Daniel H.; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Several recent studies have demonstrated that following short-term monocular deprivation in normal adults, the patched eye, rather than the unpatched eye, becomes stronger in subsequent binocular viewing. However, little is known about the site and nature of the underlying processes. In this study, we examine the underlying mechanisms by measuring steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as an index of the neural contrast response in early visual areas. Methods: The experiment consisted of three consecutive stages: a pre-patching EEG recording (14 minutes), a monocular patching stage (2.5 hours) and a post-patching EEG recording (14 minutes; started immediately after the removal of the patch). During the patching stage, a diffuser (transmits light but not pattern) was placed in front of one randomly selected eye. During the EEG recording stage, contrast response functions for each eye were measured. Results: The neural responses from the patched eye increased after the removal of the patch, whilst the responses from the unpatched eye remained the same. Such phenomena occurred under both monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions. Conclusions: We interpret this eye dominance plasticity in adult human visual cortex as homeostatic intrinsic plasticity regulated by an increase of contrast-gain in the patched eye. PMID:26410580

  17. Medical Images Fusion with Patch Based Structure Tensor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fen; Sun, Jiangfeng; Hou, Shouming

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays medical imaging has played an important role in clinical use, which provide important clues for medical diagnosis. In medical image fusion, the extraction of some fine details and description is critical. To solve this problem, a modified structure tensor by considering similarity between two patches is proposed. The patch based filter can suppress noise and add the robustness of the eigen-values of the structure tensor by allowing the use of more information of far away pixels. After defining the new structure tensor, we apply it into medical image fusion with a multi-resolution wavelet theory. The features are extracted and described by the eigen-values of two multi-modality source data. To test the performance of the proposed scheme, the CT and MR images are used as input source images for medical image fusion. The experimental results show that the proposed method can produce better results compared to some related approaches. PMID:26628927

  18. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Wheeler, D.L.; Church, B.W.; Quinn, V.E. )

    1990-11-01

    The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively. The total collective external gamma exposure from 1951 through 1975 for these communities s calculated to be 86,000 person-R. The area considered includes the countries of Clark, Lincoln, Nye, and White Pine in Nevada and the countries of Iron and Washington in Utah; inclusion of Salt Lake City would have substantially increased the calculated collective exposure because of the large population. The methods of calculation are reviewed. Also, the historical data on the assessment of dose via ingestion are reviewed with emphasis on the dose to the thyroid of infants living in St. George, UT, at the time of fallout from event HARRY on 19 May 1953.

  19. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, L R; Ricker, Y E; Black, S C; Grossman, R F; Wheeler, D L; Church, B W; Quinn, V E

    1990-11-01

    The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively. The total collective external gamma exposure from 1951 through 1975 for these communities s calculated to be 86,000 person-R. The area considered includes the countries of Clark, Lincoln, Nye, and White Pine in Nevada and the countries of Iron and Washington in Utah; inclusion of Salt Lake City would have substantially increased the calculated collective exposure because of the large population. The methods of calculation are reviewed. Also, the historical data on the assessment of dose via ingestion are reviewed with emphasis on the dose to the thyroid of infants living in St. George, UT, at the time of fallout from event HARRY on 19 May 1953. PMID:2211112

  20. Hands-On Approach to Structure Activity Relationships: The Synthesis, Testing, and Hansch Analysis of a Series of Acetylcholineesterase Inhibitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locock, Katherine; Tran, Hue; Codd, Rachel; Allan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This series of three practical sessions centers on drugs that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholineesterase. This enzyme is responsible for the inactivation of acetylcholine and has been the target of drugs to treat glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease and for a number of insecticides and warfare agents. These sessions relate to a series of carbamate…

  1. Complex interaction of dendritic connectivity and hierarchical patch size on biodiversity in river-like landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Francesco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and land use changes are causing major biodiversity losses. Connectivity of the landscape or environmental conditions alone can shape biodiversity patterns. In nature, however, local habitat characteristics are often intrinsically linked to a specific connectivity. Such a link is evident in riverine ecosystems, where hierarchical dendritic structures command related scaling on habitat capacity. We experimentally disentangled the effect of local habitat capacity (i.e., the patch size) and dendritic connectivity on biodiversity in aquatic microcosm metacommunities by suitably arranging patch sizes within river-like networks. Overall, more connected communities that occupy a central position in the network exhibited higher species richness, irrespective of patch size arrangement. High regional evenness in community composition was found only in landscapes preserving geomorphological scaling properties of patch sizes. In these landscapes, some of the rarer species sustained regionally more abundant populations better tracking their own niche requirements compared to landscapes with homogeneous patch size or landscapes with spatially uncorrelated patch size. Our analysis suggests that altering the natural link between dendritic connectivity and patch size strongly affects community composition and population persistence at multiple scales. The experimental results are demonstrating a principle that can be tested in theoretical metacommunity models and eventually be projected to real riverine ecosystems. PMID:24334732

  2. Patched-grid calculations with the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Rai (1984,85) patch-boundary scheme for the Euler equations is described. The integration methods used to update the interior grid points are are discussed. Stability of patch-boundary schemes and the use of these schemes in Navier-Stokes calculations are mentioned. Results for inviscid, supersonic flow over a cylinder, blast wave diffraction by ramp, and the motion of a vortex in a freestream are presented. These test cases demonstrate the quality of solutions possible with the scheme.

  3. Routine testing for Primula obconica: is it useful in the United States?

    PubMed

    Mowad, C M

    1998-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to Primula obconica has long been established. It is considered a significant allergen in Europe and has been included in standard screening there. The allergen is much less common in the United States. The frequency of allergy to P obconica in the United States is difficult to assess because no series of routine testing to this allergen has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of primin allergy in routine testing in a referral patch test center. A series of 567 consecutive patch tests was performed that included primin as part of the standard screening. Only one patient had a positive reaction. Although it is frequently missed and often difficult to diagnose, the frequency of primin allergy in this series was too low to indicate including this allergen as part of routine testing. PMID:9810024

  4. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, L R; Church, B W

    1986-07-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of "infinite exposure," "estimated exposure," and "1-yr effective biological exposure" are explained. PMID:3332000

  6. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1986-07-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained.

  7. Measuring Radiation Patterns of Reconfigurable Patch Antennas on Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus and technique have been devised for measuring the radiation pattern of a microwave patch antenna that is one of a number of identical units that have been fabricated in a planar array on a high-resistivity silicon wafer. The apparatus and technique are intended, more specifically, for application to such an antenna that includes a DC-controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) actuator for switching the antenna between two polarization states or between two resonance frequencies. Prior to the development of the present apparatus and technique, patch antennas on wafers were tested by techniques and equipment that are more suited to testing of conventional printed-circuit antennas. The techniques included sawing of the wafers to isolate individual antennas for testing. The equipment included custom-built test fixtures that included special signal launchers and transmission-line transitions. The present apparatus and technique eliminate the need for sawing wafers and for custom-built test fixtures, thereby making it possible to test antennas in less time and at less cost. Moreover, in a production setting, elimination of the premature sawing of wafers for testing reduces loss from breakage, thereby enhancing yield.

  8. Methods of Making and Using Shape Memory Polymer Composite Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A method of repairing a composite component having a damaged area including: laying a composite patch over the damaged area: activating the shape memory polymer resin to easily and quickly mold said patch to said damaged area; deactivating said shape memory polymer so that said composite patch retains the molded shape; and bonding said composite patch to said damaged part.

  9. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  10. Preliminary Results of the Third Test Series of Nonmetal Material Flammability Evaluation In SKOROST Apparatus on the Space Station Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Alymov, V. F.; Smirnov, A. B.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ye.Belov, D.; Balashov, Ye.V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Melikhov, A. S.; Bolodyan, I. A.; Potyakin, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    The work has been done according to the US/Russian Joint Project "Experimental Evaluation of the Material Flammability in Microgravity" a continued combustion study in the SKOROST test apparatus on the OS Mir. The objective of the project was to evaluate the flammability and flame-spread rate for the selected polymer materials in low velocity flow in microgravity. Lately, the issue of nonmetal material combustion in microgravity has become of great importance, based on the necessity to develop the fire safety system for the new International Space Station (ISS). Lack of buoyant flow in microgravity reduces oxygen transfer into the combustion zone, which leads to flame extinction when the flow velocity is less than the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for the material. The ISS FGB fire-safety system was developed based on this phenomenon. The existence of minimum flow velocity V(sub lim) to sustain fire for the selected materials was determined both theoretically and experimentally. In the latter, it is shown that, even for thermally thin nonmetal materials with a very low oxygen index C(sub lim) of 12.5% (paper sheets with the thickness of 0.1 mm), a limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) exists at oxygen concentration Co(sub OX) = 17-21%, and is about 1.0 - 0.1 cm/sec. This might be explained by the relative increase in thermal losses due to radiation from the surface and from the gaseous phase. In the second series of experiments in Skorost apparatus on Orbital Station Mir the existence of the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for combustion was confirmed for PMMA and glass-epoxy composite strip samples 2 mm thick at oxygen concentration C(sub OX) = 21.5%. It was concluded that V(sub lim) depends on C(sub OX) for the PMMA sample with a low oxygen index of 15.5%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was less than 0.5 cm/sec, and for the glass-epoxy composite sample with a high oxygen index of 19%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was higher than 15 cm/sec. As of

