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Sample records for path entangled states

  1. Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267

  2. Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-07-01

    We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ>|0> + |0>|φ>, where an arbitrary state |φ> occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ>. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ>. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation.

  3. Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267

  4. Quantum correlation of path-entangled two-photon states in waveguide arrays with defects

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Yiling; Xu, Lei; Han, Bin; Bo, Fang; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan

    2014-04-15

    We study the quantum correlation of path-entangled states of two photons in coupled one-dimensional waveguide arrays with lattice defects. Both off-diagonal and diagonal defects are considered, which show different effects on the quantum correlation of path-entangled two-photon states. Two-photon bunching or anti-bunching effects can be observed and controlled. The two photons are found to have a tendency to bunch at the side lobes with a repulsive off-diagonal defect, and the path-entanglement of the input two-photon state can be preserved during the propagation. We also found that defect modes may play an important role on the two-photon correlation of path-entangled states in the waveguide arrays. Due to the quantum interference effect, intriguing evolution dynamics of the two-photon correlation matrix elements with oscillation frequencies being either twice of or the same as that of a classical light wave, depending on the position of the correlation matrix element, is observed. Our results show that it is possible to manipulate the two-photon correlation properties of path-entangled states in waveguide arrays with lattice defects.

  5. Strong violations of Bell-type inequalities for path-entangled number states

    SciTech Connect

    Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lund, Austin P.

    2007-11-15

    We show that nonlocal correlation experiments on the two spatially separated modes of a maximally path-entangled number state may be performed. They lead to a violation of a Clauser-Horne Bell inequality for any finite photon number N. We also present an analytical expression for the two-mode Wigner function of a maximally path-entangled number state and investigate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for such a state. We test other Bell-type inequalities. Some are violated by a constant amount for any N.

  6. Path entanglement of continuous-variable quantum microwaves.

    PubMed

    Menzel, E P; Di Candia, R; Deppe, F; Eder, P; Zhong, L; Ihmig, M; Haeberlein, M; Baust, A; Hoffmann, E; Ballester, D; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Solano, E; Marx, A; Gross, R

    2012-12-21

    Path entanglement constitutes an essential resource in quantum information and communication protocols. Here, we demonstrate frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two spatially separated paths. We combine a squeezed and a vacuum state using a microwave beam splitter. Via correlation measurements, we detect and quantify the path entanglement contained in the beam splitter output state. Our experiments open the avenue to quantum teleportation, quantum communication, or quantum radar with continuous variables at microwave frequencies. PMID:23368439

  7. Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2009-03-20

    We report a quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state that is prepared by means of two-photon quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is truly quantum mechanical in origin since it results from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test. PMID:19305476

  8. The generation of entangled states from independent particle sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Morton H.; Shih, Yan-Hua

    1994-01-01

    The generation of entangled states of two systems from product states is discussed for the case in which the paths of the two systems do not overlap. A particular method of measuring allows one to project out the nonlocal entangled state. An application to the production of four photon entangled states is outlined.

  9. Extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses: Finding new bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, R.; Arvind

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, we discuss extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses based on Choi's map. The constructions are based on a generalization of the Choi map, from which we construct entanglement witnesses. These extremal extensions are powerful in terms of their capacity to detect entanglement of positive under partial transpose (PPT) entangled states and lead to unearthing of entanglement of new PPT states. We also use the Cholesky-like decomposition to construct entangled states which are revealed by these extremal entanglement witnesses.

  10. Path Entanglement of Continuous-Variable Quantum Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Eder, P.; Zhong, L.; Haeberlein, M.; Baust, A.; Hoffmann, E.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; di Candia, R.; Solano, E.; Ballester, D.; Ihmig, M.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Entanglement is a quantum mechanical phenomenon playing a key role in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Here, we report on frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two separated paths. In our experiment, we combine a squeezed and a vacuum state via a beam splitter. Overcoming the challenges imposed by the low photon energies in the microwave regime, we reconstruct the squeezed state and, independently from this, detect and quantify the produced entanglement via correlation measurements (E. P. Menzel et al., arXiv:1210.4413). Our work paves the way towards quantum communication and teleportation with continuous variables in the microwave regime. This work is supported by SFB 631, German Excellence Initiative via NIM, EU projects SOLID, CCQED and PROMISCE, MEXT Kakenhi ``Quantum Cybernetics'', JSPS FIRST Program, the NICT Commissioned Research, EPSRC EP/H050434/1, Basque Government IT472-10, and Spanish MICINN FIS2009-12773-C02-01.

  11. Limited-path-length entanglement percolation in quantum complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuquet, Martí; Calsamiglia, John

    2011-03-01

    We study entanglement distribution in quantum complex networks where nodes are connected by bipartite entangled states. These networks are characterized by a complex structure, which dramatically affects how information is transmitted through them. For pure quantum state links, quantum networks exhibit a remarkable feature absent in classical networks: it is possible to effectively rewire the network by performing local operations on the nodes. We propose a family of such quantum operations that decrease the entanglement percolation threshold of the network and increase the size of the giant connected component. We provide analytic results for complex networks with an arbitrary (uncorrelated) degree distribution. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which also show enhancement in correlated and real-world networks. The proposed quantum preprocessing strategies are not robust in the presence of noise. However, even when the links consist of (noisy) mixed-state links, one can send quantum information through a connecting path with a fidelity that decreases with the path length. In this noisy scenario, complex networks offer a clear advantage over regular lattices, namely, the fact that two arbitrary nodes can be connected through a relatively small number of steps, known as the small-world effect. We calculate the probability that two arbitrary nodes in the network can successfully communicate with a fidelity above a given threshold. This amounts to working out the classical problem of percolation with a limited path length. We find that this probability can be significant even for paths limited to few connections and that the results for standard (unlimited) percolation are soon recovered if the path length exceeds by a finite amount the average path length, which in complex networks generally scales logarithmically with the size of the network.

  12. Entangling ability of a beam splitter in the presence of temporal which-path information

    SciTech Connect

    Velsen, J.L. van

    2005-07-15

    We calculate the amount of polarization-entanglement induced by two-photon interference at a lossless beam splitter. Entanglement and its witness are quantified, respectively, by concurrence and the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) parameter. In the presence of a Mandel dip, the interplay of two kinds of which-path information--temporal and polarization--gives rise to the existence of entangled polarization states that cannot violate the Bell-CHSH inequality.

  13. Entanglement swapping of two arbitrarily degraded entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Brian T.; Santra, Siddhartha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Brodsky, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We consider entanglement swapping, a key component of quantum network operations and entanglement distribution. Pure entangled states, which are the desired input to the swapping protocol, are typically mixed by environmental interactions, causing a reduction in their degree of entanglement. Thus an understanding of entanglement swapping with partially mixed states is of importance. Here we present a general analytical solution for entanglement swapping of arbitrary two-qubit states. Our result provides a comprehensive method for analyzing entanglement swapping in quantum networks. First, we show that the concurrence of a partially mixed state is conserved when this state is swapped with a Bell state. Then, we find upper and lower bounds on the concurrence of the state resulting from entanglement swapping for various classes of input states. Finally, we determine a general relationship between the ranks of the initial states and the rank of the final state after swapping.

  14. Entanglement under restricted operations: Analogy to mixed-state entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Stephen D.; Doherty, Andrew C.; Spekkens, Robert W.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2006-02-15

    We show that the classification of bipartite pure entangled states when local quantum operations are restricted yields a structure that is analogous in many respects to that of mixed-state entanglement. Specifically, we develop this analogy by restricting operations through local superselection rules, and show that such exotic phenomena as bound entanglement and activation arise using pure states in this setting. This analogy aids in resolving several conceptual puzzles in the study of entanglement under restricted operations. In particular, we demonstrate that several types of quantum optical states that possess confusing entanglement properties are analogous to bound entangled states. Also, the classification of pure-state entanglement under restricted operations can be much simpler than for mixed-state entanglement. For instance, in the case of local Abelian superselection rules all questions concerning distillability can be resolved.

  15. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.

    2005-10-01

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  16. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandao, F.G.S.L.; Terra Cunha, M.O.

    2005-10-15

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  17. Local cloning of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  18. Entanglement for All Quantum States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…

  19. Demonstration of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering Using Single-Photon Path Entanglement and Displacement-Based Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, T.; Monteiro, F.; Martin, A.; Brask, J. B.; Vértesi, T.; Korzh, B.; Caloz, M.; Bussières, F.; Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.; Marsilli, F.; Shaw, M. D.; Gisin, N.; Brunner, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the violation of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequality developed for single-photon path entanglement with displacement-based detection. We use a high-rate source of heralded single-photon path-entangled states, combined with high-efficiency superconducting-based detectors, in a scheme that is free of any postselection and thus immune to the detection loophole. This result conclusively demonstrates single-photon entanglement in a one-sided device-independent scenario, and opens the way towards implementations of device-independent quantum technologies within the paradigm of path entanglement.

  20. Demonstration of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering Using Single-Photon Path Entanglement and Displacement-Based Detection.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, T; Monteiro, F; Martin, A; Brask, J B; Vértesi, T; Korzh, B; Caloz, M; Bussières, F; Verma, V B; Lita, A E; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W; Marsilli, F; Shaw, M D; Gisin, N; Brunner, N; Zbinden, H; Thew, R T

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the violation of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequality developed for single-photon path entanglement with displacement-based detection. We use a high-rate source of heralded single-photon path-entangled states, combined with high-efficiency superconducting-based detectors, in a scheme that is free of any postselection and thus immune to the detection loophole. This result conclusively demonstrates single-photon entanglement in a one-sided device-independent scenario, and opens the way towards implementations of device-independent quantum technologies within the paradigm of path entanglement. PMID:27563941

  1. Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Metwally, N.

    2014-12-15

    The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.

  2. Entangled states in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruža, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.

  3. Entanglement for all quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.

    2010-03-01

    It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical relevance of the change of tensor product structure is mentioned.

  4. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M. M.; Galapon, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  5. Scattering of entangled two-photon states.

    PubMed

    Schotland, John C; Cazé, A; Norris, Theodore B

    2016-02-01

    We consider the scattering of entangled two-photon states from collections of small particles. We also study the related Mie problem of scattering from a sphere. In both cases, we calculate the entropy of entanglement and investigate the influence of the entanglement of the incident field on the entanglement of the scattered field. PMID:26907393

  6. Highly entangled states with almost no secrecy.

    PubMed

    Christandl, Matthias; Schuch, Norbert; Winter, Andreas

    2010-06-18

    In this Letter we illuminate the relation between entanglement and secrecy by providing the first example of a quantum state that is highly entangled, but from which, nevertheless, almost no secrecy can be extracted. More precisely, we provide two bounds on the bipartite entanglement of the totally antisymmetric state in dimension d×d. First, we show that the amount of secrecy that can be extracted from the state is low; to be precise it is bounded by O(1/d). Second, we show that the state is highly entangled in the sense that we need a large amount of singlets to create the state: entanglement cost is larger than a constant, independent of d. In order to obtain our results we use representation theory, linear programming, and the entanglement measure known as squashed entanglement. Our findings also clarify the relation between the squashed entanglement and the relative entropy of entanglement. PMID:20867285

  7. Generation of entangled squeezed states: their entanglement and quantum polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, based on the well-known one-mode and two-mode squeezed states, we introduce the two-mode and four-mode entangled squeezed states. Next, in order to generate the introduced entangled states, we present two theoretical schemes based on the resonant atom-field interaction. In the proposed schemes, a Λ -type three-level atom interacts with the two-mode and four-mode quantized field in the presence of two strong classical fields in which two-photon atomic transitions are allowed. In the continuation, we study entanglement dynamics of the generated entangled states (using the von Neumann entropy) as well as the quantum polarization (using the Stokes operators). It is demonstrated that entanglement and polarization can be achieved for the produced states by adjusting the evolved parameters.

  8. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-12-15

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n<=7.

  9. Spin-path entanglement in single-neutron interferometer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Erdoesi, Daniel

    2011-09-23

    There are two powerful arguments against the possibility of extending quantum mechanics (QM) into a more fundamental theory yielding a deterministic description of nature. One is the experimental violation of Bell inequalities, which discards local hidden-variable theories as a possible extension to QM. The other is the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, which stresses the incompatibility of QM with a larger class of hidden-variable theories, known as noncontextual hidden-variable theories. We performed experiments with neutron interferometer, which exploits spin-path entanglements in single neutrons. A Bell-like state is generated to demonstrate a violation of the Bell-like inequality and phenomena in accordance with KS theorem: both experiments study quantum contextuality and show clear evidence of the incompatibility of noncontextual hidden variable theories with QM. The value S = 2.202{+-}0.007 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 2 is obtained in the new measurement of the Bell-like inequality, which shows a larger violation than the previous measurement. For the study of KS theorem, the obtained violation 2.291{+-}0.008 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 1 clearly shows that quantum mechanical predictions cannot be reproduced by noncontextual hidden variable theories.

  10. Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.

  11. Entanglement classification with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M.; Egusquiza, I. L.; di Candia, R.; Saberi, H.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2016-07-01

    We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by .

  12. Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-15

    Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.

  13. Entangled States, Holography and Quantum Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G F

    2003-08-13

    Starting with an elementary discussion of quantum holography, we show that entangled quantum states of qubits provide a ''local'' representation of the global geometry and topology of quantum Riemann surfaces. This representation may play an important role in both mathematics and physics. Indeed, the simplest way to represent the fundamental objects in a ''theory of everything'' may be as muti-qubit entangled states.

  14. Spin-orbit-path hybrid Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement and open-destination teleportation with multiple degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lixiang; She Weilong

    2011-03-15

    We propose a scheme to generate hybrid Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement where multiple photons are entangled in different degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), and path (linear momentum). The generation involves mapping the preliminary OAM entanglement of photon pairs onto their spin-orbit and spin-path degrees of freedom, respectively. Based on the hybrid GHZ entanglement, we demonstrate an open-destination teleportation with multiples degrees of freedom, via which a spin state of a single photon is teleported onto a superposition of multiple photons with the postselection technique and the original information could be read out at any photon in individual spin, OAM, or the linear-momentum state. Our scheme holds promise for asymmetric optical quantum network.

  15. Diagnosing Topological Edge States via Entanglement Monogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichanetzidis, K.; Eisert, J.; Cirio, M.; Lahtinen, V.; Pachos, J. K.

    2016-04-01

    Topological phases of matter possess intricate correlation patterns typically probed by entanglement entropies or entanglement spectra. In this Letter, we propose an alternative approach to assessing topologically induced edge states in free and interacting fermionic systems. We do so by focussing on the fermionic covariance matrix. This matrix is often tractable either analytically or numerically, and it precisely captures the relevant correlations of the system. By invoking the concept of monogamy of entanglement, we show that highly entangled states supported across a system bipartition are largely disentangled from the rest of the system, thus, usually appearing as gapless edge states. We then define an entanglement qualifier that identifies the presence of topological edge states based purely on correlations present in the ground states. We demonstrate the versatility of this qualifier by applying it to various free and interacting fermionic topological systems.

  16. Diagnosing Topological Edge States via Entanglement Monogamy.

    PubMed

    Meichanetzidis, K; Eisert, J; Cirio, M; Lahtinen, V; Pachos, J K

    2016-04-01

    Topological phases of matter possess intricate correlation patterns typically probed by entanglement entropies or entanglement spectra. In this Letter, we propose an alternative approach to assessing topologically induced edge states in free and interacting fermionic systems. We do so by focussing on the fermionic covariance matrix. This matrix is often tractable either analytically or numerically, and it precisely captures the relevant correlations of the system. By invoking the concept of monogamy of entanglement, we show that highly entangled states supported across a system bipartition are largely disentangled from the rest of the system, thus, usually appearing as gapless edge states. We then define an entanglement qualifier that identifies the presence of topological edge states based purely on correlations present in the ground states. We demonstrate the versatility of this qualifier by applying it to various free and interacting fermionic topological systems. PMID:27081962

  17. Entanglement concentration of three-partite states

    SciTech Connect

    Groisman, Berry; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu

    2005-12-15

    We investigate the concentration of multiparty entanglement by focusing on a simple family of three-partite pure states, superpositions of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and singlets. Despite the simplicity of the states, we show that they cannot be reversibly concentrated by the standard entanglement concentration procedure, to which they seem ideally suited. Our results cast doubt on the idea that for each N there might be a finite set of N-party states into which any pure state can be reversibly transformed. We further relate our results to the concept of locking of entanglement of formation.

  18. Entanglement of quantum circular states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, D. B.; De Bièvre, S.; Kolobov, M. I.; Patera, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present a general approach to calculating the entanglement of formation for superpositions of two-mode coherent states, placed equidistantly on a circle in phase space. We show that in the particular case of rotationally invariant circular states the Schmidt decomposition of two modes, and therefore the value of their entanglement, are given by analytical expressions. We analyze the dependence of the entanglement on the radius of the circle and number of components in the superposition. We also show that the set of rotationally invariant circular states creates an orthonormal basis in the state space of the harmonic oscillator, and this basis is advantageous for representation of other circular states of light.

  19. Entanglement of trapped-ion clock states

    SciTech Connect

    Haljan, P. C.; Lee, P. J.; Brickman, K-A.; Acton, M.; Deslauriers, L.; Monroe, C.

    2005-12-15

    A Moelmer-Soerensen entangling gate is realized for pairs of trapped {sup 111}Cd{sup +} ions using magnetic-field insensitive 'clock' states and an implementation offering reduced sensitivity to optical phase drifts. The gate is used to generate the complete set of four entangled states, which are reconstructed and evaluated with quantum-state tomography. An average target-state fidelity of 0.79 is achieved, limited by available laser power and technical noise. The tomographic reconstruction of entangled states demonstrates universal quantum control of two ion qubits, which through multiplexing can provide a route to scalable architectures for trapped-ion quantum computing.

  20. Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Rezaee, M.; Seyed Yagoobi, S. K. A.

    2005-12-15

    It has been shown that finding generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for d{sub 1}xd{sub 2}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}xd{sub n} systems reduces to linear programming if the feasible region is a polygon by itself, and it can be solved approximately via linear programming if the feasible region is encircled by a polygon. Since solving linear programming for the generic case is difficult, multiqubit, 2xN and 3x3 systems for the special case of generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for some particular choice of parameters have been considered. We obtain the optimal nondecomposable entanglement witness for a 3x3 system for some particular choice of parameters. By proving the optimality of the well-known reduction map and combining it with the optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses (named critical entanglement witnesses) the family of optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses has also been obtained. Using the approximately critical entanglement witnesses, some 3x3 bound entangled states are so detected. So the well-known Choi map as a particular case of the positive map in connection with this witness via Jamiolkowski isomorphism has been considered.

  1. Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L.

    2015-05-15

    This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.

  2. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  3. Construction of bound entangled states based on permutation operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Guo, Sha; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shaoming

    2016-04-01

    We present a construction of new bound entangled states from given bound entangled states for arbitrary dimensional bipartite systems. One way to construct bound entangled states is to show that these states are positive partial transpose (PPT) and violate the range criterion at the same time. By applying certain operators to given bound entangled states or to one of the subsystems of the given bound entangled states, we obtain a set of new states which are both PPT and violate the range criterion. We show that the derived bound entangled states are not local unitary equivalent to the original bound entangled states by detail examples.

  4. All entangled quantum states are nonlocal.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2012-05-18

    Departing from the usual paradigm of local operations and classical communication adopted in entanglement theory, we study here the interconversion of quantum states by means of local operations and shared randomness. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a transformation between two given quantum states is given in terms of the payoff they yield in a suitable class of nonlocal games. It is shown that, as a consequence of our result, such a class of nonlocal games is able to witness quantum entanglement, however weak, and reveal nonlocality in any entangled quantum state. An example illustrating this fact is provided. PMID:23003127

  5. Macroscopic entanglement of many-magnon states

    SciTech Connect

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Akira; Sugita, Ayumu

    2005-03-01

    We study macroscopic entanglement of various pure states of a one-dimensional N-spin system with N>>1. Here, a quantum state is said to be macroscopically entangled if it is a superposition of macroscopically distinct states. To judge whether such superposition is hidden in a general state, we use an essentially unique index p: A pure state is macroscopically entangled if p=2, whereas it may be entangled but not macroscopically if p<2. This index is directly related to fundamental stabilities of many-body states. We calculate the index p for various states in which magnons are excited with various densities and wave numbers. We find macroscopically entangled states (p=2) as well as states with p=1. The former states are unstable in the sense that they are unstable against some local measurements. On the other hand, the latter states are stable in the senses that they are stable against any local measurements and that their decoherence rates never exceed O(N) in any weak classical noises. For comparison, we also calculate the von Neumann entropy S{sub N/2}(N) of a subsystem composed of N/2 spins as a measure of bipartite entanglement. We find that S{sub N/2}(N) of some states with p=1 is of the same order of magnitude as the maximum value N/2. On the other hand, S{sub N/2}(N) of the macroscopically entangled states with p=2 is as small as O(log N)<entanglement, as measured either by p or S{sub N/2}(N), is discussed to be due to spatial propagation of magnons.

  6. Entangled photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0, can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{ {crit}} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.

  7. Entangled photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0 , can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{crit} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.

  8. Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. Although it has been extensively studied theoretically, quantum discord has yet to become a standard tool in experimental studies of correlation. We propose a class of experiments in which quantum correlations are present in the absence of entanglement, and are best understood in terms of quantum discord.. These utilize X-states of two qubits, which correspond to the polarization and the optical path of a single photon within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show how to produce states with diverse measures of discord and entanglement, including the case of discord without entanglement. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we analytically study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations.

  9. Genuine multiparticle entanglement of permutationally invariant states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo, Leonardo; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

    2013-07-01

    We consider the problem of characterizing genuine multiparticle entanglement for permutationally invariant states using the approach of positive partial transpose mixtures. We show that the evaluation of this necessary biseparability criterion scales polynomially with the number of particles. In practice, it can be evaluated easily up to ten qubits and improves existing criteria significantly. Finally, we show that our approach solves the problem of characterizing genuine multiparticle entanglement for permutationally invariant three-qubit states.

  10. Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of χ-type entangled states in Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ronghua; Liu, Shaorong; Wang, Shuo; Guo, Ying

    2015-02-01

    We present two deterministic entanglement purifications protocols for χ-type entangled states, resorting to multiple degrees of freedom. One protocol is implemented with the spatial entanglement to distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states, resorting to some linear optical elements. Another one is implemented with the frequency entanglement for the purification. All the parties can jointly distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states affected by the environmental noise during transmission. Both of the protocols can work in a deterministic way with the success probability 100 %, in principle. The derived features may make the protocols useful in the practical long-distance quantum communication.

  11. Entanglement and the shareability of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Andrew C.

    2014-10-01

    This brief review discusses the problem of determining whether a given quantum state is separable or entangled. I describe an established approach to this problem that is based on the monogamy of entanglement, which is the observation that a pair of quantum systems that are strongly entangled must be uncorrelated with the rest of the world. Unentangled states on the other hand involve correlations that can be shared with many other parties. Checking whether a given quantum state is shareable involves constructing certain symmetric quantum state extensions and I discuss how to do this using a class of optimizations known as semidefinite programs. An attractive feature of this approach is that it generates explicit entanglement witnesses that can be measured to demonstrate the entanglement experimentally. In recent years analysis of this approach has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of determining whether a given quantum state is entangled and this review aims to give a unified discussion of these developments. Specifically, I describe how to use finite quantum de Finetti theorems to prove that highly shareable states are nearly separable and use these results to understand the computational complexity of the problem. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  12. Entanglement classification with matrix product states

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, M.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Candia, R.; Saberi, H.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by . PMID:27457273

  13. Entanglement classification with matrix product states.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Egusquiza, I L; Di Candia, R; Saberi, H; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2016-01-01

    We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by . PMID:27457273

  14. Telecloning of qudits via partially entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, Gabriel; Cisternas, Nataly; Delgado, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    We study the process of quantum telecloning of d-dimensional pure quantum states using partially entangled pure states as quantum channel. This process efficiently mixes optimal universal symmetric cloning with quantum teleportation. It is shown that it is possible to implement universal symmetric telecloning in a probabilistic way using unambiguous state discrimination and quantum state separation schemes. It is also shown that other strategies, such as minimum error discrimination, lead to a decrease in the fidelity of the copies and that certain partially entangled pure states with maximal Schmidt rank lead to an average telecloning fidelity which is always above the optimal fidelity of measuring and preparation of quantum states. We also discuss the case of partially entangled pure states with non-maximal Schmidt rank. The results presented here are valid for arbitrary numbers of copies of a single-input qudit state of any dimension.

