Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-07-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ>|0> + |0>|φ>, where an arbitrary state |φ> occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ>. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ>. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation.
Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states.
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-01-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267
Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-01-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267
Quantum correlation of path-entangled two-photon states in waveguide arrays with defects
Dou, Yiling; Xu, Lei; Han, Bin; Bo, Fang; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan
2014-04-15
We study the quantum correlation of path-entangled states of two photons in coupled one-dimensional waveguide arrays with lattice defects. Both off-diagonal and diagonal defects are considered, which show different effects on the quantum correlation of path-entangled two-photon states. Two-photon bunching or anti-bunching effects can be observed and controlled. The two photons are found to have a tendency to bunch at the side lobes with a repulsive off-diagonal defect, and the path-entanglement of the input two-photon state can be preserved during the propagation. We also found that defect modes may play an important role on the two-photon correlation of path-entangled states in the waveguide arrays. Due to the quantum interference effect, intriguing evolution dynamics of the two-photon correlation matrix elements with oscillation frequencies being either twice of or the same as that of a classical light wave, depending on the position of the correlation matrix element, is observed. Our results show that it is possible to manipulate the two-photon correlation properties of path-entangled states in waveguide arrays with lattice defects.
Strong violations of Bell-type inequalities for path-entangled number states
Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lund, Austin P.
2007-11-15
We show that nonlocal correlation experiments on the two spatially separated modes of a maximally path-entangled number state may be performed. They lead to a violation of a Clauser-Horne Bell inequality for any finite photon number N. We also present an analytical expression for the two-mode Wigner function of a maximally path-entangled number state and investigate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for such a state. We test other Bell-type inequalities. Some are violated by a constant amount for any N.
Path entanglement of continuous-variable quantum microwaves.
Menzel, E P; Di Candia, R; Deppe, F; Eder, P; Zhong, L; Ihmig, M; Haeberlein, M; Baust, A; Hoffmann, E; Ballester, D; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Solano, E; Marx, A; Gross, R
2012-12-21
Path entanglement constitutes an essential resource in quantum information and communication protocols. Here, we demonstrate frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two spatially separated paths. We combine a squeezed and a vacuum state using a microwave beam splitter. Via correlation measurements, we detect and quantify the path entanglement contained in the beam splitter output state. Our experiments open the avenue to quantum teleportation, quantum communication, or quantum radar with continuous variables at microwave frequencies. PMID:23368439
Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement.
Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2009-03-20
We report a quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state that is prepared by means of two-photon quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is truly quantum mechanical in origin since it results from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test. PMID:19305476
The generation of entangled states from independent particle sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, Morton H.; Shih, Yan-Hua
1994-01-01
The generation of entangled states of two systems from product states is discussed for the case in which the paths of the two systems do not overlap. A particular method of measuring allows one to project out the nonlocal entangled state. An application to the production of four photon entangled states is outlined.
Extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses: Finding new bound entangled states
Sengupta, R.; Arvind
2011-09-15
In this paper, we discuss extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses based on Choi's map. The constructions are based on a generalization of the Choi map, from which we construct entanglement witnesses. These extremal extensions are powerful in terms of their capacity to detect entanglement of positive under partial transpose (PPT) entangled states and lead to unearthing of entanglement of new PPT states. We also use the Cholesky-like decomposition to construct entangled states which are revealed by these extremal entanglement witnesses.
Path Entanglement of Continuous-Variable Quantum Microwaves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Eder, P.; Zhong, L.; Haeberlein, M.; Baust, A.; Hoffmann, E.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; di Candia, R.; Solano, E.; Ballester, D.; Ihmig, M.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.
2013-03-01
Entanglement is a quantum mechanical phenomenon playing a key role in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Here, we report on frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two separated paths. In our experiment, we combine a squeezed and a vacuum state via a beam splitter. Overcoming the challenges imposed by the low photon energies in the microwave regime, we reconstruct the squeezed state and, independently from this, detect and quantify the produced entanglement via correlation measurements (E. P. Menzel et al., arXiv:1210.4413). Our work paves the way towards quantum communication and teleportation with continuous variables in the microwave regime. This work is supported by SFB 631, German Excellence Initiative via NIM, EU projects SOLID, CCQED and PROMISCE, MEXT Kakenhi ``Quantum Cybernetics'', JSPS FIRST Program, the NICT Commissioned Research, EPSRC EP/H050434/1, Basque Government IT472-10, and Spanish MICINN FIS2009-12773-C02-01.
Limited-path-length entanglement percolation in quantum complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuquet, Martí; Calsamiglia, John
2011-03-01
We study entanglement distribution in quantum complex networks where nodes are connected by bipartite entangled states. These networks are characterized by a complex structure, which dramatically affects how information is transmitted through them. For pure quantum state links, quantum networks exhibit a remarkable feature absent in classical networks: it is possible to effectively rewire the network by performing local operations on the nodes. We propose a family of such quantum operations that decrease the entanglement percolation threshold of the network and increase the size of the giant connected component. We provide analytic results for complex networks with an arbitrary (uncorrelated) degree distribution. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which also show enhancement in correlated and real-world networks. The proposed quantum preprocessing strategies are not robust in the presence of noise. However, even when the links consist of (noisy) mixed-state links, one can send quantum information through a connecting path with a fidelity that decreases with the path length. In this noisy scenario, complex networks offer a clear advantage over regular lattices, namely, the fact that two arbitrary nodes can be connected through a relatively small number of steps, known as the small-world effect. We calculate the probability that two arbitrary nodes in the network can successfully communicate with a fidelity above a given threshold. This amounts to working out the classical problem of percolation with a limited path length. We find that this probability can be significant even for paths limited to few connections and that the results for standard (unlimited) percolation are soon recovered if the path length exceeds by a finite amount the average path length, which in complex networks generally scales logarithmically with the size of the network.
Entangling ability of a beam splitter in the presence of temporal which-path information
Velsen, J.L. van
2005-07-15
We calculate the amount of polarization-entanglement induced by two-photon interference at a lossless beam splitter. Entanglement and its witness are quantified, respectively, by concurrence and the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) parameter. In the presence of a Mandel dip, the interplay of two kinds of which-path information--temporal and polarization--gives rise to the existence of entangled polarization states that cannot violate the Bell-CHSH inequality.
Entanglement swapping of two arbitrarily degraded entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirby, Brian T.; Santra, Siddhartha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Brodsky, Michael
2016-07-01
We consider entanglement swapping, a key component of quantum network operations and entanglement distribution. Pure entangled states, which are the desired input to the swapping protocol, are typically mixed by environmental interactions, causing a reduction in their degree of entanglement. Thus an understanding of entanglement swapping with partially mixed states is of importance. Here we present a general analytical solution for entanglement swapping of arbitrary two-qubit states. Our result provides a comprehensive method for analyzing entanglement swapping in quantum networks. First, we show that the concurrence of a partially mixed state is conserved when this state is swapped with a Bell state. Then, we find upper and lower bounds on the concurrence of the state resulting from entanglement swapping for various classes of input states. Finally, we determine a general relationship between the ranks of the initial states and the rank of the final state after swapping.
Entanglement under restricted operations: Analogy to mixed-state entanglement
Bartlett, Stephen D.; Doherty, Andrew C.; Spekkens, Robert W.; Wiseman, H. M.
2006-02-15
We show that the classification of bipartite pure entangled states when local quantum operations are restricted yields a structure that is analogous in many respects to that of mixed-state entanglement. Specifically, we develop this analogy by restricting operations through local superselection rules, and show that such exotic phenomena as bound entanglement and activation arise using pure states in this setting. This analogy aids in resolving several conceptual puzzles in the study of entanglement under restricted operations. In particular, we demonstrate that several types of quantum optical states that possess confusing entanglement properties are analogous to bound entangled states. Also, the classification of pure-state entanglement under restricted operations can be much simpler than for mixed-state entanglement. For instance, in the case of local Abelian superselection rules all questions concerning distillability can be resolved.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandao, F.G.S.L.; Terra Cunha, M.O.
2005-10-15
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
Local cloning of entangled states
Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.
2010-08-15
We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.
Entanglement for All Quantum States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-01-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…
Guerreiro, T; Monteiro, F; Martin, A; Brask, J B; Vértesi, T; Korzh, B; Caloz, M; Bussières, F; Verma, V B; Lita, A E; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W; Marsilli, F; Shaw, M D; Gisin, N; Brunner, N; Zbinden, H; Thew, R T
2016-08-12
We demonstrate the violation of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequality developed for single-photon path entanglement with displacement-based detection. We use a high-rate source of heralded single-photon path-entangled states, combined with high-efficiency superconducting-based detectors, in a scheme that is free of any postselection and thus immune to the detection loophole. This result conclusively demonstrates single-photon entanglement in a one-sided device-independent scenario, and opens the way towards implementations of device-independent quantum technologies within the paradigm of path entanglement. PMID:27563941
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerreiro, T.; Monteiro, F.; Martin, A.; Brask, J. B.; Vértesi, T.; Korzh, B.; Caloz, M.; Bussières, F.; Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.; Marsilli, F.; Shaw, M. D.; Gisin, N.; Brunner, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.
2016-08-01
We demonstrate the violation of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequality developed for single-photon path entanglement with displacement-based detection. We use a high-rate source of heralded single-photon path-entangled states, combined with high-efficiency superconducting-based detectors, in a scheme that is free of any postselection and thus immune to the detection loophole. This result conclusively demonstrates single-photon entanglement in a one-sided device-independent scenario, and opens the way towards implementations of device-independent quantum technologies within the paradigm of path entanglement.
Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states
Metwally, N.
2014-12-15
The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
Entanglement for all quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-03-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical relevance of the change of tensor product structure is mentioned.
Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flores, M. M.; Galapon, E. A.
2016-09-01
We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.
Scattering of entangled two-photon states.
Schotland, John C; Cazé, A; Norris, Theodore B
2016-02-01
We consider the scattering of entangled two-photon states from collections of small particles. We also study the related Mie problem of scattering from a sphere. In both cases, we calculate the entropy of entanglement and investigate the influence of the entanglement of the incident field on the entanglement of the scattered field. PMID:26907393
Highly entangled states with almost no secrecy.
Christandl, Matthias; Schuch, Norbert; Winter, Andreas
2010-06-18
In this Letter we illuminate the relation between entanglement and secrecy by providing the first example of a quantum state that is highly entangled, but from which, nevertheless, almost no secrecy can be extracted. More precisely, we provide two bounds on the bipartite entanglement of the totally antisymmetric state in dimension d×d. First, we show that the amount of secrecy that can be extracted from the state is low; to be precise it is bounded by O(1/d). Second, we show that the state is highly entangled in the sense that we need a large amount of singlets to create the state: entanglement cost is larger than a constant, independent of d. In order to obtain our results we use representation theory, linear programming, and the entanglement measure known as squashed entanglement. Our findings also clarify the relation between the squashed entanglement and the relative entropy of entanglement. PMID:20867285
Generation of entangled squeezed states: their entanglement and quantum polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2015-11-01
In this paper, based on the well-known one-mode and two-mode squeezed states, we introduce the two-mode and four-mode entangled squeezed states. Next, in order to generate the introduced entangled states, we present two theoretical schemes based on the resonant atom-field interaction. In the proposed schemes, a Λ -type three-level atom interacts with the two-mode and four-mode quantized field in the presence of two strong classical fields in which two-photon atomic transitions are allowed. In the continuation, we study entanglement dynamics of the generated entangled states (using the von Neumann entropy) as well as the quantum polarization (using the Stokes operators). It is demonstrated that entanglement and polarization can be achieved for the produced states by adjusting the evolved parameters.
Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano
2009-12-15
We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n<=7.
Spin-path entanglement in single-neutron interferometer experiments
Hasegawa, Yuji; Erdoesi, Daniel
2011-09-23
There are two powerful arguments against the possibility of extending quantum mechanics (QM) into a more fundamental theory yielding a deterministic description of nature. One is the experimental violation of Bell inequalities, which discards local hidden-variable theories as a possible extension to QM. The other is the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, which stresses the incompatibility of QM with a larger class of hidden-variable theories, known as noncontextual hidden-variable theories. We performed experiments with neutron interferometer, which exploits spin-path entanglements in single neutrons. A Bell-like state is generated to demonstrate a violation of the Bell-like inequality and phenomena in accordance with KS theorem: both experiments study quantum contextuality and show clear evidence of the incompatibility of noncontextual hidden variable theories with QM. The value S = 2.202{+-}0.007 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 2 is obtained in the new measurement of the Bell-like inequality, which shows a larger violation than the previous measurement. For the study of KS theorem, the obtained violation 2.291{+-}0.008 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 1 clearly shows that quantum mechanical predictions cannot be reproduced by noncontextual hidden variable theories.
Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2014-10-01
The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.
Entanglement classification with matrix product states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanz, M.; Egusquiza, I. L.; di Candia, R.; Saberi, H.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.
2016-07-01
We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by .
Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping
Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang
2009-12-15
Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.
Entangled States, Holography and Quantum Surfaces
Chapline, G F
2003-08-13
Starting with an elementary discussion of quantum holography, we show that entangled quantum states of qubits provide a ''local'' representation of the global geometry and topology of quantum Riemann surfaces. This representation may play an important role in both mathematics and physics. Indeed, the simplest way to represent the fundamental objects in a ''theory of everything'' may be as muti-qubit entangled states.
Chen Lixiang; She Weilong
2011-03-15
We propose a scheme to generate hybrid Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement where multiple photons are entangled in different degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), and path (linear momentum). The generation involves mapping the preliminary OAM entanglement of photon pairs onto their spin-orbit and spin-path degrees of freedom, respectively. Based on the hybrid GHZ entanglement, we demonstrate an open-destination teleportation with multiples degrees of freedom, via which a spin state of a single photon is teleported onto a superposition of multiple photons with the postselection technique and the original information could be read out at any photon in individual spin, OAM, or the linear-momentum state. Our scheme holds promise for asymmetric optical quantum network.
Diagnosing Topological Edge States via Entanglement Monogamy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meichanetzidis, K.; Eisert, J.; Cirio, M.; Lahtinen, V.; Pachos, J. K.
2016-04-01
Topological phases of matter possess intricate correlation patterns typically probed by entanglement entropies or entanglement spectra. In this Letter, we propose an alternative approach to assessing topologically induced edge states in free and interacting fermionic systems. We do so by focussing on the fermionic covariance matrix. This matrix is often tractable either analytically or numerically, and it precisely captures the relevant correlations of the system. By invoking the concept of monogamy of entanglement, we show that highly entangled states supported across a system bipartition are largely disentangled from the rest of the system, thus, usually appearing as gapless edge states. We then define an entanglement qualifier that identifies the presence of topological edge states based purely on correlations present in the ground states. We demonstrate the versatility of this qualifier by applying it to various free and interacting fermionic topological systems.
Diagnosing Topological Edge States via Entanglement Monogamy.
Meichanetzidis, K; Eisert, J; Cirio, M; Lahtinen, V; Pachos, J K
2016-04-01
Topological phases of matter possess intricate correlation patterns typically probed by entanglement entropies or entanglement spectra. In this Letter, we propose an alternative approach to assessing topologically induced edge states in free and interacting fermionic systems. We do so by focussing on the fermionic covariance matrix. This matrix is often tractable either analytically or numerically, and it precisely captures the relevant correlations of the system. By invoking the concept of monogamy of entanglement, we show that highly entangled states supported across a system bipartition are largely disentangled from the rest of the system, thus, usually appearing as gapless edge states. We then define an entanglement qualifier that identifies the presence of topological edge states based purely on correlations present in the ground states. We demonstrate the versatility of this qualifier by applying it to various free and interacting fermionic topological systems. PMID:27081962
Entanglement of quantum circular states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horoshko, D. B.; De Bièvre, S.; Kolobov, M. I.; Patera, G.