  11. Directional magnetostrictive patch transducer based on Galfenol’s anisotropic magnetostriction feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Na, Suok-Min; Flatau, Alison B.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the investigation of a directional magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) composed of a highly textured Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) patch in the use of ultrasonic guided Lamb wave (GLW) inspection techniques for isotropic planar structures. Recently, the actuation and sensing performance of an MPT using a disc patch made of polycrystalline nickel was reported, based on GLW testing in thin aluminum plates. The nickel-based MPT appeared to have omnidirectional GLW sensitivity in the metallic plate because of the isotropic magnetostrictive nature of polycrystalline nickel with random orientation. In this work, we investigated two viable methods to control and improve MPT’s directional sensitivity for detecting GLWs in metallic plate structures. First, we proposed a circular MPT (CMPT) using the highly textured Galfenol patch with a large magnetostriction of ˜270 ppm along a <100> preferred orientation parallel to the patch’s rolling direction. The CMPT exhibited outstanding sensitivity to incoming GLWs along the <100> direction of the patch in a thin aluminum plate. This was mainly due to the unique anisotropic magnetostriction effect of the textured Galfenol patch. In addition to the use of the Galfenol material, we developed a novel cruciform MPT (XMPT) containing four solenoid sensing coils that possessed individual directional sensing preferences, corresponding to the orientations of the sensing coils. The directional sensing performance of the XMPT was initially validated by using the polycrystalline nickel patch with the isotropic magnetostrictive characteristic, exhibiting the remarkable directionality attributes of the individual sensing elements. Of particular interest was that the XMPT combined with the highly textured Galfenol patch demonstrated excellent directional sensitivity corresponding to the Galfenol’s preferred orientation. And the directional sensing feature was noticeably enhanced by incorporating the textured Galfenol

  12. Time-series Photometry of the Pre-Main Sequence Binary V4046 Sgr: Testing the Accretion Stream Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Most stars are born in binaries, and the evolution of protostellar disks in pre-main sequence (PMS) binary stars is a current frontier of star formation research. PMS binary stars can have up to three accretion disks: two circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk separated by a dynamically cleared gap. Theory suggests that mass may periodically flow in an accretion stream from a circumbinary disk across the gap onto circumstellar disks or stellar surfaces. Thus, accretion in PMS binaries is controlled by not only radiation, disk viscosity, and magnetic fields, but also by orbital dynamics.As part of a larger, ongoing effort to characterize mass accretion in young binary systems, we test the predictions of the binary accretion stream theory through continuous, multi-orbit, multi-color optical and near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry. Observations such as these are capable of detecting and characterizing these modulated accretion streams, if they are generally present. Broad-band blue and ultraviolet photometry trace the accretion luminosity and photospheric temperature while NIR photometry provide a measurement of warm circumstellar material, all as a function of orbital phase. The predicted phase and magnitude of enhanced accretion are highly dependent on the binary orbital parameters and as such, our campaign focuses on 10 PMS binaries of varying periods and eccentricities. Here we present multi-color optical (U, B,V, R), narrowband (Hα), and multi-color NIR (J, H) lightcurves of the PMS binary V4046 Sgr (P=2.42 days) obtained with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope and LCOGT 1m telescope network. These results act to showcase the quality and breadth of data we have, or are currently obtaining, for each of the PMS binaries in our sample. With the full characterization of our sample, these observations will guide an extension of the accretion paradigm from single young stars to multiple systems.

  13. Plant community response to landscape connectivity and patch shape.

    SciTech Connect

    Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-07-01

    Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abstract. Land transformation is the single most important factor promoting the global loss of terrestrial biological diversity. Remaining habitat fragments contain more edges, less interior habitat, and are more isolated from other habitat fragments, all of which decrease rates of colonization following local extinctions, reduce reproductive rates and gene flow between populations, and ultimately lead to species extinctions. The best approach to prevent species loss, therefore, is to preserve greater areas of habitat. In many cases, however, habitat has already been fragmented and strategies are needed to configure and manage the remaining land. Land managers often create reserve networks that incorporate the use of landscape corridors, linear strips of habitat connecting isolated patches, to reduce species loss by increasing colonizations and decreasing extinctions. Most empirical tests of corridors have been limited to individuals and populations, leaving corridor effects on diversity largely unknown, especially at large spatial scales. Additionally, only a handful of studies have examined corridor effects on plants, which may be especially sensitive to the abiotic changes resulting from alterations in patch shape due to dispersal limitation. Using one of the best-replicated, large-scale habitat fragmentation experiments, I tested explicitly for corridor effects on plant community diversity and composition by examining the established plant community and the soil seedbank. My experimental design distinguished among the three possible ways corridors can affect between-patch processes: by acting as a movement conduit between connected patches (“connectivity effects”), by increasing area alone (“area effects”), and by intercepting organisms moving across the landscape and filtering them into connected patches (“drift-fence effects”). Additionally, I tested for the

  14. PL-PatchSurfer: A Novel Molecular Local Surface-Based Method for Exploring Protein-Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Monroe, Lyman; Bures, Mark G.; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer). PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD). We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets. PMID:25167137

  15. A Novel Virus-Patch Dynamic Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-01-01

    The distributed patch dissemination strategies are a promising alternative to the conventional centralized patch dissemination strategies. This paper aims to establish a theoretical framework for evaluating the effectiveness of distributed patch dissemination mechanism. Assuming that the Internet offers P2P service for every pair of nodes on the network, a dynamic model capturing both the virus propagation mechanism and the distributed patch dissemination mechanism is proposed. This model takes into account the infected removable storage media and hence captures the interaction of patches with viruses better than the original SIPS model. Surprisingly, the proposed model exhibits much simpler dynamic properties than the original SIPS model. Specifically, our model admits only two potential (viral) equilibria and undergoes a fold bifurcation. The global stabilities of the two equilibria are determined. Consequently, the dynamical properties of the proposed model are fully understood. Furthermore, it is found that reducing the probability per unit time of disconnecting a node from the Internet benefits the containment of electronic viruses. PMID:26368556

  16. A Novel Virus-Patch Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-01-01

    The distributed patch dissemination strategies are a promising alternative to the conventional centralized patch dissemination strategies. This paper aims to establish a theoretical framework for evaluating the effectiveness of distributed patch dissemination mechanism. Assuming that the Internet offers P2P service for every pair of nodes on the network, a dynamic model capturing both the virus propagation mechanism and the distributed patch dissemination mechanism is proposed. This model takes into account the infected removable storage media and hence captures the interaction of patches with viruses better than the original SIPS model. Surprisingly, the proposed model exhibits much simpler dynamic properties than the original SIPS model. Specifically, our model admits only two potential (viral) equilibria and undergoes a fold bifurcation. The global stabilities of the two equilibria are determined. Consequently, the dynamical properties of the proposed model are fully understood. Furthermore, it is found that reducing the probability per unit time of disconnecting a node from the Internet benefits the containment of electronic viruses. PMID:26368556

  17. Patch-primitive driven compressive ghost imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuemei; Suo, Jinli; Yue, Tao; Bian, Liheng; Dai, Qionghai

    2015-05-01

    Ghost imaging has rapidly developed for about two decades and attracted wide attention from different research fields. However, the practical applications of ghost imaging are still largely limited, by its low reconstruction quality and large required measurements. Inspired by the fact that the natural image patches usually exhibit simple structures, and these structures share common primitives, we propose a patch-primitive driven reconstruction approach to raise the quality of ghost imaging. Specifically, we resort to a statistical learning strategy by representing each image patch with sparse coefficients upon an over-complete dictionary. The dictionary is composed of various primitives learned from a large number of image patches from a natural image database. By introducing a linear mapping between non-overlapping image patches and the whole image, we incorporate the above local prior into the convex optimization framework of compressive ghost imaging. Experiments demonstrate that our method could obtain better reconstruction from the same amount of measurements, and thus reduce the number of requisite measurements for achieving satisfying imaging quality. PMID:25969205

  18. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/. PMID:22806945

  19. Population densities and density-area relationships in a community with advective dispersal and variable mosaics of resource patches.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jill; Downes, Barbara J

    2014-12-01

    Many communities comprise species that select resources that are patchily distributed in an environment that is otherwise unsuitable or suboptimal. Effects of this patchiness can depend on the characteristics of patch arrays and animal movements, and produce non-intuitive outcomes in which population densities are unrelated to resource abundance. Resource mosaics are predicted to have only weak effects, however, where patches are ephemeral or organisms are transported advectively. The running waters of streams and benthic invertebrates epitomize such systems, but empirical tests of resource mosaics are scarce. We sampled 15 common macroinvertebrates inhabiting distinct detritus patches at four sites within a sand-bed stream, where detritus formed a major resource of food and living space. At each site, environmental variables were measured for 100 leaf packs; invertebrates were counted in 50 leaf packs. Sites differed in total abundance of detritus, leaf pack sizes and invertebrate densities. Multivariate analysis indicated that patch size was the dominant environmental variable, but invertebrate densities differed significantly between sites even after accounting for patch size. Leaf specialists showed positive and strong density-area relationships, except where the patch size range was small and patches were aggregated. In contrast, generalist species had weaker and variable responses to patch sizes. Population densities were not associated with total resource abundance, with the highest densities of leaf specialists in sites with the least detritus. Our results demonstrate that patchy resources can affect species even in communities where species are mobile, have advective dispersal, and patches are relatively ephemeral. PMID:25190216

  20. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors. PMID:25398174

  1. Contact sensitivity to standard series allergens in 1038 patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Aynur; Boyvat, Ayşe; Peksari, Yavuz; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    We planned to determine the frequency of sensitivity to European standard patch test allergens in 1038 patients with contact dermatitis. From 1992 to 2004, 1038 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested with the European standard series. Seven hundred and five patients were female (67.9%) and 333 patients were male (32.1%). A total of 336 patients (32.3%) had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel (17.6%), cobalt chloride (5.3%), potassium dichromate (4.6%), neomycin (2.4%), fragrance mix (2.1%) and balsam of Peru (2.1%). Contact sensitivity to potassium dichromate and thiuram was significantly more frequent in male patients, whereas nickel and primin sensitivity was significantly more frequent in female patients. Higher sensitivity rates for potassium dichromate, neomycin, balsam of Peru, wool alcohol, fragrance mix and primin were noted in patients over 40 years of age. Sensitivity rates of the standard series allergens were all similar in atopic patients and in non-atopic patients. Metals, neomycin and fragrances are the leading allergens in Turkey. Although fragrances are among the most important sensitizers, sensitivity rates to fragrances and also to preservatives are much lower than the rates in Europe and the US. PMID:15932585