  15. Telecloning of qudits via partially entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, Gabriel; Cisternas, Nataly; Delgado, Aldo

    2016-05-01

    We study the process of quantum telecloning of d-dimensional pure quantum states using partially entangled pure states as quantum channel. This process efficiently mixes optimal universal symmetric cloning with quantum teleportation. It is shown that it is possible to implement universal symmetric telecloning in a probabilistic way using unambiguous state discrimination and quantum state separation schemes. It is also shown that other strategies, such as minimum error discrimination, lead to a decrease in the fidelity of the copies and that certain partially entangled pure states with maximal Schmidt rank lead to an average telecloning fidelity which is always above the optimal fidelity of measuring and preparation of quantum states. We also discuss the case of partially entangled pure states with non-maximal Schmidt rank. The results presented here are valid for arbitrary numbers of copies of a single-input qudit state of any dimension.

  16. Entanglement witnesses and geometry of entanglement of two-qutrit states

    SciTech Connect

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A. Krammer, Philipp

    2009-07-15

    We construct entanglement witnesses with regard to the geometric structure of the Hilbert-Schmidt space and investigate the geometry of entanglement. In particular, for a two-parameter family of two-qutrit states that are part of the magic simplex, we calculate the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement. We present a method to detect bound entanglement which is illustrated for a three-parameter family of states. In this way, we discover new regions of bound entangled states. Furthermore, we outline how to use our method to distinguish entangled from separable states.

  17. A heralded two-qutrit entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Rudolph, Terry; Sanders, Barry C.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a scheme for building a heralded two-qutrit entangled state from polarized photons. An optical circuit is presented to build the maximally entangled two-qutrit state from two heralded Bell pairs and ideal threshold detectors. Several schemes are discussed for constructing the two Bell pairs. We also show how one can produce an unbalanced two-qutrit state that could be of general purpose use in some protocols. In terms of the applications of the maximally entangled qutrit state, we mainly focus on how to use the state to demonstrate a violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality under the restriction of measurements which can be performed using linear optical elements and photon counting. Other possible applications of the state, such as for higher dimensional quantum cryptography, teleportation and generation of heralded two-qudit states, are also briefly discussed.

  18. Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.-C.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank

    2003-02-01

    Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy. Along the way, we determine the states that, for a given value of entropy, achieve maximal violation of Bell's inequality.

  19. Nonbilocal measurement via an entangled state

    SciTech Connect

    Shmaya, Eran

    2005-08-15

    Two observers, who share a pair of particles in an entangled mixed state, can use it to perform some nonbilocal measurements over another bipartite system. In particular, one can construct a specific game played by the observers against a coordinator, in which they can score better than a pair of observers who only share a classical communication channel. The existence of such a game is an operational implication of an entanglement witness.

  20. Spatial entanglement of nonvacuum Gaussian states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiałka, Filip; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dragan, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The vacuum state of a relativistic quantum field contains entanglement between regions separated by spacelike intervals. Such spatial entanglement can be revealed using an operational method introduced in [M. Rodriguez-Vazquez, M. del Rey, H. Westman, and J. Leon, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 351, 112 (2014), E. G. Brown, M. del Rey, H. Westman, J. Leon, and A. Dragan, Phys. Rev. D 91, 016005 (2015)]. In this approach, a cavity is instantaneously divided into halves by an introduction of an extra perfect mirror. Causal separation of the two regions of the cavity reveals nonlocal spatial correlations present in the field, which can be quantified by measuring particles generated in the process. We use this method to study spatial entanglement properties of nonvacuum Gaussian field states. In particular, we show how to enhance the amount of harvested spatial entanglement by an appropriate choice of the initial state of the field in the cavity. We find a counterintuitive influence of the initial entanglement between cavity modes on the spatial entanglement which is revealed by dividing the cavity in half.

  1. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state. PMID:27367369

  2. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A.; Chitambar, E.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Winter, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.

  3. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

  4. Nonlocal entanglement of coherent states, complementarity, and quantum erasure

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Grobe, R.

    2007-03-15

    We describe a nonlocal method for generating entangled coherent states of a two-mode field wherein the field modes never meet. The proposed method is an extension of an earlier proposal [C. C. Gerry, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4095 (1999)] for the generation of superpositions of coherent states. A single photon injected into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with cross-Kerr media in both arms coupling with two external fields in coherent states produces entangled coherent states upon detection at one of the output ports. We point out that our proposal can be alternatively viewed as a 'which path' experiment, and in the case of only one external field, we describe the implementation of a quantum eraser.

  5. Entanglement purification protocol for a mixture of a pure entangled state and a pure product state

    SciTech Connect

    Czechlewski, Mikolaj; Wojcik, Antoni; Grudka, Andrzej; Ishizaka, Satoshi

    2009-07-15

    We present an entanglement purification protocol for a mixture of a pure entangled state and a pure product state, which are orthogonal to each other. The protocol is a combination of bisection method and one-way hashing protocol. We give recursive formula for the rate of the protocol for different states, i.e., the number of maximally entangled two-qubit pairs obtained with the protocol per a single copy of the initial state. We also calculate numerically the rate for some states.

  6. Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.

  7. Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of W State in Multiple Degrees of Freedom with Hyper-Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hongyan; Guo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We present two deterministic entanglement purification protocols for distilling W state in polarization entanglement in a one-step fashion. The three parties can obtain a maximally entangled W polarization state with success probability 100 % from the hyper-entangled W state in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs), and they do not require the quantum system to be entangled in polarization DOF but in spatial DOF. The former protocol is implemented with the passive linear optics, which is feasible with current experiments. The later one is implemented with cross-Kerr-nonlinearities, which can achieve higher efficiency of the entanglement transformation among different DOFs since it does not require the sophisticated single-photon detector. The present protocols are both suitable for polarization entanglement purification of multi-photon-entangled W state in quantum computation network because they need less operations and classical communications in the practical implementation.

  8. Tripartite information of highly entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Holographic systems require monogamous mutual information for validity of semiclassical geometry. This is encoded by the sign of the tripartite information ( I3). We investigate the behaviour of I3 for all partitionings of systems in states which are highly entangled in a multipartite or bipartite sense. In the case of multipartite entanglement we propose an algorithmic construction that we conjecture can be used to build local maxima of I3 for any partitioning. In case of bipartite entanglement we classify the possible values of I3 for perfect states and investigate, in some examples, the effect on its sign definiteness due to deformations of the states. Finally we comment on the proposal of using I3 as a parameter of scrambling, arguing that in general its average over qubits permutations could be a more sensible measure.

  9. Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2010-08-15

    The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

  10. Entanglement and symmetry in permutation-symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, Damian J. H.

    2011-04-15

    We investigate the relationship between multipartite entanglement and symmetry, focusing on permutation symmetric states. We give a highly intuitive geometric interpretation to entanglement via the Majorana representation, where these states correspond to points on a unit sphere. We use this to show how various entanglement properties are determined by the symmetry properties of the states. The geometric measure of entanglement is thus phrased entirely as a geometric optimization and a condition for the equivalence of entanglement measures written in terms of point symmetries. Finally, we see that different symmetries of the states correspond to different types of entanglement with respect to interconvertibility under stochastic local operations and classical communication.

  11. Quantifying asymmetry of quantum states using entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Borzu

    2013-03-01

    For open systems, symmetric dynamics do not always lead to conservation laws. We show that, for a dynamic symmetry associated with a compact Lie group, one can derive new selection rules from entanglement theory. These selection rules apply to both closed and open systems as well as reversible and irreversible time evolutions. Our approach is based on an embedding of the system's Hilbert space into a tensor product of two Hilbert spaces allowing for the symmetric dynamics to be simulated with local operations. The entanglement of the embedded states determines which transformations are forbidden because of the symmetry. In fact, every bipartite entanglement monotone can be used to quantify the asymmetry of the initial states. Moreover, where the dynamics is reversible, each of these monotones becomes a new conserved quantity. This research has been supported by the Institute for Quantum Information Science (IQIS) at the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, NSERC, General Dynamics Canada, and MITACS.

  12. Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu

    2011-10-15

    An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.

  13. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  14. Classification of 4-qubit Entangled Graph States According to Bipartite Entanglement, Multipartite Entanglement and Non-local Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, Leila; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-07-01

    We use concurrence to study bipartite entanglement, Meyer-Wallach measure and its generalizations to study multi-partite entanglement and MABK and SASA inequalities to study the non-local properties of the 4-qubit entangled graph states, quantitatively. Then, we present 3 classifications, each one in accordance with one of the aforementioned properties. We also observe that the classification according to multipartite entanglement does exactly coincide with that according to nonlocal properties, but does not match with that according to bipartite entanglement. This observation signifies the fact that non-locality and multipartite entanglement enjoy the same basic underlying principles, while bipartite entanglement may not reveal the non-locality issue in its entirety.

  15. Generating coherent states of entangled spins

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hongyi; Luo Yu; Yao Wang

    2011-09-15

    A coherent state of many spins contains quantum entanglement, which increases with a decrease in the collective spin value. We present a scheme to engineer this class of pure state based on incoherent spin pumping with a few collective raising or lowering operators. In a pumping scenario aimed for maximum entanglement, the steady state of N-pumped spin qubits realizes the ideal resource for the 1{yields}(N/2) quantum telecloning. We show how the scheme can be implemented in a realistic system of atomic spin qubits in an optical lattice. Error analysis shows that high-fidelity state engineering is possible for N{approx}O(100) spins in the presence of decoherence. The scheme can also prepare a resource state for the secret sharing protocol and for the construction of the large-scale Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state.

  16. Teleportation of Three-Level Multi-partite Entangled State by a Partial Three-Level Bipartite Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Ming; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-04-01

    We present a scheme for probabilistically teleporting an unknown three-level bipartite entangled state by using a partial entangled three-level bipartite state as quantum channel. This scheme can be directly generalized to probabilistically teleport an unknown three-level k-particle entangled state by a partial three-level bipartite entangled state. All kinds of unitary transformations are given in detail. We calculate the successful total probability and the total classical communication cost required for this scheme.

  17. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a DSQC using four-particle entangled state and entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Lin, Song; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2009-10-01

    The security of a deterministic secure quantum communication using four-particle genuine entangled state and entanglement swapping [X.M. Xiu, H.K. Dong, L. Dong, Y.J. Cao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 2457] is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can entangle an ancilla without introducing any error in the security test utilizing a speciality of the four-particle genuine entangled state. Moreover, the eavesdropper can distill a quarter of the secret information from her entangled ancilla. Finally, a simple improvement to resist this attack is proposed.

  18. Negative entanglement measure for bipartite separable mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Jie; Han, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Chun; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-12-01

    We define a negative entanglement measure for separable states which shows how much entanglement one should compensate the unentangled state, at the least, to change it into an entangled state. For two-qubit systems and some special classes of states in higher-dimensional systems, the explicit formula and the lower bounds for the negative entanglement measure (NEM) have been presented, and it always vanishes for bipartite separable pure states. The negative entanglement measure can be used as a useful quantity to describe the entanglement dynamics and the quantum phase transition. In the transverse Ising model, the first derivatives of negative entanglement measure diverge on approaching the critical value of the quantum phase transition, although these two-site reduced density matrices have no entanglement at all. In the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model, the NEM as a function of t/U changes from zero to negative on approaching the critical point of quantum phase transition.

  19. Negative entanglement measure for bipartite separable mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chengjie; Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Wu Yuchun; Zhou Xiangfa; Guo Guangcan

    2010-12-15

    We define a negative entanglement measure for separable states which shows how much entanglement one should compensate the unentangled state, at the least, to change it into an entangled state. For two-qubit systems and some special classes of states in higher-dimensional systems, the explicit formula and the lower bounds for the negative entanglement measure (NEM) have been presented, and it always vanishes for bipartite separable pure states. The negative entanglement measure can be used as a useful quantity to describe the entanglement dynamics and the quantum phase transition. In the transverse Ising model, the first derivatives of negative entanglement measure diverge on approaching the critical value of the quantum phase transition, although these two-site reduced density matrices have no entanglement at all. In the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model, the NEM as a function of t/U changes from zero to negative on approaching the critical point of quantum phase transition.

  20. Teleportation of entangled states without Bell-state measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Wesley B.; Baseia, B.; Avelar, A.T.; Almeida, N.G. de

    2005-10-15

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 70, 025803 (2004)] we presented a scheme to teleport an entanglement of zero- and one-photon states from a bimodal cavity to another one, with 100% success probability. Here, inspired by recent results in the literature, we have modified our previous proposal to teleport the same entangled state without using Bell-state measurements. For comparison, the time spent, the fidelity, and the success probability for this teleportation are considered.

  1. Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For

  2. Entanglement and measurement-induced nonlocality of mixed maximally entangled states in multipartite dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Die; Wang, Li-Tao; Yang, Mou; Xu, Jing-Zhou; Wang, Z. D.; Bai, Yan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    The maximally entangled state can be in a mixed state as well as the well-known pure state. Taking the negativity as a measure of entanglement, we study the entanglement dynamics of bipartite, mixed maximally entangled states (MMESs) in multipartite cavity-reservoir systems. It is found that the MMES can exhibit the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death, which is quite different from the asymptotic decay of the pure-Bell-state case. We also find that maximal entanglement cannot guarantee maximal nonlocality, and the MMES does not correspond to the state with maximal measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN). In fact, the value and dynamic behavior of the MIN for the MMESs are dependent on the mixed-state probability. In addition, we investigate the distributions of negativity and the MIN in a multipartite system, where the two types of correlations have different monogamous properties.

  3. Unitarily localizable entanglement of Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-03-01

    We consider generic (mxn)-mode bipartitions of continuous-variable systems, and study the associated bisymmetric multimode Gaussian states. They are defined as (m+n)-mode Gaussian states invariant under local mode permutations on the m-mode and n-mode subsystems. We prove that such states are equivalent, under local unitary transformations, to the tensor product of a two-mode state and of m+n-2 uncorrelated single-mode states. The entanglement between the m-mode and the n-mode blocks can then be completely concentrated on a single pair of modes by means of local unitary operations alone. This result allows us to prove that the PPT (positivity of the partial transpose) condition is necessary and sufficient for the separability of (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states. We determine exactly their negativity and identify a subset of bisymmetric states whose multimode entanglement of formation can be computed analytically. We consider explicit examples of pure and mixed bisymmetric states and study their entanglement scaling with the number of modes.

  4. Evidence for entanglement and full tomographic analysis of Bell states in a single-neutron system

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Filipp, Stefan; Badurek, Gerald; Klepp, Juergen; Rauch, Helmut

    2007-11-15

    Tomographic measurements of Bell states of a single-neutron system in an interferometer were carried out. The spin-path joint measurements exhibit clear evidence of entanglement. Reconstructions of the density matrices of, practically complete, Bell states were accomplished. The fidelities as well as the concurrences of the generated states are determined by 0.79 and 0.75 as well as 0.59 and 0.52, respectively, which are again clear evidence of the spin-path entanglement in a single-neutron system.

  5. Multiple teleportation via partially entangled GHZ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Quantum teleportation is important for quantum communication. We propose a protocol that uses a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for single hop teleportation. Quantum teleportation will succeed if the sender makes a Bell state measurement, and the receiver performs the Hadamard gate operation, applies appropriate Pauli operators, introduces an auxiliary particle, and applies the corresponding unitary matrix to recover the transmitted state.We also present a protocol to realize multiple teleportation of partially entangled GHZ state without an auxiliary particle. We show that the success probability of the teleportation is always 0 when the number of teleportations is odd. In order to improve the success probability of a multihop, we introduce the method used in our single hop teleportation, thus proposing a multiple teleportation protocol using auxiliary particles and a unitary matrix. The final success probability is shown to be improved significantly for the method without auxiliary particles for both an odd or even number of teleportations.

  6. Operational multipartite entanglement classes for symmetric photonic qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesel, N.; Wieczorek, W.; Weinfurter, H.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.

    2010-03-15

    We present experimental schemes that allow us to study the entanglement classes of all symmetric states in multiqubit photonic systems. We compare the efficiency of the proposed schemes and highlight the relation between the entanglement properties of symmetric Dicke states and a recently proposed entanglement scheme for atoms. In analogy to the latter, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between well-defined sets of experimental parameters and multiqubit entanglement classes inside the symmetric subspace of the photonic system.

  7. Negative Correlations and Entanglement in Higher-Spin Dicke States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2016-06-01

    We consider entanglement criteria based on the spin squeezing inequalities for arbitrary spin systems. Here we use the negative correlations to detect the entanglement in the system with exchange symmetry. For arbitrary spin systems, we can find that the state is entangled, when the minimal pairwise correlation is negative. Then we give a parameter which is defined by the collective angular momentum operator, to detect the entanglement for the Dicke state with N spin -1 particles, and the results are as the same as negative correlation. We also consider the directions of negative correlation, the state is entangled in two orthogonal directions for the superposition of Dicke state without parity.

  8. Faithful teleportation with partially entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Gour, Gilad

    2004-10-01

    We write explicitly a general protocol for faithful teleportation of a d-state particle (qudit) via a partially entangled pair of (pure) n-state particles. The classical communication cost (CCC) of the protocol is log{sub 2}(nd) bits, and it is implemented by a projective measurement performed by Alice, and a unitary operator performed by Bob (after receiving from Alice the measurement result). We prove the optimality of our protocol by a comparison with the concentrate and teleport strategy. We also show that if d>n/2, or if there is no residual entanglement left after the faithful teleportation, the CCC of any protocol is at least log{sub 2}(nd) bits. Furthermore, we find a lower bound on the CCC in the process transforming one bipartite state to another by means of local operation and classical communication.

  9. Entanglement dynamics via coherent-state propagators

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, A. D.; Angelo, R. M.

    2010-11-15

    The dynamical generation of entanglement in closed bipartite systems is investigated in the semiclassical regime. We consider a model of two particles, initially prepared in a product of coherent states, evolving in time according to a generic Hamiltonian, and derive a formula for the linear entropy of the reduced density matrix using the semiclassical propagator in the coherent-state representation. The formula is explicitly written in terms of quantities that define the stability of classical trajectories of the underlying classical system. The formalism is then applied to the problem of two nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators, and the result is shown to be in remarkable agreement with the exact quantum measure of entanglement in the short-time regime. An important by-product of our approach is a unified semiclassical formula, which contemplates both the coherent-state propagator and its complex conjugate.

  10. Generation of tunable entangled states of two electrons and their characterization without entanglement witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Ghosh, R.

    2004-12-01

    In this Rapid Communication, we show that a simple process of two-step double ionization taking place in an atom A , following the absorption of a single photon, produces a spin-entangled state of two electrons. The degree of entanglement of this state can be tuned to the desired value by selecting appropriate total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of each of the three atomic species (i.e., A, A+ , A2+ ) participating in the process in Russell-Saunders coupling. These entangled states are readily characterized by measuring only energies of two emitted electrons, without requiring the entanglement witness, or any other such protocol.

  11. Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

    2016-06-01

    Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.

  12. Entanglement of phase-random states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yoshifumi; Turner, Peter; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-01

    In order to study generic properties of time-evolving states by time-independent Hamiltonian dynamics, we introduce phase-random states, an ensemble of pure states with fixed amplitudes and uniformly distributed phases in a fixed basis. We compute the average amount of entanglement of phase-random states analytically, and show that the average can be extremely large when the amplitudes are equal and the basis is separable. We also study implications on Hamiltonian dynamics, in particular the realization of the canonical state in a subsystem.

  13. Usefulness of classical communication for local cloning of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Bruss, Dagmar

    2006-03-15

    We solve the problem of the optimal cloning of pure entangled two-qubit states with a fixed degree of entanglement using local operations and classical communication. We show that, amazingly, classical communication between the parties can improve the fidelity of local cloning if and only if the initial entanglement is higher than a certain critical value. It is completely useless for weakly entangled states. We also show that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a resource to improve the best local cloning fidelity.

  14. Entanglement and Squeezing in Solid State Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Yihuo; Gui Lulong

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the dynamics of a system consisting of a Cooper-pair box and two superconducting transmission line resonators. There exist both linear and nonlinear interactions in such a system. We show that single-photon entanglement state can be generated in a simple way in the linear interaction regime. In nonlinear interaction regime, we derive the Hamiltonian of degenerate three-wave mixing and propose a scheme for generating squeezed state of microwave using the three-wave mixing in solid state circuits. In the following, we design a system for generating squeezed states of nanamechanical resonator.

  15. Local cloning of genuinely entangled states of three qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sujit K.; Kar, Guruprasad; Rahaman, Ramij; Roy, Anirban; Kunkri, Samir

    2007-12-15

    We discuss the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal but genuinely entangled three qubit states aided with entangled ancilla under local operation and classical communication. Whereas any two orthogonal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states taken from the canonical GHZ basis can be cloned with the help of a known GHZ state, surprisingly we find that no two W states can be cloned by using any known three qubit (possibly entangled) state as a blank copy.

  16. Entanglement of remote transmon qubits by concurrent measurement using Fock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narla, A.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K. M.; Vlastakis, B.; Zalys-Geller, E.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    A requirement of any modular quantum computer is the ability to maintain individual qubits in isolated environments while also being able to entangle arbitrary distant qubits on demand. For superconducting qubits, such a protocol can be realized by first entangling the qubits with flying microwave coherent states which are then concurrently detected by a parametric amplifier. This protocol has a 50% success probability but is vulnerable to losses between the qubits and the amplifier which reduce the entanglement fidelity. An alternative is to use itinerant Fock states, since losses now tend to reduce the success probability of creating an entangled state but not its fidelity. Such single-photon protocols have been implemented in trapped-ion and NV-center experiments. We present such a protocol tailored for entangling two transmon qubits in the circuit QED architecture. Each qubit is entangled with a Fock state of its cavity using sideband pulses. The Fock states leak out of the cavity, interfere on a beam-splitter which erases their which-path information, and are subsequently detected using a novel photo-detector realized by another qubit-cavity system. Simulations suggest that we can realize a high-fidelity entangled state with a success probability as large as 1%.

  17. Generation of three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Lin, Yan-Fang; Li, Qing-Yang; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun

    2016-08-01

    We present a generation proposal of three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states, which are immune to the collective decoherence. Based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, the polarization and spacial entanglement gates are realized, and thus three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states can be produced. According to the outcomes of Homodyne measurement performed in the spacial entanglement gate, one Swap gate is inserted into two paths of the photon 1 to swap its spacial modes, by means of classical feed forward. In addition, in the process for realizing two entanglement gates, unitary transformation operations are performed on the appropriate photons conditioned on the different phase shifts occurred on the coherent states, aiming to obtain the same state under two scenarios of the different path compositions of photons. At the output ports of the circuit, three-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states which can be utilized to represent two logical qubits, |0>L and |1>L are achieved. Apart from Kerr media, only simple linear optical elements and the classical feed forward techniques are necessary in this proposal, facilitating its practical implementation.

  18. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua

    2008-11-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  19. Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.

    Correlations allow us to measure, and quantitatively study, the properties of physical systems, their evolution and their interactions. Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. However, discord has not yet been adopted as a standard subject of study by the experimental community. Here we propose a feasible optical setup to generate symmetric two-qubit X-states with controllable coherences, where the two qubits correspond to the spin and path of a photon. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations. Discord is the mutual information contained in the coherences of the system, and it is possible to exploit it for quantum advantage even in the absence of entanglement.