2016-06-01
We present a general approach to calculating the entanglement of formation for superpositions of two-mode coherent states, placed equidistantly on a circle in phase space. We show that in the particular case of rotationally invariant circular states the Schmidt decomposition of two modes, and therefore the value of their entanglement, are given by analytical expressions. We analyze the dependence of the entanglement on the radius of the circle and number of components in the superposition. We also show that the set of rotationally invariant circular states creates an orthonormal basis in the state space of the harmonic oscillator, and this basis is advantageous for representation of other circular states of light.
Entanglement concentration of three-partite states
Groisman, Berry; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu
2005-12-15
We investigate the concentration of multiparty entanglement by focusing on a simple family of three-partite pure states, superpositions of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and singlets. Despite the simplicity of the states, we show that they cannot be reversibly concentrated by the standard entanglement concentration procedure, to which they seem ideally suited. Our results cast doubt on the idea that for each N there might be a finite set of N-party states into which any pure state can be reversibly transformed. We further relate our results to the concept of locking of entanglement of formation.
Entanglement of trapped-ion clock states
Haljan, P. C.; Lee, P. J.; Brickman, K-A.; Acton, M.; Deslauriers, L.; Monroe, C.
2005-12-15
A Moelmer-Soerensen entangling gate is realized for pairs of trapped {sup 111}Cd{sup +} ions using magnetic-field insensitive 'clock' states and an implementation offering reduced sensitivity to optical phase drifts. The gate is used to generate the complete set of four entangled states, which are reconstructed and evaluated with quantum-state tomography. An average target-state fidelity of 0.79 is achieved, limited by available laser power and technical noise. The tomographic reconstruction of entangled states demonstrates universal quantum control of two ion qubits, which through multiplexing can provide a route to scalable architectures for trapped-ion quantum computing.
Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Rezaee, M.; Seyed Yagoobi, S. K. A.
2005-12-15
It has been shown that finding generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for d{sub 1}xd{sub 2}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}xd{sub n} systems reduces to linear programming if the feasible region is a polygon by itself, and it can be solved approximately via linear programming if the feasible region is encircled by a polygon. Since solving linear programming for the generic case is difficult, multiqubit, 2xN and 3x3 systems for the special case of generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for some particular choice of parameters have been considered. We obtain the optimal nondecomposable entanglement witness for a 3x3 system for some particular choice of parameters. By proving the optimality of the well-known reduction map and combining it with the optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses (named critical entanglement witnesses) the family of optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses has also been obtained. Using the approximately critical entanglement witnesses, some 3x3 bound entangled states are so detected. So the well-known Choi map as a particular case of the positive map in connection with this witness via Jamiolkowski isomorphism has been considered.
Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules
Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L.
2015-05-15
This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.
Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement
Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian
2014-12-04
The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.
Construction of bound entangled states based on permutation operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hui; Guo, Sha; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shaoming
2016-04-01
We present a construction of new bound entangled states from given bound entangled states for arbitrary dimensional bipartite systems. One way to construct bound entangled states is to show that these states are positive partial transpose (PPT) and violate the range criterion at the same time. By applying certain operators to given bound entangled states or to one of the subsystems of the given bound entangled states, we obtain a set of new states which are both PPT and violate the range criterion. We show that the derived bound entangled states are not local unitary equivalent to the original bound entangled states by detail examples.
All entangled quantum states are nonlocal.
Buscemi, Francesco
2012-05-18
Departing from the usual paradigm of local operations and classical communication adopted in entanglement theory, we study here the interconversion of quantum states by means of local operations and shared randomness. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a transformation between two given quantum states is given in terms of the payoff they yield in a suitable class of nonlocal games. It is shown that, as a consequence of our result, such a class of nonlocal games is able to witness quantum entanglement, however weak, and reveal nonlocality in any entangled quantum state. An example illustrating this fact is provided. PMID:23003127
Macroscopic entanglement of many-magnon states
Morimae, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Akira; Sugita, Ayumu
2005-03-01
We study macroscopic entanglement of various pure states of a one-dimensional N-spin system with N>>1. Here, a quantum state is said to be macroscopically entangled if it is a superposition of macroscopically distinct states. To judge whether such superposition is hidden in a general state, we use an essentially unique index p: A pure state is macroscopically entangled if p=2, whereas it may be entangled but not macroscopically if p<2. This index is directly related to fundamental stabilities of many-body states. We calculate the index p for various states in which magnons are excited with various densities and wave numbers. We find macroscopically entangled states (p=2) as well as states with p=1. The former states are unstable in the sense that they are unstable against some local measurements. On the other hand, the latter states are stable in the senses that they are stable against any local measurements and that their decoherence rates never exceed O(N) in any weak classical noises. For comparison, we also calculate the von Neumann entropy S{sub N/2}(N) of a subsystem composed of N/2 spins as a measure of bipartite entanglement. We find that S{sub N/2}(N) of some states with p=1 is of the same order of magnitude as the maximum value N/2. On the other hand, S{sub N/2}(N) of the macroscopically entangled states with p=2 is as small as O(log N)<
Entangled photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando
2016-08-01
We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0, can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{ {crit}} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.
Entangled photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando
2016-05-01
We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0 , can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{crit} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.
Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.
2016-05-01
Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. Although it has been extensively studied theoretically, quantum discord has yet to become a standard tool in experimental studies of correlation. We propose a class of experiments in which quantum correlations are present in the absence of entanglement, and are best understood in terms of quantum discord.. These utilize X-states of two qubits, which correspond to the polarization and the optical path of a single photon within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show how to produce states with diverse measures of discord and entanglement, including the case of discord without entanglement. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we analytically study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations.
Genuine multiparticle entanglement of permutationally invariant states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novo, Leonardo; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried
2013-07-01
We consider the problem of characterizing genuine multiparticle entanglement for permutationally invariant states using the approach of positive partial transpose mixtures. We show that the evaluation of this necessary biseparability criterion scales polynomially with the number of particles. In practice, it can be evaluated easily up to ten qubits and improves existing criteria significantly. Finally, we show that our approach solves the problem of characterizing genuine multiparticle entanglement for permutationally invariant three-qubit states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Ronghua; Liu, Shaorong; Wang, Shuo; Guo, Ying
2015-02-01
We present two deterministic entanglement purifications protocols for χ-type entangled states, resorting to multiple degrees of freedom. One protocol is implemented with the spatial entanglement to distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states, resorting to some linear optical elements. Another one is implemented with the frequency entanglement for the purification. All the parties can jointly distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states affected by the environmental noise during transmission. Both of the protocols can work in a deterministic way with the success probability 100 %, in principle. The derived features may make the protocols useful in the practical long-distance quantum communication.
Entanglement and the shareability of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doherty, Andrew C.
2014-10-01
This brief review discusses the problem of determining whether a given quantum state is separable or entangled. I describe an established approach to this problem that is based on the monogamy of entanglement, which is the observation that a pair of quantum systems that are strongly entangled must be uncorrelated with the rest of the world. Unentangled states on the other hand involve correlations that can be shared with many other parties. Checking whether a given quantum state is shareable involves constructing certain symmetric quantum state extensions and I discuss how to do this using a class of optimizations known as semidefinite programs. An attractive feature of this approach is that it generates explicit entanglement witnesses that can be measured to demonstrate the entanglement experimentally. In recent years analysis of this approach has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of determining whether a given quantum state is entangled and this review aims to give a unified discussion of these developments. Specifically, I describe how to use finite quantum de Finetti theorems to prove that highly shareable states are nearly separable and use these results to understand the computational complexity of the problem. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Entanglement classification with matrix product states
Sanz, M.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Candia, R.; Saberi, H.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.
2016-01-01
We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by . PMID:27457273
Entanglement classification with matrix product states.
Sanz, M; Egusquiza, I L; Di Candia, R; Saberi, H; Lamata, L; Solano, E
2016-01-01
We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by . PMID:27457273
Telecloning of qudits via partially entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araneda, Gabriel; Cisternas, Nataly; Delgado, Aldo
2016-08-01
We study the process of quantum telecloning of d-dimensional pure quantum states using partially entangled pure states as quantum channel. This process efficiently mixes optimal universal symmetric cloning with quantum teleportation. It is shown that it is possible to implement universal symmetric telecloning in a probabilistic way using unambiguous state discrimination and quantum state separation schemes. It is also shown that other strategies, such as minimum error discrimination, lead to a decrease in the fidelity of the copies and that certain partially entangled pure states with maximal Schmidt rank lead to an average telecloning fidelity which is always above the optimal fidelity of measuring and preparation of quantum states. We also discuss the case of partially entangled pure states with non-maximal Schmidt rank. The results presented here are valid for arbitrary numbers of copies of a single-input qudit state of any dimension.
Telecloning of qudits via partially entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araneda, Gabriel; Cisternas, Nataly; Delgado, Aldo
2016-05-01
We study the process of quantum telecloning of d-dimensional pure quantum states using partially entangled pure states as quantum channel. This process efficiently mixes optimal universal symmetric cloning with quantum teleportation. It is shown that it is possible to implement universal symmetric telecloning in a probabilistic way using unambiguous state discrimination and quantum state separation schemes. It is also shown that other strategies, such as minimum error discrimination, lead to a decrease in the fidelity of the copies and that certain partially entangled pure states with maximal Schmidt rank lead to an average telecloning fidelity which is always above the optimal fidelity of measuring and preparation of quantum states. We also discuss the case of partially entangled pure states with non-maximal Schmidt rank. The results presented here are valid for arbitrary numbers of copies of a single-input qudit state of any dimension.
Entanglement witnesses and geometry of entanglement of two-qutrit states
Bertlmann, Reinhold A. Krammer, Philipp
2009-07-15
We construct entanglement witnesses with regard to the geometric structure of the Hilbert-Schmidt space and investigate the geometry of entanglement. In particular, for a two-parameter family of two-qutrit states that are part of the magic simplex, we calculate the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement. We present a method to detect bound entanglement which is illustrated for a three-parameter family of states. In this way, we discover new regions of bound entangled states. Furthermore, we outline how to use our method to distinguish entangled from separable states.
A heralded two-qutrit entangled state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joo, Jaewoo; Rudolph, Terry; Sanders, Barry C.
2009-06-01
We propose a scheme for building a heralded two-qutrit entangled state from polarized photons. An optical circuit is presented to build the maximally entangled two-qutrit state from two heralded Bell pairs and ideal threshold detectors. Several schemes are discussed for constructing the two Bell pairs. We also show how one can produce an unbalanced two-qutrit state that could be of general purpose use in some protocols. In terms of the applications of the maximally entangled qutrit state, we mainly focus on how to use the state to demonstrate a violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality under the restriction of measurements which can be performed using linear optical elements and photon counting. Other possible applications of the state, such as for higher dimensional quantum cryptography, teleportation and generation of heralded two-qudit states, are also briefly discussed.
Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states
Wei, T.-C.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank
2003-02-01
Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy. Along the way, we determine the states that, for a given value of entropy, achieve maximal violation of Bell's inequality.
Nonbilocal measurement via an entangled state
Shmaya, Eran
2005-08-15
Two observers, who share a pair of particles in an entangled mixed state, can use it to perform some nonbilocal measurements over another bipartite system. In particular, one can construct a specific game played by the observers against a coordinator, in which they can score better than a pair of observers who only share a classical communication channel. The existence of such a game is an operational implication of an entanglement witness.
Spatial entanglement of nonvacuum Gaussian states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiałka, Filip; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dragan, Andrzej
2016-06-01
The vacuum state of a relativistic quantum field contains entanglement between regions separated by spacelike intervals. Such spatial entanglement can be revealed using an operational method introduced in [M. Rodriguez-Vazquez, M. del Rey, H. Westman, and J. Leon, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 351, 112 (2014), E. G. Brown, M. del Rey, H. Westman, J. Leon, and A. Dragan, Phys. Rev. D 91, 016005 (2015)]. In this approach, a cavity is instantaneously divided into halves by an introduction of an extra perfect mirror. Causal separation of the two regions of the cavity reveals nonlocal spatial correlations present in the field, which can be quantified by measuring particles generated in the process. We use this method to study spatial entanglement properties of nonvacuum Gaussian field states. In particular, we show how to enhance the amount of harvested spatial entanglement by an appropriate choice of the initial state of the field in the cavity. We find a counterintuitive influence of the initial entanglement between cavity modes on the spatial entanglement which is revealed by dividing the cavity in half.
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streltsov, A.; Chitambar, E.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Winter, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2016-06-01
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.
Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-06-17
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state. PMID:27367369
Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing
Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.
2008-05-01
In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.
Nonlocal entanglement of coherent states, complementarity, and quantum erasure
Gerry, Christopher C.; Grobe, R.
2007-03-15
We describe a nonlocal method for generating entangled coherent states of a two-mode field wherein the field modes never meet. The proposed method is an extension of an earlier proposal [C. C. Gerry, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4095 (1999)] for the generation of superpositions of coherent states. A single photon injected into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with cross-Kerr media in both arms coupling with two external fields in coherent states produces entangled coherent states upon detection at one of the output ports. We point out that our proposal can be alternatively viewed as a 'which path' experiment, and in the case of only one external field, we describe the implementation of a quantum eraser.
Entanglement purification protocol for a mixture of a pure entangled state and a pure product state
Czechlewski, Mikolaj; Wojcik, Antoni; Grudka, Andrzej; Ishizaka, Satoshi
2009-07-15
We present an entanglement purification protocol for a mixture of a pure entangled state and a pure product state, which are orthogonal to each other. The protocol is a combination of bisection method and one-way hashing protocol. We give recursive formula for the rate of the protocol for different states, i.e., the number of maximally entangled two-qubit pairs obtained with the protocol per a single copy of the initial state. We also calculate numerically the rate for some states.
Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2016-03-01
A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Hongyan; Guo, Ying
2015-01-01
We present two deterministic entanglement purification protocols for distilling W state in polarization entanglement in a one-step fashion. The three parties can obtain a maximally entangled W polarization state with success probability 100 % from the hyper-entangled W state in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs), and they do not require the quantum system to be entangled in polarization DOF but in spatial DOF. The former protocol is implemented with the passive linear optics, which is feasible with current experiments. The later one is implemented with cross-Kerr-nonlinearities, which can achieve higher efficiency of the entanglement transformation among different DOFs since it does not require the sophisticated single-photon detector. The present protocols are both suitable for polarization entanglement purification of multi-photon-entangled W state in quantum computation network because they need less operations and classical communications in the practical implementation.
Tripartite information of highly entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rota, Massimiliano
2016-04-01
Holographic systems require monogamous mutual information for validity of semiclassical geometry. This is encoded by the sign of the tripartite information ( I3). We investigate the behaviour of I3 for all partitionings of systems in states which are highly entangled in a multipartite or bipartite sense. In the case of multipartite entanglement we propose an algorithmic construction that we conjecture can be used to build local maxima of I3 for any partitioning. In case of bipartite entanglement we classify the possible values of I3 for perfect states and investigate, in some examples, the effect on its sign definiteness due to deformations of the states. Finally we comment on the proposal of using I3 as a parameter of scrambling, arguing that in general its average over qubits permutations could be a more sensible measure.
Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states
Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech
2010-08-15
The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.
Entanglement and symmetry in permutation-symmetric states
Markham, Damian J. H.
2011-04-15
We investigate the relationship between multipartite entanglement and symmetry, focusing on permutation symmetric states. We give a highly intuitive geometric interpretation to entanglement via the Majorana representation, where these states correspond to points on a unit sphere. We use this to show how various entanglement properties are determined by the symmetry properties of the states. The geometric measure of entanglement is thus phrased entirely as a geometric optimization and a condition for the equivalence of entanglement measures written in terms of point symmetries. Finally, we see that different symmetries of the states correspond to different types of entanglement with respect to interconvertibility under stochastic local operations and classical communication.