  2. Can we go beyond burned area assessment with fire patch metrics from global remote rensing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Pereira Messias, Joana; Ruffault, Julien; Chuvieco, Emilio; Mouillot, Florent

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major event influencing global biogeochemical cycles and contribute to the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Global burned area (BA) datasets from remote sensing have provided the fruitful information for quantifying carbon emissions in global biogeochemical models, and for DGVM's benchmarking. Patch level analysis from pixel level information recently emerged as an informative additional feature of the regime as fire size distribution. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of global BA products to accurately represent characteristics of fire patches (size, complexity shape and spatial orientation). We selected a site in the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado), one of the most fire prone biome and one of the validation test site for the ESA fire-Cci project. We used the pixel-level burned area detected by Landsat, MCD45A1 and the newly delivered MERIS ESA fire-Cci for the period 2002-2009. A flood-fill algorithm adapted from Archibald and Roy (2009) was used to identify the individual fire patches (patch ID) according to the burned date (BD). For each patch ID, we calculated a panel of patch metrics as area, perimeter and core area, shape complexity (shape index and fractal dimension) and the feature of the ellipse fitted over the spatial distribution of pixels composing the patch (eccentricity and direction of the main axis). Paired fire patches overlapping between each BA products were compared. The correlation between patch metrics were evaluated by linear regression models for each inter-product comparison according to fire size classes. Our results showed significant patch overlaps (>30%) between products for patches with areas larger than 270ha, with more than 90% of patches overlapping between MERIS and MCD45A1. Fire Patch metrics correlations showed R2>0.6 for all comparisons of patch Area and Core Area, with a slope of 0.99 between MERIS and MCD45A1 illustrating the agreement between the two global products. The

  3. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  4. Comparative acceptance of three transdermal nitroglycerin placebo patches.

    PubMed

    Rayment, C M; Kaul, A F; Garfield, J M

    1985-06-01

    Factors that might affect patient acceptance of transdermal drug-delivery system patches were evaluated in healthy volunteers using placebo patches. Placebo transdermal nitroglycerin patches (Transderm-Nitro 5 placebo, Ciba Pharmaceutical Company; Nitro-Dur 10 cm2 placebo, Key Pharmaceuticals; and Nitrodisc 5 placebo, Searle Laboratories) were supplied by the manufacturers. Eighty-two healthy subjects were randomly assigned to begin using one of the three brands of patches. Using a Latin-square crossover design, subjects applied each brand of patch daily for five days and crossed over to the other brands on study days 6 and 11. At the end of each study phase, subjects completed a written questionnaire designed to evaluate their overall acceptance of each brand of patch. A total of 80 subjects completed all three phases of the study. According to forced rank preference, 84% of subjects preferred the Ciba patch to one of the other two brands. Subjects judged the Ciba patch to be the easiest of the three brands to use and reported significantly fewer side effects and skin irritation while using the Ciba patch; they also preferred the size of the Ciba patch and experienced significantly fewer problems with adherence of the Ciba patch. A significant percentage of subjects indicated that they would prefer a transdermal patch over tablets or ointment. Most subjects preferred the Ciba patch over the Key patch or Searle patch. PMID:3925770

  5. Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

  6. Dimensionality reduction via locally reconstructive patch alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Yin, Jun; Zhu, Jie; Jin, Zhong

    2012-07-01

    Based on the local patch concept, we proposed locally reconstructive patch alignment (LRPA) for dimensionality reduction. For each patch, LRPA aims to find the low-dimensional subspace in which the reconstruction error of the within-class nearest neighbors is minimized and the reconstruction error of the between-class nearest neighbors is maximized. LRPA preserves the local structure hidden in the high-dimensional space. More importantly, LRPA has natural connections with linear regression classification (LRC). While LRC uses reconstruction errors as the classification rule, a sample can be classified correctly when the within-class reconstruction error is minimal. The goal of LRPA makes it cooperate well with LRC. The experimental results on the extended Yale B (YALE-B), AR, PolyU finger knuckle print, and the palm print databases demonstrate LRPA plus LRC is an effective and robust pattern-recognition system.

  7. Patch-Clamp Fluorometry: Electrophysiology meets Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Jana; Zifarelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters are membrane proteins whose functions are driven by conformational changes. Classical biophysical techniques provide insight into either the structure or the function of these proteins, but a full understanding of their behavior requires a correlation of both these aspects in time. Patch-clamp and voltage-clamp fluorometry combine spectroscopic and electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously detect conformational changes and ionic currents across the membrane. Since its introduction, patch-clamp fluorometry has been responsible for invaluable advances in our knowledge of ion channel biophysics. Over the years, the technique has been applied to many different ion channel families to address several biophysical questions with a variety of spectroscopic approaches and electrophysiological configurations. This review illustrates the strength and the flexibility of patch-clamp fluorometry, demonstrating its potential as a tool for future research. PMID:24655500

  8. Repair of Full-Thickness Defects in Alimentary Tract Wall With Patches of Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daniel S.; Manning, Melanie M.; Emmanuel, Janson; Broyles, Stuart E.; Stone, H. Harlan

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the efficacy of patches of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) for the repair of full-thickness defects in alimentary tract wall. Summary Background Data A recent report of successful replacement of duodenal wall with patches of ePTFE was met with skepticism and clearly warranted confirmation as well as evaluation in repair of other segments of the abdominal intestinal tract. Methods Defects of 4 cm2 were created in various segments of canine abdominal alimentary tract (stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon) as well as in bladder dome. For the duodenum in 13 dogs, three different ePTFE fabrications were used: CVX (cardiovascular), PDX (preclude dura membrane), and DLM (dual mesh plus). In repair of the other areas in six dogs, the PDX patch was used. When the animals were killed, both gross inspection of the parietes and tissue for histologic study became the basis for evaluation. Peritoneal and intraluminal cultures of the specific study viscera were also taken. Results There were no patch failures. Only six significant adhesions were noted in 3 of the 19 dogs. Serosal surface healing was complete without exception by 1 week in all animals. Patches of CVX and PDX had heaping mucosa at the margin of well-sealed patch edges in the study involving duodenum. However, the DLM patch had an undergrowth of mucosa with partial patch separation by 1 week, beginning patch extrusion into gut lumen at 3 weeks, and total separation of patch with complete mucosal repair at 6 weeks. The fate of the PDX patches at 6 weeks in stomach, small bowel, colon, and bladder was identical to what had been observed for the PDX patch in the duodenum. All peritoneal and bladder cultures had no growth, whereas the contents of the alimentary tract grew expected flora. Conclusions These observations suggest that ePTFE may well be an acceptable membrane for at least temporary replacement of full-thickness hollow viscus defects, even in the face of heavy bacterial

  9. Patch-Based Segmentation with Spatial Consistency: Application to MS Lesions in Brain MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mechrez, Roey; Goldberger, Jacob; Greenspan, Hayit

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic lesion segmentation method based on similarities between multichannel patches. A patch database is built using training images for which the label maps are known. For each patch in the testing image, k similar patches are retrieved from the database. The matching labels for these k patches are then combined to produce an initial segmentation map for the test case. Finally an iterative patch-based label refinement process based on the initial segmentation map is performed to ensure the spatial consistency of the detected lesions. The method was evaluated in experiments on multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain. An evaluation was done for each image in the MICCAI 2008 MS lesion segmentation challenge. Results are shown to compete with the state of the art in the challenge. We conclude that the proposed algorithm for segmentation of lesions provides a promising new approach for local segmentation and global detection in medical images. PMID:26904103

  10. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C(1)-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  11. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  12. Harmonic response of multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plates subjected to patch loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waksmanski, Natalie; Pan, Ernian; Yang, Lian-Zhi; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic analyses of a multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plate subjected to a patch harmonic loading with simply supported lateral boundary conditions are presented. The pseudo-Stroh formulation and propagator matrix method are used to obtain the exact three-dimensional response of the plate. In order to avoid resonance, the frequency of the patch loading is chosen away from the natural frequencies by introducing a small imaginary part. The patch loading is expressed in the form of a double Fourier series expansion. Comprehensive numerical results are shown for a sandwich plate with two different stacking sequences. The results reveal the influence of layering, loading area, phonon-phason coupling coefficient and input frequency. This work is the first step towards understanding quasicrystals under intricate loading conditions such as indentation and impact, and the exact closed-form solution can serve as a reference in convergence studies of other numerical methods and for verification of existing or future plate theories.

  13. Management of Control System Information SecurityI: Control System Patch Management

    SciTech Connect

    Quanyan Zhu; Miles McQueen; Craig Rieger; Tamer Basar

    2011-09-01

    The use of information technologies in control systems poses additional potential threats due to the frequent disclosure of software vulnerabilities. The management of information security involves a series of policy-making on the vulnerability discovery, disclosure, patch development and patching. In this paper, we use a system approach to devise a model to understand the interdependencies of these decision processes. In more details, we establish a theoretical framework for making patching decision for control systems, taking into account the requirement of functionability of control systems. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations and show that the optimal operation period of control systems given the currently estimated attack rate is roughly around a half a month.

  14. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of RF MEMS series switches using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcawich, Ronald G.