  20. Quantum Conditional Cloning of Continuous Variable Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Gao, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We extend the technique of conditional preparation to a quantum cloning machine, and present a protocol of 1 -> 2 conditional cloning of squeezed state and entanglement states. It is shown that the entanglement degree of the cloned entangled states can be well preserved even when the fidelity between the input and output states is beyond the limit of 4/9. This scheme is practicable since only the linear elements of beam splitters, homodyne detections, optical modulations and electrical trigger system, are involved.

  1. Controlled Teleportation of the Two-Ion Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fujun; Wang, Dongxin; Liu, Kun; Liu, Chuanming

    2016-01-01

    A simple scheme for controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-ion entangled state using a bell and GHZ entangled state as quantum channel is proposed in trapped ion systems. An arbitrary two-ion entangled state can be teleported perfectly with the help of the cooperation. In our scheme the ions are simultaneously excited by a laser. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.

  2. Theory of Multipartite Entanglement for X-states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad

    More than a century after the seminal work of Schmidt and with all the enthusiasm that have surrounded entanglement ever since the controversial EPR paper, it remains an open challenge to determine whether a given state possesses entanglement or not. The problem is even more dicult if one considers the entanglement among more than two parties, i.e. multipartite entanglement. In the following we first introduce the concept of multipartite entanglement and discuss what it means to quantify the entanglement of a given state. We then introduce a class of multiqubit states, called X- states, and find an algebraic formula for the multipartite entanglement of such states. We show that using this formula one can find a lower bound for the entanglement of any multiqubit state. We then explore the connection between the entanglement and purity in multiqubit states. In the fourth chapter, we introduce a geometrical measure of entanglement and quantify it for the set of GHZ-diagonal states. These are states that can be written as a convex sum of completely bit-flipped states. Using these results we can develop an upper and a lower bound for the entanglement of any density matrix. In the final chapter we survey some of the insights that can be developed using the results of the preceding chapters. We first explore the decay of entanglement in a decoherence scenario where each qubit is experiences decay through an amplitude damping channel, and finally we make a proposal to preserve and control multipartite entanglement through the phenomenon of collapse and revival.

  3. Entanglement entropy of multipartite pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    Consider a system consisting of n d-dimensional quantum particles and an arbitrary pure state vertical bar {psi}> of the whole system. Suppose we simultaneously perform complete von Neumann measurements on each particle. The Shannon entropy of the outcomes' joint probability distribution is a functional of the state vertical bar {psi}> and of n measurements chosen for each particle. Denote S[{psi}] the minimum of this entropy over all choices of the measurements. We show that S[{psi}] coincides with the entropy of entanglement for bipartite states. We compute S[{psi}] for some special multipartite states: the hexacode state vertical bar H> (n=6, d=2) and the determinant states vertical bar Det{sub n}> (d=n). The computation yields S[H]=4 log 2 and S[Det{sub n}]=log(n{exclamation_point}). Counterparts of the determinant state defined for d

  4. Entanglement concentration for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chang-Cheng; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2015-11-01

    The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is a new type of logic-qubit entanglement, which attracts a lot of attentions recently. In this paper, we discuss the entanglement concentration for such logic-qubit entanglement. We present two groups of entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for logic-qubit entanglement. In the first group, the parties do not know the initial coefficients of the partially logic-qubit entanglement. In the second group, the parties know the initial coefficients of the partially logic-qubit entanglement. In our ECPs, the unsuccessful cases can be reused to increase the total success probability in the next step. These ECPs may be useful in future long-distant quantum communication.

  5. GENERAL: Thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a Heisenberg chain through a Werner state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Yuan; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2008-07-01

    The thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a two-qubit Heisenberg XXX chain under the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) anisotropic antisymmetric interaction through a noisy quantum channel given by a Werner state is investigated. The dependences of the thermal entanglement of the teleported state on the DM coupling constant, the temperature and the entanglement of the noisy quantum channel are studied in detail for both the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic cases. The result shows that a minimum entanglement of the noisy quantum channel must be provided in order to realize the entanglement teleportation. The values of fidelity of the teleported state are also studied for these two cases. It is found that under certain conditions, we can transfer an initial state with a better fidelity than that for any classical communication protocol.

  6. Multi-Particle Interferometry Based on Double Entangled States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Todd B.; Shih, Y. H.; Strekalov, D. V.; Sergienko, A. V.; Rubin, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing a 4-photon entangled state based on the use of two independent pair sources is discussed. Of particular interest is that each of the pair sources produces a two-photon state which is simultaneously entangled in both polarization and space-time variables. Performing certain measurements which exploit this double entanglement provides an opportunity for verifying the recent demonstration of nonlocality by Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger.

  7. The Local Orthogonality Between Quantum States and Entanglement Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Wu, Junde; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Minhyung

    2016-06-01

    In the paper, we show that when a quantum state can be decomposed as a convex combination of locally orthogonal mixed states, its entanglement can be decomposed into the entanglement of these mixed states without losing them. The obtained result generalizes a corresponding one proved by Horodecki (Acta Phys. Slov. 48, 141 1998). But, for the entanglement cost it requires certain conditions for holding the decomposition, and the distillable entanglement only has a week result as inequality. Finally, we presented an example to show that the conditions of our conclusions are existence.

  8. Purification and switching protocols for dissipatively stabilized entangled qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Sven M.; Aron, Camille; Türeci, Hakan E.

    2016-06-01

    Pure dephasing processes limit the fidelities achievable in driven-dissipative schemes for stabilization of entangled states of qubits. We propose a scheme which, combined with already existing entangling methods, purifies the desired entangled state by driving out of equilibrium auxiliary dissipative cavity modes coupled to the qubits. We lay out the specifics of our scheme and compute its efficiency in the particular context of two superconducting qubits in a cavity-QED architecture, where the strongly coupled auxiliary modes provided by collective cavity excitations can drive and sustain the qubits in maximally entangled Bell states with fidelities reaching 90% for experimentally accessible parameters.

  9. Channel capacities versus entanglement measures in multiparty quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2010-01-15

    For quantum states of two subsystems, highly entangled states have a higher capacity of transmitting classical as well as quantum information, and vice versa. We show that this is no more the case in general: Quantum capacities of multiaccess channels, motivated by communication in quantum networks, do not have any relation with genuine multiparty entanglement measures. Importantly, the statement is demonstrated for arbitrary multipartite entanglement measures. Along with revealing the structural richness of multiaccess channels, this gives us a tool to classify multiparty quantum states from the perspective of its usefulness in quantum networks, which cannot be visualized by any genuine multiparty entanglement measure.

  10. Genuinely multipartite entangled states and orthogonal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-08-01

    A pure quantum state of N subsystems with d levels each is called k-multipartite maximally entangled state, which we call a k-uniform state, if all its reductions to k qudits are maximally mixed. These states form a natural generalization of N-qudit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states which belong to the class 1-uniform states. We establish a link between the combinatorial notion of orthogonal arrays and k-uniform states and prove the existence of several classes of such states for N-qudit systems. In particular, known Hadamard matrices allow us to explicitly construct 2-uniform states for an arbitrary number of N >5 qubits. We show that finding a different class of 2-uniform states would imply the Hadamard conjecture, so the full classification of 2-uniform states seems to be currently out of reach. Furthermore, we establish links between the existence of k-uniform states and classical and quantum error correction codes and provide a graph representation for such states.

  11. Efficient quantum dialogue using entangled states and entanglement swapping without information leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.

  12. Efficient quantum dialogue using entangled states and entanglement swapping without information leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu

    2016-03-01

    We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.

  13. Full Multipartite Entanglement of Frequency-Comb Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, S.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Cai, Y.; Roslund, J.; Treps, N.; Fabre, C.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis is conducted of the multipartite entanglement for Gaussian states generated by the parametric down-conversion of a femtosecond frequency comb. Using a recently introduced method for constructing optimal entanglement criteria, a family of tests is formulated for mode decompositions that extends beyond the traditional bipartition analyses. A numerical optimization over this family is performed to achieve maximal significance of entanglement verification. For experimentally prepared 4-, 6-, and 10-mode states, full entanglement is certified for all of the 14, 202, and 115 974 possible nontrivial partitions, respectively.

  14. Improving entanglement concentration of Gaussian states by local displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2011-07-15

    We investigate entanglement concentration of continuous-variable Gaussian states by local single-photon subtractions combined with local Gaussian operations. We first analyze the local squeezing-enhanced entanglement-concentration protocol proposed very recently by Zhang and van Loock [arXiv:1103.4500] and discuss the mechanism by which local squeezing before photon subtraction helps to increase the entanglement of the output state of the protocol. We next show that a similar entanglement improvement can be achieved by using local coherent displacements instead of single-mode squeezing.

  15. Entanglement criteria for noise resistance of two-qudit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arijit; Ryu, Junghee; Laskowski, Wiesław; Żukowski, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Noise affects production and transmission of entanglement. We use a handy approach for a noise resistance of entanglement of two-qudit systems. A geometric concept using correlation tensors of separable and entangled states is implemented to formulate entanglement criterion. We apply the criterion to the various types of noise (white, colored, local depolarizing and amplitude damping) admixtures with the initial (pure) state. We also study the noise resistance with respect to the violation of specific family of Bell inequalities (CGLMP). A broad set of numerical and analytical results is presented.

  16. Generation of entangled coherent-squeezed states: their entanglement and nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, after a brief review on the coherent states and squeezed states, we introduce two classes of entangled coherent-squeezed states. Next, in order to generate the introduced entangled states, we present a theoretical scheme based on the resonant atom-field interaction. In the proposed model, a \\varLambda -type three-level atom interacts with a two-mode quantized field in the presence of two strong classical fields. Then, we study the amount of entanglement of the generated entangled states using the concurrence and linear entropy. Moreover, we evaluate a few of their nonclassical properties such as photon statistics, second-order correlation function, and quadrature squeezing and establish their nonclassicality features.

  17. Optimal amount of entanglement to distinguish quantum states instantaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Berry; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2015-11-01

    We introduce an aspect of nonlocality which arises when the task of quantum states distinguishability is considered under local operations and shared entanglement in the absence of classical communication. We find the optimal amount of entanglement required to accomplish the task perfectly for sets of orthogonal states and argue that it quantifies information nonlocality.

  18. Strong monogamy of quantum entanglement for multiqubit W -class states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2014-12-01

    We provide strong evidence for the strong monogamy inequality of multiqubit entanglement recently proposed [B. Regula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 110501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.110501]. We consider a large class of multiqubit generalized W -class states and analytically show that the strong monogamy inequality of multiqubit entanglement is saturated by this class of states.

  19. Entanglement spectrum and entangled modes of highly excited states in random XX spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouranvari, Mohammad; Yang, Kun

    We examine the newly developed real space renormalization group method of finding excited eigenstate (RSRG-X) of the XX spin-1/2 chain, from entanglement perspectives. Eigenmodes of the entanglement Hamiltonian, especially the maximally entangled mode (that contributes the most to the entanglement entropy) and corresponding entanglement energies are studied and compared with predictions of RSRG-X. Our numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the RSRG-X method in the strong disorder limit, and quantify its error when applied to weak disorder regime. Overall, our results validate the RSRG-X method qualitatively, but as in the case of real space renormalization group method for the ground state (RSRG) there are quantitative errors for weaker randomness, and also such error grows with increasing temperature/excitation energy density.

  20. Classification of multipartite entangled states by multidimensional determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Akimasa

    2003-01-01

    We find that multidimensional determinants 'hyperdeterminants', related to entanglement measures (the so-called concurrence, or 3-tangle for two or three qubits, respectively), are derived from a duality between entangled states and separable states. By means of the hyperdeterminant and its singularities, the single copy of multipartite pure entangled states is classified into an onion structure of every closed subset, similar to that by the local rank in the bipartite case. This reveals how inequivalent multipartite entangled classes are partially ordered under local actions. In particular, the generic entangled class of the maximal dimension, distinguished as the nonzero hyperdeterminant, does not include the maximally entangled states in Bell's inequalities in general (e.g., in the n{>=}4 qubits), contrary to the widely known bipartite or three-qubit cases. It suggests that not only are they never locally interconvertible with the majority of multipartite entangled states, but they would have no grounds for the canonical n-partite entangled states. Our classification is also useful for the mixed states.

  1. Perfect entanglement concentration of an arbitrary four-photon polarization entangled state via quantum nondemolition detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli; Xu, Jingzhou

    2016-08-01

    We show how to concentrate an arbitrary four-photon polarization entangled state into a maximally entangled state based on some quantum nondemolition detectors. The entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) resorts to an ancillary single-photon resource and the conventional projection measurement on photons to assist the concentration, which makes it more economical. Our ECP involves weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, X homodyne measurement and basic linear-optical elements, which make it feasible in the current experimental technology. Moreover, the ECP considers cyclic utilization to enhance a higher success probability. Thus, our scheme is meaningful in practical applications in quantum communication.

  2. Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states

    PubMed Central

    Borsten, L.; Brádler, K.; Duff, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound pwin=cos2π/8≃0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with pwin≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964

  3. Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states.

    PubMed

    Borsten, L; Brádler, K; Duff, M J

    2014-10-01

    A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound [Formula: see text] of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with p win≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964

  4. Squeezed states and path integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.

  5. Transfer of entangled state, entanglement swapping and quantum information processing via the Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Chen, Ai-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Song

    2011-11-01

    We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade. Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state. According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing, we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  6. Entanglement dynamics in three-qubit X states

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2010-09-15

    I explore the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system in an initial X state undergoing decoherence including the possible exhibition of entanglement sudden death. To quantify entanglement I utilize negativity measures and make use of appropriate entanglement witnesses. The negativity results are then extended to X states with an arbitraty number of qubits. I also demonstrate nonstandard behavior of the tripartite negativity entanglement metric: its sudden appearance after some amount of decoherence, followed quickly by its disappearance. Finally, I solve for a lower bound on the three-qubit X-state concurrence, demonstrate when this bound goes to 0, and outline simplifcations for the calculation of higher-order X-state concurrences.

  7. Polarization and entanglement of photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, K.; Silva, J. B. R.; Gonçalves, J. R.; Vasconcelos, H. M.

    2013-04-01

    Polarization of light has been used extensively in quantum information processing, and quantum entanglement is essential to many areas of research, including quantum computing. Here we investigate the degree of polarization and the entanglement of a family of quantum states known as photon-added entangled coherent states. Such states could serve as means of entanglement distribution and quantum key distribution. Using the quantum Stokes parameters and the Q function, we demonstrate that, in general, the degree of polarization of two two-mode photon-added coherent states increases significantly with the number of added photons. And using the concurrence, we show that the amount of entanglement in this kind of superposition presents a behavior that is dependent on whether or not the number of added photons in each mode is the same.

  8. A note on initial state entanglement in inflationary cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Sugumi

    2015-09-01

    We give a new interpretation of the effect of initial state entanglement on the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We consider an initially entangled state between two free massive scalar fields in de Sitter space. We construct the initial state by making use of a Bogoliubov transformation between the Bunch-Davies vacuum and a four-mode squeezed state, and then derive the exact power spectrum for one of the scalar fields. We demonstrate that an oscillatory spectrum hardly appears for the initially entangled state unless an ad hoc absolute value of the Bogoliubov coefficients is chosen.

  9. Deterministic controlled remote state preparation using partially entangled quantum channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Na; Quan, Dong Xiao; Yang, Hong; Pei, Chang Xing

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for deterministic controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) of arbitrary two-qubit states. Suitably chosen partially entangled state is used as the quantum channel. With proper projective measurements carried out by the sender and controller, the receiver can reconstruct the target state by means of appropriate unitary operation. Unit success probability can be achieved for arbitrary two-qubit states. Different from some previous CRSP schemes utilizing partially entangled channels, auxiliary qubit is not required in our scheme. We also show that the success probability is independent of the parameters of the partially entangled quantum channel.

  10. Cluster-type entangled coherent states: Generation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan

    2009-10-01

    We consider a type of (M+N) -mode entangled coherent states and propose a simple deterministic scheme to generate these states that can fly freely in space. We then exploit such free-flying states to teleport certain kinds of superpositions of multimode coherent states. We also address the issue of manipulating size and type of entangled coherent states by means of linear optics elements only.

  11. Cluster-type entangled coherent states: Generation and application

    SciTech Connect

    An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan

    2009-10-15

    We consider a type of (M+N)-mode entangled coherent states and propose a simple deterministic scheme to generate these states that can fly freely in space. We then exploit such free-flying states to teleport certain kinds of superpositions of multimode coherent states. We also address the issue of manipulating size and type of entangled coherent states by means of linear optics elements only.

  12. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-08-15

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  13. Entanglement Concentration of Partially Entangled Multi-electron Spin W States with CNOT Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bin; Huang, Yugai; Fang, Xia; Wang, Haibin

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for nonlocal N-electron systems in a partially entangled W state, resorting to an ancillary single electron and controlled-not gates. Compared with other ECPs for W states, our ECP has some illustrious advantages. First, each N-electron entangled system can be used to complete the entanglement concentration with only an ancillary electron. It does not require that there are two copies of N-electron entangled systems in each round of entanglement concentration. Second, only one of the users, say Charlie, needs to perform the protocol, while all parties should perform the same operations as Charlie in other ECPs for W-class states. Third, only Charlie asks other parities to retain or discard their electrons, and they do not need to check their measurement results, which greatly simplifies the complication of classical communication. Fourth, our ECP has a higher success probability than other ECPs for W-class states as its success probability equals to the limit value of an ECP for a W state in theory. These advantages maybe make our ECP more useful in practical applications.

  14. Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2010-10-15

    We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

  15. Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states with arbitrary partitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer

    2007-02-15

    The Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states of n qubits is generalized to the case in which the qubits are divided into any p{<=}n parties. The entanglement between these parties is evaluated numerically using an efficient parametrization. To demonstrate this measure we apply it to symmetric states such as the Greenberg-Horne-Zeiliner state and the W state. Interestingly, this measure is equivalent to an entanglement measure introduced earlier [H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A 34, 6787 (2001)], using different considerations.

  16. Projection of two biphoton qutrits onto a maximally entangled state.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Shacham, T; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S

    2011-04-01

    Bell state measurements, in which two quantum bits are projected onto a maximally entangled state, are an essential component of quantum information science. We propose and experimentally demonstrate the projection of two quantum systems with three states (qutrits) onto a generalized maximally entangled state. Each qutrit is represented by the polarization of a pair of indistinguishable photons-a biphoton. The projection is a joint measurement on both biphotons using standard linear optics elements. This demonstration enables the realization of quantum information protocols with qutrits, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping. PMID:21517363

  17. Quantum steganography with large payload based on entanglement swapping of χ-type entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Luo, Ming-Xing; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we firstly propose a new simple method to calculate entanglement swapping of χ-type entangled states, and then present a novel quantum steganography protocol with large payload. The new protocol adopts entanglement swapping to build up the hidden channel within quantum secure direct communication with χ-type entangled states for securely transmitting secret messages. Comparing with the previous quantum steganographies, the capacity of the hidden channel is much higher, which is increased to eight bits. Meanwhile, due to the quantum uncertainty theorem and the no-cloning theorem its imperceptibility is proved to be great in the analysis, and its security is also analyzed in detail, which is proved that intercept-resend attack, measurement-resend attack, ancilla attack, man-in-the-middle attack or even Dos(Denial of Service) attack couldn't threaten it. As a result, the protocol can be applied in various fields of quantum communication.

  18. Entanglement purification based on hybrid entangled state using quantum-dot and microcavity coupled system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Ru

    2011-12-01

    We theoretically investigate an entanglement purification protocol with photon and electron hybrid entangled state resorting to quantum-dot spin and microcavity coupled system. The present system is used to construct the parity check gate which allows a quantum non-demolition measurement on the spin parity. The cavity-spin coupled system provides a novel experimental platform of quantum information processing with photon and solid qubit. PMID:22273961

  19. Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.

    2011-05-15

    Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.

  20. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  1. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  2. Heralded entangled coherent states between spatially separated massive resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadian, Ali; Abdi, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    We put forward an experimentally feasible scheme for heralded entanglement generation between two distant macroscopic mechanical resonators. The protocol exploits a hybrid quantum device, a qubit interacting with a mechanical resonator as well as a cavity mode, for each party. The cavity modes interfere on a beam splitter followed by suitable heralding detections, which postselect a hybrid entangled state with success probability 1/2. Subsequently, by local measurements on the qubits, a mechanically entangled coherent state can be achieved. The mechanical entanglement can be further verified via monitoring the entanglement of the qubit pair. The setup is envisioned as a test bed for sensing gravitational effects on the quantum dynamics of gravitationally coupled massive objects. As a concrete example, we illustrate the implementation of our protocol using the current circuit QED architectures.

  3. Topological entanglement entropy, ground state degeneracy and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, Andrei; Poovuttikul, Napat

    2015-10-01

    Topological entanglement entropy, a measure of the long-ranged entanglement, is related to the degeneracy of the ground state on a higher genus surface. The exact relation depends on the details of the topological theory. We consider a class of holographic models where such relation might be similar to the one exhibited by Chern-Simons theory in a certain large N limit. Both the non-vanishing topological entanglement entropy and the ground state degeneracy in these holographic models are consequences of the topological Gauss-Bonnet term in the dual gravitational description. A soft wall holographic model of confinement is used to generate finite correlation length but keep the disk topology of the entangling surface in the bulk, necessary for nonvanishing topological entanglement entropy.

  4. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  5. Autonomous quantum thermal machine for generating steady-state entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr Brask, Jonatan; Haack, Géraldine; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    We discuss a simple quantum thermal machine for the generation of steady-state entanglement between two interacting qubits. The machine is autonomous in the sense that it uses only incoherent interactions with thermal baths, but no source of coherence or external control. By weakly coupling the qubits to thermal baths at different temperatures, inducing a heat current through the system, steady-state entanglement is generated far from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we discuss two possible implementations, using superconducting flux qubits or a semiconductor double quantum dot. Experimental prospects for steady-state entanglement are promising in both systems.

  6. Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Moon Ho, Lee

    2008-08-01

    A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes.

  7. Long-range quantum entanglement in noisy cluster states

    SciTech Connect

    Raussendorf, Robert; Bravyi, Sergey; Harrington, Jim

    2005-06-15

    We describe a phase transition for long-range entanglement in a three-dimensional cluster state affected by noise. The partially decohered state is modeled by the thermal state of a short-range translation-invariant Hamiltonian. We find that the temperature at which the entanglement length changes from infinite to finite is nonzero. We give an upper and lower bound to this transition temperature.

  8. Manipulation of Entangled States for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Huelga, S. F.; Jonathan, D.; Knight, P. L.; Murao, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Vedral, V.

    Entanglement manipulation, and especially Entanglement Swapping is at the heart of current work on quantum information processing, purification and quantum teleportation. We will discuss how it may be generalized to multiparticle systems and how this enables multi-user quantum cryptographic protocols to be developed. Our scheme allows us to establish multiparticle entanglement between particles which belong to distant users in a communication network through a prior distribution of Bell state singlets followed by local measurements. We compare our method for generating entanglement with existing schemes using simple quantum networks, and highlight the advantages and applications in cryptographic conferencing and in reading messages from more than one source through a single quantum measurement. We also discuss how entanglement leads to the idea of `telecloning', in which a teleportation-like protocol can be found which reproduces the output of an optimal quantum cloning machine.

  9. Operational entanglement families of symmetric mixed N -qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, T.; Mathonet, P.; Solano, E.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce an operational entanglement classification of symmetric mixed states for an arbitrary number of qubits based on stochastic local operations assisted with classical communication (SLOCC operations). We define families of SLOCC entanglement classes successively embedded into each other, we prove that they are of nonzero measure, and we construct witness operators to distinguish them. Moreover, we discuss how arbitrary symmetric mixed states can be realized in the laboratory via a one-to-one correspondence between well-defined sets of controllable parameters and the corresponding entanglement families.