Quantifying asymmetry of quantum states using entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Borzu
2013-03-01
For open systems, symmetric dynamics do not always lead to conservation laws. We show that, for a dynamic symmetry associated with a compact Lie group, one can derive new selection rules from entanglement theory. These selection rules apply to both closed and open systems as well as reversible and irreversible time evolutions. Our approach is based on an embedding of the system's Hilbert space into a tensor product of two Hilbert spaces allowing for the symmetric dynamics to be simulated with local operations. The entanglement of the embedded states determines which transformations are forbidden because of the symmetry. In fact, every bipartite entanglement monotone can be used to quantify the asymmetry of the initial states. Moreover, where the dynamics is reversible, each of these monotones becomes a new conserved quantity. This research has been supported by the Institute for Quantum Information Science (IQIS) at the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, NSERC, General Dynamics Canada, and MITACS.
Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements
Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu
2011-10-15
An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.
Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states
Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger
2001-04-01
A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assadi, Leila; Jafarpour, Mojtaba
2016-07-01
We use concurrence to study bipartite entanglement, Meyer-Wallach measure and its generalizations to study multi-partite entanglement and MABK and SASA inequalities to study the non-local properties of the 4-qubit entangled graph states, quantitatively. Then, we present 3 classifications, each one in accordance with one of the aforementioned properties. We also observe that the classification according to multipartite entanglement does exactly coincide with that according to nonlocal properties, but does not match with that according to bipartite entanglement. This observation signifies the fact that non-locality and multipartite entanglement enjoy the same basic underlying principles, while bipartite entanglement may not reveal the non-locality issue in its entirety.
Generating coherent states of entangled spins
Yu Hongyi; Luo Yu; Yao Wang
2011-09-15
A coherent state of many spins contains quantum entanglement, which increases with a decrease in the collective spin value. We present a scheme to engineer this class of pure state based on incoherent spin pumping with a few collective raising or lowering operators. In a pumping scenario aimed for maximum entanglement, the steady state of N-pumped spin qubits realizes the ideal resource for the 1{yields}(N/2) quantum telecloning. We show how the scheme can be implemented in a realistic system of atomic spin qubits in an optical lattice. Error analysis shows that high-fidelity state engineering is possible for N{approx}O(100) spins in the presence of decoherence. The scheme can also prepare a resource state for the secret sharing protocol and for the construction of the large-scale Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Ming; Li, Cheng-Zu
2008-04-01
We present a scheme for probabilistically teleporting an unknown three-level bipartite entangled state by using a partial entangled three-level bipartite state as quantum channel. This scheme can be directly generalized to probabilistically teleport an unknown three-level k-particle entangled state by a partial three-level bipartite entangled state. All kinds of unitary transformations are given in detail. We calculate the successful total probability and the total classical communication cost required for this scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Lin, Song; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Zhu, Fu-Chen
2009-10-01
The security of a deterministic secure quantum communication using four-particle genuine entangled state and entanglement swapping [X.M. Xiu, H.K. Dong, L. Dong, Y.J. Cao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 2457] is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can entangle an ancilla without introducing any error in the security test utilizing a speciality of the four-particle genuine entangled state. Moreover, the eavesdropper can distill a quarter of the secret information from her entangled ancilla. Finally, a simple improvement to resist this attack is proposed.
Negative entanglement measure for bipartite separable mixed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng-Jie; Han, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Chun; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Guo, Guang-Can
2010-12-01
We define a negative entanglement measure for separable states which shows how much entanglement one should compensate the unentangled state, at the least, to change it into an entangled state. For two-qubit systems and some special classes of states in higher-dimensional systems, the explicit formula and the lower bounds for the negative entanglement measure (NEM) have been presented, and it always vanishes for bipartite separable pure states. The negative entanglement measure can be used as a useful quantity to describe the entanglement dynamics and the quantum phase transition. In the transverse Ising model, the first derivatives of negative entanglement measure diverge on approaching the critical value of the quantum phase transition, although these two-site reduced density matrices have no entanglement at all. In the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model, the NEM as a function of t/U changes from zero to negative on approaching the critical point of quantum phase transition.
Negative entanglement measure for bipartite separable mixed states
Zhang Chengjie; Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Wu Yuchun; Zhou Xiangfa; Guo Guangcan
2010-12-15
We define a negative entanglement measure for separable states which shows how much entanglement one should compensate the unentangled state, at the least, to change it into an entangled state. For two-qubit systems and some special classes of states in higher-dimensional systems, the explicit formula and the lower bounds for the negative entanglement measure (NEM) have been presented, and it always vanishes for bipartite separable pure states. The negative entanglement measure can be used as a useful quantity to describe the entanglement dynamics and the quantum phase transition. In the transverse Ising model, the first derivatives of negative entanglement measure diverge on approaching the critical value of the quantum phase transition, although these two-site reduced density matrices have no entanglement at all. In the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model, the NEM as a function of t/U changes from zero to negative on approaching the critical point of quantum phase transition.
Teleportation of entangled states without Bell-state measurement
Cardoso, Wesley B.; Baseia, B.; Avelar, A.T.; Almeida, N.G. de
2005-10-15
In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 70, 025803 (2004)] we presented a scheme to teleport an entanglement of zero- and one-photon states from a bimodal cavity to another one, with 100% success probability. Here, inspired by recent results in the literature, we have modified our previous proposal to teleport the same entangled state without using Bell-state measurements. For comparison, the time spent, the fidelity, and the success probability for this teleportation are considered.
Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayer, Manfred
2002-03-01
Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li-Die; Wang, Li-Tao; Yang, Mou; Xu, Jing-Zhou; Wang, Z. D.; Bai, Yan-Kui
2016-06-01
The maximally entangled state can be in a mixed state as well as the well-known pure state. Taking the negativity as a measure of entanglement, we study the entanglement dynamics of bipartite, mixed maximally entangled states (MMESs) in multipartite cavity-reservoir systems. It is found that the MMES can exhibit the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death, which is quite different from the asymptotic decay of the pure-Bell-state case. We also find that maximal entanglement cannot guarantee maximal nonlocality, and the MMES does not correspond to the state with maximal measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN). In fact, the value and dynamic behavior of the MIN for the MMESs are dependent on the mixed-state probability. In addition, we investigate the distributions of negativity and the MIN in a multipartite system, where the two types of correlations have different monogamous properties.
Unitarily localizable entanglement of Gaussian states
Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-03-01
We consider generic (mxn)-mode bipartitions of continuous-variable systems, and study the associated bisymmetric multimode Gaussian states. They are defined as (m+n)-mode Gaussian states invariant under local mode permutations on the m-mode and n-mode subsystems. We prove that such states are equivalent, under local unitary transformations, to the tensor product of a two-mode state and of m+n-2 uncorrelated single-mode states. The entanglement between the m-mode and the n-mode blocks can then be completely concentrated on a single pair of modes by means of local unitary operations alone. This result allows us to prove that the PPT (positivity of the partial transpose) condition is necessary and sufficient for the separability of (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states. We determine exactly their negativity and identify a subset of bisymmetric states whose multimode entanglement of formation can be computed analytically. We consider explicit examples of pure and mixed bisymmetric states and study their entanglement scaling with the number of modes.
Evidence for entanglement and full tomographic analysis of Bell states in a single-neutron system
Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Filipp, Stefan; Badurek, Gerald; Klepp, Juergen; Rauch, Helmut
2007-11-15
Tomographic measurements of Bell states of a single-neutron system in an interferometer were carried out. The spin-path joint measurements exhibit clear evidence of entanglement. Reconstructions of the density matrices of, practically complete, Bell states were accomplished. The fidelities as well as the concurrences of the generated states are determined by 0.79 and 0.75 as well as 0.59 and 0.52, respectively, which are again clear evidence of the spin-path entanglement in a single-neutron system.
Multiple teleportation via partially entangled GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2016-08-01
Quantum teleportation is important for quantum communication. We propose a protocol that uses a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for single hop teleportation. Quantum teleportation will succeed if the sender makes a Bell state measurement, and the receiver performs the Hadamard gate operation, applies appropriate Pauli operators, introduces an auxiliary particle, and applies the corresponding unitary matrix to recover the transmitted state.We also present a protocol to realize multiple teleportation of partially entangled GHZ state without an auxiliary particle. We show that the success probability of the teleportation is always 0 when the number of teleportations is odd. In order to improve the success probability of a multihop, we introduce the method used in our single hop teleportation, thus proposing a multiple teleportation protocol using auxiliary particles and a unitary matrix. The final success probability is shown to be improved significantly for the method without auxiliary particles for both an odd or even number of teleportations.
Operational multipartite entanglement classes for symmetric photonic qubit states
Kiesel, N.; Wieczorek, W.; Weinfurter, H.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.
2010-03-15
We present experimental schemes that allow us to study the entanglement classes of all symmetric states in multiqubit photonic systems. We compare the efficiency of the proposed schemes and highlight the relation between the entanglement properties of symmetric Dicke states and a recently proposed entanglement scheme for atoms. In analogy to the latter, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between well-defined sets of experimental parameters and multiqubit entanglement classes inside the symmetric subspace of the photonic system.
Negative Correlations and Entanglement in Higher-Spin Dicke States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Xiaoguang
2016-06-01
We consider entanglement criteria based on the spin squeezing inequalities for arbitrary spin systems. Here we use the negative correlations to detect the entanglement in the system with exchange symmetry. For arbitrary spin systems, we can find that the state is entangled, when the minimal pairwise correlation is negative. Then we give a parameter which is defined by the collective angular momentum operator, to detect the entanglement for the Dicke state with N spin -1 particles, and the results are as the same as negative correlation. We also consider the directions of negative correlation, the state is entangled in two orthogonal directions for the superposition of Dicke state without parity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, N.; Ghosh, R.
2004-12-01
In this Rapid Communication, we show that a simple process of two-step double ionization taking place in an atom A , following the absorption of a single photon, produces a spin-entangled state of two electrons. The degree of entanglement of this state can be tuned to the desired value by selecting appropriate total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of each of the three atomic species (i.e., A, A+ , A2+ ) participating in the process in Russell-Saunders coupling. These entangled states are readily characterized by measuring only energies of two emitted electrons, without requiring the entanglement witness, or any other such protocol.
Faithful teleportation with partially entangled states
Gour, Gilad
2004-10-01
We write explicitly a general protocol for faithful teleportation of a d-state particle (qudit) via a partially entangled pair of (pure) n-state particles. The classical communication cost (CCC) of the protocol is log{sub 2}(nd) bits, and it is implemented by a projective measurement performed by Alice, and a unitary operator performed by Bob (after receiving from Alice the measurement result). We prove the optimality of our protocol by a comparison with the concentrate and teleport strategy. We also show that if d>n/2, or if there is no residual entanglement left after the faithful teleportation, the CCC of any protocol is at least log{sub 2}(nd) bits. Furthermore, we find a lower bound on the CCC in the process transforming one bipartite state to another by means of local operation and classical communication.
Entanglement dynamics via coherent-state propagators
Ribeiro, A. D.; Angelo, R. M.
2010-11-15
The dynamical generation of entanglement in closed bipartite systems is investigated in the semiclassical regime. We consider a model of two particles, initially prepared in a product of coherent states, evolving in time according to a generic Hamiltonian, and derive a formula for the linear entropy of the reduced density matrix using the semiclassical propagator in the coherent-state representation. The formula is explicitly written in terms of quantities that define the stability of classical trajectories of the underlying classical system. The formalism is then applied to the problem of two nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators, and the result is shown to be in remarkable agreement with the exact quantum measure of entanglement in the short-time regime. An important by-product of our approach is a unified semiclassical formula, which contemplates both the coherent-state propagator and its complex conjugate.
Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari
2016-06-01
Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.
Entanglement of phase-random states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakata, Yoshifumi; Turner, Peter; Murao, Mio
2014-12-01
In order to study generic properties of time-evolving states by time-independent Hamiltonian dynamics, we introduce phase-random states, an ensemble of pure states with fixed amplitudes and uniformly distributed phases in a fixed basis. We compute the average amount of entanglement of phase-random states analytically, and show that the average can be extremely large when the amplitudes are equal and the basis is separable. We also study implications on Hamiltonian dynamics, in particular the realization of the canonical state in a subsystem.
Usefulness of classical communication for local cloning of entangled states
Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Bruss, Dagmar
2006-03-15
We solve the problem of the optimal cloning of pure entangled two-qubit states with a fixed degree of entanglement using local operations and classical communication. We show that, amazingly, classical communication between the parties can improve the fidelity of local cloning if and only if the initial entanglement is higher than a certain critical value. It is completely useless for weakly entangled states. We also show that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a resource to improve the best local cloning fidelity.
Entanglement and Squeezing in Solid State Circuits
Wen Yihuo; Gui Lulong
2008-11-07
We investigate the dynamics of a system consisting of a Cooper-pair box and two superconducting transmission line resonators. There exist both linear and nonlinear interactions in such a system. We show that single-photon entanglement state can be generated in a simple way in the linear interaction regime. In nonlinear interaction regime, we derive the Hamiltonian of degenerate three-wave mixing and propose a scheme for generating squeezed state of microwave using the three-wave mixing in solid state circuits. In the following, we design a system for generating squeezed states of nanamechanical resonator.
Local cloning of genuinely entangled states of three qubits
Choudhary, Sujit K.; Kar, Guruprasad; Rahaman, Ramij; Roy, Anirban; Kunkri, Samir
2007-12-15
We discuss the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal but genuinely entangled three qubit states aided with entangled ancilla under local operation and classical communication. Whereas any two orthogonal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states taken from the canonical GHZ basis can be cloned with the help of a known GHZ state, surprisingly we find that no two W states can be cloned by using any known three qubit (possibly entangled) state as a blank copy.
Entanglement of remote transmon qubits by concurrent measurement using Fock states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narla, A.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K. M.; Vlastakis, B.; Zalys-Geller, E.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.
2015-03-01
A requirement of any modular quantum computer is the ability to maintain individual qubits in isolated environments while also being able to entangle arbitrary distant qubits on demand. For superconducting qubits, such a protocol can be realized by first entangling the qubits with flying microwave coherent states which are then concurrently detected by a parametric amplifier. This protocol has a 50% success probability but is vulnerable to losses between the qubits and the amplifier which reduce the entanglement fidelity. An alternative is to use itinerant Fock states, since losses now tend to reduce the success probability of creating an entangled state but not its fidelity. Such single-photon protocols have been implemented in trapped-ion and NV-center experiments. We present such a protocol tailored for entangling two transmon qubits in the circuit QED architecture. Each qubit is entangled with a Fock state of its cavity using sideband pulses. The Fock states leak out of the cavity, interfere on a beam-splitter which erases their which-path information, and are subsequently detected using a novel photo-detector realized by another qubit-cavity system. Simulations suggest that we can realize a high-fidelity entangled state with a success probability as large as 1%.
Generation of three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Li; Lin, Yan-Fang; Li, Qing-Yang; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun
2016-08-01
We present a generation proposal of three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states, which are immune to the collective decoherence. Based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, the polarization and spacial entanglement gates are realized, and thus three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states can be produced. According to the outcomes of Homodyne measurement performed in the spacial entanglement gate, one Swap gate is inserted into two paths of the photon 1 to swap its spacial modes, by means of classical feed forward. In addition, in the process for realizing two entanglement gates, unitary transformation operations are performed on the appropriate photons conditioned on the different phase shifts occurred on the coherent states, aiming to obtain the same state under two scenarios of the different path compositions of photons. At the output ports of the circuit, three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states which can be utilized to represent two logical qubits, |0>L and |1>L are achieved. Apart from Kerr media, only simple linear optical elements and the classical feed forward techniques are necessary in this proposal, facilitating its practical implementation.
Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua
2008-11-01
Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).
Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado-Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.
Correlations allow us to measure, and quantitatively study, the properties of physical systems, their evolution and their interactions. Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. However, discord has not yet been adopted as a standard subject of study by the experimental community. Here we propose a feasible optical setup to generate symmetric two-qubit X-states with controllable coherences, where the two qubits correspond to the spin and path of a photon. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations. Discord is the mutual information contained in the coherences of the system, and it is possible to exploit it for quantum advantage even in the absence of entanglement.
Quantum Conditional Cloning of Continuous Variable Entangled States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, K.; Gao, J. R.