    The aim of this thesis was to design and prototype a robust, low voltage RF MEMS switch for use in military phased arrays. The frequencies of interest for this work include very low frequencies down to DC operation with the upper limit extending to at least 40 GHz. This broad frequency requirement requires a robust high frequency design and simulation using microwave transmission lines. With the aid of researchers at the US Army Research Laboratory, co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines were chosen and designed to provide a low loss, 50 ohm impedance transmission line for the switch. CPW designs allow for both series and shunt switch configuration with this work focusing on a series switch. Furthermore, a series switch an ohmic contact was chosen as opposed to capacitive contacts. Piezoelectric actuation is chosen for the switch to enable operating voltages less than 10 volts while still maintaining a restoring force to prevent stiction. To meet these demands, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been chosen for the piezoelectric actuator. Mechanical modeling of cantilevers comprised of an elastic layer and a Pt-PZT-Pt actuator were used to demonstrate feasibility of closing large gaps between switch contacts. Placement of the actuator to minimize perturbations to the RF transmission line is critical for broadband performance. Using fabrication design rules, electro-mechanical modeling, and high frequency design, the actuators were designed to fit with the RF gap between the RF conductor and ground planes of the CPW transmission line. Optimal performance was obtained with the actuators mechanically isolated from a majority of the RF transmission except for a small section that provides the contact pad to enable switch closure. The resulting switch is the first demonstrated first surface micromachined RF MEMS switch operating from DC to 65 GHz. This switch has a median actuation voltage below 5 volts with operation as low as 2 volts. Isolation in the

  15. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  16. Juno Microwave Radiometer Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, N.; Chen, J.; Focardi, P.; Hodges, R.; Hughes, R.; Jakoboski, J.; Venkatesan, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Juno is a mission in the NASA New Frontiers Program with the goal of significantly improving our understanding of the formation and structure of Jupiter. This paper discusses the modeling and measurement of the two patch array antennas. An overview of the antenna architecture, design and development at JPL is provided, along with estimates of performance and the results of measurements.

  17. Perturbation analysis for patch occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Ferraz, Goncalo; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Perturbation analysis is a powerful tool to study population and community dynamics. This article describes expressions for sensitivity metrics reflecting changes in equilibrium occupancy resulting from small changes in the vital rates of patch occupancy dynamics (i.e., probabilities of local patch colonization and extinction). We illustrate our approach with a case study of occupancy dynamics of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories. Examination of the hypothesis of system equilibrium suggests that the system satisfies equilibrium conditions. Estimates of vital rates obtained using patch occupancy models are used to estimate equilibrium patch occupancy of eagles. We then compute estimates of sensitivity metrics and discuss their implications for eagle population ecology and management. Finally, we discuss the intuition underlying our sensitivity metrics and then provide examples of ecological questions that can be addressed using perturbation analyses. For instance, the sensitivity metrics lead to predictions about the relative importance of local colonization and local extinction probabilities in influencing equilibrium occupancy for rare and common species.

  18. Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas of a proposed type would be tunable over broad wavelength ranges. These antennas would be attractive for use in a variety of microwave communication systems in which there are requirements for transmission and/or reception at multiple, widely separated frequencies. Prior efforts to construct tunable microstrip patch antennas have involved integration of microstrip circuitry with, variously, ferrite films with magneticfield tuning, solid-state electronic tuning devices, or piezoelectric tuning actuators. Those efforts have been somewhat successful, but have yielded tuning ranges of 20 percent and smaller much smaller than needed in typical practical cases. Like prior microstrip patch antennas (both tunable and non-tunable), the proposed antennas would have instantaneous bandwidths of about 1 percent of their nominal or resonance frequencies. However, these would be tunable over much broader frequency ranges as much as several octaves, depending on specific designs. They could be fabricated relatively simply and inexpensively by use of conventional photolithography, and without need for integration with solid-state electronic or piezoelectric control devices. An antenna as proposed (see figure) would include a microstrip patch radiating element on a thin ferroelectric film on a semiconductor substrate with a ground-plane conductor on the underside of the substrate. The ferroelectric film could be, for example, SrTiO3 with a thickness of the order of 1 or 2 micrometers.

  19. Data book for 12.5-inch diameter SRB thermal model water flotation test: 14.7 psia, series P020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Data acquired from the initial series of tests conducted to determine how thermal conditions affect SRB (Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) flotation are presented. Acceleration, pressure, and temperature data recorded from initial water impact to final flotation position using a 12.5-inch diameter thermal model of the SRB at ambient pressure are included. The model was 136.9 inches long and weighed 117.3 lbm. The tests indicated the following differences from ambient temperature tests: (1) significant negative static pressures can occur during penetration; (2) maximum penetration is increased; and (3) final flotation is in the spar buoy mode.

  20. A method to visualize transdermal nickel permeation in mouse skin using a nickel allergy patch

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Metal patch test is often used in clinical settings when metal-induced contact dermatitis is suspected. However, the transdermal permeation behavior of metal ions from the patch test remains unclear. Current patch tests using high concentrations of metal salt solutions have some side effects, e.g. acute skin reactions to high concentrations of metal salt. To resolve these, estimating metal ion transdermal permeation is wished. In this study, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and micro-focused particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) were used to visualize the time-dependent Ni permeation in mouse skin. The cross-sectional diffusion of Ni was visualized in a time-dependent manner. Our results indicate that maximum Ni permeation occurs after 24 h of patch treatment, and the permeated Ni content was high in the epidermis and spread into the dermis beyond the basal layer. This method may be useful to determine the appropriate solution concentration and duration of administration for the patch test. PMID:26484550

  1. A method to visualize transdermal nickel permeation in mouse skin using a nickel allergy patch.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Metal patch test is often used in clinical settings when metal-induced contact dermatitis is suspected. However, the transdermal permeation behavior of metal ions from the patch test remains unclear. Current patch tests using high concentrations of metal salt solutions have some side effects, e.g. acute skin reactions to high concentrations of metal salt. To resolve these, estimating metal ion transdermal permeation is wished. In this study, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and micro-focused particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) were used to visualize the time-dependent Ni permeation in mouse skin. The cross-sectional diffusion of Ni was visualized in a time-dependent manner. Our results indicate that maximum Ni permeation occurs after 24 h of patch treatment, and the permeated Ni content was high in the epidermis and spread into the dermis beyond the basal layer. This method may be useful to determine the appropriate solution concentration and duration of administration for the patch test. PMID:26484550

  2. Patch occupancy, number of individuals and population density of the Marbled White in a changing agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Metapopulation theory predicts the occurrence of animals in habitat patches. In this paper, we tested predictions based on this theory, including effects of spatial autocorrelation, to describe factors affecting the presence, local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea in habitat patches spread across the agricultural landscape of southern Poland. This agricultural landscape has undergone significant changes in recent decades due to the country's political transformation and is currently characterized by a large proportion of fallow (abandoned) land. We compared 48 occupied habitat patches with 60 unoccupied ones. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in the number and density of individuals in habitat patches. The probability of patch occupancy was higher for patches that were larger, had a higher proportion of edges, were located closer to the nearest neighbouring local population and to the nearest piece of fallow, contained a smaller area of cut grass, and also had more nectar resources. The number of Marbled Whites in habitat patches was positively related to the patch area, the distance to the nearest fallow and the abundance of nectar resources, but was negatively related to the density of shrubs. The density of individuals was positively related to abundance of flowers, proportion of edge in a patch and distance to the nearest fallow, but it was negatively related to patch area, vegetation height and grass cover. These results indicate that recent land-use changes in agricultural landscapes have had both positive and negative effects on the presence and local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White. These changes affect the metapopulation of the species through changes in habitat quality and landscape connectivity in the area surrounding habitat patches.

  3. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Suzette M.; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A.; Burfeindt, Matthew J.; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems. PMID:25392561

  4. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  5. An Active Patch Model for Real World Texture and Appearance Classification

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Junhua; Zhu, Jun; Yuille, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the task of natural texture and appearance classification. Our goal is to develop a simple and intuitive method that performs at state of the art on datasets ranging from homogeneous texture (e.g., material texture), to less homogeneous texture (e.g., the fur of animals), and to inhomogeneous texture (the appearance patterns of vehicles). Our method uses a bag-of-words model where the features are based on a dictionary of active patches. Active patches are raw intensity patches which can undergo spatial transformations (e.g., rotation and scaling) and adjust themselves to best match the image regions. The dictionary of active patches is required to be compact and representative, in the sense that we can use it to approximately reconstruct the images that we want to classify. We propose a probabilistic model to quantify the quality of image reconstruction and design a greedy learning algorithm to obtain the dictionary. We classify images using the occurrence frequency of the active patches. Feature extraction is fast (about 100 ms per image) using the GPU. The experimental results show that our method improves the state of the art on a challenging material texture benchmark dataset (KTH-TIPS2). To test our method on less homogeneous or inhomogeneous images, we construct two new datasets consisting of appearance image patches of animals and vehicles cropped from the PASCAL VOC dataset. Our method outperforms competing methods on these datasets. PMID:25531013

  6. Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament

    PubMed Central

    de Heij, Maaike E; Gustafsson, Lars; Brommer, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production. Reduction of the size of the white wing patch lowered a male's probability to attract a secondary social female, but not a primary female. However, primary females paired to males with a reduced wing patch were smaller (in tarsus), suggesting that male choice of partner or female–female competition over mates occurs in this species. The probability of pairing with a primary female (but not other components of male reproductive success) declined with arrival time (proxied by the date of capture). Males with a reduced wing patch size tended to sire less extra-pair offspring, although this relationship was reversed in one of the three study plots, suggesting that mating dynamics are context dependent. While our findings show that wing patch size is the target of sexual selection, the pathways and the strength of selection on this ornament differed markedly from a previous descriptive study. Nonexperimental studies of sexual selection in the wild may overestimate its importance because male fitness and ornamentation both depend positively on environmental conditions. PMID:22393521