  10. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  11. Systematic generation of entanglement measures for pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Ayumu

    2008-05-01

    We propose a method to generate entanglement measures systematically by using the irreducible decomposition of some copies of a state under the local unitary (LU) transformations. It is applicable to general multipartite systems. We show that there are entanglement monotones corresponding to singlet representations of the LU group. They can be evaluated efficiently in an algebraic way, and experimentally measurable by local projective measurements of the copies of the state. Nonsinglet representations are also shown to be useful to classify entanglement. Our method reproduces many well-known measures in a unified way.

  12. GENERAL: Teleportation of a Bipartite Entangled Coherent State via a Four-Partite Cluster-Type Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui-Na; Liu, Jin-Ming

    2009-10-01

    We present an optical scheme to almost completely teleport a bipartite entangled coherent state using a four-partite cluster-type entangled coherent state as quantum channel. The scheme is based on optical elements such as beam splitters, phase shifters, and photon detectors. We also obtain the average fidelity of the teleportation process. It is shown that the average fidelity is quite close to unity if the mean photon number of the coherent state is not too small.

  13. Protecting quantum entanglement and nonlocality for tripartite states under decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Yin, Yu Hao; Ma, Wen Chao; Ye, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Quantum entanglement and nonlocality will suffer inevitable harm from decoherence environment. Based on GHZ state, we study the harm of the generalized amplitude damping (GAD) operation and the protection by the single local filtering (SLF) operation in this paper. We verify that the SLF functions to depress the loss of entanglement and nonlocality from GAD. This conclusion will guide us to select the best method to protect the GHZ state from GAD decoherence.

  14. Steady atomic entanglement in cavity QED without state initialization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Yang Song; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui

    2009-12-15

    We present a scheme for realizing a steady entanglement state between two trapped atoms, without requiring the initialization of atom-cavity system nor fine time-controlling of evolution dynamics. We show that high-fidelity entanglement of atomic state can be obtained in a period of time equal to a few times the inverse of atomic's spontaneous decay rate. The robustness against cavity decay kappa and cavity thermal field n{sub T} has also been examined.

  15. Preparation of Entangled Coherent States and Correspondence Between Entanglement and Non-Classical Properties in Circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Juju; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the controllable generation of entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED). In our scheme, the easy integration of solid-state quantum circuit is exploited. In particular, through manipulating the external capacitor or external classical microwave impulse, the coupling between superconducting qubits and cavity can be manipulated, the entanglement effect between qubit and field modes can be enhanced and the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed. We further discuss the correspondence between quantum entanglement and some non-classical effects such as the squeezing of entangled coherent state field, the anti-buching effect. The results show that the time evolution of the quantum entanglement between field modes is always accompanied by the synchronous changes of certain non-classical effect. When the quantum entanglement reaches maximum, the anti-bunching (or compression effect) almost reaches maximum synchronously. Once entanglement sudden death occurs, the non-classical effects disappear.

  16. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-11-15

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  17. Duality in entanglement of macroscopic states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kim, Jaewan

    2016-08-01

    We investigate duality in entanglement of a bipartite multiphoton system generated from a coherent state of light. The system can exhibit polarization entanglement if the two parts are distinguished by their parity, or parity entanglement if the parts are distinguished by polarization. It was shown in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 140404 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.140404 that this phenomenon can be exploited as a method to test indistinguishability of two particles and it was conjectured that one can also test indistinguishability of macroscopic systems. We propose a setup to test this conjecture. Contrary to the previous studies using two-particle interference effect as in the Hong-Ou- Mandel setup, our setup neither assumes that the tested state is composed of single particles nor requires that the total number of particles be fixed. Consequently, the notion of entanglement duality is shown to be compatible with a broader class of physical systems. Moreover, by observing duality in entanglement in the above system one can confirm that macroscopic systems exhibit quantum behavior. As a practical side, entanglement duality is a useful concept that enables adaptive conversion of entanglement of one degree of freedom (DOF) to that of another DOF according to varying quantum protocols.

  18. Entanglement witnesses for graph states: General theory and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Guehne, Otfried

    2011-09-15

    We present a general theory for the construction of witnesses that detect genuine multipartite entanglement in graph states. First, we present explicit witnesses for all graph states of up to six qubits which are better than all criteria so far. Therefore, lower fidelities are required in experiments that aim at the preparation of graph states. Building on these results, we develop analytical methods to construct two different types of entanglement witnesses for general graph states. For many classes of states, these operators exhibit white noise tolerances that converge to 1 when increasing the number of particles. We illustrate our approach for states such as the linear and the 2D cluster state. Finally, we study an entanglement monotone motivated by our approach for graph states.

  19. Splitting Unknown Qubit State Using Five-Qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Qin, Zhi-guang; Baagyere, Edward

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a five-qubit entangled state can be used to realize the deterministic Quantum State Sharing (QSTS) of a single and two-qubit state among three parties by performing von-Neumann measurement and bell-state measurements. In our scheme, any of the two agents has the ability to reconstruct the original state if he/she collaborates with the other agent,otherwise an individual agent does not have enough information to reconstruct the original state. The paper also outlines the various measurements and mathematical framework of the scheme. The security analysis of our scheme against two attacks scenarios prove that the scheme is secure against an eavesdropper attack and a malicious attacks.

  20. Entangled states close to the maximally mixed state

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, Roland

    2007-06-15

    This paper deals with the radius of the largest ball of separable mixed states around the maximally mixed state for multiqubit systems. This radius determines how close entangled states can be to the maximally mixed state. In Aubrun and Szarek (e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0503221) an upper bound on the radius was given, while in Gurvits and Barnum (e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0409095) a lower bound was provided. In this paper we improve both the upper and the lower bound, bringing the ratio of these bounds down to a constant c={radical}(34/27){approx_equal}1.122, as opposed to a term of order {radical}(m log m) for the best bounds known previously, where m is the number of qubits in the system. We construct concrete examples of separable states on the boundary to entanglement which realize the upper bounds. As a by-product, we compute the radii of the largest balls that fit into the projective tensor product of three and four unit balls in R{sup 3} and in the projective tensor product of an arbitrary number of unit balls in R{sup n} for n=2, 4, and 8.

  1. Multi-mode entangled states represented as Grassmannian polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce generalized Grassmannian representatives of multi-mode state vectors. By implementing the fundamental properties of Grassmann coherent states, we map the Hilbert space of the finite-dimensional multi-mode states to the space of some Grassmannian polynomial functions. These Grassmannian polynomials form a well-defined space in the framework of Grassmann variables; namely Grassmannian representative space. Therefore, a quantum state can be uniquely defined and determined by an element of Grassmannian representative space. Furthermore, the Grassmannian representatives of some maximally entangled states are considered, and it is shown that there is a tight connection between the entanglement of the states and their Grassmannian representatives.

  2. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  3. Efficient entanglement concentration for arbitrary less-entangled NOON state assisted by single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Zhou; Yu-Bo, Sheng

    2016-02-01

    We put forward two efficient entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for arbitrary less-entangled NOON state. Both ECPs only require one pair of less-entangled NOON state and an auxiliary photon. In the first ECP, the auxiliary photon is shared by two parties, while in the second ECP, the auxiliary photon is only possessed by one party, which can increase the practical success probability by avoiding the transmission loss and simplify the operations. Moreover, both ECPs can be used repeatedly to get a high success probability. Based on the above features, our two ECPs, especially the second one, may be useful in the quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20151502), and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  4. Excitonic entanglement of protected states in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, H. S.; Sanz, L.; Alcalde, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The entanglement of an optically generated electron-hole pair in artificial quantum dot molecules is calculated considering the effects of decoherence by interaction with environment. Since the system evolves into mixed states and due to the complexity of energy level structure, we use the negativity as entanglement quantifier, which is well defined in D ⊗D‧ composite vector spaces. By a numerical analysis of the non-unitary dynamics of the exciton states, we establish the feasibility of producing protected entangled superposition by an appropriate tuning of bias electric field, F. A stationary state with a high value of negativity (high degree of entanglement) is obtained by fine tuning of F close to a resonant condition between indirect excitons. We also found that when the optical excitation is approximately equal to the electron tunneling coupling, Ω /Te ∼ 1, the entanglement reaches a maximum value. In front of the experimental feasibility of the specific condition mentioned before, our proposal becomes an useful strategy to find robust entangled states in condensed matter systems.

  5. Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Guo; Lan, Zhou; Shi-Pu, Gu; Xing-Fu, Wang; Yu-Bo, Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. 15KJA120002), and the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  6. Ground-state entanglement in the XXZ model

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Shijian; Lin Haiqing; Tian Guangshan

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate spin entanglement in the XXZ model defined on a d-dimensional bipartite lattice. The concurrence, a measure of the entanglement between two spins, is analyzed. We prove rigorously that the ground-state concurrence reaches maximum at the isotropic point. For dimensionality d{>=}2, the concurrence develops a cusp at the isotropic point and we attribute it to the existence of magnetic long-range order.

  7. Concurrence-based entanglement measures for isotropic states

    SciTech Connect

    Rungta, Pranaw; Caves, Carlton M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss properties of entanglement measures called I-concurrence and tangle. For a bipartite pure state, I-concurrence and tangle are simply related to the purity of the marginal density operators. The I-concurrence (tangle) of a bipartite mixed state is the minimum average I-concurrence (tangle) of ensemble decompositions of pure states of the joint density operator. Terhal and Vollbrecht [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2625 (2000)] have given an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of isotropic states in arbitrary dimensions. We use their formalism to derive comparable expressions for the I-concurrence and tangle of isotropic states.

  8. Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.

    2010-10-15

    Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.

  9. Entangled Coherent States Generation in two Superconducting LC Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Meiyu; Zhang Weimin

    2008-11-07

    We proposed a novel pure electronic (solid state) device consisting of two superconducting LC circuits coupled to a superconducting flux qubit. The entangled coherent states of the two LC modes is generated through the measurement of the flux qubit states. The interaction of the flux qubit and two LC circuits is controlled by the external microwave control lines. The geometrical structure of the LC circuits is adjustable and makes a strong coupling between them achievable. This entangled coherent state generator can be realized by using the conventional microelectronic fabrication techniques which increases the feasibility of the experiment.

  10. Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Sanders, Barry C.

    2006-09-15

    We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit.

  11. Entanglement equivalence of N-qubit symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Mathonet, P.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Godefroid, M.; Solano, E.

    2010-05-15

    We study the interconversion of multipartite symmetric N-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). We demonstrate that if two symmetric states can be connected with a nonsymmetric invertible local operation (ILO), then they belong necessarily to the separable, W, or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement class, establishing a practical method of discriminating subsets of entanglement classes. Furthermore, we prove that there always exists a symmetric ILO connecting any pair of symmetric N-qubit states equivalent under SLOCC, simplifying the requirements for experimental implementations of local interconversion of those states.

  12. Entanglement and Majorana edge states in the Kitaev model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Saptarshi; Maiti, Moitri; Varma, Vipin Kerala

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the von Neumann entanglement entropy and Schmidt gap in the vortex-free ground state of the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice for square/rectangular and cylindrical subsystems. We find that, for both the subsystems, the free-fermionic contribution to the entanglement entropy SE exhibits signatures of the phase transitions between the gapless and gapped phases. However, within the gapless phase, we find that SE does not show an expected monotonic behavior as a function of the coupling Jz between the suitably defined one-dimensional chains for either geometry; moreover, the system generically reaches a point of minimum entanglement within the gapless phase before the entanglement saturates or increases again until the gapped phase is reached. This may be attributed to the onset of gapless modes in the bulk spectrum and the competition between the correlation functions along various bonds. In the gapped phase, on the other hand, SE always monotonically varies with Jz independent of the subregion size or shape. Finally, further confirming the Li-Haldane conjecture, we find that the Schmidt gap Δ defined from the entanglement spectrum also signals the topological transitions but only if there are corresponding zero-energy Majorana edge states that simultaneously appear or disappear across the transitions. We analytically corroborate some of our results on entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap, and the bulk-edge correspondence using perturbation theory.

  13. Controlled Teleportation of a Qudit State by Partially Entangled GHZ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-wei; Shu, Lan; Mo, Zhi-wen; Zhang, Zhi-hua

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a controlled teleportation scheme which communicates an arbitrary ququart state via two sets of partially entangled GHZ state. The necessary measurements and operations are given detailedly. Furthmore the scheme is generalized to teleport a qudit state via s sets of partially entangled GHZ state.

  14. Entanglement universality of two-qubit X-states

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonça, Paulo E.M.F.; Marchiolli, Marcelo A.; Galetti, Diógenes

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate that for every two-qubit state there is a X-counterpart, i.e., a corresponding two-qubit X-state of same spectrum and entanglement, as measured by concurrence, negativity or relative entropy of entanglement. By parametrizing the set of two-qubit X-states and a family of unitary transformations that preserve the sparse structure of a two-qubit X-state density matrix, we obtain the parametric form of a unitary transformation that converts arbitrary two-qubit states into their X-counterparts. Moreover, we provide a semi-analytic prescription on how to set the parameters of this unitary transformation in order to preserve concurrence or negativity. We also explicitly construct a set of X-state density matrices, parametrized by their purity and concurrence, whose elements are in one-to-one correspondence with the points of the concurrence versus purity (CP) diagram for generic two-qubit states. - Highlights: • Parametrization of separable, entangled and rank-specific two-qubit X-states. • Construction of a set of two-qubit X-states exhausting a two-qubit CP-diagram. • Parametrization of a disentangling unitary transformation for any two-qubit X-state. • Unitary transformation of any two-qubit state into a X-state of same entanglement.

  15. Quantum entangled supercorrelated states in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, A. K.; Jensen, K. L.; Cummings, F. W.

    1999-08-01

    The regions of independent quantum states, maximally classically correlated states, and purely quantum entangled (supercorrelated) states described in a recent formulation of quantum information theory by Cerf and Adami are explored here numerically in the parameter space of the well-known exactly soluble Jaynes-Cummings model for equilibrium and nonequilibrium time-dependent ensembles.

  16. Deformed photon-added entangled squeezed vacuum and one-photon states: Entanglement, polarization, and nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model.

  17. Identifying non-Abelian topological order through minimal entangled states.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Gong, S S; Haldane, F D M; Sheng, D N

    2014-03-01

    The topological order is encoded in the pattern of long-range quantum entanglements, which cannot be measured by any local observable. Here we perform an exact diagonalization study to establish the non-Abelian topological order for topological band models through entanglement entropy measurement. We focus on the quasiparticle statistics of the non-Abelian Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states on the lattice models with bosonic particles. We identify multiple independent minimal entangled states (MESs) in the ground state manifold on a torus. The extracted modular S matrix from MESs faithfully demonstrates the Ising anyon or Fibonacci quasiparticle statistics, including the quasiparticle quantum dimensions and the fusion rules for such systems. These findings unambiguously demonstrate the topological nature of the quantum states for these flatband models without using the knowledge of model wave functions. PMID:24655269

  18. Geometric descriptions of entangled states by auxiliary varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Holweck, Frederic; Luque, Jean-Gabriel; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to propose geometric descriptions of multipartite entangled states using algebraic geometry. In the context of this paper, geometric means each stratum of the Hilbert space, corresponding to an entangled state, is an open subset of an algebraic variety built by classical geometric constructions (tangent lines, secant lines) from the set of separable states. In this setting, we describe well-known classifications of multipartite entanglement such as 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign (n+ 1), for n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1, quantum systems and a new description with the 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 quantum system. Our results complete the approach of Miyake and make stronger connections with recent work of algebraic geometers. Moreover, for the quantum systems detailed in this paper, we propose an algorithm, based on the classical theory of invariants, to decide to which subvariety of the Hilbert space a given state belongs.

  19. Rapid Adiabatic Preparation of Injective Projected Entangled Pair States and Gibbs States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yimin; Molnár, András; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum algorithm for many-body state preparation. It is especially suited for injective projected entangled pair states and thermal states of local commuting Hamiltonians on a lattice. We show that for a uniform gap and sufficiently smooth paths, an adiabatic runtime and circuit depth of O (polylog N ) can be achieved for O (N ) spins. This is an almost exponential improvement over previous bounds. The total number of elementary gates scales as O (N p o l y l o g N ) . This is also faster than the best known upper bound of O (N2) on the mixing times of Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms for sampling classical systems in thermal equilibrium.

  20. Nonclassicality and Entanglement of Photon-Subtracted Two-Mode Squeezed Coherent States Studied via Entangled-States Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed coherent states (PSTMSCS), by successively subtracting photons from each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. The normalization factor which is related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained by virtue of the two-mode squeezing operator in entangled-states representation. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, antibunching effects, and partial negative Wigner function, respectively, are observed numerically, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the resultant states. Finally, employing the SV criteria and the EPR correlation, respectively, the entangled property of PSTMSCS is analyzed. It is shown that the photon subtraction operation can effectively enhance the inseparability between the two modes.

  1. Low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement for spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari, R.

    2010-11-15

    We develop the ideas of the quantum renormalization group and quantum information by exploring the low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement resources of a system close to its quantum critical point. We demonstrate that low-energy-state dynamical quantities of one-dimensional magnetic systems can show a quantum phase transition point and show scaling behavior in the vicinity of the transition point. To present our idea, we study the evolution of two spin entanglements in the one-dimensional Ising model in the transverse field. The system is initialized as the so-called thermal ground state of the pure Ising model. We investigate the evolution of the generation of entanglement with increasing magnetic field. We obtain that the derivative of the time at which the entanglement reaches its maximum with respect to the transverse field diverges at the critical point and its scaling behaviors versus the size of the system are the same as the static ground-state entanglement of the system.

  2. Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Munhoz, P. P.; Semiao, F. L.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2010-04-15

    We propose a particular encoding for bipartite entangled states derived from multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states (CTECSs). We investigate the effects of amplitude damping on the entanglement content of this bipartite state, as well as its usefulness as a quantum channel for teleportation. We find interesting relationships among the amplitude of the coherent states constituting the CTECSs, the number of subsystems forming the logical qubits (redundancy), and the extent to which amplitude damping affects the entanglement of the channel. For instance, in the sense of sudden death of entanglement, given a fixed value of the initial coherent state amplitude, the entanglement life span is shortened if redundancy is increased.

  3. Quantum entanglement of localized excited states at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Pawel; Simón, Joan; Štikonas, Andrius; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the time evolutions of (Renyi) entanglement entropy of locally excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) at finite temperature. We consider excited states created by acting with local operators on thermal states and give both field theoretic and holographic calculations. In free field CFTs, we find that the growth of Renyi entanglement entropy at finite temperature is reduced compared to the zero temperature result by a small quantity proportional to the width of the localized excitations. On the other hand, in finite temperature CFTs with classical gravity duals, we find that the entanglement entropy approaches a characteristic value at late time. This behaviour does not occur at zero temperature. We also study the mutual information between the two CFTs in the thermofield double (TFD) formulation and give physical interpretations of our results.

  4. Quantum state and quantum entanglement protection using quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuchao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiangbin; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Yu, Zongwen; Zou, Wenjie

    2015-03-01

    The time evolution of some quantum states can be slowed down or even stopped under frequent measurements. This is the usual quantum Zeno effect. Here we report an operator quantum Zeno effect, in which the evolution of some physical observables is slowed down through measurements even though thequantum state changes randomly with time. Based on the operator quantum Zeno effect, we show how we can protect quantum information from decoherence with two-qubit measurements, realizable with noisy two-qubit interactions. Besides, we report the quantum entanglement protection using weak measurement and measurement reversal scheme. Exposed in the nonzero temperature environment, a quantum system can both lose and gain excitations by interacting with the environment. In this work, we show how to optimally protect quantum states and quantum entanglement in such a situation based on measurement reversal from weak measurement. In particular, we present explicit formulas of protection. We find that this scheme can circumvent the entanglement sudden death in certain conditions.

  5. Maximally entangled mixed-state generation via local operations

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, A.; Puentes, G.; Voigt, D.; Woerdman, J. P.

    2007-06-15

    We present a general theoretical method to generate maximally entangled mixed states of a pair of photons initially prepared in the singlet polarization state. This method requires only local operations upon a single photon of the pair and exploits spatial degrees of freedom to induce decoherence. We report also experimental confirmation of these theoretical results.

  6. Detecting highly entangled states with a joint qubit readout

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J. M.; DiCarlo, L.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Bishop, Lev S.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Gambetta, J. M.

    2010-06-15

    A single-channel joint readout is used to analyze highly entangled two-qubit states in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. The measurement model for the readout is fully characterized, demonstrating a large sensitivity to two-qubit correlations. We quantify the high degree of entanglement by measuring a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality with a value of 2.61{+-}0.04, without optimizing the preparation of the two-qubit state. In its present form, this joint readout can resolve improvements to the fidelity of two-qubit operations and be extended to three or four qubits.

  7. Entangling power of permutation-invariant quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Popkov, Vladislav; Salerno, Mario; Schuetz, Gunter

    2005-09-15

    We investigate the von Neumann entanglement entropy as function of the size of a subsystem for permutation invariant ground states in models with finite number of states per site, e.g., in quantum spin models. We demonstrate that the entanglement entropy of n sites in a system of length L generically grows as {sigma} log{sub 2}[2{pi}en(L-n)/L]+C, where {sigma} is the on-site spin and C is a function depending only on magnetization.

  8. Exploration of multiphoton entangled states by using weak nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We propose a fruitful scheme for exploring multiphoton entangled states based on linear optics and weak nonlinearities. Compared with the previous schemes the present method is more feasible because there are only small phase shifts instead of a series of related functions of photon numbers in the process of interaction with Kerr nonlinearities. In the absence of decoherence we analyze the error probabilities induced by homodyne measurement and show that the maximal error probability can be made small enough even when the number of photons is large. This implies that the present scheme is quite tractable and it is possible to produce entangled states involving a large number of photons.

  9. Exploration of multiphoton entangled states by using weak nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We propose a fruitful scheme for exploring multiphoton entangled states based on linear optics and weak nonlinearities. Compared with the previous schemes the present method is more feasible because there are only small phase shifts instead of a series of related functions of photon numbers in the process of interaction with Kerr nonlinearities. In the absence of decoherence we analyze the error probabilities induced by homodyne measurement and show that the maximal error probability can be made small enough even when the number of photons is large. This implies that the present scheme is quite tractable and it is possible to produce entangled states involving a large number of photons. PMID:26751044

  10. Entangled mixed-state generation by twin-photon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Puentes, G.; Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J. P.; Voigt, D.

    2007-03-15

    We report experimental results on mixed-state generation by multiple scattering of polarization-entangled photon pairs created from parametric down-conversion. By using a large variety of scattering optical systems we have experimentally obtained entangled mixed states that lie upon and below the Werner curve in the linear entropy-tangle plane. We have also introduced a simple phenomenological model built on the analogy between classical polarization optics and quantum maps. Theoretical predictions from such a model are in full agreement with our experimental findings.

  11. Entropy and Entanglement Bounds for Reduced Density Matrices of Fermionic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.; Reuvers, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Unlike bosons, fermions always have a non-trivial entanglement. Intuitively, Slater determinantal states should be the least entangled states. To make this intuition precise we investigate entropy and entanglement of fermionic states and prove some extremal and near extremal properties of reduced density matrices of Slater determinantal states.

  12. Interference and complementarity for two-photon hybrid entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, W. A. T.; Santibanez, M.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Neves, L.; Lima, G.; Padua, S.

    2010-10-15

    In this work we generate two-photon hybrid entangled states (HESs), where the polarization of one photon is entangled with the transverse spatial degree of freedom of the second photon. The photon pair is created by parametric down-conversion in a polarization-entangled state. A birefringent double-slit couples the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of these photons, and finally, suitable spatial and polarization projections generate the HES. We investigate some interesting aspects of the two-photon hybrid interference and present this study in the context of the complementarity relation that exists between the visibility of the one-photon and that of the two-photon interference patterns.