2014-12-01
We extend the technique of conditional preparation to a quantum cloning machine, and present a protocol of 1 -> 2 conditional cloning of squeezed state and entanglement states. It is shown that the entanglement degree of the cloned entangled states can be well preserved even when the fidelity between the input and output states is beyond the limit of 4/9. This scheme is practicable since only the linear elements of beam splitters, homodyne detections, optical modulations and electrical trigger system, are involved.
Controlled Teleportation of the Two-Ion Entangled State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fujun; Wang, Dongxin; Liu, Kun; Liu, Chuanming
2016-01-01
A simple scheme for controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-ion entangled state using a bell and GHZ entangled state as quantum channel is proposed in trapped ion systems. An arbitrary two-ion entangled state can be teleported perfectly with the help of the cooperation. In our scheme the ions are simultaneously excited by a laser. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.
Theory of Multipartite Entanglement for X-states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad
More than a century after the seminal work of Schmidt and with all the enthusiasm that have surrounded entanglement ever since the controversial EPR paper, it remains an open challenge to determine whether a given state possesses entanglement or not. The problem is even more dicult if one considers the entanglement among more than two parties, i.e. multipartite entanglement. In the following we first introduce the concept of multipartite entanglement and discuss what it means to quantify the entanglement of a given state. We then introduce a class of multiqubit states, called X- states, and find an algebraic formula for the multipartite entanglement of such states. We show that using this formula one can find a lower bound for the entanglement of any multiqubit state. We then explore the connection between the entanglement and purity in multiqubit states. In the fourth chapter, we introduce a geometrical measure of entanglement and quantify it for the set of GHZ-diagonal states. These are states that can be written as a convex sum of completely bit-flipped states. Using these results we can develop an upper and a lower bound for the entanglement of any density matrix. In the final chapter we survey some of the insights that can be developed using the results of the preceding chapters. We first explore the decay of entanglement in a decoherence scenario where each qubit is experiences decay through an amplitude damping channel, and finally we make a proposal to preserve and control multipartite entanglement through the phenomenon of collapse and revival.
Entanglement entropy of multipartite pure states
Bravyi, Sergei
2003-01-01
Consider a system consisting of n d-dimensional quantum particles and an arbitrary pure state vertical bar {psi}> of the whole system. Suppose we simultaneously perform complete von Neumann measurements on each particle. The Shannon entropy of the outcomes' joint probability distribution is a functional of the state vertical bar {psi}> and of n measurements chosen for each particle. Denote S[{psi}] the minimum of this entropy over all choices of the measurements. We show that S[{psi}] coincides with the entropy of entanglement for bipartite states. We compute S[{psi}] for some special multipartite states: the hexacode state vertical bar H> (n=6, d=2) and the determinant states vertical bar Det{sub n}> (d=n). The computation yields S[H]=4 log 2 and S[Det{sub n}]=log(n{exclamation_point}). Counterparts of the determinant state defined for d
Entanglement concentration for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Chang-Cheng; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2015-11-01
The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is a new type of logic-qubit entanglement, which attracts a lot of attentions recently. In this paper, we discuss the entanglement concentration for such logic-qubit entanglement. We present two groups of entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for logic-qubit entanglement. In the first group, the parties do not know the initial coefficients of the partially logic-qubit entanglement. In the second group, the parties know the initial coefficients of the partially logic-qubit entanglement. In our ECPs, the unsuccessful cases can be reused to increase the total success probability in the next step. These ECPs may be useful in future long-distant quantum communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Li-Yuan; Fang, Mao-Fa
2008-07-01
The thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a two-qubit Heisenberg XXX chain under the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) anisotropic antisymmetric interaction through a noisy quantum channel given by a Werner state is investigated. The dependences of the thermal entanglement of the teleported state on the DM coupling constant, the temperature and the entanglement of the noisy quantum channel are studied in detail for both the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic cases. The result shows that a minimum entanglement of the noisy quantum channel must be provided in order to realize the entanglement teleportation. The values of fidelity of the teleported state are also studied for these two cases. It is found that under certain conditions, we can transfer an initial state with a better fidelity than that for any classical communication protocol.
Multi-Particle Interferometry Based on Double Entangled States
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pittman, Todd B.; Shih, Y. H.; Strekalov, D. V.; Sergienko, A. V.; Rubin, M. H.
1996-01-01
A method for producing a 4-photon entangled state based on the use of two independent pair sources is discussed. Of particular interest is that each of the pair sources produces a two-photon state which is simultaneously entangled in both polarization and space-time variables. Performing certain measurements which exploit this double entanglement provides an opportunity for verifying the recent demonstration of nonlocality by Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger.
The Local Orthogonality Between Quantum States and Entanglement Decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sunho; Wu, Junde; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Minhyung
2016-06-01
In the paper, we show that when a quantum state can be decomposed as a convex combination of locally orthogonal mixed states, its entanglement can be decomposed into the entanglement of these mixed states without losing them. The obtained result generalizes a corresponding one proved by Horodecki (Acta Phys. Slov. 48, 141 1998). But, for the entanglement cost it requires certain conditions for holding the decomposition, and the distillable entanglement only has a week result as inequality. Finally, we presented an example to show that the conditions of our conclusions are existence.
Purification and switching protocols for dissipatively stabilized entangled qubit states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hein, Sven M.; Aron, Camille; Türeci, Hakan E.
2016-06-01
Pure dephasing processes limit the fidelities achievable in driven-dissipative schemes for stabilization of entangled states of qubits. We propose a scheme which, combined with already existing entangling methods, purifies the desired entangled state by driving out of equilibrium auxiliary dissipative cavity modes coupled to the qubits. We lay out the specifics of our scheme and compute its efficiency in the particular context of two superconducting qubits in a cavity-QED architecture, where the strongly coupled auxiliary modes provided by collective cavity excitations can drive and sustain the qubits in maximally entangled Bell states with fidelities reaching 90% for experimentally accessible parameters.
Channel capacities versus entanglement measures in multiparty quantum states
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2010-01-15
For quantum states of two subsystems, highly entangled states have a higher capacity of transmitting classical as well as quantum information, and vice versa. We show that this is no more the case in general: Quantum capacities of multiaccess channels, motivated by communication in quantum networks, do not have any relation with genuine multiparty entanglement measures. Importantly, the statement is demonstrated for arbitrary multipartite entanglement measures. Along with revealing the structural richness of multiaccess channels, this gives us a tool to classify multiparty quantum states from the perspective of its usefulness in quantum networks, which cannot be visualized by any genuine multiparty entanglement measure.
Genuinely multipartite entangled states and orthogonal arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyeneche, Dardo; Życzkowski, Karol
2014-08-01
A pure quantum state of N subsystems with d levels each is called k-multipartite maximally entangled state, which we call a k-uniform state, if all its reductions to k qudits are maximally mixed. These states form a natural generalization of N-qudit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states which belong to the class 1-uniform states. We establish a link between the combinatorial notion of orthogonal arrays and k-uniform states and prove the existence of several classes of such states for N-qudit systems. In particular, known Hadamard matrices allow us to explicitly construct 2-uniform states for an arbitrary number of N >5 qubits. We show that finding a different class of 2-uniform states would imply the Hadamard conjecture, so the full classification of 2-uniform states seems to be currently out of reach. Furthermore, we establish links between the existence of k-uniform states and classical and quantum error correction codes and provide a graph representation for such states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu
2016-06-01
We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu
2016-03-01
We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.
Improving entanglement concentration of Gaussian states by local displacements
Fiurasek, Jaromir
2011-07-15
We investigate entanglement concentration of continuous-variable Gaussian states by local single-photon subtractions combined with local Gaussian operations. We first analyze the local squeezing-enhanced entanglement-concentration protocol proposed very recently by Zhang and van Loock [arXiv:1103.4500] and discuss the mechanism by which local squeezing before photon subtraction helps to increase the entanglement of the output state of the protocol. We next show that a similar entanglement improvement can be achieved by using local coherent displacements instead of single-mode squeezing.
Full Multipartite Entanglement of Frequency-Comb Gaussian States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerke, S.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Cai, Y.; Roslund, J.; Treps, N.; Fabre, C.
2015-02-01
An analysis is conducted of the multipartite entanglement for Gaussian states generated by the parametric down-conversion of a femtosecond frequency comb. Using a recently introduced method for constructing optimal entanglement criteria, a family of tests is formulated for mode decompositions that extends beyond the traditional bipartition analyses. A numerical optimization over this family is performed to achieve maximal significance of entanglement verification. For experimentally prepared 4-, 6-, and 10-mode states, full entanglement is certified for all of the 14, 202, and 115 974 possible nontrivial partitions, respectively.
Entanglement criteria for noise resistance of two-qudit states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Arijit; Ryu, Junghee; Laskowski, Wiesław; Żukowski, Marek
2016-06-01
Noise affects production and transmission of entanglement. We use a handy approach for a noise resistance of entanglement of two-qudit systems. A geometric concept using correlation tensors of separable and entangled states is implemented to formulate entanglement criterion. We apply the criterion to the various types of noise (white, colored, local depolarizing and amplitude damping) admixtures with the initial (pure) state. We also study the noise resistance with respect to the violation of specific family of Bell inequalities (CGLMP). A broad set of numerical and analytical results is presented.
Generation of entangled coherent-squeezed states: their entanglement and nonclassical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2016-04-01
In this paper, after a brief review on the coherent states and squeezed states, we introduce two classes of entangled coherent-squeezed states. Next, in order to generate the introduced entangled states, we present a theoretical scheme based on the resonant atom-field interaction. In the proposed model, a \\varLambda -type three-level atom interacts with a two-mode quantized field in the presence of two strong classical fields. Then, we study the amount of entanglement of the generated entangled states using the concurrence and linear entropy. Moreover, we evaluate a few of their nonclassical properties such as photon statistics, second-order correlation function, and quadrature squeezing and establish their nonclassicality features.
Optimal amount of entanglement to distinguish quantum states instantaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groisman, Berry; Strelchuk, Sergii
2015-11-01
We introduce an aspect of nonlocality which arises when the task of quantum states distinguishability is considered under local operations and shared entanglement in the absence of classical communication. We find the optimal amount of entanglement required to accomplish the task perfectly for sets of orthogonal states and argue that it quantifies information nonlocality.
Strong monogamy of quantum entanglement for multiqubit W -class states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2014-12-01
We provide strong evidence for the strong monogamy inequality of multiqubit entanglement recently proposed [B. Regula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 110501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.110501]. We consider a large class of multiqubit generalized W -class states and analytically show that the strong monogamy inequality of multiqubit entanglement is saturated by this class of states.
Entanglement spectrum and entangled modes of highly excited states in random XX spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pouranvari, Mohammad; Yang, Kun
We examine the newly developed real space renormalization group method of finding excited eigenstate (RSRG-X) of the XX spin-1/2 chain, from entanglement perspectives. Eigenmodes of the entanglement Hamiltonian, especially the maximally entangled mode (that contributes the most to the entanglement entropy) and corresponding entanglement energies are studied and compared with predictions of RSRG-X. Our numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the RSRG-X method in the strong disorder limit, and quantify its error when applied to weak disorder regime. Overall, our results validate the RSRG-X method qualitatively, but as in the case of real space renormalization group method for the ground state (RSRG) there are quantitative errors for weaker randomness, and also such error grows with increasing temperature/excitation energy density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli; Xu, Jingzhou
2016-08-01
We show how to concentrate an arbitrary four-photon polarization entangled state into a maximally entangled state based on some quantum nondemolition detectors. The entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) resorts to an ancillary single-photon resource and the conventional projection measurement on photons to assist the concentration, which makes it more economical. Our ECP involves weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, X homodyne measurement and basic linear-optical elements, which make it feasible in the current experimental technology. Moreover, the ECP considers cyclic utilization to enhance a higher success probability. Thus, our scheme is meaningful in practical applications in quantum communication.
Classification of multipartite entangled states by multidimensional determinants
Miyake, Akimasa
2003-01-01
We find that multidimensional determinants 'hyperdeterminants', related to entanglement measures (the so-called concurrence, or 3-tangle for two or three qubits, respectively), are derived from a duality between entangled states and separable states. By means of the hyperdeterminant and its singularities, the single copy of multipartite pure entangled states is classified into an onion structure of every closed subset, similar to that by the local rank in the bipartite case. This reveals how inequivalent multipartite entangled classes are partially ordered under local actions. In particular, the generic entangled class of the maximal dimension, distinguished as the nonzero hyperdeterminant, does not include the maximally entangled states in Bell's inequalities in general (e.g., in the n{>=}4 qubits), contrary to the widely known bipartite or three-qubit cases. It suggests that not only are they never locally interconvertible with the majority of multipartite entangled states, but they would have no grounds for the canonical n-partite entangled states. Our classification is also useful for the mixed states.
Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states
Borsten, L.; Brádler, K.; Duff, M. J.
2014-01-01
A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound pwin=cos2π/8≃0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with pwin≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964
Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states.
Borsten, L; Brádler, K; Duff, M J
2014-10-01
A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound [Formula: see text] of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with p win≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Li; Chen, Ai-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Song
2011-11-01
We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade. Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state. According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing, we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.
Squeezed states and path integrals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.
1992-01-01
The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.
Polarization and entanglement of photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nogueira, K.; Silva, J. B. R.; Gonçalves, J. R.; Vasconcelos, H. M.
2013-04-01
Polarization of light has been used extensively in quantum information processing, and quantum entanglement is essential to many areas of research, including quantum computing. Here we investigate the degree of polarization and the entanglement of a family of quantum states known as photon-added entangled coherent states. Such states could serve as means of entanglement distribution and quantum key distribution. Using the quantum Stokes parameters and the Q function, we demonstrate that, in general, the degree of polarization of two two-mode photon-added coherent states increases significantly with the number of added photons. And using the concurrence, we show that the amount of entanglement in this kind of superposition presents a behavior that is dependent on whether or not the number of added photons in each mode is the same.
Entanglement dynamics in three-qubit X states
Weinstein, Yaakov S.
2010-09-15
I explore the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system in an initial X state undergoing decoherence including the possible exhibition of entanglement sudden death. To quantify entanglement I utilize negativity measures and make use of appropriate entanglement witnesses. The negativity results are then extended to X states with an arbitraty number of qubits. I also demonstrate nonstandard behavior of the tripartite negativity entanglement metric: its sudden appearance after some amount of decoherence, followed quickly by its disappearance. Finally, I solve for a lower bound on the three-qubit X-state concurrence, demonstrate when this bound goes to 0, and outline simplifcations for the calculation of higher-order X-state concurrences.
Deterministic controlled remote state preparation using partially entangled quantum channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Na; Quan, Dong Xiao; Yang, Hong; Pei, Chang Xing
2016-04-01
In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for deterministic controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) of arbitrary two-qubit states. Suitably chosen partially entangled state is used as the quantum channel. With proper projective measurements carried out by the sender and controller, the receiver can reconstruct the target state by means of appropriate unitary operation. Unit success probability can be achieved for arbitrary two-qubit states. Different from some previous CRSP schemes utilizing partially entangled channels, auxiliary qubit is not required in our scheme. We also show that the success probability is independent of the parameters of the partially entangled quantum channel.
A note on initial state entanglement in inflationary cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanno, Sugumi
2015-09-01
We give a new interpretation of the effect of initial state entanglement on the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We consider an initially entangled state between two free massive scalar fields in de Sitter space. We construct the initial state by making use of a Bogoliubov transformation between the Bunch-Davies vacuum and a four-mode squeezed state, and then derive the exact power spectrum for one of the scalar fields. We demonstrate that an oscillatory spectrum hardly appears for the initially entangled state unless an ad hoc absolute value of the Bogoliubov coefficients is chosen.
Cluster-type entangled coherent states: Generation and application
An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan
2009-10-15
We consider a type of (M+N)-mode entangled coherent states and propose a simple deterministic scheme to generate these states that can fly freely in space. We then exploit such free-flying states to teleport certain kinds of superpositions of multimode coherent states. We also address the issue of manipulating size and type of entangled coherent states by means of linear optics elements only.