  7. Predator-Prey Interactions Shape Thermal Patch Use in a Newt Larvae-Dragonfly Nymph Model

    PubMed Central

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Černická, Eva; Van Damme, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Thermal quality and predation risk are considered important factors influencing habitat patch use in ectothermic prey. However, how the predator’s food requirement and the prey’s necessity to avoid predation interact with their respective thermoregulatory strategies remains poorly understood. The recently developed ‘thermal game model’ predicts that in the face of imminent predation, prey should divide their time equally among a range of thermal patches. In contrast, predators should concentrate their hunting activities towards warmer patches. In this study, we test these predictions in a laboratory setup and an artificial environment that mimics more natural conditions. In both cases, we scored thermal patch use of newt larvae (prey) and free-ranging dragonfly nymphs (predators). Similar effects were seen in both settings. The newt larvae spent less time in the warm patch if dragonfly nymphs were present. The patch use of the dragonfly nymphs did not change as a function of prey availability, even when the nymphs were starved prior to the experiment. Our behavioral observations partially corroborate predictions of the thermal game model. In line with asymmetric fitness pay-offs in predator-prey interactions (the ‘life-dinner’ principle), the prey’s thermal strategy is more sensitive to the presence of predators than vice versa. PMID:23755175

  8. Effects of slits in a patch of omnidirectional Lamb-wave MPT on the transducer output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiyean; Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Joo Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-03-01

    An omnidirectional Lamb-wave magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) uses a thin circular magnetostrictive patch excited by the axisymmetric turns of a plane coil placed over it. Since the dynamic magnetic field applied by the coil induces an eddy current only on the top surface due to the skin effect, the mechanical deformation in the patch is confined only near the surface, considerably limiting the transducer output power. This study shows that if a radial slit is introduced in the patch, the circular flow of the eddy current on the top surface only becomes broken, and thus the eddy current flows on both the top and bottom surfaces. As a consequence, there is a substantial increase in the dynamic magnetic field in the patch and, in turn, an increased transducer output power. Interestingly, the material type, either metallic or nonmetallic, of the test waveguide plate affects the magnitude of the eddy current near the bottom surface and the overall magnetic field. If the number of slits is over a certain number, say, 8, and the slits are symmetrically made in the patch, the omni-directivity of the resulting MPT is virtually ensured. Finally, the present findings are verified both numerically and experimentally.

  9. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2013-12-18

    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems. PMID:25392561

  10. A Look at Computer-Assisted Testing Operations. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 12e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors; Dennis, J. Richard

    In computer assisted test construction (CATC) systems, the computer is used to perform the mechanical aspects of testing while the teacher retains control over question content. Advantages of CATC systems include question banks, decreased importance of test item security, computer analysis and response to student test answers, item analysis…

  11. Relationships of habitat patch size to predator community and survival of duck nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Zicus, M.C.; Greenwood, R.J.; Rave, D.P.; Newton, W.E.; Woodward, R.O.; Beiser, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied duck nest success and predator community composition in relation to size of discrete patches of nesting cover in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States in 1993-95. We focused on nests in uplands that were seeded to perennial grasses and forbs and enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. We estimated daily survival rates (DSRs) of upland duck nests and indices of activity for red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), coyotes (Canis latrans), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), and related these variables to habitat patch size. The effect of patch size (small vs. large) on estimated annual mean DSR was dependent on date of nest initiation (early vs. late) and year. Examination of within-year comparisons for early and late nests suggested that DSR was generally greater in larger habitat patches. Activity indices for the 5 mammalian nest predators were influenced differently by year, location, and patch size. Activity indices of the red fox were greatest in small patches. Coyote indices were the most inconsistent, demonstrating a year X location X patch size interaction. Activity indices of the striped skunk and American badger varied only among years. Franklin's ground squirrel indices were affected by study area location, with higher indices in the southeast than the northwest. Red fox activity was weakly correlated with that of the striped skunk and coyote. Although a positive relationship between habitat patch size and nest success probably exists, we believe the experiment to fully test this hypothesis will continue to be elusive.

  12. Thickness effects on a cracked aluminum plate with composite patch repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubbe, Joel Jon

    Post-repair fatigue crack growth was investigated in 3.175, 4.826, and 6.35 mm thick aluminum panels (508 mm long, 153 mm wide), asymmetrically repaired with boron/epoxy composite patches bonded to the plates with FM73 sheet adhesive. Patches were uniaxial with patch to panel stiffness ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.3. Experimental fatigue tests were carried out at 120 MPa, R = 0.1, and 10 Hz (sinusoidal) to measure patched and unpatched face crack lengths, center crack opening displacements, and selected strains. Crack growth data was acquired using optical, eddy current, and post-test analysis methods. Crack growth rates were calculated using the incremental polynomial method. Test results showed increased plate thickness caused increased fatigue crack growth rates in both unrepaired and repaired panels. Thermally-induced bending due to patch bonding affects crack growth rates. Increased stiffness ratios increased life-spans and reduced crack growth anomalies such as retardation. Disbond growth is more dependent on crack size than on patch configuration and tends to accelerate when the crack grows beyond a critical length or where the patch changes thickness. A three-layer Mindlin plate finite element model was used as a two-dimensional analytical technique to predict patched and unpatched face reaction loads and displacements. This method uses a third plate layer to model the adhesive layer as a continuum. Constraint equations are used to enforce compatibility conditions along the plate-adhesive and adhesive patch interfaces. The calculated loads and displacements, in conjunction with the modified crack closure method, were used to compute stress intensity factors for the crack tips. Crack growth rates were calculated using experimentally determined material constants and the fatigue crack growth relationship (Paris Law) of the unpatched plate. Comparisons of the experimental to analytical curvatures of repaired panels showed excellent agreement for crack lengths

  13. An Evaluation of a Two-Stage Testlet Design for Computerized Testing. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Lynda M.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    A two-stage design provides a way of roughly adapting item difficulty to test-taker ability. All test takers take a parallel stage-one test, and based on their scores, they are routed to tests of different difficulty levels in the second stage. This design provides some of the benefits of standard computer adaptive testing (CAT), such as increased…

  14. Patch burning: implications on water erosion and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ozaslan Parlak, Altingul; Parlak, Mehmet; Blanco-Canqui, Humberto; Schacht, Walter H; Guretzky, John A; Mamo, Martha

    2015-05-01

    Patch burning can be a potential management tool to create grassland heterogeneity and enhance forage productivity and plant biodiversity, but its impacts on soil and environment have not been widely documented. In summer 2013, we studied the effect of time after patch burning (4 mo after burning [recently burned patches], 16 mo after burning [older burned patches], and unburned patches [control]) on vegetative cover, water erosion, and soil properties on a patch-burn experiment established in 2011 on a Yutan silty clay loam near Mead, NE. The recently burned patches had 29 ± 8.0% (mean ± SD) more bare ground, 21 ± 1.4% less canopy cover, and 40 ± 11% less litter cover than older burned and unburned patches. Bare ground and canopy cover did not differ between the older burned and unburned patches, indicating that vegetation recovered. Runoff depth from the older burned and recently burned patches was 2.8 times (19.6 ± 4.1 vs. 7.1 ± 3.0 mm [mean ± SD]) greater than the unburned patches. The recently burned patches had 4.5 times greater sediment loss (293 ± 89 vs. 65 ± 56 g m) and 3.8 times greater sediment-associated organic C loss (9.2 ± 2.0 vs. 2.4 ± 1.9 g m) than the older burned and unburned patches. The recently burned patches had increased daytime soil temperature but no differences in soil compaction and structural properties, dissolved nutrients, soil C, and total N concentration relative to older burned and unburned patches. Overall, recently burned patches can have reduced canopy and litter cover and increased water erosion, but soil properties may not differ from older burn or unburned patches under the conditions of this study. PMID:26024270

  15. Emergent Properties of Patch Shapes Affect Edge Permeability to Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nams, Vilis O.

    2011-01-01

    Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1) find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2) generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight). When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance. PMID:21747965

  16. Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P.; Pepper, Edward

    1940-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests of several propeller, cuff, and spinner combinations were conducted in the 20 foot propeller-research tunnel. Three propellers, which ranged in diameter from 8.4 to 11.25 feet, were tested at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners of two diameters. The tests covered a blade angle range from 20 deg to 65 deg. The effect of spinner diameter and propeller cuffs on the characteristics of one propeller was determined. Test were also conducted using a propeller which incorporated aerodynamically good shank sections and using one which incorporated the NACA 16 series sections for the outer 20 percent of the blades. Compressibility effects were not measured, owing to the low testing speeds. The results indicated that a conventional propeller was slightly more efficient when tested in conjunction with a 28 inch diameter spinner than with a 23 inch spinner, and that cuffs increased the efficiency as well as the power absorption characteristics. A propeller having good aerodynamic shanks was found to be definitely superior from the efficiency standpoint to a conventional round-shank propeller with or without cuffs; this propeller would probably be considered structurally impracticable, however. The propeller incorporating the NACA 16 series sections at the tims were found to have a slightly higher efficiency than a conventional propeller; the take-off characteristics appeared to be equally good. The effects noted above probably would be accentuated at helical speeds at which compressibility effects would enter.

  17. National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) Field Test Methodology Report, 2004. Working Paper Series. NCES 2004-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, R. E.; Cahalan, M.; Fahimi, M.; Curry-Tucker, J. L.; Carley-Baxter, L.; Curtin, T. R.; Hinsdale, M.; Jewell, D. M.; Kuhr, B. D.; McLean, L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the methodology and findings of the NSOPF:04 field test that took place during the 2002?03 academic year. The NSOPF:04 field test was used to plan, implement, and evaluate methodological procedures, instruments, and systems proposed for use in the full-scale study scheduled for the 2003-04 academic year. The field test was…

  18. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  19. Self-Reported Methods of Test Preparation Used by LSAT Takers: A Summary of Responses from June and September 1989 Test Takers. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Linda F.

    This report summarizes self-reported information about the kinds and extent of test preparation used by those taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). For the first time, in June 1989, test takers were asked to volunteer information about how they prepared for the LSAT. Approximately 75% of the test takers in June and September 1989 responded…

  20. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, N.

    1999-01-22

    Study hypothesized that corridors increase patch colonization by Junonia coenia regardless of insects initial distance from patch, as the butterfly is known to move between patches preferentially through corridors. Neither corridor nor distance had significant effect on patch colonization, but significant interaction between presence or absence of corridors and distance. One critical factor is interpatch distance which may determine the relative effectiveness of corridors and other landscape configurations.