  13. Entanglements in polymer networks: two-state invariant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Nedebock, Kristian

    2001-03-01

    At the time of crosslinking of polymer chains, entanglements of these chains become permanent features of the resulting network. In a statistical physics formulation these constraints on the polymers can be dealt with by inclusion of invariants for the entangled states of chains. Analytical results are presented based upon an extension of a variational formalism for mechanical properties of entangled gels with a two-state invariant by Edwards and Müller-Nedebock (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.32 3301 (1999)). Apart from showing Mooney-Rivlin-like behaviour of the reduced stress the theory is applied to olympic gels and discussed in the context of the limitations due to the approximations in this approach.

  14. Bulk Entanglement Spectrum Reveals Quantum Criticality within a Topological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Timothy; Fu, Liang

    2014-03-01

    A quantum phase transition is usually achieved by tuning physical parameters in a Hamiltonian at zero temperature. Here, we demonstrate that the ground state of a topological phase itself encodes critical properties of its transition to a trivial phase. To extract this information, we introduce a partition of the system into two subsystems both of which extend throughout the bulk in all directions. The resulting bulk entanglement spectrum has a low-lying part that resembles the excitation spectrum of a bulk Hamiltonian, which allows us to access a topological phase transition from a single wavefunction by tuning either the geometry of the partition or the entanglement temperature. As an example, this remarkable correspondence between topological phase transition and entanglement criticality is rigorously established for integer quantum Hall states. TH is supported by NSF Graduate Research Fellowship No. 0645960. LF is partly supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0010526.

  15. Teleportation via thermally entangled states of a two-qubit Heisenberg XX chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo Ye

    2002-12-01

    Recently, entanglement teleportation has been investigated by Lee and Kim [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4236 (2000)]. In this paper we study entanglement teleportation via two separate thermally entangled states of a two-qubit Heisenberg XX chain. We established the condition under which the parameters of the model have to satisfy in order to teleport entanglement. The necessary minimum amount of thermal entanglement for some fixed strength of exchange coupling is a function of the magnetic field and the temperature.

  16. Remote State Preparation of a Two-Atom Entangled State in Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao-Qi; Xiao, Junfang; Ren, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Ji, Chunlei; Huang, Xin-Gang

    2016-06-01

    A physical scheme for remotely preparing a diatomic entangled state based on the cavity QED technique is presented in this paper. The quantum channel is composed of a two-atom entangled state and a three-atom entangled W state. The non-resonant interaction between two atoms and cavity is utilized at sender's side to distribute the information among the quantum channel, and the original state can be transmitted to either one of the two receivers. It shows that an extra cavity and an atom are needed at the final receiver's side as an auxiliary system if the non-maximally entangled states are worked as the quantum channel. The total success probabilities for the two receivers are not equal to each other except that the states of the quantum channel are maximally entangled.

  17. Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Robert J.; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems.

  18. Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert J; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems. PMID:27088483

  19. Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert J.; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems. PMID:27088483

  20. Quantification of Entanglement Entropies for Doubly Excited States in Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we study the quantum entanglement for doubly excited resonance states in helium by using highly correlated Hylleraas type functions to represent such states of the two-electron system. The doubly-excited resonance states are determined by calculation of density of resonance states under the framework of the stabilization method. The spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement measures for the low-lying doubly excited 2 s 2, 2 s3 s, and 2 p 2 1 S e states are carried out. Once a resonance state wave function is obtained, the linear entropy and von Neumann entropy for such a state are quantified using the Schmidt-Slater decomposition method. To check the consistence, linear entropy is also determined by solving analytically the needed four-electron (12-dimensional) integrals.

  1. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Teleportation of Entangled States through Divorce of Entangled Pair Mediated by a Weak Coherent Field in a High-Q Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.

    2008-07-01

    We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.

  2. Generating and probing entangled states for optical atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    The precision of quantum measurements is inherently limited by projection noise caused by the measurement process itself. Spin squeezing and more complex forms of entanglement have been proposed as ways of surpassing this limitation. In our system, a high-finesse asymmetric micromirror-based optical cavity can mediate the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating entanglement in an 171 Yb optical lattice clock. I will discuss approaches for creating, characterizing, and optimally utilizing these nonclassical states for precision measurement, as well as recent progress toward their realization. This research is supported by DARPA QuASAR, NSF, and NSERC.

  3. Maximally Entangled States of a Two-Qubit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu P.; Rajput, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Entanglement has been explored as one of the key resources required for quantum computation, the functional dependence of the entanglement measures on spin correlation functions has been established, correspondence between evolution of maximally entangled states (MES) of two-qubit system and representation of SU(2) group has been worked out and the evolution of MES under a rotating magnetic field has been investigated. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the general two-qubit state to be maximally entangled state (MES) have been obtained and a new set of MES constituting a very powerful and reliable eigen basis (different from magic bases) of two-qubit systems has been constructed. In terms of the MES constituting this basis, Bell’s States have been generated and all the qubits of two-qubit system have been obtained. It has shown that a MES corresponds to a point in the SO(3) sphere and an evolution of MES corresponds to a trajectory connecting two points on this sphere. Analysing the evolution of MES under a rotating magnetic field, it has been demonstrated that a rotating magnetic field is equivalent to a three dimensional rotation in real space leading to the evolution of a MES.

  4. Comment I on ''Dense coding in entangled states''

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Antoni; Grudka, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    In this Comment we question the recent analysis of two dense coding protocols presented by Lee, Ahn, and Hwang [Phys. Rev. A 66, 024304 (2002)]. We argue that in the case of two-party communication protocol, there is no reason for using a maximally entangled state of more than two qubits.

  5. Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori

    2010-08-15

    Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (K-O) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the K-O scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.

  6. Correlation properties of entangled multiphoton states and Bernstein's paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Chirkin, A. S. Belyaeva, O. V. Belinsky, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A normally ordered characteristic function (NOCF) of Bose operators is calculated for a number of discrete-variable entangled states (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Werner (W) qubit states and a cluster state). It is shown that such NOCFs contain visual information on two types of correlations: pseudoclassical and quantum correlations. The latter manifest themselves in the interference terms of the NOCFs and lead to quantum paradoxes, whereas the pseudoclassical correlations of photons and their cumulants satisfy the relations for classical random variables. Three- and four-qubit states are analyzed in detail. An implementation of an analog of Bernstein's paradox on discrete quantum variables is discussed. A measure of quantumness of an entangled state is introduced that is not related to the entropy approach. It is established that the maximum of the degree of quantumness substantiates the numerical values of the coefficients in multiqubit vector states derived from intuitive considerations.

  7. Entanglement and perfect discrimination of a class of multiqubit states by local operations and classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro

    2010-02-15

    It is shown that while entanglement ensures difficulty in discriminating a set of mutually orthogonal states perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), entanglement content does not. In particular, for a class of entangled multiqubit states, the maximum number of perfectly LOCC distinguishable orthogonal states is shown to be independent of the average entanglement of the states, and the spatial configuration with respect to which LOCC operations may be carried out. It is also pointed out that for this class, the makeup of an ensemble, that is whether it consists only of entangled states or not, determines the maximum number of perfectly distinguishable states.

  8. Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of Cluster State in Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu

    2015-04-01

    We propose a deterministic polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) towards four-photon Cluster state, resorting to linear optic technology and multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). All of the participants can jointedly distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states after transmission through a noisy channel with success probability 100 % in principle. The proposed protocol can be employed for the purification of any other multi-partite maximally entangled states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and W state, which is actually an universally feasible entanglement purification scheme towards multi-photon entanglement system.

  9. A note on entanglement entropy, coherent states and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    The entanglement entropy of a free quantum field in a coherent state is independent of its stress energy content. We use this result to highlight the fact that while the Einstein equations for first order variations about a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields seem to follow from Jacobson's principle of maximal vacuum entanglement entropy, their possible derivation from this principle for the physically relevant case of finite but small variations remains an open issue. We also apply this result to the context of Bianchi's identification, independent of unknown Planck scale physics, of the first order variation of Bekenstein-Hawking area with that of vacuum entanglement entropy. We argue that under certain technical assumptions this identification seems not to be extendible to the context of finite but small variations to coherent states. Our particular method of estimation of entanglement entropy variation reveals the existence of certain contributions over and above those of References Jacobson (arXiv:1505.04753, 2015), Bianchi (arXiv:1211.0522 [gr-qc], 2012). We discuss the sense in which these contributions may be subleading to those in References Jacobson (arXiv:1505.04753, 2015), Bianchi (arXiv:1211.0522 [gr-qc], 2012).

  10. Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N.

  11. Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757

  12. Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757

  13. Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.

  14. Generation of energy-entangled W states via parametric fluorescence in integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menotti, M.; Maccone, L.; Sipe, J. E.; Liscidini, M.

    2016-07-01

    Tripartite entangled states, such as Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, are typically generated by manipulating two pairs of polarization-entangled photons in bulk optics. Here we propose a scheme to generate W states that are entangled in the energy degree of freedom in an integrated optical circuit. Our approach employs photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a microring resonator. We also present a feasible procedure for demonstrating the generation of such a state, and we compare polarization-entangled and energy-entangled schemes for the preparation of W states.

  15. The maximally entangled set of 4-qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spee, C.; de Vicente, J. I.; Kraus, B.

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement is a resource to overcome the natural restriction of operations used for state manipulation to Local Operations assisted by Classical Communication (LOCC). Hence, a bipartite maximally entangled state is a state which can be transformed deterministically into any other state via LOCC. In the multipartite setting no such state exists. There, rather a whole set, the Maximally Entangled Set of states (MES), which we recently introduced, is required. This set has on the one hand the property that any state outside of this set can be obtained via LOCC from one of the states within the set and on the other hand, no state in the set can be obtained from any other state via LOCC. Recently, we studied LOCC transformations among pure multipartite states and derived the MES for three and generic four qubit states. Here, we consider the non-generic four qubit states and analyze their properties regarding local transformations. As already the most coarse grained classification, due to Stochastic LOCC (SLOCC), of four qubit states is much richer than in case of three qubits, the investigation of possible LOCC transformations is correspondingly more difficult. We prove that most SLOCC classes show a similar behavior as the generic states, however we also identify here three classes with very distinct properties. The first consists of the GHZ and W class, where any state can be transformed into some other state non-trivially. In particular, there exists no isolation. On the other hand, there also exist classes where all states are isolated. Last but not least we identify an additional class of states, whose transformation properties differ drastically from all the other classes. Although the possibility of transforming states into local-unitary inequivalent states by LOCC turns out to be very rare, we identify those states (with exception of the latter class) which are in the MES and those, which can be obtained (transformed) non-trivially from (into) other states

  16. Optical state engineering, quantum communication, and robustness of entanglement promiscuity in three-mode Gaussian states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-03-01

    We present a novel, detailed study on the usefulness of three-mode Gaussian states for realistic processing of continuous variable (CV) quantum information, with a particular emphasis on the possibilities opened up by their genuine tripartite entanglement. We describe practical schemes to engineer several classes of pure and mixed three-mode states that stand out for their informational and/or entanglement properties. In particular, we introduce a simple procedure—based on passive optical elements—to produce pure three-mode Gaussian states with arbitrary entanglement structure (upon availability of an initial two-mode squeezed state). We analyse in depth the properties of distributed entanglement and the origin of its sharing structure, showing that the promiscuity of entanglement sharing is a feature peculiar to symmetric Gaussian states that survives even in the presence of significant degrees of mixedness and decoherence. Next, we discuss the suitability of the considered tripartite entangled states to the implementation of quantum information and communication protocols with CVs. This will lead to a feasible experimental proposal to test the promiscuous sharing of CV tripartite entanglement, in terms of the optimal fidelity of teleportation networks with Gaussian resources. We finally focus on the application of three-mode states to symmetric and asymmetric telecloning, and single out the structural properties of the optimal Gaussian resources for the latter protocol in different settings. Our analysis aims to lay the basis for a practical quantum communication with CVs beyond the bipartite scenario.

  17. Teleportation of the three-level three-particle entangled state and classical communication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Ming; Kuang, Le-Man

    2008-06-01

    We propose a scheme to probabilistically teleport an unknown three-level three-particle entangled state. The quantum channel is composed of a partial entangled three-level two-particle state and a partial entangled three-level three-particle state. We calculate the successful total probability and the classical communication cost required in the ideal probabilistic teleportation process, respectively. It is shown that an unknown three-level three-particle entangled state can be teleported using fewer entangled particles and lesser classical communication cost than Bennett et al.’s original protocol.

  18. Nonclassicality tests and entanglement witnesses for macroscopic mechanical superposition states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittsovich, Oleg; Moroder, Tobias; Asadian, Ali; Gühne, Otfried; Rabl, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We describe a set of measurement protocols for performing nonclassicality tests and the verification of entangled superposition states of macroscopic continuous variable systems, such as nanomechanical resonators. Following earlier works, we first consider a setup where a two-level system is used to indirectly probe the motion of the mechanical system via Ramsey measurements and discuss the application of this method for detecting nonclassical mechanical states. We then show that the generalization of this technique to multiple resonator modes allows the conditioned preparation and the detection of entangled mechanical superposition states. The proposed measurement protocols can be implemented in various qubit-resonator systems that are currently under experimental investigation and find applications in future tests of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic scale.

  19. Area law for gapless states from local entanglement thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingle, Brian; McGreevy, John

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate an area law bound on the ground state entanglement entropy of a wide class of gapless quantum states of matter using a strategy called local entanglement thermodynamics. The bound depends only on thermodynamic data, actually a single exponent, the hyperscaling violation exponent θ . All systems in d spatial dimensions obeying our scaling assumptions and with θ states. Finally, we make contact with the recently proposed s -source framework and argue that θ and s are related by s =2θ .

  20. Random Bipartite Entanglement from W and W-Like States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortescue, Ben; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2007-06-01

    We describe a protocol for distilling maximally entangled bipartite states between random pairs of parties from those sharing a tripartite W state |W⟩=(1/3)(|100⟩+|010⟩+|001⟩)ABC, and show that the total distillation rate Et∞ [the total number of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs distilled per W, irrespective of who shares them] may be done at a higher rate than EPR distillation between specified pairs of parties. Specifically, the optimal rate for distillation to specified parties has been previously shown to be 0.92 EPR pairs per W, while our protocol can asymptotically distill 1 EPR pair per W between random pairs of parties, which we conjecture to be optimal. We thus demonstrate a tradeoff between overall distillation rate and final distribution of EPR pairs. We further show that there exist states with fixed lower-bounded Et∞, but arbitrarily small distillable entanglement for specified parties.

  1. Quantifying entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish Vachaspati

    Entanglement is an essential element of quantum mechanics. The aim of this work is to explore various properties of entanglement from the viewpoints of both physics and information science, thus providing a unique picture of entanglement from an interdisciplinary point of view. The focus of this work is on quantifying entanglement as a resource. We start with bipartite states, proposing a new measure of bipartite entanglement called entanglement of assistance, showing that bound entangled states of rank two cannot exist, exploring the number of members required in the ensemble achieving the entanglement of formation and the possibility of bound entangled states that are negative under partial transposition (NPT bound entangled states). For multipartite states we introduce the notions of reducibilities and equivalences under entanglement non-increasing operations and we study the relations between various reducibilities and equivalences such as exact and asymptotic LOCC, asymptotic LOCCq, cLOCC, LOc, etc. We use this new language to attempt to quantify entanglement for multiple parties. We introduce the idea of entanglement span and minimal entanglement generating set and entanglement coefficients associated with it which are the entanglement measures, thus proposing a multicomponent measure of entanglement for three or more parties. We show that the class of Schmidt decomposable states have only GHZM or Cat-like entanglement. Further we introduce the class of multiseparable states for quantification of their entanglement and prove that they are equivalent to the Schmidt decomposable states, and thus have only Cat-like entanglement. We further explore the conditions under which LOCO equivalences are possible for multipartite isentropic states. We define Cat-distillability, EPRB-distillability and distillability for multipartite mixed states and show that distillability implies EPRB-distillability. Further we show that all non-factorizable pure states are Cat

  2. Simultaneous generation of two spin-wave-photon entangled states in an atomic ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Xu, Zhongxiao; Ge, Wei; Chen, Lirong; Li, Shujing; Yuan, Haoxiang; Wen, Yafei; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) in atomic ensembles provides a promising method to generate spin-wave-photon entangled states. In the past experiments, a spin-wave-photon entangled state was produced via SRS from an atomic ensemble. Here, we report a scheme of simultaneously generating two spin-wave-photon (atom-photon) entangled states in a cold Rb ensemble via SRS. Based on joint Bell-state measurements on the two photons coming from the two atom-photon entangled sources, respectively, we projected the two stored spin waves into a Bell state and then mapped the quantum memory into a polarization-entangled photon pair. Such a polarization-entangled photon pair can be released on demand and thus the presented scheme has potential application in the preparation of large-size photonic entangled states.

  3. Asymptotic entanglement transformation between W and GHZ states

    SciTech Connect

    Vrana, Péter; Christandl, Matthias

    2015-02-15

    We investigate entanglement transformations with stochastic local operations and classical communication in an asymptotic setting using the concepts of degeneration and border rank of tensors from algebraic complexity theory. Results well-known in that field imply that GHZ states can be transformed into W states at rate 1 for any number of parties. As a generalization, we find that the asymptotic conversion rate from GHZ states to Dicke states is bounded as the number of subsystems increases and the number of excitations is fixed. By generalizing constructions of Coppersmith and Winograd and by using monotones introduced by Strassen, we also compute the conversion rate from W to GHZ states.

  4. Entanglement of multipartite quantum states and the generalized quantum search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Robert Michael

    2002-09-01

    In chapter 2 various parameterizations for the orbits under local unitary transformations of three-qubit pure states are analyzed. It is shown that the entanglement monotones of any multipartite pure state uniquely determine the orbit of that state. It follows that there must be an entanglement monotone for three-qubit pure states which depends on the Kempe invariant defined in [1]. A form for such an entanglement monotone is proposed. A theorem is proved that significantly reduces the number of entanglement monotones that must be looked at to find the maximal probability of transforming one multipartite state to another. In chapter 3 Grover's unstructured quantum search algorithm is generalized to use an arbitrary starting superposition and an arbitrary unitary matrix. A formula for the probability of the generalized Grover's algorithm succeeding after n iterations is derived. This formula is used to determine the optimal strategy for using the unstructured quantum search algorithm. The speedup obtained illustrates that a hybrid use of quantum computing and classical computing techniques can yield a performance that is better than either alone. The analysis is extended to the case of a society of k quantum searches acting in parallel. In chapter 4 the positive map Gamma : rho → (Trrho) - rho is introduced as a separability criterion. Any separable state is mapped by the tensor product of Gamma and the identity in to a non-negative operator, which provides a necessary condition for separability. If Gamma acts on a two-dimensional subsystem, then it is equivalent to partial transposition and therefore also sufficient for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems. Finally, a connection between this map for two qubits and complex conjugation in the "magic" basis [2] is displayed.

  5. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation. PMID:26778340

  6. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation.

  7. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation. PMID:26778340

  8. Adiabatic path to fractional quantum Hall states of a few bosonic atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, M.; Paredes, B.; Cirac, J.I.

    2004-11-01

    We propose a realistic scheme to create motionally entangled states of a few bosonic atoms. It can experimentally be realized with a gas of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in a deep optical lattice potential. By simultaneously deforming and rotating the trapping potential on each lattice site it is feasible to adiabatically create a variety of entangled states on each lattice well. We fully address the case of N=2 and 4 atoms per well and identify a sequence of fractional quantum Hall states: the Pfaffian state, the 1/2-Laughlin quasiparticle, and the 1/2-Laughlin state. Exact knowledge of the spectrum has allowed us to design adiabatic paths to these states, with all times and parameters well within the reach of current experimental setups. We further discuss the detection of these states by measuring different properties as their density profile, angular momentum, or correlation functions.

  9. Quantum-enhanced spectroscopy with entangled multiphoton states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinani, Hossein T.; Gupta, Manish K.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Berry, Dominic W.

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, spectroscopy is performed by examining the position of absorption lines. However, at frequencies near the transition frequency, additional information can be obtained from the phase shift. In this work we consider the information about the transition frequency obtained from both the absorption and the phase shift, as quantified by the Fisher information in an interferometric measurement. We examine the use of multiple single-photon states, NOON states, and numerically optimized states that are entangled and have multiple photons. We find the optimized states that improve over the standard quantum limit set by independent single photons for some atom number densities.

  10. Building projected entangled pair states with a local gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Erez; Burrello, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.

  11. A new optical scheme for teleportation of entangled coherent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Kuang, Le-Man

    2006-10-01

    We propose a nearly perfect optical scheme for the quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states using optical devices such as nonlinear Kerr media, beam splitters, phase shifters, and photon detectors. Different from those previous schemes, our scheme needs only ``yes'' or `no' measurements of the photon number of the related modes, i.e. nonzero- and zero-photon measurements, while in previous schemes one has to exactly identify the even or odd parity character of the photon numbers detected by detectors.

  12. Controlled Secure Direct Communication with Six-Qubit Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Li, Xiao-lan; Nie, Li-ping; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-02-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme for implementing controlled quantum secure direct communication by using six-qubit entangled states. According to the results measured by the sender and the controller, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way with unit successful probability. In our scheme, the information-carrying qubits do not need to be transmitted over the public channel. Therefore, the scheme is determinate and secure.

  13. Chiral projected entangled-pair state with topological order.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Wahl, Thorsten B; Tu, Hong-Hao; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2015-03-13

    We show that projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) can describe chiral topologically ordered phases. For that, we construct a simple PEPS for spin-1/2 particles in a two-dimensional lattice. We reveal a symmetry in the local projector of the PEPS that gives rise to the global topological character. We also extract characteristic quantities of the edge conformal field theory using the bulk-boundary correspondence. PMID:25815954

  14. Local cloning of arbitrarily entangled multipartite states

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Alastair; Ericsson, Marie

    2006-01-15

    We examine the perfect cloning of nonlocal, orthogonal states using only local operations and classical communication. We provide a complete characterisation of the states that can be cloned under these restrictions, and their relation to distinguishability. We also consider the case of catalytic cloning, which we show provides no enhancement to the set of clonable states.

  15. Entanglement classes of symmetric Werner states

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, David W.; Walck, Scott N.

    2011-10-15

    The symmetric Werner states for n qubits, important in the study of quantum nonlocality and useful for applications in quantum information, have a surprisingly simple and elegant structure in terms of tensor products of Pauli matrices. Further, each of these states forms a unique local unitary equivalence class, that is, no two of these states are interconvertible by local unitary operations.

  16. Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-09-15

    We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they

  17. Quantum-field coherent control: Preparation of broken-symmetry entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Kral, Petr; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2005-08-15

    We show that entangled radiation-matter states with broken symmetries can be prepared by using nonclassical light in the coherent control techniques. We demonstrate the method by realizing the entanglement in degenerate continuum electronic momentum states of opposite directionality and discrete states of opposite handedness in chiral molecules. When the material system is excited simultaneously by classical light and quantum light in a state with several semiclassical phases, the interference conditions guide the system to such entangled radiation-matter states.

  18. Entanglement entropy from one-point functions in holographic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Matthew J. S.; Lee, Jaehoon; Rabideau, Charles; Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2016-06-01

    For holographic CFT states near the vacuum, entanglement entropies for spatial subsystems can be expressed perturbatively as an expansion in the one-point functions of local operators dual to light bulk fields. Using the connection between quantum Fisher information for CFT states and canonical energy for the dual spacetimes, we describe a general formula for this expansion up to second-order in the one-point functions, for an arbitrary ball-shaped region, extending the first-order result given by the entanglement first law. For two-dimensional CFTs, we use this to derive a completely explicit formula for the second-order contribution to the entanglement entropy from the stress tensor. We show that this stress tensor formula can be reproduced by a direct CFT calculation for states related to the vacuum by a local conformal transformation. This result can also be reproduced via the perturbative solution to a non-linear scalar wave equation on an auxiliary de Sitter spacetime, extending the first-order result in arXiv:1509.00113.