Cluster-type entangled coherent states: Generation and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan
2009-10-01
We consider a type of (M+N) -mode entangled coherent states and propose a simple deterministic scheme to generate these states that can fly freely in space. We then exploit such free-flying states to teleport certain kinds of superpositions of multimode coherent states. We also address the issue of manipulating size and type of entangled coherent states by means of linear optics elements only.
Entanglement Concentration of Partially Entangled Multi-electron Spin W States with CNOT Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Bin; Huang, Yugai; Fang, Xia; Wang, Haibin
2014-04-01
We propose a novel entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for nonlocal N-electron systems in a partially entangled W state, resorting to an ancillary single electron and controlled-not gates. Compared with other ECPs for W states, our ECP has some illustrious advantages. First, each N-electron entangled system can be used to complete the entanglement concentration with only an ancillary electron. It does not require that there are two copies of N-electron entangled systems in each round of entanglement concentration. Second, only one of the users, say Charlie, needs to perform the protocol, while all parties should perform the same operations as Charlie in other ECPs for W-class states. Third, only Charlie asks other parities to retain or discard their electrons, and they do not need to check their measurement results, which greatly simplifies the complication of classical communication. Fourth, our ECP has a higher success probability than other ECPs for W-class states as its success probability equals to the limit value of an ECP for a W state in theory. These advantages maybe make our ECP more useful in practical applications.
Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states
Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang
2010-08-15
Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.
Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states
Fiurasek, Jaromir
2010-10-15
We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.
Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states with arbitrary partitions
Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer
2007-02-15
The Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states of n qubits is generalized to the case in which the qubits are divided into any p{<=}n parties. The entanglement between these parties is evaluated numerically using an efficient parametrization. To demonstrate this measure we apply it to symmetric states such as the Greenberg-Horne-Zeiliner state and the W state. Interestingly, this measure is equivalent to an entanglement measure introduced earlier [H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A 34, 6787 (2001)], using different considerations.
Projection of two biphoton qutrits onto a maximally entangled state.
Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Shacham, T; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S
2011-04-01
Bell state measurements, in which two quantum bits are projected onto a maximally entangled state, are an essential component of quantum information science. We propose and experimentally demonstrate the projection of two quantum systems with three states (qutrits) onto a generalized maximally entangled state. Each qutrit is represented by the polarization of a pair of indistinguishable photons-a biphoton. The projection is a joint measurement on both biphotons using standard linear optics elements. This demonstration enables the realization of quantum information protocols with qutrits, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping. PMID:21517363
Quantum steganography with large payload based on entanglement swapping of χ-type entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Luo, Ming-Xing; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian
2011-04-01
In this paper, we firstly propose a new simple method to calculate entanglement swapping of χ-type entangled states, and then present a novel quantum steganography protocol with large payload. The new protocol adopts entanglement swapping to build up the hidden channel within quantum secure direct communication with χ-type entangled states for securely transmitting secret messages. Comparing with the previous quantum steganographies, the capacity of the hidden channel is much higher, which is increased to eight bits. Meanwhile, due to the quantum uncertainty theorem and the no-cloning theorem its imperceptibility is proved to be great in the analysis, and its security is also analyzed in detail, which is proved that intercept-resend attack, measurement-resend attack, ancilla attack, man-in-the-middle attack or even Dos(Denial of Service) attack couldn't threaten it. As a result, the protocol can be applied in various fields of quantum communication.
Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Ru
2011-12-01
We theoretically investigate an entanglement purification protocol with photon and electron hybrid entangled state resorting to quantum-dot spin and microcavity coupled system. The present system is used to construct the parity check gate which allows a quantum non-demolition measurement on the spin parity. The cavity-spin coupled system provides a novel experimental platform of quantum information processing with photon and solid qubit. PMID:22273961
Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping
Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.
2011-05-15
Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin
2015-12-07
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Heralded entangled coherent states between spatially separated massive resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asadian, Ali; Abdi, Mehdi
2016-05-01
We put forward an experimentally feasible scheme for heralded entanglement generation between two distant macroscopic mechanical resonators. The protocol exploits a hybrid quantum device, a qubit interacting with a mechanical resonator as well as a cavity mode, for each party. The cavity modes interfere on a beam splitter followed by suitable heralding detections, which postselect a hybrid entangled state with success probability 1/2. Subsequently, by local measurements on the qubits, a mechanically entangled coherent state can be achieved. The mechanical entanglement can be further verified via monitoring the entanglement of the qubit pair. The setup is envisioned as a test bed for sensing gravitational effects on the quantum dynamics of gravitationally coupled massive objects. As a concrete example, we illustrate the implementation of our protocol using the current circuit QED architectures.
Topological entanglement entropy, ground state degeneracy and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parnachev, Andrei; Poovuttikul, Napat
2015-10-01
Topological entanglement entropy, a measure of the long-ranged entanglement, is related to the degeneracy of the ground state on a higher genus surface. The exact relation depends on the details of the topological theory. We consider a class of holographic models where such relation might be similar to the one exhibited by Chern-Simons theory in a certain large N limit. Both the non-vanishing topological entanglement entropy and the ground state degeneracy in these holographic models are consequences of the topological Gauss-Bonnet term in the dual gravitational description. A soft wall holographic model of confinement is used to generate finite correlation length but keep the disk topology of the entangling surface in the bulk, necessary for nonvanishing topological entanglement entropy.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin
2015-12-01
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states
Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2016-01-01
It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034
Autonomous quantum thermal machine for generating steady-state entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohr Brask, Jonatan; Haack, Géraldine; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus
2015-11-01
We discuss a simple quantum thermal machine for the generation of steady-state entanglement between two interacting qubits. The machine is autonomous in the sense that it uses only incoherent interactions with thermal baths, but no source of coherence or external control. By weakly coupling the qubits to thermal baths at different temperatures, inducing a heat current through the system, steady-state entanglement is generated far from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we discuss two possible implementations, using superconducting flux qubits or a semiconductor double quantum dot. Experimental prospects for steady-state entanglement are promising in both systems.
Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Moon Ho, Lee
2008-08-01
A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes.
Long-range quantum entanglement in noisy cluster states
Raussendorf, Robert; Bravyi, Sergey; Harrington, Jim
2005-06-15
We describe a phase transition for long-range entanglement in a three-dimensional cluster state affected by noise. The partially decohered state is modeled by the thermal state of a short-range translation-invariant Hamiltonian. We find that the temperature at which the entanglement length changes from infinite to finite is nonzero. We give an upper and lower bound to this transition temperature.
Manipulation of Entangled States for Quantum Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, S.; Huelga, S. F.; Jonathan, D.; Knight, P. L.; Murao, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Vedral, V.
Entanglement manipulation, and especially Entanglement Swapping is at the heart of current work on quantum information processing, purification and quantum teleportation. We will discuss how it may be generalized to multiparticle systems and how this enables multi-user quantum cryptographic protocols to be developed. Our scheme allows us to establish multiparticle entanglement between particles which belong to distant users in a communication network through a prior distribution of Bell state singlets followed by local measurements. We compare our method for generating entanglement with existing schemes using simple quantum networks, and highlight the advantages and applications in cryptographic conferencing and in reading messages from more than one source through a single quantum measurement. We also discuss how entanglement leads to the idea of `telecloning', in which a teleportation-like protocol can be found which reproduces the output of an optimal quantum cloning machine.
Systematic generation of entanglement measures for pure states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugita, Ayumu
2008-05-01
We propose a method to generate entanglement measures systematically by using the irreducible decomposition of some copies of a state under the local unitary (LU) transformations. It is applicable to general multipartite systems. We show that there are entanglement monotones corresponding to singlet representations of the LU group. They can be evaluated efficiently in an algebraic way, and experimentally measurable by local projective measurements of the copies of the state. Nonsinglet representations are also shown to be useful to classify entanglement. Our method reproduces many well-known measures in a unified way.
Operational entanglement families of symmetric mixed N -qubit states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastin, T.; Mathonet, P.; Solano, E.
2015-02-01
We introduce an operational entanglement classification of symmetric mixed states for an arbitrary number of qubits based on stochastic local operations assisted with classical communication (SLOCC operations). We define families of SLOCC entanglement classes successively embedded into each other, we prove that they are of nonzero measure, and we construct witness operators to distinguish them. Moreover, we discuss how arbitrary symmetric mixed states can be realized in the laboratory via a one-to-one correspondence between well-defined sets of controllable parameters and the corresponding entanglement families.
Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2014-02-01
Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hui-Na; Liu, Jin-Ming
2009-10-01
We present an optical scheme to almost completely teleport a bipartite entangled coherent state using a four-partite cluster-type entangled coherent state as quantum channel. The scheme is based on optical elements such as beam splitters, phase shifters, and photon detectors. We also obtain the average fidelity of the teleportation process. It is shown that the average fidelity is quite close to unity if the mean photon number of the coherent state is not too small.
Protecting quantum entanglement and nonlocality for tripartite states under decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Yin, Yu Hao; Ma, Wen Chao; Ye, Liu
2016-06-01
Quantum entanglement and nonlocality will suffer inevitable harm from decoherence environment. Based on GHZ state, we study the harm of the generalized amplitude damping (GAD) operation and the protection by the single local filtering (SLF) operation in this paper. We verify that the SLF functions to depress the loss of entanglement and nonlocality from GAD. This conclusion will guide us to select the best method to protect the GHZ state from GAD decoherence.
Steady atomic entanglement in cavity QED without state initialization
Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Yang Song; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui
2009-12-15
We present a scheme for realizing a steady entanglement state between two trapped atoms, without requiring the initialization of atom-cavity system nor fine time-controlling of evolution dynamics. We show that high-fidelity entanglement of atomic state can be obtained in a period of time equal to a few times the inverse of atomic's spontaneous decay rate. The robustness against cavity decay kappa and cavity thermal field n{sub T} has also been examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Juju; Xu, Lin
2015-07-01
We demonstrate the controllable generation of entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED). In our scheme, the easy integration of solid-state quantum circuit is exploited. In particular, through manipulating the external capacitor or external classical microwave impulse, the coupling between superconducting qubits and cavity can be manipulated, the entanglement effect between qubit and field modes can be enhanced and the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed. We further discuss the correspondence between quantum entanglement and some non-classical effects such as the squeezing of entangled coherent state field, the anti-buching effect. The results show that the time evolution of the quantum entanglement between field modes is always accompanied by the synchronous changes of certain non-classical effect. When the quantum entanglement reaches maximum, the anti-bunching (or compression effect) almost reaches maximum synchronously. Once entanglement sudden death occurs, the non-classical effects disappear.
Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities
Alexanian, Moorad
2011-11-15
The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.
Duality in entanglement of macroscopic states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kim, Jaewan
2016-08-01
We investigate duality in entanglement of a bipartite multiphoton system generated from a coherent state of light. The system can exhibit polarization entanglement if the two parts are distinguished by their parity, or parity entanglement if the parts are distinguished by polarization. It was shown in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 140404 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.140404 that this phenomenon can be exploited as a method to test indistinguishability of two particles and it was conjectured that one can also test indistinguishability of macroscopic systems. We propose a setup to test this conjecture. Contrary to the previous studies using two-particle interference effect as in the Hong-Ou- Mandel setup, our setup neither assumes that the tested state is composed of single particles nor requires that the total number of particles be fixed. Consequently, the notion of entanglement duality is shown to be compatible with a broader class of physical systems. Moreover, by observing duality in entanglement in the above system one can confirm that macroscopic systems exhibit quantum behavior. As a practical side, entanglement duality is a useful concept that enables adaptive conversion of entanglement of one degree of freedom (DOF) to that of another DOF according to varying quantum protocols.
Entanglement witnesses for graph states: General theory and examples
Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Guehne, Otfried
2011-09-15
We present a general theory for the construction of witnesses that detect genuine multipartite entanglement in graph states. First, we present explicit witnesses for all graph states of up to six qubits which are better than all criteria so far. Therefore, lower fidelities are required in experiments that aim at the preparation of graph states. Building on these results, we develop analytical methods to construct two different types of entanglement witnesses for general graph states. For many classes of states, these operators exhibit white noise tolerances that converge to 1 when increasing the number of particles. We illustrate our approach for states such as the linear and the 2D cluster state. Finally, we study an entanglement monotone motivated by our approach for graph states.
Splitting Unknown Qubit State Using Five-Qubit Entangled State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Qin, Zhi-guang; Baagyere, Edward
2016-04-01
In this paper, we demonstrate how a five-qubit entangled state can be used to realize the deterministic Quantum State Sharing (QSTS) of a single and two-qubit state among three parties by performing von-Neumann measurement and bell-state measurements. In our scheme, any of the two agents has the ability to reconstruct the original state if he/she collaborates with the other agent,otherwise an individual agent does not have enough information to reconstruct the original state. The paper also outlines the various measurements and mathematical framework of the scheme. The security analysis of our scheme against two attacks scenarios prove that the scheme is secure against an eavesdropper attack and a malicious attacks.
Entangled states close to the maximally mixed state
Hildebrand, Roland
2007-06-15
This paper deals with the radius of the largest ball of separable mixed states around the maximally mixed state for multiqubit systems. This radius determines how close entangled states can be to the maximally mixed state. In Aubrun and Szarek (e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0503221) an upper bound on the radius was given, while in Gurvits and Barnum (e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0409095) a lower bound was provided. In this paper we improve both the upper and the lower bound, bringing the ratio of these bounds down to a constant c={radical}(34/27){approx_equal}1.122, as opposed to a term of order {radical}(m log m) for the best bounds known previously, where m is the number of qubits in the system. We construct concrete examples of separable states on the boundary to entanglement which realize the upper bounds. As a by-product, we compute the radii of the largest balls that fit into the projective tensor product of three and four unit balls in R{sup 3} and in the projective tensor product of an arbitrary number of unit balls in R{sup n} for n=2, 4, and 8.
Multi-mode entangled states represented as Grassmannian polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleki, Y.
2016-06-01
We introduce generalized Grassmannian representatives of multi-mode state vectors. By implementing the fundamental properties of Grassmann coherent states, we map the Hilbert space of the finite-dimensional multi-mode states to the space of some Grassmannian polynomial functions. These Grassmannian polynomials form a well-defined space in the framework of Grassmann variables; namely Grassmannian representative space. Therefore, a quantum state can be uniquely defined and determined by an element of Grassmannian representative space. Furthermore, the Grassmannian representatives of some maximally entangled states are considered, and it is shown that there is a tight connection between the entanglement of the states and their Grassmannian representatives.
Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing
Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok
2010-12-15
We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Zhou; Yu-Bo, Sheng
2016-02-01
We put forward two efficient entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for arbitrary less-entangled NOON state. Both ECPs only require one pair of less-entangled NOON state and an auxiliary photon. In the first ECP, the auxiliary photon is shared by two parties, while in the second ECP, the auxiliary photon is only possessed by one party, which can increase the practical success probability by avoiding the transmission loss and simplify the operations. Moreover, both ECPs can be used repeatedly to get a high success probability. Based on the above features, our two ECPs, especially the second one, may be useful in the quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20151502), and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rui, Guo; Lan, Zhou; Shi-Pu, Gu; Xing-Fu, Wang; Yu-Bo, Sheng
2016-03-01
Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. 15KJA120002), and the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.
Excitonic entanglement of protected states in quantum dot molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, H. S.; Sanz, L.; Alcalde, A. M.
2016-09-01
The entanglement of an optically generated electron-hole pair in artificial quantum dot molecules is calculated considering the effects of decoherence by interaction with environment. Since the system evolves into mixed states and due to the complexity of energy level structure, we use the negativity as entanglement quantifier, which is well defined in D ⊗D‧ composite vector spaces. By a numerical analysis of the non-unitary dynamics of the exciton states, we establish the feasibility of producing protected entangled superposition by an appropriate tuning of bias electric field, F. A stationary state with a high value of negativity (high degree of entanglement) is obtained by fine tuning of F close to a resonant condition between indirect excitons. We also found that when the optical excitation is approximately equal to the electron tunneling coupling, Ω /Te ∼ 1, the entanglement reaches a maximum value. In front of the experimental feasibility of the specific condition mentioned before, our proposal becomes an useful strategy to find robust entangled states in condensed matter systems.