  1. Ceramic Paste for Patching High-Temperature Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.; Tompkins, James V.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Hogensen, Pete; Soden, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    A ceramic paste that can be applied relatively easily, either by itself or in combination with one or more layer(s) of high-temperature ceramic fabrics, such as silicon carbide or zirconia, has been invented as a means of patching cracks or holes in the reinforced carbon-carbon forward surfaces of a space shuttle in orbit before returning to Earth. The paste or the paste/fabric combination could also be used to repair rocket-motor combustion chambers, and could be used on Earth to patch similar high-temperature structures. The specified chemical composition of the paste admits of a number of variations, and the exact proportions of its constituents are proprietary. In general, the paste consists of (1) silicon carbide, possibly with addition of (2) hafnium carbide, zirconium carbide, zirconium boride, silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, or other metal carbides or oxides blended with (3) a silazane-based polymer. Because the paste is viscous and sticky at normal terrestrial and outer-space ambient temperatures, high-temperature ceramic fabrics such as silicon carbide or zirconia fabric impregnated with the paste (or the paste alone) sticks to the damaged surface to which it is applied. Once the patch has been applied, it is smoothed to minimize edge steps as required [forward-facing edge steps must be < or equal to 0.030 in. (< or equal to 0.76 mm) in the original intended space-shuttle application]. The patch is then heated to a curing temperature thereby converting it from a flexible material to a hard, tough material. The curing temperature is 375 to 450 F (approx.190 to 230 C). In torch tests and arc-jet tests, the cured paste was found to be capable of withstanding a temperature of 3,500 F (approx. 1,900 C) for 15 minutes. As such, the material appears to satisfy the requirement, in the original space-shuttle application, to withstand re-entry temperatures of approx.3,000 F (approx. 1,600 C).

  2. On the evolution of patch-type dependent immigration.

    PubMed

    Gyllenberg, Mats; Kisdi, Éva; Weigang, Helene C

    2016-04-21

    Empirical studies of dispersal indicate that decisions to immigrate are patch-type dependent; yet theoretical models usually ignore this fact. Here, we investigate the evolution of patch-type dependent immigration of a population inhabiting and dispersing in a heterogeneous landscape, which is structured by patches of low and high reward. We model the decision to immigrate in detail from a mechanistic underpinning. With the methods of adaptive dynamics, we derive both analytical and numerical results for the evolution of immigration when life-history traits are patch-type dependent. The model exhibits evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range and the subsequent coevolution can lead to a stable coexistence of a generalist, settling in patches of any type, and a specialist that only immigrates into patches of high reward. We find that individuals always settle in the patches of high reward, in which survival until maturation, relative fecundity and emigration probability are high. We investigate how the probability to immigrate into patches of low reward changes with model parameters. For example, we show that immigration into patches of low reward increases when the emigration probability in these patches increases. Further, immigration into patches of low reward decreases when the patches of high reward become less safe during the dispersal season. PMID:26860659

  3. A lab-on-a-chip for hypoxic patch clamp measurements combined with optical tweezers and spectroscopy- first investigations of single biological cells.

    PubMed

    Alrifaiy, Ahmed; Borg, Johan; Lindahl, Olof A; Ramser, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The response and the reaction of the brain system to hypoxia is a vital research subject that requires special instrumentation. With this research subject in focus, a new multifunctional lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with control over the oxygen content for studies on biological cells was developed. The chip was designed to incorporate the patch clamp technique, optical tweezers and absorption spectroscopy. The performance of the LOC was tested by a series of experiments. The oxygen content within the channels of the LOC was monitored by an oxygen sensor and verified by simultaneously studying the oxygenation state of chicken red blood cells (RBCs) with absorption spectra. The chicken RBCs were manipulated optically and steered in three dimensions towards a patch-clamp micropipette in a closed microfluidic channel. The oxygen level within the channels could be changed from a normoxic value of 18% O 2 to an anoxic value of 0.0-0.5% O 2. A time series of 3 experiments were performed, showing that the spectral transfer from the oxygenated to the deoxygenated state occurred after about 227 ± 1 s and a fully developed deoxygenated spectrum was observed after 298 ± 1 s, a mean value of 3 experiments. The tightness of the chamber to oxygen diffusion was verified by stopping the flow into the channel system while continuously recording absorption spectra showing an unchanged deoxygenated state during 5400 ± 2 s. A transfer of the oxygenated absorption spectra was achieved after 426 ± 1 s when exposing the cell to normoxic buffer. This showed the long time viability of the investigated cells. Successful patching and sealing were established on a trapped RBC and the whole-cell access (Ra) and membrane (Rm) resistances were measured to be 5.033 ± 0.412 M Ω and 889.7 ± 1.74 M Ω respectively. PMID:25907197

  4. Atypical scabies presenting as annular patches.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Delwar

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a common parasitic disease that can be recognized by the development of itchy lesions and a predilection for certain places on the body. It may infrequently present with patchy lesions. We report a patient with well-defined annular patches. Histopathology showed an egg of the scabies mite in the epidermis. Treatment with permethrin cream resulted in complete resolution of her disease. PMID:22967356

  5. Design of an innovative magnetostrictive patch actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Giberti, H.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive actuators can be profitably used to reduce vibration in structures. However, this technology has been exploited only to develop inertial actuators, while patches actuators have not been ever used in practice. Patches actuators consist on a layer of magnetostrictive material, which has to be stuck to the surface of the vibrating structure, and on a coil surrounding the layer itself. However, the presence of the winding severely limits the use of such devices. As a matter of fact, the scientific literature reports only theoretical uses of such actuators, but, in practice it does not seem they were ever used. This paper presents an innovative solution to improve the structure of the actuator patches, allowing their use in several practical applications. The principle of operation of these devices is rather simple. The actuator patch is able to generate a local deformation of the surface of the vibrating structure so as to introduce an equivalent damping that dissipates the kinetic energy associated to the vibration. This deformation is related to the behavior of the magnetostrictive material immersed in a variable magnetic field generated by the a variable current flowing in the winding. Contrary to what suggested in the theoretical literature, the designed device has the advantage of generating the variable magnetic field no longer in close proximity of the material, but in a different area, thus allowing a better coupling. The magnetic field is then conveyed through a suitable ferromagnetic structure to the magnetostrictive material. The device has been designed and simulated through FEA. Results confirm that the new configuration can easily overcome all the limits of traditional devices.

  6. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.

  7. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P; Brigham, Mark D; Naik, Shreesh R; Karajanagi, Sandeep S; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches. PMID:21946708

  8. A novel conformational B-cell epitope prediction method based on mimotope and patch analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingping; Qi, Jialiang; Zhao, Yizhu; Huang, Yanxin; Yang, Guifu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuxin

    2016-04-01

    A B-cell epitope is a group of residues on the surface of an antigen that stimulates humoral immune responses. Identifying B-cell epitopes is important for effective vaccine design. Predicting epitopes by experimental methods is expensive in terms of time, cost and effort; therefore, computational methods that have a low cost and high speed are widely used to predict B-cell epitopes. Recently, epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening has been viewed as a promising method. Some novel software and web-based servers have been proposed that have succeeded in some test cases. Herein, we propose a novel epitope prediction method based on amino acid pairs and patch analysis. The method first divides antigen surfaces into overlapping patches based on both radius (R) and number (N), then predict epitopes based on Amino Acid Pairs (AAPs) from mimotopes and the surface patch. The proposed method yields a mean sensitivity of 0.53, specificity of 0.77, ACC of 0.75 and F-measure of 0.45 for 39 test cases. Compared with mimotope-based methods, patch-based methods and two other prediction methods, the sensitivity of the new method offers a certain improvement. Our findings demonstrate that this proposed method was successful for patch and AAPs analysis and allowed for conformational B-cell epitope prediction. PMID:26804644

  9. Experimental Fatigue Study of Composite Patch Repaired Steel Plates with Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatzas, Vasileios A.; Kotsidis, Elias A.; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2015-10-01

    Cracks are among the most commonly encountered defects in metallic structures operating at sea. Composite patch repairing is a repair method which is gaining popularity as it counters most of the problems faced by conventional renewal repairs. Extensive studies can be found in the literature addressing the efficiency of this novel repair method using techniques which meet higher performance and monitoring standards than these commonly found in naval applications. In this work the efficiency of practices widely used in the ship repair industry for the implementation of composite patch repairing is addressed. To this end, steel plates repaired with composite patches were tested under fatigue loading. The composite patches consisted of carbon fibers in epoxy matrix and were directly laminated to the steel surface using the vacuum infusion method. Two different surface preparation methods, namely grit-blasting and mechanical treatment with the use of a needle gun were studied. In addition, in order to account for the harsh environmental conditions during the operating life of the structure and to study its effect on the repair, two different aging scenarios were considered. Non-destructive evaluation of the patches was performed so as to assess the quality of the repair, and the evolution of debonding during testing.

  10. SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, K.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

  11. Summary of Self-Reported Methods of Test Preparation by LSAT Takers for Testing Years 1991-1992 through 1996-1997. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.

    Test takers were asked to report which, if any, methods they used to help prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). The study began with the 1991-1992 academic testing year and ended with the 1996-1997 academic testing year. More than 100,000 students responded in each of the years, with the exception of a smaller sample in 1996-1997…

  12. Competency-Based Testing for Occupational Students: A Resource Guide. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended to provide vocational administrators with general information about the current state of competency-based test development and specific information about selected products and services that are available or under development. The general information section deals with the types of test products and services that are…

  13. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues" (e.g., group differences in…

  14. Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 2000/01 Follow-Up Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Melissa R.; Link, Michael W.; Riccobono, John A.; Siegel, Peter H.