  19. Three-party remote state preparation schemes based on entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan-Run; Cheng, Hu-Lai; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Gong, Li-Hua

    2013-11-01

    By exploiting the entanglement correlation in quantum mechanics, two three-party remote state preparation (RSP) schemes are proposed. One is three-party remote preparation of a single-particle quantum state, and the other is three-party remote preparation of a two-particle entangled state. In the proposed schemes, the sender Alice knows the quantum states to be prepared, while the receivers Bob and Charlie do not know the quantum states; Alice performs measurement and unitary operations on her own particles with two three-particle GHZ states as the quantum channel. According to Alice's measurement results, Bob and Charlie measure their own particles on the corresponding quantum measurement bases and perform unitary operations on the corresponding particles to reconstruct the quantum states, respectively. Compared with multiparty joint remote preparation and two-party RSP of a quantum state, the proposed schemes realize quantum multicast communication successfully, which enables Bob and Charlie to obtain the prepared quantum states simultaneously in the case of just knowing Alice's measurement results, while Bob and Charlie do not know each other's prepared quantum states. It is shown that only three classical bits are required for the two proposed RSP schemes when Bob and Alice introduce an auxiliary particle, respectively, and the proposed schemes are secure after the quantum channel authentication.

  20. Quantum nonlocality of four-qubit entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chunfeng; Yeo, Ye; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.

    2007-03-15

    We derive a Bell inequality for testing violation of local realism. Quantum nonlocality of several four-qubit states is investigated. These include the Greenberger-Zeilinger-Horne (GHZ) state, W state, linear cluster state, and the state |{chi}> that has recently been proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)]. The Bell inequality is optimally violated by |{chi}> but not violated by the GHZ state. The linear cluster state also violates the Bell inequality though not optimally. The state |{chi}> can thus be discriminated from the linear cluster state by using the inequality. Different aspects of four-partite entanglement are also studied by considering the usefulness of a family of four-qubit mixed states as resources for two-qubit teleportation. Our results generalize those in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 797 (1994)].

  1. Quantum state of wormholes and path integral

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, L.J. )

    1991-08-15

    The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface {ital S} which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The ground-state wave function is picked out by requiring that there be no matter excitations in the asymptotic region. Once the path integrals over the lapse and shift functions are evaluated, the requirement that the spacetime be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is claimed that no wave function exists which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. The wormhole wave functions are worked out in minisuperspace models with massless minimal and conformal scalar fields.

  2. Discrimination strategies for inequivalent classes of multipartite entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried

    2010-08-15

    How can one discriminate different inequivalent classes of multiparticle entanglement experimentally? We present an approach for the discrimination of an experimentally prepared state from the equivalence class of another state. We consider two possible measures for the discrimination strength of an observable. The first measure is based on the difference of expectation values, the second on the relative entropy of the probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The interpretation of these measures and their usefulness for experiments with limited resources are discussed. In the case of graph states, the stabilizer formalism is employed to compute these quantities and to find sets of observables that result in the most decisive discrimination.

  3. Quantum entanglement in states generated by bilocal group algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Hamma, Alioscia; Ionicioiu, Radu; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-07-15

    Given a finite group G with a bilocal representation, we investigate the bipartite entanglement in the state constructed from the group algebra of G acting on a separable reference state. We find an upper bound for the von Neumann entropy for a bipartition (A,B) of a quantum system and conditions to saturate it. We show that these states can be interpreted as ground states of generic Hamiltonians or as the physical states in a quantum gauge theory and that under specific conditions their geometric entropy satisfies the entropic area law. If G is a group of spin flips acting on a set of qubits, these states are locally equivalent to 2-colorable (i.e., bipartite) graph states and they include Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, cluster states, etc. Examples include an application to qudits and a calculation of the n-tangle for 2-colorable graph states.

  4. Multiphoton-state-assisted entanglement purification of material qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernád, József Zsolt; Torres, Juan Mauricio; Kunz, Ludwig; Alber, Gernot

    2016-03-01

    We propose an entanglement purification scheme based on material qubits and ancillary coherent multiphoton states. We consider a typical QED scenario where material qubits implemented by two-level atoms fly sequentially through a cavity and interact resonantly with a single mode of the radiation field. We explore the theoretical possibilities of realizing a high-fidelity two-qubit quantum operation necessary for the purification protocol with the help of a postselective balanced homodyne photodetection. We demonstrate that the obtained probabilistic quantum operation can be used as a bilateral operation in the proposed purification scheme. It is shown that the probabilistic nature of this quantum operation is counterbalanced in the last step of the scheme where qubits are not discarded after inadequate qubit measurements. As this protocol requires present-day experimental setups and generates high-fidelity entangled pairs with high repetition rates, it may offer interesting perspectives for applications in quantum information theory.

  5. Bidirectional quantum teleportation of unknown photons using path-polarization intra-particle hybrid entanglement and controlled-unitary gates via cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jino; Hong, Chang-Ho; Lim, Jong-In; Yang, Hyung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    We propose an arbitrary controlled-unitary (CU) gate and a bidirectional quantum teleportation (BQTP) scheme. The proposed CU gate utilizes photonic qubits (photons) with cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs), X-homodyne detectors, and linear optical elements, and consists of the consecutive operation of a controlled-path (C-path) gate and a gathering-path (G-path) gate. It is almost deterministic and feasible with current technology when a strong coherent state and weak XKNLs are employed. Based on the CU gate, we present a BQTP scheme that simultaneously teleports two unknown photons between distant users by transmitting only one photon in a path-polarization intra-particle hybrid entangled state. Consequently, it is possible to experimentally implement BQTP with a certain success probability using the proposed CU gate. Project supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning, Korea, under the C-ITRC (Convergence Information Technology Research Center) Support program (NIPA-2013-H0301-13-3007) supervised by the National IT Industry Promotion Agency.

  6. Schemes for Teleportation of an Unknown Single-Qubit Quantum State by Using an Arbitrary High-Dimensional Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, You-Bang; Zhang, Qun-Yong; Wang, Yu-Wu; Ma, Peng-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown single-qubit state by using a high-dimensional entangled state as the quantum channel. As a special case, a scheme for teleportation of an unknown single-qubit state via three-dimensional entangled state is investigated in detail. Also, this scheme can be directly generalized to an unknown f-dimensional state by using a d-dimensional entangled state (d > f) as the quantum channel.

  7. Quantifying micro-macro entanglement of a single-photon entangled state by virtue of Wigner function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Qin-Miao; Dou, Xiao-Ming

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, using Wigner function (WF) method in phase space, we re-investigate micro-macro entanglement of a single-photon entangled state after one-sided amplification and de-amplification proposed by Simon’s group, and discuss the effects of the amplification and the loss. For the input-output process, we first build the relation between the input WF and the output WF. Next, the analytical expression of the output WF is derived related to the factors of the amplification and the loss. Finally, based on the above results, using the trace rule we also obtain the exact expressions of the detected probability and concurrence to quantify micro-macro entanglement, and analyze numerically the results. The results show that it is possible to detect micro-macro photon-number entanglement for reasonable values of photon loss.

  8. Shortest multiple disconnected path for the analysis of entanglements in two- and three-dimensional polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the

  9. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as an agent to free the bound entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kapil K.; Pandey, S. N.

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the efficacy of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction to convert the bound entangled states into free entangled states. We consider the tripartite hybrid system as a pair of non interacting two qutrits initially prepared in bound entangled states and one auxiliary qubit. Here, we consider two types of bound entangled states investigated by Horodecki. The auxiliary qubit interacts with any one of the qutrit of the pair through DM interaction. We show that by tuning the probability amplitude of auxiliary qubit and DM interaction strength, one can free the bound entangled states, which can be further distilled. We use the reduction criterion to find the range of the parameters of probability amplitude of auxiliary qubit and DM interaction strength, for which the states are distillable. The realignment criterion and negativity have been used for detection and quantification of entanglement.

  10. Entanglement as a resource for local state discrimination in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Halder, Saronath; Nathanson, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We explore the question of using an entangled state as a universal resource for implementing quantum measurements by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that for most systems consisting of three or more subsystems, there is no entangled state from the same space that can enable all measurements by LOCC. This is in direct contrast to the bipartite case, where a maximally entangled state is a universal resource. Our results are obtained showing an equivalence between the problem of local state transformation and that of entanglement-assisted local unambiguous state discrimination.

  11. Multiparticle entanglement in graph-diagonal states: Necessary and sufficient conditions for four qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Guehne, Otfried; Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of genuine multiparticle entanglement is important for entanglement theory as well as experimental studies related to quantum-information theory. Here, we completely characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement for four-qubit states diagonal in the cluster-state basis. In addition, we give a complete characterization of multiparticle entanglement for all five-qubit graph states mixed with white noise, for states diagonal in the basis corresponding to the five-qubit Y-shaped graph, and for a family of graph states with an arbitrary number of qubits.

  12. Strong monogamy of multiparty quantum entanglement for partially coherently superposed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2016-03-01

    We provide evidence for the validity of strong monogamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement using the square of convex-roof extended negativity (SCREN). We first consider a large class of multiqudit mixed states that are in a partially coherent superposition of a generalized W -class state and the vacuum, and provide some useful properties about this class of states. We show that monogamy inequality of multiqudit entanglement in terms of SCREN holds for this class of states. We further show that SCREN strong monogamy inequality of multiqudit entanglement also holds for this class of states. Thus SCREN is a good alternative for characterizing the monogamous and strongly monogamous properties of multiqudit entanglement.

  13. Faithful test of nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok; Paternostro, Mauro

    2011-02-15

    We investigate the violation of Leggett's inequality for nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states and various types of local measurements. We prove mathematically the relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality and Leggett's one when tested by the same resources. For Leggett inequalities, we generalize the nonlocal realistic bound to systems in Hilbert spaces larger than bidimensional ones and introduce an optimization technique that allows one to achieve larger degrees of violation by adjusting the local measurement settings. Our work describes the steps that should be performed to produce a self-consistent generalization of Leggett's original arguments to continuous-variable states.

  14. An Upper Bound of Fully Entangled Fraction of Mixed States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Fen; Jing, Nai-Huan; Zhang, Ting-Gui

    2016-06-01

    We study the fully entangled fraction of a quantum state. An upper bound is obtained for arbitrary bipartite system. This upper bound only depends on the Frobenius norm of the state. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11401032, 11501153, 11271138, and 11531004; the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province under Grant Nos. 20151010, 114006 and 20161006; and the Scientific Research Foundation for Colleges of Hainan Province under Grant No. Hnky2015-18 and Simons Foundation under Grant No. 198129

  15. Deterministic creation of stationary entangled states by dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, A. F.; Ficek, Z.

    2010-11-15

    We propose a practical physical system for creation of stationary entanglement by dissipation without employing environmental engineering techniques. The system proposed is composed of two perfectly distinguishable atoms, through their significantly different transition frequencies, with only one atom addressed by an external laser field. We show that the arrangement would easily be realized in practice by trapping the atoms at a distance equal to the quarter-wavelength of a standing-wave laser field and locating one of the atoms at a node and the other at the successive antinode of the wave. The undesirable dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms, which could be large at this small distance, is adjusted to zero by a specific initial preparation of the atoms or by a specific polarization of the atomic dipole moments. Following this arrangement, we show that the dissipative relaxation can create a stationary entanglement on demand by tuning the Rabi frequency of the laser field to the difference between the atomic transition frequencies. The laser field dresses the atom and we identify that the entangled state occurs when the frequency of one of the Rabi sidebands of the driven atom tunes to the frequency of the undriven atom. It is also found that this system behaves as a cascade open system where the fluorescence from the dressed atom drives the other atom with no feedback.

  16. Entangled states of two quantum dots mediated by Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-02-01

    With the assistance of a pair of Majorana fermions, we propose schemes to entangle two quantum dots by Lyapunov control in the charge and spin degrees of freedom. Four different schemes are considered, i.e., the teleportation scheme, the crossed Andreev reflection scheme, the intradot spin flip scheme, and the scheme beyond the intradot spin flip. We demonstrate that the entanglement can be generated by modulating the chemical potential of quantum dots with square pulses, which is easily realized in practice. In contrast to Lyapunov control, the preparation of entangled states by adiabatic passage is also discussed. There are two advantages in the scheme by Lyapunov control, i.e., it is flexible to choose a control Hamiltonian, and the control time is much shorter with respect to the scheme by adiabatic passage. Furthermore, we find that the results are quite different by different adiabatic passages in the scheme beyond the intradot spin flip, which can be understood as an effect of quantum destructive interference.

  17. Bound entangled states with a private key and their classical counterpart.

    PubMed

    Ozols, Maris; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2014-03-21

    Entanglement is a fundamental resource for quantum information processing. In its pure form, it allows quantum teleportation and sharing classical secrets. Realistic quantum states are noisy and their usefulness is only partially understood. Bound-entangled states are central to this question--they have no distillable entanglement, yet sometimes still have a private classical key. We present a construction of bound-entangled states with a private key based on classical probability distributions. From this emerge states possessing a new classical analogue of bound entanglement, distinct from the long-sought bound information. We also find states of smaller dimensions and higher key rates than previously known. Our construction has implications for classical cryptography: we show that existing protocols are insufficient for extracting private key from our distributions due to their "bound-entangled" nature. We propose a simple extension of existing protocols that can extract a key from them. PMID:24702340

  18. Witnessing trustworthy single-photon entanglement with local homodyne measurements.

    PubMed

    Morin, Olivier; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Ho, Melvyn; Sekatski, Pavel; D'Auria, Virginia; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2013-03-29

    Single-photon entangled states, i.e., states describing two optical paths sharing a single photon, constitute the simplest form of entanglement. Yet they provide a valuable resource in quantum information science. Specifically, they lie at the heart of quantum networks, as they can be used for quantum teleportation, swapped, and purified with linear optics. The main drawback of such entanglement is the difficulty in measuring it. Here, we present and experimentally test an entanglement witness allowing one to say whether a given state is path entangled and also that entanglement lies in the subspace, where the optical paths are each filled with one photon at most, i.e., refers to single-photon entanglement. It uses local homodyning only and relies on no assumption about the Hilbert space dimension of the measured system. Our work provides a simple and trustworthy method for verifying the proper functioning of future quantum networks. PMID:23581297

  19. Quantum Entanglement and the Topological Order of Fractional Hall States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezayi, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Fractional quantum Hall states or, more generally, topological phases of matter defy Landau classification based on order parameter and broken symmetry. Instead they have been characterized by their topological order. Quantum information concepts, such as quantum entanglement, appear to provide the most efficient method of detecting topological order solely from the knowledge of the ground state wave function. This talk will focus on real-space bi-partitioning of quantum Hall states and will present both exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo studies of topological entanglement entropy in various geometries. Results on the torus for non-contractible cuts are quite rich and, through the use of minimum entropy states, yield the modular S-matrix and hence uniquely determine the topological order, as shown in recent literature. Concrete examples of minimum entropy states from known quantum Hall wave functions and their corresponding quantum numbers, used in exact diagonalizations, will be given. In collaboration with Clare Abreu and Raul Herrera. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0002140.

  20. Diagonal unitary entangling gates and contradiagonal quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayan, Arul; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-09-01

    Nonlocal properties of an ensemble of diagonal random unitary matrices of order N2 are investigated. The average Schmidt strength of such a bipartite diagonal quantum gate is shown to scale as lnN, in contrast to the lnN2 behavior characteristic of random unitary gates. Entangling power of a diagonal gate U is related to the von Neumann entropy of an auxiliary quantum state ρ =AA†/N2, where the square matrix A is obtained by reshaping the vector of diagonal elements of U of length N2 into a square matrix of order N. This fact provides a motivation to study the ensemble of non-Hermitian unimodular matrices A, with all entries of the same modulus and random phases and the ensemble of quantum states ρ, such that all their diagonal entries are equal to 1/N. Such a state is contradiagonal with respect to the computational basis, in the sense that among all unitary equivalent states it maximizes the entropy copied to the environment due to the coarse-graining process. The first four moments of the squared singular values of the unimodular ensemble are derived, based on which we conjecture a connection to a recently studied combinatorial object called the "Borel triangle." This allows us to find exactly the mean von Neumann entropy for random phase density matrices and the average entanglement for the corresponding ensemble of bipartite pure states.

  1. Entanglement of Multi-qudit States Constructed by Linearly Independent Coherent States: Balanced Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarbashi, G.; Mirzaei, S.

    2016-03-01

    Multi-mode entangled coherent states are important resources for linear optics quantum computation and teleportation. Here we introduce the generalized balanced N-mode coherent states which recast in the multi-qudit case. The necessary and sufficient condition for bi-separability of such balanced N-mode coherent states is found. We particularly focus on pure and mixed multi-qubit and multi-qutrit like states and examine the degree of bipartite as well as tripartite entanglement using the concurrence measure. Unlike the N-qubit case, it is shown that there are qutrit states violating monogamy inequality. Using parity, displacement operator and beam splitters, we will propose a scheme for generating balanced N-mode entangled coherent states for even number of terms in superposition.

  2. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-04-01

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.

  3. Entanglement spectrum and boundary theories with projected entangled-pair states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirac, J. Ignacio; Poilblanc, Didier; Schuch, Norbert; Verstraete, Frank

    2011-06-01

    In many physical scenarios, close relations between the bulk properties of quantum systems and theories associated with their boundaries have been observed. In this work, we provide an exact duality mapping between the bulk of a quantum spin system and its boundary using projected entangled-pair states. This duality associates to every region a Hamiltonian on its boundary, in such a way that the entanglement spectrum of the bulk corresponds to the excitation spectrum of the boundary Hamiltonian. We study various specific models: a deformed AKLT model [I. Affleck, T. Kennedy, E. H. Lieb, and H. Tasaki, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.59.799 59, 799 (1987)], an Ising-type model [F. Verstraete, M. M. Wolf, D. Perez-Garcia, and J. I. Cirac, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.96.220601 96, 220601 (2006)], and Kitaev’s toric code [A. Kitaev, Ann. Phys.APNYA60003-491610.1016/S0003-4916(02)00018-0 303, 2 (2003)], both in finite ladders and in infinite square lattices. In the second case, some of those models display quantum phase transitions. We find that a gapped bulk phase with local order corresponds to a boundary Hamiltonian with local interactions, whereas critical behavior in the bulk is reflected on a diverging interaction length of the boundary Hamiltonian. Furthermore, topologically ordered states yield nonlocal Hamiltonians. Because our duality also associates a boundary operator to any operator in the bulk, it in fact provides a full holographic framework for the study of quantum many-body systems via their boundary.

  4. Considerations on gravity as an entropic force and entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; Neto, Jorge Ananias

    2013-12-01

    Verlinde's ideas considered gravity as an emergent force originated from entropic concepts. This hypothesis generated a huge number of papers through the last recent years concerning classical and quantum approaches about the issue. In a recent paper Kobakhidze, using ultra-cold neutrons experiment, claimed that Verlinde's entropic gravity is not correct. In this Letter, by considering the Tsallis nonadditivity entropy concerning the holographic screen, where we assumed that the bits are entangled states, we showed that it is possible to confirm Verlinde's formalism.

  5. Chiral projected entangled-pair state with topological order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuo; Wahl, Thorsten; Tu, Hong-Hao; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    We show that projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) can describe chiral topologically ordered phases. For that, we construct a simple PEPS for spin-1/2 particles in a two-dimensional lattice. We reveal a symmetry in the local projector of the PEPS that gives rise to the global topological character. We also extract characteristic quantities of the edge conformal field theory using the bulk-boundary correspondence. EU projects SIQS and QALGO, the Alexander von Humboldt foundation, the Government of Canada through Industry Canada, and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development & Innovation.

  6. Teleportation of entangled states without Bell-state measurement via a two-photon process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dSouza, A. D.; Cardoso, W. B.; Avelar, A. T.; Baseia, B.

    2011-02-01

    In this letter we propose a scheme using a two-photon process to teleport an entangled field state of a bimodal cavity to another one without Bell-state measurement. The quantum information is stored in a zero- and two-photon entangled state. This scheme requires two three-level atoms in a ladder configuration, two bimodal cavities, and selective atomic detectors. The fidelity and success probability do not depend on the coefficients of the state to be teleported. For convenient choices of interaction times, the teleportation occurs with fidelity close to the unity.

  7. Teleportation with insurance of an entangled atomic state via cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chimczak, Grzegorz; Tanas, Ryszard; Miranowicz, Adam

    2005-03-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport an entangled state of two {lambda}-type three-level atoms via photons. The teleportation protocol involves the local redundant encoding protecting the initial entangled state and allowing for repeating the detection until quantum information transfer is successful. We also show how to manipulate a state of many {lambda}-type atoms trapped in a cavity.

  8. Entanglement of three-qubit pure states in terms of teleportation capability

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soojoon; Joo, Jaewoo; Kim, Jaewan

    2005-08-15

    We define an entanglement measure, called the partial tangle, which represents the residual two-qubit entanglement of a three-qubit pure state. By its explicit calculations for three-qubit pure states, we show that the partial tangle is closely related to the faithfulness of a teleportation scheme over a three-qubit pure state.

  9. Studying the thermally entangled state of a three-qubit Heisenberg XX ring via quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Ye

    2003-08-01

    We consider quantum teleportation as a tool to investigate the thermally entangled state of a three-qubit Heisenberg XX ring. Our investigation reveals interesting aspects of quantum entanglement not reflected by the pairwise thermal concurrence of the state. In particular, two mixtures of different pairs of W states, which result in the same concurrence, could yield very different average teleportation fidelities.

  10. Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Asjad, Muhammad; Saif, Farhan

    2011-09-15

    We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.

  11. Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by three metres.

    PubMed

    Bernien, H; Hensen, B; Pfaff, W; Koolstra, G; Blok, M S; Robledo, L; Taminiau, T H; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Childress, L; Hanson, R

    2013-05-01

    Quantum entanglement between spatially separated objects is one of the most intriguing phenomena in physics. The outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects show correlations that cannot be explained by classical physics. As well as being of fundamental interest, entanglement is a unique resource for quantum information processing and communication. Entangled quantum bits (qubits) can be used to share private information or implement quantum logical gates. Such capabilities are particularly useful when the entangled qubits are spatially separated, providing the opportunity to create highly connected quantum networks or extend quantum cryptography to long distances. Here we report entanglement of two electron spin qubits in diamond with a spatial separation of three metres. We establish this entanglement using a robust protocol based on creation of spin-photon entanglement at each location and a subsequent joint measurement of the photons. Detection of the photons heralds the projection of the spin qubits onto an entangled state. We verify the resulting non-local quantum correlations by performing single-shot readout on the qubits in different bases. The long-distance entanglement reported here can be combined with recently achieved initialization, readout and entanglement operations on local long-lived nuclear spin registers, paving the way for deterministic long-distance teleportation, quantum repeaters and extended quantum networks. PMID:23615617

  12. Entanglement in Fock space of random QFT states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magán, Javier M.; Vandoren, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Entanglement in random states has turned into a useful approach to quantum thermalization and black hole physics. In this article, we refine and extend the `random unitaries framework' to quantum field theories (QFT), and to include conserved charges. We show that in QFT, the connection between typical states, reduced subsystems and thermal dynamics is more transparent within the Fock basis. We provide generic formulae for the typical reduced density matrices and entanglement entropies of any given subset of particles. To illustrate our methods, we apply the generic framework to the simplest but non trivial cases, a massless scalar field in two dimensions and its generalization to the case of N scalar fields, including the large N limit. We find the effective temperature, by matching the reduced dynamics to a Gibbs ensemble, and derive the equation of state of the QFT. The deviations from perfect thermality are shown to be of order 1 /S instead of exp(- S), a result which might be relevant for black hole physics. Finally we describe the analogue of the so-called `Page curve' in the QFT scenario as a function of the energy scale which divides high from low energy degrees of freedom.