Ground-state entanglement in the XXZ model
Gu Shijian; Lin Haiqing; Tian Guangshan
2005-05-15
In this paper, we investigate spin entanglement in the XXZ model defined on a d-dimensional bipartite lattice. The concurrence, a measure of the entanglement between two spins, is analyzed. We prove rigorously that the ground-state concurrence reaches maximum at the isotropic point. For dimensionality d{>=}2, the concurrence develops a cusp at the isotropic point and we attribute it to the existence of magnetic long-range order.
Concurrence-based entanglement measures for isotropic states
Rungta, Pranaw; Caves, Carlton M.
2003-01-01
We discuss properties of entanglement measures called I-concurrence and tangle. For a bipartite pure state, I-concurrence and tangle are simply related to the purity of the marginal density operators. The I-concurrence (tangle) of a bipartite mixed state is the minimum average I-concurrence (tangle) of ensemble decompositions of pure states of the joint density operator. Terhal and Vollbrecht [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2625 (2000)] have given an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of isotropic states in arbitrary dimensions. We use their formalism to derive comparable expressions for the I-concurrence and tangle of isotropic states.
Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states
Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.
2010-10-15
Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.
Entangled Coherent States Generation in two Superconducting LC Circuits
Chen Meiyu; Zhang Weimin
2008-11-07
We proposed a novel pure electronic (solid state) device consisting of two superconducting LC circuits coupled to a superconducting flux qubit. The entangled coherent states of the two LC modes is generated through the measurement of the flux qubit states. The interaction of the flux qubit and two LC circuits is controlled by the external microwave control lines. The geometrical structure of the LC circuits is adjustable and makes a strong coupling between them achievable. This entangled coherent state generator can be realized by using the conventional microelectronic fabrication techniques which increases the feasibility of the experiment.
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Sanders, Barry C.
2006-09-15
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit.
Entanglement equivalence of N-qubit symmetric states
Mathonet, P.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Godefroid, M.; Solano, E.
2010-05-15
We study the interconversion of multipartite symmetric N-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). We demonstrate that if two symmetric states can be connected with a nonsymmetric invertible local operation (ILO), then they belong necessarily to the separable, W, or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement class, establishing a practical method of discriminating subsets of entanglement classes. Furthermore, we prove that there always exists a symmetric ILO connecting any pair of symmetric N-qubit states equivalent under SLOCC, simplifying the requirements for experimental implementations of local interconversion of those states.
Entanglement and Majorana edge states in the Kitaev model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Saptarshi; Maiti, Moitri; Varma, Vipin Kerala
2016-07-01
We investigate the von Neumann entanglement entropy and Schmidt gap in the vortex-free ground state of the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice for square/rectangular and cylindrical subsystems. We find that, for both the subsystems, the free-fermionic contribution to the entanglement entropy SE exhibits signatures of the phase transitions between the gapless and gapped phases. However, within the gapless phase, we find that SE does not show an expected monotonic behavior as a function of the coupling Jz between the suitably defined one-dimensional chains for either geometry; moreover, the system generically reaches a point of minimum entanglement within the gapless phase before the entanglement saturates or increases again until the gapped phase is reached. This may be attributed to the onset of gapless modes in the bulk spectrum and the competition between the correlation functions along various bonds. In the gapped phase, on the other hand, SE always monotonically varies with Jz independent of the subregion size or shape. Finally, further confirming the Li-Haldane conjecture, we find that the Schmidt gap Δ defined from the entanglement spectrum also signals the topological transitions but only if there are corresponding zero-energy Majorana edge states that simultaneously appear or disappear across the transitions. We analytically corroborate some of our results on entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap, and the bulk-edge correspondence using perturbation theory.
Controlled Teleportation of a Qudit State by Partially Entangled GHZ States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin-wei; Shu, Lan; Mo, Zhi-wen; Zhang, Zhi-hua
2014-08-01
In this paper, we propose a controlled teleportation scheme which communicates an arbitrary ququart state via two sets of partially entangled GHZ state. The necessary measurements and operations are given detailedly. Furthmore the scheme is generalized to teleport a qudit state via s sets of partially entangled GHZ state.
Quantum entangled supercorrelated states in the Jaynes-Cummings model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopal, A. K.; Jensen, K. L.; Cummings, F. W.
1999-08-01
The regions of independent quantum states, maximally classically correlated states, and purely quantum entangled (supercorrelated) states described in a recent formulation of quantum information theory by Cerf and Adami are explored here numerically in the parameter space of the well-known exactly soluble Jaynes-Cummings model for equilibrium and nonequilibrium time-dependent ensembles.
Entanglement universality of two-qubit X-states
Mendonça, Paulo E.M.F.; Marchiolli, Marcelo A.; Galetti, Diógenes
2014-12-15
We demonstrate that for every two-qubit state there is a X-counterpart, i.e., a corresponding two-qubit X-state of same spectrum and entanglement, as measured by concurrence, negativity or relative entropy of entanglement. By parametrizing the set of two-qubit X-states and a family of unitary transformations that preserve the sparse structure of a two-qubit X-state density matrix, we obtain the parametric form of a unitary transformation that converts arbitrary two-qubit states into their X-counterparts. Moreover, we provide a semi-analytic prescription on how to set the parameters of this unitary transformation in order to preserve concurrence or negativity. We also explicitly construct a set of X-state density matrices, parametrized by their purity and concurrence, whose elements are in one-to-one correspondence with the points of the concurrence versus purity (CP) diagram for generic two-qubit states. - Highlights: • Parametrization of separable, entangled and rank-specific two-qubit X-states. • Construction of a set of two-qubit X-states exhausting a two-qubit CP-diagram. • Parametrization of a disentangling unitary transformation for any two-qubit X-state. • Unitary transformation of any two-qubit state into a X-state of same entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly
2016-04-01
In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model.
Geometric descriptions of entangled states by auxiliary varieties
Holweck, Frederic; Luque, Jean-Gabriel; Thibon, Jean-Yves
2012-10-15
The aim of the paper is to propose geometric descriptions of multipartite entangled states using algebraic geometry. In the context of this paper, geometric means each stratum of the Hilbert space, corresponding to an entangled state, is an open subset of an algebraic variety built by classical geometric constructions (tangent lines, secant lines) from the set of separable states. In this setting, we describe well-known classifications of multipartite entanglement such as 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign (n+ 1), for n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1, quantum systems and a new description with the 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 quantum system. Our results complete the approach of Miyake and make stronger connections with recent work of algebraic geometers. Moreover, for the quantum systems detailed in this paper, we propose an algorithm, based on the classical theory of invariants, to decide to which subvariety of the Hilbert space a given state belongs.
Identifying non-Abelian topological order through minimal entangled states.
Zhu, W; Gong, S S; Haldane, F D M; Sheng, D N
2014-03-01
The topological order is encoded in the pattern of long-range quantum entanglements, which cannot be measured by any local observable. Here we perform an exact diagonalization study to establish the non-Abelian topological order for topological band models through entanglement entropy measurement. We focus on the quasiparticle statistics of the non-Abelian Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states on the lattice models with bosonic particles. We identify multiple independent minimal entangled states (MESs) in the ground state manifold on a torus. The extracted modular S matrix from MESs faithfully demonstrates the Ising anyon or Fibonacci quasiparticle statistics, including the quasiparticle quantum dimensions and the fusion rules for such systems. These findings unambiguously demonstrate the topological nature of the quantum states for these flatband models without using the knowledge of model wave functions. PMID:24655269
Rapid Adiabatic Preparation of Injective Projected Entangled Pair States and Gibbs States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Yimin; Molnár, András; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2016-02-01
We propose a quantum algorithm for many-body state preparation. It is especially suited for injective projected entangled pair states and thermal states of local commuting Hamiltonians on a lattice. We show that for a uniform gap and sufficiently smooth paths, an adiabatic runtime and circuit depth of O (polylog N ) can be achieved for O (N ) spins. This is an almost exponential improvement over previous bounds. The total number of elementary gates scales as O (N p o l y l o g N ) . This is also faster than the best known upper bound of O (N2) on the mixing times of Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms for sampling classical systems in thermal equilibrium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun
2016-06-01
We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed coherent states (PSTMSCS), by successively subtracting photons from each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. The normalization factor which is related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained by virtue of the two-mode squeezing operator in entangled-states representation. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, antibunching effects, and partial negative Wigner function, respectively, are observed numerically, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the resultant states. Finally, employing the SV criteria and the EPR correlation, respectively, the entangled property of PSTMSCS is analyzed. It is shown that the photon subtraction operation can effectively enhance the inseparability between the two modes.
Low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement for spin systems
Jafari, R.
2010-11-15
We develop the ideas of the quantum renormalization group and quantum information by exploring the low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement resources of a system close to its quantum critical point. We demonstrate that low-energy-state dynamical quantities of one-dimensional magnetic systems can show a quantum phase transition point and show scaling behavior in the vicinity of the transition point. To present our idea, we study the evolution of two spin entanglements in the one-dimensional Ising model in the transverse field. The system is initialized as the so-called thermal ground state of the pure Ising model. We investigate the evolution of the generation of entanglement with increasing magnetic field. We obtain that the derivative of the time at which the entanglement reaches its maximum with respect to the transverse field diverges at the critical point and its scaling behaviors versus the size of the system are the same as the static ground-state entanglement of the system.
Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states
Munhoz, P. P.; Semiao, F. L.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.
2010-04-15
We propose a particular encoding for bipartite entangled states derived from multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states (CTECSs). We investigate the effects of amplitude damping on the entanglement content of this bipartite state, as well as its usefulness as a quantum channel for teleportation. We find interesting relationships among the amplitude of the coherent states constituting the CTECSs, the number of subsystems forming the logical qubits (redundancy), and the extent to which amplitude damping affects the entanglement of the channel. For instance, in the sense of sudden death of entanglement, given a fixed value of the initial coherent state amplitude, the entanglement life span is shortened if redundancy is increased.
Quantum entanglement of localized excited states at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caputa, Pawel; Simón, Joan; Štikonas, Andrius; Takayanagi, Tadashi
2015-01-01
In this work we study the time evolutions of (Renyi) entanglement entropy of locally excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) at finite temperature. We consider excited states created by acting with local operators on thermal states and give both field theoretic and holographic calculations. In free field CFTs, we find that the growth of Renyi entanglement entropy at finite temperature is reduced compared to the zero temperature result by a small quantity proportional to the width of the localized excitations. On the other hand, in finite temperature CFTs with classical gravity duals, we find that the entanglement entropy approaches a characteristic value at late time. This behaviour does not occur at zero temperature. We also study the mutual information between the two CFTs in the thermofield double (TFD) formulation and give physical interpretations of our results.
Quantum state and quantum entanglement protection using quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuchao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiangbin; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Yu, Zongwen; Zou, Wenjie
2015-03-01
The time evolution of some quantum states can be slowed down or even stopped under frequent measurements. This is the usual quantum Zeno effect. Here we report an operator quantum Zeno effect, in which the evolution of some physical observables is slowed down through measurements even though thequantum state changes randomly with time. Based on the operator quantum Zeno effect, we show how we can protect quantum information from decoherence with two-qubit measurements, realizable with noisy two-qubit interactions. Besides, we report the quantum entanglement protection using weak measurement and measurement reversal scheme. Exposed in the nonzero temperature environment, a quantum system can both lose and gain excitations by interacting with the environment. In this work, we show how to optimally protect quantum states and quantum entanglement in such a situation based on measurement reversal from weak measurement. In particular, we present explicit formulas of protection. We find that this scheme can circumvent the entanglement sudden death in certain conditions.
Maximally entangled mixed-state generation via local operations
Aiello, A.; Puentes, G.; Voigt, D.; Woerdman, J. P.
2007-06-15
We present a general theoretical method to generate maximally entangled mixed states of a pair of photons initially prepared in the singlet polarization state. This method requires only local operations upon a single photon of the pair and exploits spatial degrees of freedom to induce decoherence. We report also experimental confirmation of these theoretical results.
Exploration of multiphoton entangled states by using weak nonlinearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting
2016-01-01
We propose a fruitful scheme for exploring multiphoton entangled states based on linear optics and weak nonlinearities. Compared with the previous schemes the present method is more feasible because there are only small phase shifts instead of a series of related functions of photon numbers in the process of interaction with Kerr nonlinearities. In the absence of decoherence we analyze the error probabilities induced by homodyne measurement and show that the maximal error probability can be made small enough even when the number of photons is large. This implies that the present scheme is quite tractable and it is possible to produce entangled states involving a large number of photons.
Entangling power of permutation-invariant quantum states
Popkov, Vladislav; Salerno, Mario; Schuetz, Gunter
2005-09-15
We investigate the von Neumann entanglement entropy as function of the size of a subsystem for permutation invariant ground states in models with finite number of states per site, e.g., in quantum spin models. We demonstrate that the entanglement entropy of n sites in a system of length L generically grows as {sigma} log{sub 2}[2{pi}en(L-n)/L]+C, where {sigma} is the on-site spin and C is a function depending only on magnetization.
Detecting highly entangled states with a joint qubit readout
Chow, J. M.; DiCarlo, L.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Bishop, Lev S.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Gambetta, J. M.
2010-06-15
A single-channel joint readout is used to analyze highly entangled two-qubit states in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. The measurement model for the readout is fully characterized, demonstrating a large sensitivity to two-qubit correlations. We quantify the high degree of entanglement by measuring a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality with a value of 2.61{+-}0.04, without optimizing the preparation of the two-qubit state. In its present form, this joint readout can resolve improvements to the fidelity of two-qubit operations and be extended to three or four qubits.
Entangled mixed-state generation by twin-photon scattering
Puentes, G.; Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J. P.; Voigt, D.
2007-03-15
We report experimental results on mixed-state generation by multiple scattering of polarization-entangled photon pairs created from parametric down-conversion. By using a large variety of scattering optical systems we have experimentally obtained entangled mixed states that lie upon and below the Werner curve in the linear entropy-tangle plane. We have also introduced a simple phenomenological model built on the analogy between classical polarization optics and quantum maps. Theoretical predictions from such a model are in full agreement with our experimental findings.
Exploration of multiphoton entangled states by using weak nonlinearities
He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting
2016-01-01
We propose a fruitful scheme for exploring multiphoton entangled states based on linear optics and weak nonlinearities. Compared with the previous schemes the present method is more feasible because there are only small phase shifts instead of a series of related functions of photon numbers in the process of interaction with Kerr nonlinearities. In the absence of decoherence we analyze the error probabilities induced by homodyne measurement and show that the maximal error probability can be made small enough even when the number of photons is large. This implies that the present scheme is quite tractable and it is possible to produce entangled states involving a large number of photons. PMID:26751044
Entropy and Entanglement Bounds for Reduced Density Matrices of Fermionic States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.; Reuvers, Robin
2016-06-01
Unlike bosons, fermions always have a non-trivial entanglement. Intuitively, Slater determinantal states should be the least entangled states. To make this intuition precise we investigate entropy and entanglement of fermionic states and prove some extremal and near extremal properties of reduced density matrices of Slater determinantal states.
Teleportation via thermally entangled states of a two-qubit Heisenberg XX chain
Yeo Ye
2002-12-01
Recently, entanglement teleportation has been investigated by Lee and Kim [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4236 (2000)]. In this paper we study entanglement teleportation via two separate thermally entangled states of a two-qubit Heisenberg XX chain. We established the condition under which the parameters of the model have to satisfy in order to teleport entanglement. The necessary minimum amount of thermal entanglement for some fixed strength of exchange coupling is a function of the magnetic field and the temperature.