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01). The B&B:2000/01 field test included important changes from previous B&B surveys (conducted in 1994 and 1997) in its sample design and collection of data. The introductory chapter describes the…

  15. Test Takers with Disabilities: A Summary of Data from Special Administrations of the LSAT. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Linda F.

    This report provides information about test takers with disabilities who participated in a variety of accommodated administrations of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Results indicate the number of LSATs administered with accommodations increased 100% from 1990 to 1993. During that 4-year period, more than 2,700 LSATs were administered under…

  16. An Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel DIF Analysis for Computer-Adaptive Tests. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    This study investigated the applicability to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis that involves an empirical Bayes (EB) enhancement of the popular Mantel Haenszel (MH) DIF analysis method. The computerized Law School Admission Test (LSAT) assumed for this study was similar to that currently…

  17. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1983: Summary Report. Office of Research, Report Series, Volume One/Number 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Vana H.; And Others

    The primary purpose of the 1983 Statewide Testing Program was to assess the achievement of 4th, 7th, and 10th grade students in South Carolina public schools. The results from the Statewide Testing Program provide educators with information which facilitates the decision-making process at the State, district, and school levels. Besides the…

  18. Depletion of deep marine food patches forces divers to give up early.

    PubMed

    Thums, Michele; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sumner, Michael D; Horsburgh, Judy M; Hindell, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Many optimal foraging models for diving animals examine strategies that maximize time spent in the foraging zone, assuming that prey acquisition increases linearly with search time. Other models have considered the effect of patch quality and predict a net energetic benefit if dives where no prey is encountered early in the dive are abandoned. For deep divers, however, the energetic benefit of giving up is reduced owing to the elevated energy costs associated with descending to physiologically hostile depths, so patch residence time should be invariant. Others consider an asymptotic gain function where the decision to leave a patch is driven by patch-depletion effects - the marginal value theorem. As predator behaviour is increasingly being used as an index of marine resource density and distribution, it is important to understand the nature of this gain function. We investigated the dive behaviour of the world's deepest-diving seal, the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina, in response to patch quality. Testing these models has largely been limited to controlled experiments on captive animals. By integrating in situ measurements of the seal's relative lipid content obtained from drift rate data (a measure of foraging success) with area-restricted search behaviour identified from first-passage time analysis, we identified regions of high- and low-quality patches. Dive durations and bottom times were not invariant and did not increase in regions of high quality; rather, both were longer when patches were of relatively low quality. This is consistent with the predictions of the marginal value theorem and provides support for a nonlinear relationship between search time and prey acquisition. We also found higher descent and ascent rates in high-quality patches suggesting that seals minimized travel time to the foraging patch when quality was high; however, this was not achieved by increasing speed or dive angle. Relative body lipid content was an important

  19. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2009-02-01

    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and

  20. Transcatheter patch occlusion of experimental atrial septal defects.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Eleftherios B; Sideris, Chrysoula E; Stamatelopoulos, Stamatis F; Moulopoulos, Spyridon D

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of transcatheter patch atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion were studied in 20 piglets. Experimental atrial septal defects were created by foramen ovale dilation. ASDs were corrected by polyurethane patches of two types (flat and sleeve). Specially made balloon catheters supported the patches for periods varying from 1 to 6 days; after this period, the supporting catheters were withdrawn and the patches were released. All transcatheter patches were safely embedded in the atrial septum 48 hr or more after implantation. All defects were fully occluded. One patch became infected. The transcatheter patch experimental ASD occlusion method was found effective and safe, potentially applicable in the occlusion of human ASDs. PMID:12410521

  1. Analysis of habitat selection studies with multiple patches within cover types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Current statistical methods are inadequate for evaluation of the relation between spatial pattern of the landscape and observed patterns of habitat use by individuals or populations. For example, traditional habitat selection analysis methods do not use information about the size and distribution of the several patches of each cover type that may exist within the study area. Statistical tests are presented for hypotheses about disproportional use of cover types and patches within cover types. These tests require that use of individual patches is recorded, as well as the size of individual patches. Different designs are considered in which there are (1) single or multiple samples of use, and (2) equal or unequal habitat availability. Formulas for calculating Type II statistical errors of the tests are presented and Monte Carlo simulation is used to assess the accuracy of the formulas and to check the Type I error rates of the proposed test statistics. With adequate sample sizes, Type II error formulas can be a useful tool for planning of habitat selection studies. An example analysis is presented of a hypothetical study of habitat selection by ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in a Midwestern landscape. The proposed tests also represent a contribution toward bringing together concepts of landscape ecology and wildlife habitat selection.

  2. Hyoscine Skin Patches for Drooling Dilate Pupils and Impair Accommodation: Spectacle Correction for Photophobia and Blurred Vision May Be Warranted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Manzar; Henderson, Gladys; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2007-01-01

    Hyoscine skin patches diminish salivation by their anticholinergic action. The aim of reporting this case series is to present the ophthalmic side effects in children, and to highlight the precautions to take. Five children (two males, three females; age range 8-18y) with quadriplegic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System…

  3. Deep patch technique for landslide repair. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helwany, B.M.

    1994-10-01

    The report describes the laboratory testing of the `USFS deep patch` technique and a CTI modification of this technique for repairing landslides with geosynthetic reinforcement. The technique involves replacing sections of roadway lost due to landslides on top of a geosynthetically-reinforced embankment. The CTI modification involves replacing the reinforced slope with a geosynthetically-reinforced retaining wall with a truncated base. Both techniques rely on the cantilevering ability of the reinforced mass to limit the load on the foundation with a high slide potential. The tests with road base showed that (1) both the USFS and CTI repair reduced effectively the adverse effects of local landsliding on the highway pavement by preventing crack propagation; (2) the USFS repair increased the stability of the repaired slope, which was in progressive failure, by reducing the stresses exerted on it; and (3) the CTI repair produced substantially greater stresses on its foundation due to the truncated base of the reinforced mass.

  4. The time dependence of reversed archeomagnetic flux patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.

    2015-02-01

    Archeomagnetic field models may provide important insights to the geodynamo. Here we investigate the existence and mobility of reversed flux patches (RFPs) in an archeomagnetic field model. We introduce topological algorithms to define, identify, and track RFPs. In addition, we explore the relations between RFPs and dipole changes and apply robustness tests to the RFPs. In contrast to previous definitions, patches that reside on the geographic equator are adequately identified based on our RFPs definition. Most RFPs exhibit a westward drift and migrate toward higher latitudes. Undulations of the magnetic equator and RFPs oppose the axial dipole moment (ADM). Filtered models show a tracking behavior similar to the nonfiltered model, and surprisingly new RFPs occasionally emerge. The advection and diffusion of RFPs have worked in unison to yield the decrease of the ADM at recent times. The absence of RFPs in the period 550-1440 A.D. is related to a low in intermediate degrees of the geomagnetic power spectrum. We thus hypothesize that the RFPs are strongly dependent on intermediate spherical harmonic degrees 4 and above.

  5. The time dependence of reversed archeomagnetic flux patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.

    2016-04-01

    Archeomagnetic field models may provide important insights to the geodynamo. Here we investigate the existence and mobility of reversed flux patches (RFPs) in archeomagnetic field model CALS3k.4b of Korte and Constable (2011; PEPI, 188, 247-259). We introduce topological algorithms to define, identify and track RPFs. In addition, we explore the relations between RFPs and dipole changes, and apply robustness tests to the RFPs. In contrast to previous definitions, patches that reside on the geographic equator are adequately identified based on our RFPs definition that takes the magnetic equator as a reference. Most RFPs exhibit a westward drift and migrate towards higher latitudes. Undulations of the magnetic equator and RFPs oppose the axial dipole moment (ADM). Filtered models show a tracking behaviour similar to the non-filtered model, and surprisingly new RFPs occasionally emerge. The advection and diffusion of RFPs have worked in unison to yield the decrease of the ADM at recent times. The absence of RFPs in the period 550-1440 AD is related to a low in intermediate degrees of the geomagnetic power spectrum. We thus hypothesize that the RFPs are strongly dependent on intermediate spherical harmonic degrees 4 and above. Comparison of tracking of RFPs among various archeomagnetic field models was also performed and gives more complex results.

  6. Swaziland Behavioural Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyane, Masotsha J.; And Others

    The Swaziland Behavioural Assessment Series (SBAS) is a battery of ability tests derived from the Flanagan Aptitude Classification Tests and the Internationally Developed Tests, for use in the guidance of secondary school students towards relevant educational and vocational opportunities. The SBAS has been field tested in Swaziland. Sixteen…

  7. Effect of stiffness and thickness ratio of host plate and piezoelectric patches on reduction of the stress concentration factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesharaki, Javad Jafari; Madani, Seyed Ghasem; Golabi, Sa'id

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of stiffness ratio and thickness ratio on reducing stress concentration factor using piezoelectric patches in a rectangular plate with a hole, as a classical shape. Various locations of actuators and induction of positive/negative strains into the host plate are investigated and the best location of patches is presented. The study investigated the ratio effects and piezoelectric patches bounded on a rectangular host plate having various thicknesses and materials. Results show that the best position of actuators varies based on values of thickness and stiffness ratios of the host plate and piezoelectric patches. Also, the location of maximum stress concentration is transmitted from top and bottom of the hole to another point around the edge by changing the location of the piezoelectric actuators. To verify the results, some experimental tests are applied. The results show good agreement between the finite element analysis and experimental tests.

  8. An on-road shock and vibration response test series utilizing worst case and statistical analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia.