  13. Smallest state spaces for which bipartite entangled quantum states are separable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Oliver; Virmani, Shashank

    2015-09-01

    According to usual definitions, entangled states cannot be given a separable decomposition in terms of products of local density operators. If we relax the requirement that the local operators be positive, then an entangled quantum state may admit a separable decomposition in terms of more general sets of single-system operators. This form of separability can be used to construct classical models and simulation methods when only a restricted set of measurements is available. With these motivations in mind, we ask what are the smallest sets of local operators such that a pure bipartite entangled quantum state becomes separable? We find that in the case of maximally entangled states there are many inequivalent solutions, including for example the sets of phase point operators that arise in the study of discrete Wigner functions. We therefore provide a new way of interpreting these operators, and more generally, provide an alternative method for constructing local hidden variable models for entangled quantum states under subsets of quantum measurements.

  14. Entanglement and Teleportation via Thermally Entangled State of Anisotropic Heisenberg XYZ Chain with Inhomogeneous External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Hui-Ying; Fang, Jian-Xing; Zhu, Shi-Qun; Sha, Jin-Qiao; Jiang, Wei-Xing

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we study the entanglement in a two-qubit spin in the XYZ model, and teleport a two-qubit entangled state using this spin chain in the condition of the thermal equilibrium as a quantum channel. We investigate the effects of the interaction of z-component JZ, the inhomogeneous magnetic field b, the anisotropy γ, and the temperature T on the entanglement and fidelity. In order to characterize the quality of the teleported state, we research the average fidelity Fa. High average fidelity of the teleportation is obtained when the temperat ure is very low. Under some condition, we also find that when inhomogeneity increases to a certain value, the average fidelity can exhibit a larger revival than that for less values of b.

  15. Variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corboz, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme to perform an iterative variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states, a tensor network ansatz for a two-dimensional wave function in the thermodynamic limit, to compute the ground state of a local Hamiltonian. The method is based on a systematic summation of Hamiltonian contributions using the corner-transfer-matrix method. Benchmark results for challenging problems are presented, including the two-dimensional Heisenberg model, the Shastry-Sutherland model, and the t -J model, which show that the variational scheme yields considerably more accurate results than the previously best imaginary-time evolution algorithm, with a similar computational cost and with a faster convergence towards the ground state.

  16. Grothendieck's constant and local models for noisy entangled quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Toner, Benjamin

    2006-06-15

    We relate the nonlocal properties of noisy entangled states to Grothendieck's constant, a mathematical constant appearing in Banach space theory. For two-qubit Werner states {rho}{sub p}{sup W}=p|{psi}{sup -}><{psi}{sup -}|+(1-p)1/4, we show that there is a local model for projective measurements if and only if p{<=}1/K{sub G}(3), where K{sub G}(3) is Grothendieck's constant of order 3. Known bounds on K{sub G}(3) prove the existence of this model at least for p < or approx. 0.66, quite close to the current region of Bell violation, p{approx}0.71. We generalize this result to arbitrary quantum states.

  17. Deterministic transformations of multipartite entangled states with tensor rank 2

    SciTech Connect

    Turgut, S.; Guel, Y.; Pak, N. K.

    2010-01-15

    Transformations involving only local operations assisted with classical communication are investigated for multipartite entangled pure states having tensor rank 2. All necessary and sufficient conditions for the possibility of deterministically converting truly multipartite, rank-2 states into each other are given. Furthermore, a chain of local operations that successfully achieves the transformation has been identified for all allowed transformations. The identified chains have two nice features: (1) each party needs to carry out at most one local operation and (2) all of these local operations are also deterministic transformations by themselves. Finally, it is found that there are disjoint classes of states, all of which can be identified by a single real parameter, which remain invariant under deterministic transformations.

  18. Entanglement and communication-reducing properties of noisy N-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Laskowski, Wieslaw; Paterek, Tomasz; Brukner, Caslav; Zukowski, Marek

    2010-04-15

    We consider properties of states of many qubits, which arise after sending certain entangled states via various noisy channels (white noise, colored noise, local depolarization, dephasing, and amplitude damping). Entanglement of these states and their ability to violate certain classes of Bell inequalities are studied. States which violate them allow a higher than classical efficiency in solving related distributed computational tasks with constrained communication. This is a direct property of such states--not requiring their further modification via stochastic local operations and classical communication such as entanglement purification or distillation procedures. We identify families of multiparticle states which are entangled but nevertheless allow the local realistic description of specific Bell experiments. For some of them, the 'gap' between the critical values for entanglement and violation of Bell inequality remains finite even in the limit of infinitely many qubits.

  19. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman Kundu Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.

  20. Bosonic short-range entangled states beyond group cohomology classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cenke; You, Yi-Zhuang

    2015-02-01

    We explore and construct a class of bosonic short-range entangled (BSRE) states in all 4 k +2 spatial dimensions, which are higher dimensional generalizations of the well-known Kitaev's E8 state in 2 d [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 321, 2 (2006), 10.1016/j.aop.2005.10.005; http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/topomat11/kitaev]. These BSRE states share the following properties: (1) their bulk is fully gapped and nondegenerate; (2) their (4 k +1 )d boundary is described by a "self-dual" rank-2 k antisymmetric tensor gauge field, and it is guaranteed to be gapless without assuming any symmetry; (3) their (4 k +1 )d boundary has intrinsic gravitational anomaly once coupled to the gravitational field; (4) their bulk is described by an effective Chern-Simons field theory with rank-(2 k +1 ) antisymmetric tensor fields, whose KI J matrix is identical to that of the E8 state in 2 d ; (5) the existence of these BSRE states leads to various bosonic symmetry protected topological (BSPT) states as their descendants in other dimensions; (6) these BSRE states can be constructed by confining fermionic degrees of freedom from eight copies of (4 k +2 )d SRE states with fermionic 2 k -branes ; (7) after compactifying the (4 k +2 )d BSRE state on a closed 4 k dimensional manifold, depending on the topology of the compact 4 k manifold, the system could reduce to nontrivial 2 d BSRE states.

  1. A scheme for approximate conditional teleportation of entangled two-mode cavity state without Bell state measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhi-Rong

    2008-05-01

    An alternative scheme to approximately conditionally teleport entangled two-mode cavity state without Bell state measurement in cavity QED is proposed. The scheme is based on the resonant interaction of a ladder-type three-level atom with two bimodal cavities. The entangled cavity state is reconstructed with only one atom interacting with the two cavities successively.

  2. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-15

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  3. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  4. Classical Communication Help and Probabilistic Teleportation with One-Dimensional Non-maximally Entangled Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan

    2008-06-01

    We present an explicit protocol for probabilistic teleport an arbitrary and unknown two-qubit entangled state via a one-dimensional four-particle non-maximally entangled cluster state. By construction, our four-partite state is not reducible to a pair of Bell states. We show that teleportation can be successfully realized with a certain probability. This protocol indicate that the four-qubit state is a likely candidate for the genuine four-particle analogue to a Bell state.

  5. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-06-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.

  6. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits. PMID:27245775

  7. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits. PMID:27245775

  8. Entangled ions in thermal motion

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, Anders; Moelmer, Klaus

    1999-03-11

    We propose a method to entangle the internal states of traped ions via virtual vibrational excitations. Transition paths involving unpopulated, vibrational states interfere destructively to eliminate the dependence of rates and revolution frequencies on vibrational quantum numbers, and our procedure is insensitive to the initial vibrational quantum state and to changes in the vibrational state occuring during operation.

  9. Entangled Biphoton Virtual-State Spectroscopy of the A(exp 2)Sigma(+) - X(exp 2)Pi System of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2004-01-01

    This Letter describes the first application of entanglement-induced virtual-state spectroscopy to a molecular system. Non-classical, non-monotonic behavior in a two-photon absorption cross section of the OH A-X system, induced by an entangled biphoton state is theoretically demonstrated. A Fourier transform analysis of the biphoton cross section permits access to the energy eigenvalues of intermediate rovibronic states with a fixed excitation photon energy. The dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time T(sub e), and the relative path delay tau(sub e) is discussed. Our analysis reveals that the implementation of molecular virtual-state spectroscopy for the OH A-X system requires the tuning of tau(sub e) over a pico-second range with femto-second resolution.

  10. Entangled Biphoton Virtual-State Spectroscopy of the A(exp 2)Sigma(sup +)-X(exp 2)Pi System of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2004-01-01

    This Letter describes the first application of entanglement-induced virtual-state spectroscopy to a molecular system. Non-classical, non-monotonic behavior in a two-photon absorption cross section of the OH A-X system, induced by an entangled biphoton state is theoretically demonstrated. A Fourier transform analysis of the biphoton cross section permits access to the energy eigenvalues of intermediate rovibronic states with a fixed excitation photon energy. The dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time (T(sub e)) and the relative path delay (tau(sub e)) is discussed. Our analysis reveals that the implementation of molecular virtual-state spectroscopy for the OH A-X system requires the tuning of tau(sub e) over a pico-second range with femto-second resolution.

  11. Entangled microwaves as a resource for entangling spatially separate solid-state qubits: Superconducting qubits, nitrogen-vacancy centers, and magnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Angela Viviana; Rodríguez, Ferney Javier; Quiroga, Luis; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2016-06-01

    Quantum correlations present in a broadband two-line squeezed microwave state can induce entanglement in a spatially separated bipartite system consisting of either two single qubits or two-qubit ensembles. By using an appropriate master equation for a bipartite quantum system in contact with two separate but entangled baths, the generating entanglement process in spatially separated quantum systems is thoroughly characterized. Decoherence thermal effects on the entanglement transfer are also discussed. Our results provide evidence that this entanglement transfer by dissipation is feasible, yielding to a steady-state amount of entanglement in the bipartite quantum system which can be optimized for a wide range of realistic physical systems that include state-of-the-art experiments with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, superconducting qubits, or even magnetic molecules embedded in a crystalline matrix.

  12. Entangling qubit registers via many-body states of ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melko, R. G.; Herdman, C. M.; Iouchtchenko, D.; Roy, P.-N.; Del Maestro, A.

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the experimental measurement of the Rényi entanglement entropy in a lattice of ultracold atoms by Islam et al. [Nature (London) 528, 77 (2015), 10.1038/nature15750], we propose a method to entangle two spatially separated qubits using the quantum many-body state as a resource. Through local operations accessible in an experiment, entanglement is transferred to a qubit register from atoms at the ends of a one-dimensional chain. We compute the operational entanglement, which bounds the entanglement physically transferable from the many-body resource to the register, and discuss a protocol for its experimental measurement. Finally, we explore measures for the amount of entanglement available in the register after transfer, suitable for use in quantum information applications.

  13. Generation and entanglement concentration for electron-spin entangled cluster states using charged quantum dots in optical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Zheng, Chun-Hong; Shi, Peng; Ren, Chun-Nian; Gu, Yong-Jian

    2014-07-01

    We present schemes for deterministically generating multi-qubit electron-spin entangled cluster states by the giant circular birefringence, induced by the interface between the spin of a photon and the spin of an electron confined in a quantum dot embedded in a double-sided microcavity. Based on this interface, we construct the controlled phase flip (CPF) gate deterministically which is performed on electron-spin qubits and is the essential component of the cluster-state generation. As one of the universal gates, the CPF gate constructed can also be utilized in achieving scalable quantum computing. Besides, we propose the entanglement concentration protocol to reconstruct a partially entangled cluster state into a maximally entangled one, resorting to the projection measurement on an ancillary photon. By iterating the concentration scheme several times, the maximum success probability can be achieved. The fidelities and experimental feasibilities are analyzed with respect to currently available techniques, indicating that our schemes can work well in both the strong and weak (Purcell) coupling regimes.

  14. Quantum correlations of helicity entangled states in non-inertial frames beyond single mode approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Harsij, Zeynab Mirza, Behrouz

    2014-12-15

    A helicity entangled tripartite state is considered in which the degree of entanglement is preserved in non-inertial frames. It is shown that Quantum Entanglement remains observer independent. As another measure of quantum correlation, Quantum Discord has been investigated. It is explicitly shown that acceleration has no effect on the degree of quantum correlation for the bipartite and tripartite helicity entangled states. Geometric Quantum Discord as a Hilbert–Schmidt distance is computed for helicity entangled states. It is shown that living in non-inertial frames does not make any influence on this distance, either. In addition, the analysis has been extended beyond single mode approximation to show that acceleration does not have any impact on the quantum features in the limit beyond the single mode. As an interesting result, while the density matrix depends on the right and left Unruh modes, the Negativity as a measure of Quantum Entanglement remains constant. Also, Quantum Discord does not change beyond single mode approximation. - Highlights: • The helicity entangled states here are observer independent in non-inertial frames. • It is explicitly shown that Quantum Discord for these states is observer independent. • Geometric Quantum Discord is also not affected by acceleration increase. • Extending to beyond single mode does not change the degree of entanglement. • Beyond single mode approximation the degree of Quantum Discord is also preserved.

  15. Sudden birth versus sudden death of entanglement for the extended Werner-like state in a dissipative environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Chuan-Jia; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ji-Bing; Cheng, Wei-Wen; Liu, Tang-Kun; Huang, Yan-Xia; Li, Hong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviour of entanglement in terms of concurrence in a bipartite system subjected to an external magnetic field under the action of dissipative environments in the extended Werner-like initial state. The interesting phenomenon of entanglement sudden death as well as sudden birth appears during the evolution process. We analyse in detail the effect of the purity of the initial entangled state of two qubits via Heisenberg XY interaction on the apparition time of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth. Furthermore, the conditions on the conversion of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth can be generalized when the initial entangled state is not pure. In particular, a critical purity of the initial mixed entangled state exists, above which entanglement sudden birth vanishes while entanglement sudden death appears. It is also noticed that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits (pure or mixed state), occurs even in the presence of decoherence. These results arising from the combination of the extended Werner-like initial state and dissipative environments suggest an approach to control and enhance the entanglement even after purity induced sudden birth, death and revival.

  16. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing-Wu; Zhao, Guan-Xiang; He, Xiong-Hui

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4>1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  17. Quantum metrology. Fisher information and entanglement of non-Gaussian spin states.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Helmut; Muessel, Wolfgang; Linnemann, Daniel; Zibold, Tilman; Hume, David B; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto; Oberthaler, Markus K

    2014-07-25

    Entanglement is the key quantum resource for improving measurement sensitivity beyond classical limits. However, the production of entanglement in mesoscopic atomic systems has been limited to squeezed states, described by Gaussian statistics. Here, we report on the creation and characterization of non-Gaussian many-body entangled states. We develop a general method to extract the Fisher information, which reveals that the quantum dynamics of a classically unstable system creates quantum states that are not spin squeezed but nevertheless entangled. The extracted Fisher information quantifies metrologically useful entanglement, which we confirm by Bayesian phase estimation with sub-shot-noise sensitivity. These methods are scalable to large particle numbers and applicable directly to other quantum systems. PMID:25061206

  18. Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo

    2010-03-15

    Entanglement purification is a very important element for long-distance quantum communication. Different from all the existing entanglement purification protocols (EPPs) in which two parties can only obtain some quantum systems in a mixed entangled state with a higher fidelity probabilistically by consuming quantum resources exponentially, here we present a deterministic EPP with hyperentanglement. Using this protocol, the two parties can, in principle, obtain deterministically maximally entangled pure states in polarization without destroying any less-entangled photon pair, which will improve the efficiency of long-distance quantum communication exponentially. Meanwhile, it will be shown that this EPP can be used to complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis perfectly. We also discuss this EPP in a practical transmission.

  19. Probabilistic teleportation of a three-particle state via three pairs of entangled particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Jianxing; Lin Yinsheng; Zhu Shiqun; Chen Xianfeng

    2003-01-01

    A scheme for teleporting an arbitrary three-particle state is proposed when three pairs of entangled particles are used as quantum channels. Quantum teleportation can be successfully realized with a certain probability if the receiver adopts an appropriate unitary-reduction strategy. The probability of successful teleportation is determined by the smallest coefficients of the three entangled pairs.

  20. Scaling of entanglement support for matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliacozzo, L.; de Oliveira, Thiago. R.; Iblisdir, S.; Latorre, J. I.

    2008-07-01

    The power of matrix product states to describe infinite-size translational-invariant critical spin chains is investigated. At criticality, the accuracy with which they describe ground-state properties of a system is limited by the size χ of the matrices that form the approximation. This limitation is quantified in terms of the scaling of the half-chain entanglement entropy. In the case of the quantum Ising model, we find Stilde (1)/(6)logχ with high precision. This result can be understood as the emergence of an effective finite correlation length ξχ ruling all the scaling properties in the system. We produce six extra pieces of evidence for this finite- χ scaling, namely, the scaling of the correlation length, the scaling of magnetization, the shift of the critical point, the scaling of the entanglement entropy for a finite block of spins, the existence of scaling functions, and the agreement with analogous classical results. All our computations are consistent with a scaling relation of the form ξχ˜χκ , with κ=2 for the Ising model. In the case of the Heisenberg model, we find similar results with the value κ˜1.37 . We also show how finite- χ scaling allows us to extract critical exponents. These results are obtained using the infinite time evolved block decimation algorithm which works in the thermodynamical limit and are verified to agree with density-matrix renormalization-group results and their classical analog obtained with the corner transfer-matrix renormalization group.

  1. Superposition and entanglement of mesoscopic squeezed vacuum states in cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Changyong; Feng Mang; Gao Kelin

    2006-03-15

    We propose a scheme to generate superposition and entanglement between the mesoscopic squeezed vacuum states by considering the two-photon interaction of N two-level atoms in a cavity with high quality factor, assisted by a strong driving field. By virtue of specific choices of the cavity detuning, a number of multiparty entangled states can be prepared, including the entanglement between the atomic and the squeezed vacuum cavity states and between the squeezed vacuum states and the coherent states of the cavities. We also present how to prepare entangled states and 'Schroedinger cats' states regarding the squeezed vacuum states of the cavity modes. The possible extension and application of our scheme are discussed. Our scheme is close to the reach with current cavity QED techniques.

  2. Entanglement of electronic subbands and coherent superposition of spin states in a Rashba nanoloop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaiee, R.; Golshan, M. M.

    2011-10-01

    The present work is concerned with an analysis of the entanglement between the electronic coherent superpositions of spin states and subbands in a quasi-one-dimensional Rashba nanoloop acted upon by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. We explicitly include the confining potential and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling into the Hamiltonian and then proceed to calculate the von Neumann entropy, a measure of entanglement, as a function of time. An analysis of the von Neumann entropy demonstrates that, as expected, the dynamics of entanglement strongly depends upon the initial state and electronic subband excitations. When the initial state is a pure one formed by a subband excitation and the z-component of spin states, the entanglement exhibits periodic oscillations with local minima (dips). On the other hand, when the initial state is formed by the subband states and a coherent superposition of spin states, the entanglement still periodically oscillates, exhibiting stronger correlations, along with elimination of the dips. Moreover, in the long run, the entanglement for the latter case undergoes the phenomenon of collapse-revivals. This behaviour is absent for the first case of the initial states. We also show that the degree of entanglement strongly depends upon the electronic subband excitations in both cases.

  3. Comment on 'Teleportation of entangled states without Bell-state measurement'

    SciTech Connect

    Zela, F. de

    2006-08-15

    We consider a protocol recently proposed by Cardoso et al. for teleporting entangled photon states from a bimodal cavity to another one. It is shown that the proposed protocol can afford full fidelity instead of the 97% fidelity that the authors ascribed to their scheme.

  4. Observables can be tailored to change the entanglement of any pure state

    SciTech Connect

    Harshman, N. L.; Ranade, Kedar S.

    2011-07-15

    We show that, for a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, there exist observables that induce a tensor product structure such that the entanglement properties of any pure state can be tailored. In particular, we provide an explicit, finite method for constructing observables in an unstructured d-dimensional system so that an arbitrary known pure state has any Schmidt decomposition with respect to an induced bipartite tensor product structure. In effect, this article demonstrates that, in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, entanglement properties can always be shifted from the state to the observables and all pure states are equivalent as entanglement resources in the ideal case of complete control of observables.

  5. Photon-number superselection and the entangled coherent-state representation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry; Knight, Peter L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the entangled coherent-state representation, which provides a powerful technique for efficiently and elegantly describing and analyzing quantum optics sources and detectors while respecting the photon-number superselection rule that is satisfied by all known quantum optics experiments. We apply the entangled coherent-state representation to elucidate and resolve the long-standing puzzles of the coherence of a laser output field, interference between two number states, and dichotomous interpretations of quantum teleportation of coherent states.

  6. Bidirectional Quantum Controlled Teleportation by Using a Genuine Six-qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation scheme by using a genuine six-qubit entangled state is proposed. In our scheme, such a six-qubit entangled state is employed as the quantum channel linking three legitimate participants. And Alice may transmit an arbitrary single qubit state of qubit A to Bob and Bob may transmit an arbitrary single qubit state of qubit B to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. This bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation is deterministic.

  7. Geometric measure of entanglement and applications to bipartite and multipartite quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.-C.; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    The degree to which a pure quantum state is entangled can be characterized by the distance or angle to the nearest unentangled state. This geometric measure of entanglement, already present in a number of settings [A. Shimony, Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 755, 675 (1995); H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34, 6787 (2001)], is explored for bipartite and multipartite pure and mixed states. The measure is determined analytically for arbitrary two-qubit mixed states and for generalized Werner and isotropic states, and is also applied to certain multipartite mixed states. In particular, a detailed analysis is given for arbitrary mixtures of three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, W, and inverted-W states. Along the way, we point out connections of the geometric measure of entanglement with entanglement witnesses and with the Hartree approximation method.

  8. Measurement of entangled states via atomic beam deflection in Bragg's regime

    SciTech Connect

    Khosa, Ashfaq H.; Ikram, Manzoor; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2004-11-01

    We propose a scheme for the measurement of joint photon statistics and Wigner function of the entangled field states between two separate cavities. The scheme utilizes the momentum state of the two-level atoms in Bragg's regime. The probability of finding the atom in any one of the momentum states is the product of joint photon statistics and an oscillatory function. The argument of the function contains the information of the joint photon numbers in two cavities. We use the method of state reduction to a single set of joint photon numbers, which is a consequence of the measuring sequence. The repeated measurement of the set of photon numbers gives the joint photon statistics of the entangled field state. The complete entangled state can be reconstructed as a Wigner function from the knowledge of photon statistics of the coherently displaced entangled state.

  9. Efficient Remote Preparation of Four-Qubit Cluster-Type Entangled States with Multi-Party Over Partially Entangled Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Hoehn, Ross D.; Ye, Liu; Kais, Sabre

    2016-03-01

    We present a strategy for realizing multiparty-controlled remote state preparation (MCRSP) for a family of four-qubit cluster-type states by taking a pair of partial entanglements as the quantum channels. In this scenario, the encoded information is transmitted from the sender to a spatially separated receiver with control of the transmission by multiple parties. Predicated on the collaboration of all participants, the desired state can be faithfully restored at the receiver's location with high success probability by application of additional appropriate local operations and necessary classical communication. Moreover, this proposal for MCRSP can be faithfully achieved with unit total success probability when the quantum channels are distilled to maximally entangled ones.

  10. Efficient Remote Preparation of Four-Qubit Cluster-Type Entangled States with Multi-Party Over Partially Entangled Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Hoehn, Ross D.; Ye, Liu; Kais, Sabre

    2016-07-01

    We present a strategy for realizing multiparty-controlled remote state preparation (MCRSP) for a family of four-qubit cluster-type states by taking a pair of partial entanglements as the quantum channels. In this scenario, the encoded information is transmitted from the sender to a spatially separated receiver with control of the transmission by multiple parties. Predicated on the collaboration of all participants, the desired state can be faithfully restored at the receiver's location with high success probability by application of additional appropriate local operations and necessary classical communication. Moreover, this proposal for MCRSP can be faithfully achieved with unit total success probability when the quantum channels are distilled to maximally entangled ones.