Bulk Entanglement Spectrum Reveals Quantum Criticality within a Topological State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Timothy; Fu, Liang
2014-03-01
A quantum phase transition is usually achieved by tuning physical parameters in a Hamiltonian at zero temperature. Here, we demonstrate that the ground state of a topological phase itself encodes critical properties of its transition to a trivial phase. To extract this information, we introduce a partition of the system into two subsystems both of which extend throughout the bulk in all directions. The resulting bulk entanglement spectrum has a low-lying part that resembles the excitation spectrum of a bulk Hamiltonian, which allows us to access a topological phase transition from a single wavefunction by tuning either the geometry of the partition or the entanglement temperature. As an example, this remarkable correspondence between topological phase transition and entanglement criticality is rigorously established for integer quantum Hall states. TH is supported by NSF Graduate Research Fellowship No. 0645960. LF is partly supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0010526.
Interference and complementarity for two-photon hybrid entangled states
Nogueira, W. A. T.; Santibanez, M.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Neves, L.; Lima, G.; Padua, S.
2010-10-15
In this work we generate two-photon hybrid entangled states (HESs), where the polarization of one photon is entangled with the transverse spatial degree of freedom of the second photon. The photon pair is created by parametric down-conversion in a polarization-entangled state. A birefringent double-slit couples the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of these photons, and finally, suitable spatial and polarization projections generate the HES. We investigate some interesting aspects of the two-photon hybrid interference and present this study in the context of the complementarity relation that exists between the visibility of the one-photon and that of the two-photon interference patterns.
Entanglements in polymer networks: two-state invariant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller-Nedebock, Kristian
2001-03-01
At the time of crosslinking of polymer chains, entanglements of these chains become permanent features of the resulting network. In a statistical physics formulation these constraints on the polymers can be dealt with by inclusion of invariants for the entangled states of chains. Analytical results are presented based upon an extension of a variational formalism for mechanical properties of entangled gels with a two-state invariant by Edwards and Müller-Nedebock (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.32 3301 (1999)). Apart from showing Mooney-Rivlin-like behaviour of the reduced stress the theory is applied to olympic gels and discussed in the context of the limitations due to the approximations in this approach.
Remote State Preparation of a Two-Atom Entangled State in Cavity QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Xiao-Qi; Xiao, Junfang; Ren, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Ji, Chunlei; Huang, Xin-Gang
2016-06-01
A physical scheme for remotely preparing a diatomic entangled state based on the cavity QED technique is presented in this paper. The quantum channel is composed of a two-atom entangled state and a three-atom entangled W state. The non-resonant interaction between two atoms and cavity is utilized at sender's side to distribute the information among the quantum channel, and the original state can be transmitted to either one of the two receivers. It shows that an extra cavity and an atom are needed at the final receiver's side as an auxiliary system if the non-maximally entangled states are worked as the quantum channel. The total success probabilities for the two receivers are not equal to each other except that the states of the quantum channel are maximally entangled.
Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit.
Chapman, Robert J; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-01-01
The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems. PMID:27088483
Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Robert J.; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-04-01
The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems.
Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit
Chapman, Robert J.; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-01-01
The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems. PMID:27088483
Quantification of Entanglement Entropies for Doubly Excited States in Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yew Kam
2015-05-01
In this work, we study the quantum entanglement for doubly excited resonance states in helium by using highly correlated Hylleraas type functions to represent such states of the two-electron system. The doubly-excited resonance states are determined by calculation of density of resonance states under the framework of the stabilization method. The spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement measures for the low-lying doubly excited 2 s 2, 2 s3 s, and 2 p 2 1 S e states are carried out. Once a resonance state wave function is obtained, the linear entropy and von Neumann entropy for such a state are quantified using the Schmidt-Slater decomposition method. To check the consistence, linear entropy is also determined by solving analytically the needed four-electron (12-dimensional) integrals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.
2008-07-01
We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.
Generating and probing entangled states for optical atomic clocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan
2016-05-01
The precision of quantum measurements is inherently limited by projection noise caused by the measurement process itself. Spin squeezing and more complex forms of entanglement have been proposed as ways of surpassing this limitation. In our system, a high-finesse asymmetric micromirror-based optical cavity can mediate the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating entanglement in an 171 Yb optical lattice clock. I will discuss approaches for creating, characterizing, and optimally utilizing these nonclassical states for precision measurement, as well as recent progress toward their realization. This research is supported by DARPA QuASAR, NSF, and NSERC.
Maximally Entangled States of a Two-Qubit System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Manu P.; Rajput, B. S.
2013-12-01
Entanglement has been explored as one of the key resources required for quantum computation, the functional dependence of the entanglement measures on spin correlation functions has been established, correspondence between evolution of maximally entangled states (MES) of two-qubit system and representation of SU(2) group has been worked out and the evolution of MES under a rotating magnetic field has been investigated. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the general two-qubit state to be maximally entangled state (MES) have been obtained and a new set of MES constituting a very powerful and reliable eigen basis (different from magic bases) of two-qubit systems has been constructed. In terms of the MES constituting this basis, Bell’s States have been generated and all the qubits of two-qubit system have been obtained. It has shown that a MES corresponds to a point in the SO(3) sphere and an evolution of MES corresponds to a trajectory connecting two points on this sphere. Analysing the evolution of MES under a rotating magnetic field, it has been demonstrated that a rotating magnetic field is equivalent to a three dimensional rotation in real space leading to the evolution of a MES.
Comment I on ''Dense coding in entangled states''
Wojcik, Antoni; Grudka, Andrzej
2003-07-01
In this Comment we question the recent analysis of two dense coding protocols presented by Lee, Ahn, and Hwang [Phys. Rev. A 66, 024304 (2002)]. We argue that in the case of two-party communication protocol, there is no reason for using a maximally entangled state of more than two qubits.
Correlation properties of entangled multiphoton states and Bernstein's paradox
Chirkin, A. S. Belyaeva, O. V. Belinsky, A. V.
2013-01-15
A normally ordered characteristic function (NOCF) of Bose operators is calculated for a number of discrete-variable entangled states (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Werner (W) qubit states and a cluster state). It is shown that such NOCFs contain visual information on two types of correlations: pseudoclassical and quantum correlations. The latter manifest themselves in the interference terms of the NOCFs and lead to quantum paradoxes, whereas the pseudoclassical correlations of photons and their cumulants satisfy the relations for classical random variables. Three- and four-qubit states are analyzed in detail. An implementation of an analog of Bernstein's paradox on discrete quantum variables is discussed. A measure of quantumness of an entangled state is introduced that is not related to the entropy approach. It is established that the maximum of the degree of quantumness substantiates the numerical values of the coefficients in multiqubit vector states derived from intuitive considerations.
Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state
Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori
2010-08-15
Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (K-O) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the K-O scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro
2010-02-15
It is shown that while entanglement ensures difficulty in discriminating a set of mutually orthogonal states perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), entanglement content does not. In particular, for a class of entangled multiqubit states, the maximum number of perfectly LOCC distinguishable orthogonal states is shown to be independent of the average entanglement of the states, and the spatial configuration with respect to which LOCC operations may be carried out. It is also pointed out that for this class, the makeup of an ensemble, that is whether it consists only of entangled states or not, determines the maximum number of perfectly distinguishable states.
Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of Cluster State in Multiple Degrees of Freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhisheng; Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu
2015-04-01
We propose a deterministic polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) towards four-photon Cluster state, resorting to linear optic technology and multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). All of the participants can jointedly distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states after transmission through a noisy channel with success probability 100 % in principle. The proposed protocol can be employed for the purification of any other multi-partite maximally entangled states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and W state, which is actually an universally feasible entanglement purification scheme towards multi-photon entanglement system.
A note on entanglement entropy, coherent states and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varadarajan, Madhavan
2016-03-01
The entanglement entropy of a free quantum field in a coherent state is independent of its stress energy content. We use this result to highlight the fact that while the Einstein equations for first order variations about a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields seem to follow from Jacobson's principle of maximal vacuum entanglement entropy, their possible derivation from this principle for the physically relevant case of finite but small variations remains an open issue. We also apply this result to the context of Bianchi's identification, independent of unknown Planck scale physics, of the first order variation of Bekenstein-Hawking area with that of vacuum entanglement entropy. We argue that under certain technical assumptions this identification seems not to be extendible to the context of finite but small variations to coherent states. Our particular method of estimation of entanglement entropy variation reveals the existence of certain contributions over and above those of References Jacobson (arXiv:1505.04753, 2015), Bianchi (arXiv:1211.0522 [gr-qc], 2012). We discuss the sense in which these contributions may be subleading to those in References Jacobson (arXiv:1505.04753, 2015), Bianchi (arXiv:1211.0522 [gr-qc], 2012).
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-06-01
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N.
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states.
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757
Generation of energy-entangled W states via parametric fluorescence in integrated devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menotti, M.; Maccone, L.; Sipe, J. E.; Liscidini, M.
2016-07-01
Tripartite entangled states, such as Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, are typically generated by manipulating two pairs of polarization-entangled photons in bulk optics. Here we propose a scheme to generate W states that are entangled in the energy degree of freedom in an integrated optical circuit. Our approach employs photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a microring resonator. We also present a feasible procedure for demonstrating the generation of such a state, and we compare polarization-entangled and energy-entangled schemes for the preparation of W states.
Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan
2016-06-01
Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.
The maximally entangled set of 4-qubit states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spee, C.; de Vicente, J. I.; Kraus, B.
2016-05-01
Entanglement is a resource to overcome the natural restriction of operations used for state manipulation to Local Operations assisted by Classical Communication (LOCC). Hence, a bipartite maximally entangled state is a state which can be transformed deterministically into any other state via LOCC. In the multipartite setting no such state exists. There, rather a whole set, the Maximally Entangled Set of states (MES), which we recently introduced, is required. This set has on the one hand the property that any state outside of this set can be obtained via LOCC from one of the states within the set and on the other hand, no state in the set can be obtained from any other state via LOCC. Recently, we studied LOCC transformations among pure multipartite states and derived the MES for three and generic four qubit states. Here, we consider the non-generic four qubit states and analyze their properties regarding local transformations. As already the most coarse grained classification, due to Stochastic LOCC (SLOCC), of four qubit states is much richer than in case of three qubits, the investigation of possible LOCC transformations is correspondingly more difficult. We prove that most SLOCC classes show a similar behavior as the generic states, however we also identify here three classes with very distinct properties. The first consists of the GHZ and W class, where any state can be transformed into some other state non-trivially. In particular, there exists no isolation. On the other hand, there also exist classes where all states are isolated. Last but not least we identify an additional class of states, whose transformation properties differ drastically from all the other classes. Although the possibility of transforming states into local-unitary inequivalent states by LOCC turns out to be very rare, we identify those states (with exception of the latter class) which are in the MES and those, which can be obtained (transformed) non-trivially from (into) other states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-03-01
We present a novel, detailed study on the usefulness of three-mode Gaussian states for realistic processing of continuous variable (CV) quantum information, with a particular emphasis on the possibilities opened up by their genuine tripartite entanglement. We describe practical schemes to engineer several classes of pure and mixed three-mode states that stand out for their informational and/or entanglement properties. In particular, we introduce a simple procedure—based on passive optical elements—to produce pure three-mode Gaussian states with arbitrary entanglement structure (upon availability of an initial two-mode squeezed state). We analyse in depth the properties of distributed entanglement and the origin of its sharing structure, showing that the promiscuity of entanglement sharing is a feature peculiar to symmetric Gaussian states that survives even in the presence of significant degrees of mixedness and decoherence. Next, we discuss the suitability of the considered tripartite entangled states to the implementation of quantum information and communication protocols with CVs. This will lead to a feasible experimental proposal to test the promiscuous sharing of CV tripartite entanglement, in terms of the optimal fidelity of teleportation networks with Gaussian resources. We finally focus on the application of three-mode states to symmetric and asymmetric telecloning, and single out the structural properties of the optimal Gaussian resources for the latter protocol in different settings. Our analysis aims to lay the basis for a practical quantum communication with CVs beyond the bipartite scenario.
Teleportation of the three-level three-particle entangled state and classical communication cost
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Ming; Kuang, Le-Man
2008-06-01
We propose a scheme to probabilistically teleport an unknown three-level three-particle entangled state. The quantum channel is composed of a partial entangled three-level two-particle state and a partial entangled three-level three-particle state. We calculate the successful total probability and the classical communication cost required in the ideal probabilistic teleportation process, respectively. It is shown that an unknown three-level three-particle entangled state can be teleported using fewer entangled particles and lesser classical communication cost than Bennett et al.’s original protocol.
Nonclassicality tests and entanglement witnesses for macroscopic mechanical superposition states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gittsovich, Oleg; Moroder, Tobias; Asadian, Ali; Gühne, Otfried; Rabl, Peter
2015-02-01
We describe a set of measurement protocols for performing nonclassicality tests and the verification of entangled superposition states of macroscopic continuous variable systems, such as nanomechanical resonators. Following earlier works, we first consider a setup where a two-level system is used to indirectly probe the motion of the mechanical system via Ramsey measurements and discuss the application of this method for detecting nonclassical mechanical states. We then show that the generalization of this technique to multiple resonator modes allows the conditioned preparation and the detection of entangled mechanical superposition states. The proposed measurement protocols can be implemented in various qubit-resonator systems that are currently under experimental investigation and find applications in future tests of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic scale.
Area law for gapless states from local entanglement thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swingle, Brian; McGreevy, John
2016-05-01
We demonstrate an area law bound on the ground state entanglement entropy of a wide class of gapless quantum states of matter using a strategy called local entanglement thermodynamics. The bound depends only on thermodynamic data, actually a single exponent, the hyperscaling violation exponent θ . All systems in d spatial dimensions obeying our scaling assumptions and with θ
Random Bipartite Entanglement from W and W-Like States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortescue, Ben; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2007-06-01
We describe a protocol for distilling maximally entangled bipartite states between random pairs of parties from those sharing a tripartite W state |W⟩=(1/3)(|100⟩+|010⟩+|001⟩)ABC, and show that the total distillation rate Et∞ [the total number of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs distilled per W, irrespective of who shares them] may be done at a higher rate than EPR distillation between specified pairs of parties. Specifically, the optimal rate for distillation to specified parties has been previously shown to be 0.92 EPR pairs per W, while our protocol can asymptotically distill 1 EPR pair per W between random pairs of parties, which we conjecture to be optimal. We thus demonstrate a tradeoff between overall distillation rate and final distribution of EPR pairs. We further show that there exist states with fixed lower-bounded Et∞, but arbitrarily small distillable entanglement for specified parties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Ashish Vachaspati
Entanglement is an essential element of quantum mechanics. The aim of this work is to explore various properties of entanglement from the viewpoints of both physics and information science, thus providing a unique picture of entanglement from an interdisciplinary point of view. The focus of this work is on quantifying entanglement as a resource. We start with bipartite states, proposing a new measure of bipartite entanglement called entanglement of assistance, showing that bound entangled states of rank two cannot exist, exploring the number of members required in the ensemble achieving the entanglement of formation and the possibility of bound entangled states that are negative under partial transposition (NPT bound entangled states). For multipartite states we introduce the notions of reducibilities and equivalences under entanglement non-increasing operations and we study the relations between various reducibilities and equivalences such as exact and asymptotic LOCC, asymptotic LOCCq, cLOCC, LOc, etc. We use this new language to attempt to quantify entanglement for multiple parties. We introduce the idea of entanglement span and minimal entanglement generating set and entanglement coefficients associated with it which are the entanglement measures, thus proposing a multicomponent measure of entanglement for three or more parties. We show that the class of Schmidt decomposable states have only GHZM or Cat-like entanglement. Further we introduce the class of multiseparable states for quantification of their entanglement and prove that they are equivalent to the Schmidt decomposable states, and thus have only Cat-like entanglement. We further explore the conditions under which LOCO equivalences are possible for multipartite isentropic states. We define Cat-distillability, EPRB-distillability and distillability for multipartite mixed states and show that distillability implies EPRB-distillability. Further we show that all non-factorizable pure states are Cat
Simultaneous generation of two spin-wave-photon entangled states in an atomic ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Xu, Zhongxiao; Ge, Wei; Chen, Lirong; Li, Shujing; Yuan, Haoxiang; Wen, Yafei; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-05-01
Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) in atomic ensembles provides a promising method to generate spin-wave-photon entangled states. In the past experiments, a spin-wave-photon entangled state was produced via SRS from an atomic ensemble. Here, we report a scheme of simultaneously generating two spin-wave-photon (atom-photon) entangled states in a cold Rb ensemble via SRS. Based on joint Bell-state measurements on the two photons coming from the two atom-photon entangled sources, respectively, we projected the two stored spin waves into a Bell state and then mapped the quantum memory into a polarization-entangled photon pair. Such a polarization-entangled photon pair can be released on demand and thus the presented scheme has potential application in the preparation of large-size photonic entangled states.