  9. Formulation, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation of matrix-type transdermal patches containing olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; Harikumar, S L

    2013-01-01

    Transdermal patches of olanzapine were aimed to be prepared to overcome the side effects by oral application. The strategy was formulation of eudragit-based polymeric films to prepare transdermal patches by using nonionic (span-20), anionic (sodium lauryl sulfate), cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and vegetable oil (olive oil) as permeation enhancers. The patches were subjected to physicochemical, in vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies. On the basis of in vitro release performance, ERL 100:ERS 100 in the ratio of 3:2 was selected for incorporation of permeation enhancers. The permeation studies showed that formulation containing 10% span 20 (OD3) exhibited greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (19.02 ± 0.21 mg) in 72 h, so OD3 was concluded as optimized formulation and assessed for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and skin irritation potential. In vivo studies of optimized olanzapine patch in rabbit model revealed prolongation of action with Frel 116.09% during 72-h study period. Neuroleptic efficacy of transdermal patch was comparable to oral formulation during rotarod and grip test in Wistar albino rats with no skin irritation. Thus, developed formulation of olanzapine is expected to improve the patient compliance, form better dosage regimen, and provide maintenance therapy to psychotic patients. PMID:21913873

  10. Patch network criteria for dispersal-limited endemic birds of South American temperate rain forest.

    PubMed

    Castellón, Traci D; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2007-12-01

    We developed a set of simple empirically based criteria for distinguishing forest patch configurations that we expected to support persistent populations of two endemic Tapaculo species with limited dispersal ability (Chucao Tapaculos [Scelorchilus rubecula] and Black-throated Huet-huets [Pteroptochos tarnii]) in South American temperate rain forest. The criteria address sustainable population sizes (tested using population viability analysis), habitat area needed to support sustainable populations, and measures of functional connectivity derived from radiotelemetry data and patch occupancy models. We then applied the criteria in three real-world demonstration landscapes, first, to predict numbers of breeding territories potentially accommodated within patch configurations and, second, to evaluate increases that might be achieved if landscape connections among isolated patches were restored (e.g., using corridors). The best connected of the three demonstration landscapes was predicted to support large sustainable populations without intervention to restore connectivity, whereas none of the patch configurations was sustainable in the most fragmented landscape, with or without corridor restoration. Notably, however, corridor restoration in the landscape with an intermediate fragmentation level was expected to quadruple the sustainable Chucao population and potentially prevent regional Huet-huet extinction. Thus, our network criteria provide a simple approach for developing and evaluating spatially explicit prescriptions for conservation planning in this highly endangered biome. The criteria may be especially useful for discriminating among landscapes where restoration of connectivity is, or is not, an appropriate course of action. PMID:18213959

  11. Estimating Item Parameters from Classical Indices for Item Pool Development with a Computerized Classification Test. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chi-Yu; Kalohn, John C.; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Spray, Judith

    Item pools supporting computer-based tests are not always completely calibrated. Occasionally, only a small subset of the items in the pool may have actual calibrations, while the remainder of the items may only have classical item statistics, (e.g., "p"-values, point-biserial correlation coefficients, or biserial correlation coefficients).…

  12. A Proposal to Field Test a Supervised Occupational Experience Manual [and] Program Manual. Research Series No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemmich, Dale L.

    A program manual for supervised occupational experience programs in vocational agribusiness and natural resources was prepared to set down guidelines and policy for the program at Dickinson Area Vocational High School, North Dakota. Because of the new concept initiated by the policy statement, it was decided to field test the manual in six other…

  13. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1977-78. General Report. Office of Research Report Series. Volume One/Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busbee, Cyril B.

    The results and methodology of the South Carolina 1977-78 statewide spring testing program for grades 3, 6, and 11 are presented and discussed. The discussion of the results focuses on a comparison of the 1978 results to national norms, a comparison of 1978 to 1977 results, a performance comparison across grade levels, and a comparison of skill…

  14. Development of a self-stressing NiTiNb shape memory alloy (SMA)/fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tahan, M.; Dawood, M.; Song, G.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a self-stressing patch using a combination of shape memory alloys (SMAs) and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Prestressed carbon FRP patches are emerging as a promising alternative to traditional methods to repair cracked steel structures and civil infrastructure. However, prestressing these patches typically requires heavy and complex fixtures, which is impractical in many applications. This paper presents a new approach in which the prestressing force is applied by restraining the shape memory effect of NiTiNb SMA wires. The wires are subsequently embedded in an FRP overlay patch. This method overcomes the practical challenges associated with conventional prestressing. This paper presents the conceptual development of the self-stressing patch with the support of experimental observations. The bond between the SMA wires and the FRP is evaluated using pull-out tests. The paper concludes with an experimental study that evaluates the patch response during activation subsequent monotonic tensile loading. The results demonstrate that the self-stressing patch with NiTiNb SMA is capable of generating a significant prestressing force with minimal tool and labor requirements.

  15. Wideband Patch Antenna for Land based Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. P. S.; Dutt, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an irregular pentagon shaped patch antenna has been presented. The proposed antenna operates over a wide band in frequency range from 12 to 26 GHz with VSWR < 2. It has a partial ground plane with two-inverted L and one I shaped slots in the radiation patch to attain wide bandwidth. The antenna consists of FR4 epoxy as a dielectric substrate with dielectric constant 4.4 and loss tangent 0.002. The size of the antenna is 30 × 30 × 1.57 mm3 and is fed by the microstrip line. The size of the fabricated proposed antenna is smaller than that of the antenna under reference (elliptical radiating patch with defected ground plane). The simulation has been done using high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) which is a finite element method (FEM) based tool. The proposed antenna exhibits the return loss of 21.85, 28.03 and 29.14 dB and gain of 6.6, 5.67 and 7.0 dB at resonant frequencies 16.7, 19.00 and 21.4 GHz, respectively. The bandwidth of the antenna is 10 GHz with normalized radiation efficiencies of 65, 69 and 70 % at corresponding resonant frequencies. The measured results of the fabricated proposed antenna have been compared with the simulated results and there has been a close agreement between both the results. Also the simulated results of the proposed antenna have been compared with the antenna under reference and it is found that the performance of the proposed antenna is far better. The proposed antenna can be used for land based vehicles in both Ku-band (12-18 GHz) and K-band (18-26 GHz).

  16. Analyzing Milestones in Smoking Cessation: Illustration in a Nicotine Patch Trial in Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul; Scharf, Deborah M.; Shadel, William G.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Dang, Qianyu; Paton, Stephanie M.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2006-01-01

    Tests of addiction treatments seldom reveal where treatment exercises its effect (i.e., promoting initial abstinence, preventing lapses, and/or impeding progression from lapse to relapse). The authors illustrate analyses distinguishing effects on these milestones in a randomized trial of high-dose nicotine patch (35 mg; n = 188) versus placebo (n…

  17. How reliable do fibre Bragg grating patches perform as strain sensors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Vivien Gisela; Kusche, Nadine; Habel, Wolfgang R.

    2010-09-01

    In Germany, the first guideline for the use of fibre Bragg grating strain sensors, "Optical Strain Sensor based on Fibre Bragg Grating" [1], has been developed by the GESA guideline group of VDI "The Association of German Engineers" and published by Beuth Verlag. This guideline provides the basic specifications of these sensor types and the sensor characteristics which have to be known for a reliable sensor performance. In conformity to this guideline, experimental investigations on the strain transfer characteristics of fibre Bragg grating patches have been carried out. A comparison between patches and resistance strain gauges during tensile tests and combined temperature and tensile loading was carried out. The evaluated strain gauge factor and the temperature sensitivity of the strain gauge factor have been compared to the manufacturer's data. The overall performance of the patches has been evaluated. The experimental investigations showed that there are partial disagreements between the manufacturer's specifications and the observed characteristics.

  18. Reduction in Stress Intensity Factor of a Compact Tension Specimen by Bonding Symmetrical GFRP Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, P. S.; Tripathi, V. K.; Singh, K. K.; Sarkar, P. K.; Kumar, P.

    2013-10-01

    Reduction in stress intensity factor (SIF) of an acrylic compact tension (CT) specimen is studied by symmetrical bonding of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) patches on both sides of the specimen. The CT specimen was designed and developed to satisfy all dimensional constraints for plane strain condition. A suitable load fixture using dead weight for higher accuracy was designed for the purpose. The numerical and experimental analysis of CT specimen with varying geometry of the GFRP patches was carried out to analyze their effect on SIF of the specimen. The strain near the crack tip was measured by bonding a small strain gauge to estimate the equivalent SIF of the CT specimen. The test data was compared with the results of numerical analysis carried out using ANSYS software. The variation in strain value determined through theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation and experimental measurement is within 7 %. The equivalent SIF was found to be drastically reduced after bonding the CT specimen with GFRP patches.

  19. Dielectric studies of environmentally friendly and flexible lignocelluloses fibrils for miniaturization of patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razaq, Aamir; Khan, Asim Ali; Asif, M. H.; Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Jawad; Manzoor, Faisal; Awan, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Naturally, existing lignocelluloses fibers showed outstanding potential in paper industry and other conventional applications. On the other hand, lignocellulose fibers are suitable candidate for high-tech applications under the scope of abundance, flexibility, light-weight and environment friendliness. In this study, paper sheets were prepared from lignocelluloses fibers extracted from self-growing plant, typha angustifolia. Lignocelluloses paper sheets were characterized for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), universal testing machine (UTM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Flexible paper sheets displayed a tensile strength of 9.1 MPa and further used as a substrate in patch antenna to observe dielectric characteristics. The patch antenna is designed at 5.1 GHz which showed return loss less than -10 dB and dielectric constant 3.71. The use of lignocelluloses paper sheet as a substrate in patch antenna will provide the opportunity of miniaturization of size and weight in comparison of a jean substrate based antenna.

  20. Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Tests of a Family of Models of Flying Hulls Derived from a Streamline Body -- NACA Model 84 Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; Draley, Eugene C; Luoma, Arvo A

    1943-01-01

    A series of related forms of flying-boat hulls representing various degrees of compromise between aerodynamic and hydrodynamic requirements was tested in Langley Tank No. 1 and in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. The purpose of the investigation was to provide information regarding the penalties in water performance resulting from further aerodynamic refinement and, as a corollary, to provide information regarding the penalties in range or payload resulting from the retention of certain desirable hydrodynamic characteristics. The information should form a basis for over-all improvements in hull form.