Asymptotic entanglement transformation between W and GHZ states
Vrana, Péter; Christandl, Matthias
2015-02-15
We investigate entanglement transformations with stochastic local operations and classical communication in an asymptotic setting using the concepts of degeneration and border rank of tensors from algebraic complexity theory. Results well-known in that field imply that GHZ states can be transformed into W states at rate 1 for any number of parties. As a generalization, we find that the asymptotic conversion rate from GHZ states to Dicke states is bounded as the number of subsystems increases and the number of excitations is fixed. By generalizing constructions of Coppersmith and Winograd and by using monotones introduced by Strassen, we also compute the conversion rate from W to GHZ states.
Entanglement of multipartite quantum states and the generalized quantum search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gingrich, Robert Michael
2002-09-01
In chapter 2 various parameterizations for the orbits under local unitary transformations of three-qubit pure states are analyzed. It is shown that the entanglement monotones of any multipartite pure state uniquely determine the orbit of that state. It follows that there must be an entanglement monotone for three-qubit pure states which depends on the Kempe invariant defined in [1]. A form for such an entanglement monotone is proposed. A theorem is proved that significantly reduces the number of entanglement monotones that must be looked at to find the maximal probability of transforming one multipartite state to another. In chapter 3 Grover's unstructured quantum search algorithm is generalized to use an arbitrary starting superposition and an arbitrary unitary matrix. A formula for the probability of the generalized Grover's algorithm succeeding after n iterations is derived. This formula is used to determine the optimal strategy for using the unstructured quantum search algorithm. The speedup obtained illustrates that a hybrid use of quantum computing and classical computing techniques can yield a performance that is better than either alone. The analysis is extended to the case of a society of k quantum searches acting in parallel. In chapter 4 the positive map Gamma : rho → (Trrho) - rho is introduced as a separability criterion. Any separable state is mapped by the tensor product of Gamma and the identity in to a non-negative operator, which provides a necessary condition for separability. If Gamma acts on a two-dimensional subsystem, then it is equivalent to partial transposition and therefore also sufficient for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems. Finally, a connection between this map for two qubits and complex conjugation in the "magic" basis [2] is displayed.
Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states.
Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation. PMID:26778340
Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states
Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation. PMID:26778340
Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation.
Adiabatic path to fractional quantum Hall states of a few bosonic atoms
Popp, M.; Paredes, B.; Cirac, J.I.
2004-11-01
We propose a realistic scheme to create motionally entangled states of a few bosonic atoms. It can experimentally be realized with a gas of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in a deep optical lattice potential. By simultaneously deforming and rotating the trapping potential on each lattice site it is feasible to adiabatically create a variety of entangled states on each lattice well. We fully address the case of N=2 and 4 atoms per well and identify a sequence of fractional quantum Hall states: the Pfaffian state, the 1/2-Laughlin quasiparticle, and the 1/2-Laughlin state. Exact knowledge of the spectrum has allowed us to design adiabatic paths to these states, with all times and parameters well within the reach of current experimental setups. We further discuss the detection of these states by measuring different properties as their density profile, angular momentum, or correlation functions.
Building projected entangled pair states with a local gauge symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Burrello, Michele
2016-04-01
Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.
Quantum-enhanced spectroscopy with entangled multiphoton states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinani, Hossein T.; Gupta, Manish K.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Berry, Dominic W.
2016-06-01
Traditionally, spectroscopy is performed by examining the position of absorption lines. However, at frequencies near the transition frequency, additional information can be obtained from the phase shift. In this work we consider the information about the transition frequency obtained from both the absorption and the phase shift, as quantified by the Fisher information in an interferometric measurement. We examine the use of multiple single-photon states, NOON states, and numerically optimized states that are entangled and have multiple photons. We find the optimized states that improve over the standard quantum limit set by independent single photons for some atom number densities.
Chiral projected entangled-pair state with topological order.
Yang, Shuo; Wahl, Thorsten B; Tu, Hong-Hao; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J Ignacio
2015-03-13
We show that projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) can describe chiral topologically ordered phases. For that, we construct a simple PEPS for spin-1/2 particles in a two-dimensional lattice. We reveal a symmetry in the local projector of the PEPS that gives rise to the global topological character. We also extract characteristic quantities of the edge conformal field theory using the bulk-boundary correspondence. PMID:25815954
A new optical scheme for teleportation of entangled coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Jie-Qiao; Kuang, Le-Man
2006-10-01
We propose a nearly perfect optical scheme for the quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states using optical devices such as nonlinear Kerr media, beam splitters, phase shifters, and photon detectors. Different from those previous schemes, our scheme needs only ``yes'' or `no' measurements of the photon number of the related modes, i.e. nonzero- and zero-photon measurements, while in previous schemes one has to exactly identify the even or odd parity character of the photon numbers detected by detectors.
Controlled Secure Direct Communication with Six-Qubit Entangled States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-hua; Li, Xiao-lan; Nie, Li-ping; Sang, Ming-huang
2016-02-01
We propose an experimentally feasible scheme for implementing controlled quantum secure direct communication by using six-qubit entangled states. According to the results measured by the sender and the controller, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way with unit successful probability. In our scheme, the information-carrying qubits do not need to be transmitted over the public channel. Therefore, the scheme is determinate and secure.
Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states
Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-09-15
We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they
Entanglement classes of symmetric Werner states
Lyons, David W.; Walck, Scott N.
2011-10-15
The symmetric Werner states for n qubits, important in the study of quantum nonlocality and useful for applications in quantum information, have a surprisingly simple and elegant structure in terms of tensor products of Pauli matrices. Further, each of these states forms a unique local unitary equivalence class, that is, no two of these states are interconvertible by local unitary operations.
Local cloning of arbitrarily entangled multipartite states
Kay, Alastair; Ericsson, Marie
2006-01-15
We examine the perfect cloning of nonlocal, orthogonal states using only local operations and classical communication. We provide a complete characterisation of the states that can be cloned under these restrictions, and their relation to distinguishability. We also consider the case of catalytic cloning, which we show provides no enhancement to the set of clonable states.
Quantum-field coherent control: Preparation of broken-symmetry entangled states
Kral, Petr; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe
2005-08-15
We show that entangled radiation-matter states with broken symmetries can be prepared by using nonclassical light in the coherent control techniques. We demonstrate the method by realizing the entanglement in degenerate continuum electronic momentum states of opposite directionality and discrete states of opposite handedness in chiral molecules. When the material system is excited simultaneously by classical light and quantum light in a state with several semiclassical phases, the interference conditions guide the system to such entangled radiation-matter states.
Entanglement entropy from one-point functions in holographic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beach, Matthew J. S.; Lee, Jaehoon; Rabideau, Charles; Van Raamsdonk, Mark
2016-06-01
For holographic CFT states near the vacuum, entanglement entropies for spatial subsystems can be expressed perturbatively as an expansion in the one-point functions of local operators dual to light bulk fields. Using the connection between quantum Fisher information for CFT states and canonical energy for the dual spacetimes, we describe a general formula for this expansion up to second-order in the one-point functions, for an arbitrary ball-shaped region, extending the first-order result given by the entanglement first law. For two-dimensional CFTs, we use this to derive a completely explicit formula for the second-order contribution to the entanglement entropy from the stress tensor. We show that this stress tensor formula can be reproduced by a direct CFT calculation for states related to the vacuum by a local conformal transformation. This result can also be reproduced via the perturbative solution to a non-linear scalar wave equation on an auxiliary de Sitter spacetime, extending the first-order result in arXiv:1509.00113.
Three-party remote state preparation schemes based on entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Nan-Run; Cheng, Hu-Lai; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Gong, Li-Hua
2013-11-01
By exploiting the entanglement correlation in quantum mechanics, two three-party remote state preparation (RSP) schemes are proposed. One is three-party remote preparation of a single-particle quantum state, and the other is three-party remote preparation of a two-particle entangled state. In the proposed schemes, the sender Alice knows the quantum states to be prepared, while the receivers Bob and Charlie do not know the quantum states; Alice performs measurement and unitary operations on her own particles with two three-particle GHZ states as the quantum channel. According to Alice's measurement results, Bob and Charlie measure their own particles on the corresponding quantum measurement bases and perform unitary operations on the corresponding particles to reconstruct the quantum states, respectively. Compared with multiparty joint remote preparation and two-party RSP of a quantum state, the proposed schemes realize quantum multicast communication successfully, which enables Bob and Charlie to obtain the prepared quantum states simultaneously in the case of just knowing Alice's measurement results, while Bob and Charlie do not know each other's prepared quantum states. It is shown that only three classical bits are required for the two proposed RSP schemes when Bob and Alice introduce an auxiliary particle, respectively, and the proposed schemes are secure after the quantum channel authentication.
Quantum nonlocality of four-qubit entangled states
Wu, Chunfeng; Yeo, Ye; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.
2007-03-15
We derive a Bell inequality for testing violation of local realism. Quantum nonlocality of several four-qubit states is investigated. These include the Greenberger-Zeilinger-Horne (GHZ) state, W state, linear cluster state, and the state |{chi}> that has recently been proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)]. The Bell inequality is optimally violated by |{chi}> but not violated by the GHZ state. The linear cluster state also violates the Bell inequality though not optimally. The state |{chi}> can thus be discriminated from the linear cluster state by using the inequality. Different aspects of four-partite entanglement are also studied by considering the usefulness of a family of four-qubit mixed states as resources for two-qubit teleportation. Our results generalize those in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 797 (1994)].
Discrimination strategies for inequivalent classes of multipartite entangled states
Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried
2010-08-15
How can one discriminate different inequivalent classes of multiparticle entanglement experimentally? We present an approach for the discrimination of an experimentally prepared state from the equivalence class of another state. We consider two possible measures for the discrimination strength of an observable. The first measure is based on the difference of expectation values, the second on the relative entropy of the probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The interpretation of these measures and their usefulness for experiments with limited resources are discussed. In the case of graph states, the stabilizer formalism is employed to compute these quantities and to find sets of observables that result in the most decisive discrimination.
Quantum state of wormholes and path integral
Garay, L.J. )
1991-08-15
The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface {ital S} which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The ground-state wave function is picked out by requiring that there be no matter excitations in the asymptotic region. Once the path integrals over the lapse and shift functions are evaluated, the requirement that the spacetime be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is claimed that no wave function exists which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. The wormhole wave functions are worked out in minisuperspace models with massless minimal and conformal scalar fields.
Multiphoton-state-assisted entanglement purification of material qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernád, József Zsolt; Torres, Juan Mauricio; Kunz, Ludwig; Alber, Gernot
2016-03-01
We propose an entanglement purification scheme based on material qubits and ancillary coherent multiphoton states. We consider a typical QED scenario where material qubits implemented by two-level atoms fly sequentially through a cavity and interact resonantly with a single mode of the radiation field. We explore the theoretical possibilities of realizing a high-fidelity two-qubit quantum operation necessary for the purification protocol with the help of a postselective balanced homodyne photodetection. We demonstrate that the obtained probabilistic quantum operation can be used as a bilateral operation in the proposed purification scheme. It is shown that the probabilistic nature of this quantum operation is counterbalanced in the last step of the scheme where qubits are not discarded after inadequate qubit measurements. As this protocol requires present-day experimental setups and generates high-fidelity entangled pairs with high repetition rates, it may offer interesting perspectives for applications in quantum information theory.
Quantum entanglement in states generated by bilocal group algebras
Hamma, Alioscia; Ionicioiu, Radu; Zanardi, Paolo
2005-07-15
Given a finite group G with a bilocal representation, we investigate the bipartite entanglement in the state constructed from the group algebra of G acting on a separable reference state. We find an upper bound for the von Neumann entropy for a bipartition (A,B) of a quantum system and conditions to saturate it. We show that these states can be interpreted as ground states of generic Hamiltonians or as the physical states in a quantum gauge theory and that under specific conditions their geometric entropy satisfies the entropic area law. If G is a group of spin flips acting on a set of qubits, these states are locally equivalent to 2-colorable (i.e., bipartite) graph states and they include Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, cluster states, etc. Examples include an application to qudits and a calculation of the n-tangle for 2-colorable graph states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heo, Jino; Hong, Chang-Ho; Lim, Jong-In; Yang, Hyung-Jin
2015-05-01
We propose an arbitrary controlled-unitary (CU) gate and a bidirectional quantum teleportation (BQTP) scheme. The proposed CU gate utilizes photonic qubits (photons) with cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs), X-homodyne detectors, and linear optical elements, and consists of the consecutive operation of a controlled-path (C-path) gate and a gathering-path (G-path) gate. It is almost deterministic and feasible with current technology when a strong coherent state and weak XKNLs are employed. Based on the CU gate, we present a BQTP scheme that simultaneously teleports two unknown photons between distant users by transmitting only one photon in a path-polarization intra-particle hybrid entangled state. Consequently, it is possible to experimentally implement BQTP with a certain success probability using the proposed CU gate. Project supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning, Korea, under the C-ITRC (Convergence Information Technology Research Center) Support program (NIPA-2013-H0301-13-3007) supervised by the National IT Industry Promotion Agency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, You-Bang; Zhang, Qun-Yong; Wang, Yu-Wu; Ma, Peng-Cheng
2010-01-01
We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown single-qubit state by using a high-dimensional entangled state as the quantum channel. As a special case, a scheme for teleportation of an unknown single-qubit state via three-dimensional entangled state is investigated in detail. Also, this scheme can be directly generalized to an unknown f-dimensional state by using a d-dimensional entangled state (d > f) as the quantum channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Qin-Miao; Dou, Xiao-Ming
2015-07-01
In this paper, using Wigner function (WF) method in phase space, we re-investigate micro-macro entanglement of a single-photon entangled state after one-sided amplification and de-amplification proposed by Simon’s group, and discuss the effects of the amplification and the loss. For the input-output process, we first build the relation between the input WF and the output WF. Next, the analytical expression of the output WF is derived related to the factors of the amplification and the loss. Finally, based on the above results, using the trace rule we also obtain the exact expressions of the detected probability and concurrence to quantify micro-macro entanglement, and analyze numerically the results. The results show that it is possible to detect micro-macro photon-number entanglement for reasonable values of photon loss.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kröger, Martin
2005-06-01
We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as an agent to free the bound entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Kapil K.; Pandey, S. N.
2016-04-01
In the present paper, we investigate the efficacy of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction to convert the bound entangled states into free entangled states. We consider the tripartite hybrid system as a pair of non interacting two qutrits initially prepared in bound entangled states and one auxiliary qubit. Here, we consider two types of bound entangled states investigated by Horodecki. The auxiliary qubit interacts with any one of the qutrit of the pair through DM interaction. We show that by tuning the probability amplitude of auxiliary qubit and DM interaction strength, one can free the bound entangled states, which can be further distilled. We use the reduction criterion to find the range of the parameters of probability amplitude of auxiliary qubit and DM interaction strength, for which the states are distillable. The realignment criterion and negativity have been used for detection and quantification of entanglement.
Guehne, Otfried; Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Weinstein, Yaakov S.
2011-11-15
The characterization of genuine multiparticle entanglement is important for entanglement theory as well as experimental studies related to quantum-information theory. Here, we completely characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement for four-qubit states diagonal in the cluster-state basis. In addition, we give a complete characterization of multiparticle entanglement for all five-qubit graph states mixed with white noise, for states diagonal in the basis corresponding to the five-qubit Y-shaped graph, and for a family of graph states with an arbitrary number of qubits.