  11. Random pure states: Quantifying bipartite entanglement beyond the linear statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Pato, Mauricio P.; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of entangled random pure states of a quantum system partitioned into two smaller subsystems of dimensions N and M . Framing the problem in terms of random matrices with a fixed-trace constraint, we establish, for arbitrary N ≤M , a general relation between the n -point densities and the cross moments of the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix, i.e., the so-called Schmidt eigenvalues, and the analogous functionals of the eigenvalues of the Wishart-Laguerre ensemble of the random matrix theory. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for two-level densities, and also an exact expression for the variance of von Neumann entropy at finite N ,M . Then, we focus on the moments E {Ka} of the Schmidt number K , the reciprocal of the purity. This is a random variable supported on [1 ,N ] , which quantifies the number of degrees of freedom effectively contributing to the entanglement. We derive a wealth of analytical results for E {Ka} for N =2 and 3 and arbitrary M , and also for square N =M systems by spotting for the latter a connection with the probability P (xminGUE≥√{2 N }ξ ) that the smallest eigenvalue xminGUE of an N ×N matrix belonging to the Gaussian unitary ensemble is larger than √{2 N }ξ . As a by-product, we present an exact asymptotic expansion for P (xminGUE≥√{2 N }ξ ) for finite N as ξ →∞ . Our results are corroborated by numerical simulations whenever possible, with excellent agreement.

  12. Random pure states: Quantifying bipartite entanglement beyond the linear statistics.

    PubMed

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Pato, Mauricio P; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of entangled random pure states of a quantum system partitioned into two smaller subsystems of dimensions N and M. Framing the problem in terms of random matrices with a fixed-trace constraint, we establish, for arbitrary N≤M, a general relation between the n-point densities and the cross moments of the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix, i.e., the so-called Schmidt eigenvalues, and the analogous functionals of the eigenvalues of the Wishart-Laguerre ensemble of the random matrix theory. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for two-level densities, and also an exact expression for the variance of von Neumann entropy at finite N,M. Then, we focus on the moments E{K^{a}} of the Schmidt number K, the reciprocal of the purity. This is a random variable supported on [1,N], which quantifies the number of degrees of freedom effectively contributing to the entanglement. We derive a wealth of analytical results for E{K^{a}} for N=2 and 3 and arbitrary M, and also for square N=M systems by spotting for the latter a connection with the probability P(x_{min}^{GUE}≥sqrt[2N]ξ) that the smallest eigenvalue x_{min}^{GUE} of an N×N matrix belonging to the Gaussian unitary ensemble is larger than sqrt[2N]ξ. As a by-product, we present an exact asymptotic expansion for P(x_{min}^{GUE}≥sqrt[2N]ξ) for finite N as ξ→∞. Our results are corroborated by numerical simulations whenever possible, with excellent agreement. PMID:27300829

  13. Quantum Splitting a Two-qubit State with a Genuinely Entangled Five-qubit State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ming-Huang; Dai, Hai-Lang

    2014-08-01

    A new application of the genuinely entangled five-qubit state is investigated for quantum information splitting of a particular type of two-qubit state. In this scheme, a genuinely entangled five-qubit state is shared by Alice (a sender), Charlie (a controller) and Bob (a receiver), and Alice only needs to perform two Bell-state measurements and Charlie performs a single-qubit measurement, Bob can reconstruct the two-qubit state by performing some appropriately unitary transformations on his qubits after he knows the measured results of both Alice and Charlie. This quantum information splitting scheme is deterministic, i.e. the probability of success is 100 %. The presented protocol is showed to be secure against certain eavesdropping attacks.

  14. Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, Gustavo; Barra, Johanna F.; Gómez, Esteban S.; Lima, Gustavo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Cabello, Adán

    2013-01-01

    Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold ηcrit that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of ηcrit assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possible deexcitation paths, a partial distinguishability between the two processes leads to the appearance of colored noise in the generated state. Recently, there was a proposal for a loophole-free Bell test [A. Cabello and F. Sciarrino, Phys. Rev. X 2, 021010 (2012)], where a specific colored noise appears as a consequence of the precertification of the photon's presence through single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Here we obtain ηcrit, the optimal quantum states, and the local settings for a loophole-free Bell test as a function of the amount of colored noise. We consider three bipartite Bell inequalities with n dichotomic settings: Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (n=2), I3322 (n=3), and A5 (n=4), both for the case of symmetric efficiencies, corresponding to photon-photon Bell tests, and for the totally asymmetric case, corresponding to atom-photon Bell tests. Remarkably, in all these cases, ηcrit is robust against the colored noise. The present analysis can find application in any test of Bell inequalities in which the dominant noise is of the colored type.

  15. High Fidelity Symmetric Telecloning and Entanglement Distribution of Spin Quantum States by Weak Measurement and Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; He, Zhi; Yao, Chun-Mei; Li, Wen-Juan

    2016-08-01

    We propose a physical realization of robust symmetric telecloning scheme for spin quantum states by employing the weak measurement and reversal (WMR) operation. Using proper WMR, the ultrahigh telecloning fidelity and long distance of quantum state transfer with certain success probability can be achieved. More interestingly, the lowest average telecloning fidelity can attain 80 %, which is almost independent of the spin chain length. We also study the properties of entanglement distribution via the spin chain for arbitrary two-qubit entangled pure states as inputs and find that the WMR operation indeed helps for protecting distributed entanglement.

  16. Genuinely Multipartite Entangled Quantum States with Fully Local Hidden Variable Models and Hidden Multipartite Nonlocality.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Joseph; Francfort, Jérémie; Fillettaz, Mathieu; Hirsch, Flavien; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The relation between entanglement and nonlocality is discussed in the case of multipartite quantum systems. We show that, for any number of parties, there exist genuinely multipartite entangled states that admit a fully local hidden variable model, i.e., where all parties are separated. Hence, although these states exhibit the strongest form of multipartite entanglement, they cannot lead to Bell inequality violation considering general nonsequential local measurements. Then, we show that the nonlocality of these states can nevertheless be activated using sequences of local measurements, thus revealing genuine multipartite hidden nonlocality. PMID:27081960

  17. Teleportation of an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state under the controlling of M controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Ling; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2008-07-01

    A new quantum protocol to teleport an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state from a sender to a fixed receiver under M controllers( M < N) is proposed. The quantum resources required are M non-maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and N-M non-maximally entangled Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. The sender performs N generalized Bell-state measurements on the 2 N particles. Controllers take M single-particle measurement along x-axis, and the receiver needs to introduce one auxiliary two-level particle to extract quantum information probabilistically with the fidelity unit if controllers cooperate with it.

  18. Entanglement of periodic states, the quantum Fourier transform, and Shor's factoring algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Most, Yonatan; Biham, Ofer; Shimoni, Yishai

    2010-05-15

    The preprocessing stage of Shor's algorithm generates a class of quantum states referred to as periodic states, on which the quantum Fourier transform is applied. Such states also play an important role in other quantum algorithms that rely on the quantum Fourier transform. Since entanglement is believed to be a necessary resource for quantum computational speedup, we analyze the entanglement of periodic states and the way it is affected by the quantum Fourier transform. To this end, we derive a formula that evaluates the Groverian entanglement measure for periodic states. Using this formula, we explain the surprising result that the Groverian entanglement of the periodic states built up during the preprocessing stage is only slightly affected by the quantum Fourier transform.

  19. Probabilistic Quantum Information Splitting Based on the Non-maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chen-ming; Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for quantum information splitting based on the non-maximally entangled four-qubit state in order to realize the splitting of the specific two-qubit state | ψ> A B = x|00>+ y|11>. The information splitter will safely share an state to the receiver with help of the controller. Through introducing an auxiliary system and applying several appropriate unitary transformations the information receiver can reconstruct the original state sent by the information splitter. Due to the non-maximally entangled four-qubit state, the total probability that the receiver obtains the original information is P. Furthermore, we discuss the relationship between the successful splitting probability and the concurrence of the entangled state and get a specific expression. In addition, the scheme is tested against external and internal attacks, and we define a function to characterise the security with the concurrence of the entanglement.

  20. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2010-07-15

    Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

  1. Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Gaebler, J. P.; Reiter, F.; Tan, T. R.; Bowler, R.; Sørensen, A. S.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation.

  2. Barium Qubit State Detection and Ba Ion-Photon Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnova, Ksenia; Inlek, Ismail Volkan; Crocker, Clayton; Lichtman, Martin; Monroe, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    A modular ion-trap network is a promising framework for scalable quantum-computational devices. In this architecture, different ion-trap modules are connected via photonic buses while within one module ions interact locally via phonons. To eliminate cross-talk between photonic-link qubits and memory qubits, we use different atomic species for quantum information storage (171 Yb+) and intermodular communication (138 Ba+). Conventional deterministic Zeeman-qubit state detection schemes require additional stabilized narrow-linewidth lasers. Instead, we perform fast probabilistic state detection utilizing efficient detectors and high-NA lenses to detect emitted photons from circularly polarized 493 nm laser excitation. Our method is not susceptible to intensity and frequency noise, and we show single-shot detection efficiency of ~ 2%, meaning that we can discriminate between the two qubits states with 99% confidence after as little as 50 ms of averaging. Using this measurement technique, we report entanglement between a single 138 Ba+ ion and its emitted photon with 86% fidelity. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA MQCO program, the DARPA Quiness program, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Transduction, and the ARL Center for Distributed Quantum Information.

  3. On small set of one-way LOCC indistinguishability of maximally entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Mao-Sheng; Zheng, Zhu-Jun; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC) problem. In {C}^d⊗ {C}^d with d≥ 4, we construct a set of 3lceil √{d}rceil -1 one-way LOCC indistinguishable maximally entangled states which are generalized Bell states. Moreover, we show that there are four maximally entangled states which cannot be perfectly distinguished by one-way LOCC measurements for any dimension d≥ 4.

  4. A proposal to generate entangled compass states with sub-Planck structure

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sayan; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2011-09-23

    We illustrate a procedure to generate a bipartite, entangled compass state, which shows sub-Planck structure. The proposed method uses the interaction of a standing wave laser field, with two, two-level atoms and relies on the ability of this system to choose certain mesoscopic bipartite states to couple with the internal degrees of freedom. An appropriate measurement on the internal degrees of freedom then leads to the entangled state, which shows sub-Planck structures, desired for quantum metrology.

  5. Bidirectional Quantum Controlled Teleportation via a Six-Qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ya-Jun; Zha, Xin-Wei

    2014-11-01

    A new application of six-qubit entangled state introduced by Chen et al. (Phys. Rev. A 74, 032324, 2006) is studied for the bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation. In our scheme, a six-qubit entangled state is shared by Alice, Bob and Charlie, Alice and Bob can transmit simultaneously an arbitrary single-qubit state to each other under the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  6. Primitive-path statistics of entangled polymers: mapping multi-chain simulations onto single-chain mean-field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenbakkers, Rudi J. A.; Tzoumanekas, Christos; Li, Ying; Liu, Wing Kam; Kröger, Martin; Schieber, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to map the full equilibrium distribution of the primitive-path (PP) length, obtained from multi-chain simulations of polymer melts, onto a single-chain mean-field ‘target’ model. Most previous works used the Doi-Edwards tube model as a target. However, the average number of monomers per PP segment, obtained from multi-chain PP networks, has consistently shown a discrepancy of a factor of two with respect to tube-model estimates. Part of the problem is that the tube model neglects fluctuations in the lengths of PP segments, the number of entanglements per chain and the distribution of monomers among PP segments, while all these fluctuations are observed in multi-chain simulations. Here we use a recently proposed slip-link model, which includes fluctuations in all these variables as well as in the spatial positions of the entanglements. This turns out to be essential to obtain qualitative and quantitative agreement with the equilibrium PP-length distribution obtained from multi-chain simulations. By fitting this distribution, we are able to determine two of the three parameters of the model, which govern its equilibrium properties. This mapping is executed for four different linear polymers and for different molecular weights. The two parameters are found to depend on chemistry, but not on molecular weight. The model predicts a constant plateau modulus minus a correction inversely proportional to molecular weight. The value for well-entangled chains, with the parameters determined ab initio, lies in the range of experimental data for the materials investigated.

  7. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators.

  8. Carving Complex Many-Atom Entangled States by Single-Photon Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenlan; Hu, Jiazhong; Duan, Yiheng; Braverman, Boris; Zhang, Hao; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-12-18

    We propose a versatile and efficient method to generate a broad class of complex entangled states of many atoms via the detection of a single photon. For an atomic ensemble contained in a strongly coupled optical cavity illuminated by weak single- or multifrequency light, the atom-light interaction entangles the frequency spectrum of a transmitted photon with the collective spin of the atomic ensemble. Simple time-resolved detection of the transmitted photon then projects the atomic ensemble into a desired pure entangled state. This method can be implemented with existing technology, yields high success probability per trial, and can generate complex entangled states such as mesoscopic superposition states of coherent spin states with high fidelity. PMID:26722909

  9. Carving Complex Many-Atom Entangled States by Single-Photon Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenlan; Hu, Jiazhong; Duan, Yiheng; Braverman, Boris; Zhang, Hao; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a versatile and efficient method to generate a broad class of complex entangled states of many atoms via the detection of a single photon. For an atomic ensemble contained in a strongly coupled optical cavity illuminated by weak single- or multifrequency light, the atom-light interaction entangles the frequency spectrum of a transmitted photon with the collective spin of the atomic ensemble. Simple time-resolved detection of the transmitted photon then projects the atomic ensemble into a desired pure entangled state. This method can be implemented with existing technology, yields high success probability per trial, and can generate complex entangled states such as mesoscopic superposition states of coherent spin states with high fidelity.

  10. Carving Complex Many-Atom Entangled States by Single-Photon Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenlan; Hu, Jiazhong; Duan, Yiheng; Braverman, Boris; Zhang, Hao; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-12-01

    We propose a versatile and efficient method to generate a broad class of complex entangled states of many atoms via the detection of a single photon. For an atomic ensemble contained in a strongly coupled optical cavity illuminated by weak single- or multifrequency light, the atom-light interaction entangles the frequency spectrum of a transmitted photon with the collective spin of the atomic ensemble. Simple time-resolved detection of the transmitted photon then projects the atomic ensemble into a desired pure entangled state. This method can be implemented with existing technology, yields high success probability per trial, and can generate complex entangled states such as mesoscopic superposition states of coherent spin states with high fidelity.

  11. Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2012-06-18

    We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies. PMID:22714485

  12. Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.

  13. Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.

  14. Deterministic Controlled Bidirectional Remote State Preparation Via a Six-qubit Maximally Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Zha, Xin-Wei; Duan, Ya-Jun; Wei, Zhao Hui

    2016-01-01

    It is presented that a bidirectional remote state preparation scheme uses six-qubit maximally entangled state. In this paper we propose a new protocol which allows two distant parties to simultaneously and deterministically exchange their states under controling of a third remote party. In such a way, it cannot be successful without permission of the controller. Based on the von Neumann measurement and Bell state measurement, Alice can transmit an arbitrary single qubit state to Bob, while Bob can transmit an arbitrary single qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  15. Grover's search algorithm with an entangled database state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsing, Paul M.; McDonald, Nathan

    2011-05-01

    Grover's oracle based unstructured search algorithm is often stated as "given a phone number in a directory, find the associated name." More formally, the problem can be stated as "given as input a unitary black box Uf for computing an unknown function f:{0,1}n ->{0,1}find x=x0 an element of {0,1}n such that f(x0) =1, (and zero otherwise). The crucial role of the externally supplied oracle Uf (whose inner workings are unknown to the user) is to change the sign of the solution 0 x , while leaving all other states unaltered. Thus, Uf depends on the desired solution x0. This paper examines an amplitude amplification algorithm in which the user encodes the directory (e.g. names and telephone numbers) into an entangled database state, which at a later time can be queried on one supplied component entry (e.g. a given phone number t0) to find the other associated unknown component (e.g. name x0). For N=2n names x with N associated phone numbers t , performing amplitude amplification on a subspace of size N of the total space of size N2 produces the desired state 0 0 x t in √N steps. We discuss how and why sequential (though not concurrent parallel) searches can be performed on multiple database states. Finally, we show how this procedure can be generalized to databases with more than two correlated lists (e.g. x t s r ...).

  16. Entangled states decoherence in coupled molecular spin clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Filippo; Szallas, Attila; Bellini, Valerio; Affronte, Marco

    2010-03-01

    Localized electron spins in solid-state systems are widely investigated as potential building blocks of quantum devices and computers. While most efforts in the field have been focused on semiconductor low-dimensional structures, molecular antiferromagnets were recently recognized as alternative implementations of effective few-level spin systems. Heterometallic, Cr-based spin rings behave as effective spin-1/2 systems at low temperature and show long decoherence times [1]; besides, they can be chemically linked and magnetically coupled in a controllable fascion [2]. Here, we theoretically investigate the decoherence of the Bell states in such ring dimers, resulting from hyperfine interactions with nuclear spins. Based on a microscopic description of the molecules [3], we simulate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening, spectral diffusion and electron-nuclear entanglement on the electron-spin coherence, estimating the role of the different nuclei (and of possible chemical substitutions), as well as the effect of simple spin-echo sequences. References: [1] F. Troiani, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 207208 (2005). [2] G. A. Timco, S: Carretta, F. Troiani et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 173 (2009). [3] F. Troiani, V. Bellini, and M. Affronte, Phys. Rev. B 77, 054428 (2008).

  17. Distillation of secret key and entanglement from quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devetak, Igor; Winter, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We study and solve the problem of distilling a secret key from quantum states representing correlation between two parties (Alice and Bob) and an eavesdropper (Eve) via one-way public discussion: we prove a coding theorem to achieve the 'wire-tapper' bound, the difference of the mutual information Alice-Bob and that of Alice-Eve, for so-called classical-quantum-quantum-correlations, via one-way public communication. This result yields information-theoretic formulae for the distillable secret key, giving 'ultimate' key rate bounds if Eve is assumed to possess a purification of Alice and Bob's joint state. Specializing our protocol somewhat and making it coherent leads us to a protocol of entanglement distillation via one-way LOCC (local operations and classical communication) which is asymptotically optimal: in fact we prove the so-called 'hashing inequality', which says that the coherent information (i.e. the negative conditional von Neumann entropy) is an achievable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen rate. This result is known to imply a whole set of distillation and capacity formulae, which we briefly review.

  18. Entanglement under the renormalization-group transformations on quantum states and in quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.-C.

    2010-06-15

    We consider quantum states under the renormalization-group (RG) transformations introduced by Verstraete et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 140601 (2005)] and propose a quantification of entanglement under such RGs (via the geometric measure of entanglement). We examine the resulting entanglement under RG transformations for the ground states of ''matrix-product-state'' Hamiltonians constructed by Wolf et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 110403 (2006)] that possess quantum phase transitions. We find that near critical points, the ground-state entanglement exhibits singular behavior. The singular behavior within finite steps of the RG obeys a scaling hypothesis and reveals the correlation length exponent. However, under the infinite steps of RG transformation, the singular behavior is rendered different and is universal only when there is an underlying conformal-field-theory description of the critical point.

  19. Teleportation of a two-atom entangled state with a thermal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Lihua; Jin Xingri; Zhang Shou

    2005-08-15

    We present a scheme to teleport an unknown atomic entangled state in driven cavity QED. In our scheme, the success probability can reach 1.0. In addition, the scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field.

  20. Carving complex many-atom entangled states by single-photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Chen, Wenlan; Duan, Yiheng; Braverman, Boris; Zhang, Hao; Vuletic, Vladan

    We propose a versatile and efficient method to generate a broad class of complex entangled states of many atoms via the detection of a single photon. For an atomic ensemble contained in a strongly coupled optical cavity illuminated by weak single- or multi-frequency light, the atom-light interaction entangles the frequency spectrum of a transmitted photon with the collective spin of the atomic ensemble. Simple time-resolved detection of the transmitted photon then projects the atomic ensemble into a desired pure entangled state. This method can be implemented with existing technology, yields high success probability per trials, and can generate complex entangled states such as multicomponent Schrödinger cat states with high fidelity.

  1. Entanglement in bipartite pure states of an interacting boson gas obtained by local projective measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Paraan, Francis N. C.; Korepin, Vladimir E.; Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Bose, Sougato

    2011-09-15

    We quantify the extractable entanglement of excited states of a Lieb-Liniger gas that are obtained from coarse-grained measurements on the ground state in which the boson number in one of two complementary contiguous partitions of the gas is determined. Numerically exact results obtained from the coordinate Bethe ansatz show that the von Neumann entropy of the resulting bipartite pure state increases monotonically with the strength of repulsive interactions and saturates to the impenetrable-boson limiting value. We also present evidence indicating that the largest amount of entanglement can be extracted from the most probable projected state having half the number of bosons in a given partition. Our study points to a fundamental difference between the nature of the entanglement in free-bosonic and free-fermionic systems, with the entanglement in the former being zero after projection, while that in the latter (corresponding to the impenetrable-boson limit) being nonzero.

  2. Efficient entanglement concentration for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with the cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Wang, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, which encodes physical qubits in a logic qubit, has great application in the future quantum communication. We present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for recovering less-entangled C-GHZ state into the maximally entangled C-GHZ state with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearities and photon detectors. With the help of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity, the obtained maximally entangled C-GHZ state can be remained for other applications. Moreover, the ECP can be used repeatedly, which can increase the success probability largely. Based on the advantages above, our ECP may be useful in the future long-distance quantum communication.

  3. Interlayer coherence and entanglement in bilayer quantum Hall states at filling factor ν=2/λ.

    PubMed

    Calixto, M; Pérez-Romero, E

    2014-12-01

    We study coherence and entanglement properties of the state space of a composite bi-fermion (two electrons pierced by λ magnetic flux lines) at one Landau site of a bilayer quantum Hall system. In particular, interlayer imbalance and entanglement (and its fluctuations) are analyzed for a set of U(4) coherent (quasiclassical) states generalizing the standard pseudospin U(2) coherent states for the spin-frozen case. The interplay between spin and pseudospin degrees of freedom opens new possibilities with regard to the spin-frozen case. Actually, spin degrees of freedom make interlayer entanglement more effective and robust under perturbations than in the spin-frozen situation, mainly for a large number of flux quanta λ. Interlayer entanglement of an equilibrium thermal state and its dependence with temperature and bias voltage is also studied for a pseudo-Zeeman interaction. PMID:25351998

  4. Characterization of maximally entangled two-qubit states via the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zeqian

    2004-08-01

    Maximally entangled states should maximally violate the Bell inequality. It is proved that all two-qubit states that maximally violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality are exactly Bell states and the states obtained from them by local transformations. The proof is obtained by using the certain algebraic properties that Pauli's matrices satisfy. The argument is extended to the three-qubit system. Since all states obtained by local transformations of a maximally entangled state are equally valid entangled states, we thus give the characterizations of maximally entangled states in both the two-qubit and three-qubit systems in terms of the Bell inequality.

  5. Entanglement and the sign structure of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Tarun; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2015-10-01

    Many-body quantum eigenstates of generic Hamiltonians at finite-energy density typically satisfy the "volume law" of entanglement entropy: the von Neumann entanglement entropy and the Renyi entropies for a subregion scale in proportion to its volume. Here we provide a connection between the volume law and the sign structure of eigenstates. In particular, we ask the following question: Can a positive wave function support a volume law entanglement? Remarkably, we find that a typical random positive wave function exhibits a constant law for Renyi entanglement entropies Sn for n >1 , despite arbitrary large-amplitude fluctuations. We also provide evidence that the modulus of the finite-energy density eigenstates of generic local Hamiltonians shows similar behavior.

  6. On implementing nondestructive triplet Toffoli gate with entanglement swapping operations via the GHZ state analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Dazu; Lee, Moon Ho

    2014-09-01

    We investigate an novel implementation of a Toffoli gate using multiple independent auxiliary photons prepared beforehand in single-qubit states. This gate can be performed nondestructively with entanglement swapping via the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state analysis. We evaluate the performance of the proposed Toffoli gate with the fidelity based on different computation bases. The multi-qubit-entanglement gate is no longer theoretical since it can be implemented in principle with single-qubit photons.

  7. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on χ-type entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Huijuan; Huang, Wei; Qin, Sujuan

    2013-10-01

    An arbitrated quantum signature scheme, which is mainly applied in electronic-payment systems, is proposed and investigated. The χ-type entangled states are used for quantum key distribution and quantum signature in this protocol. Compared with previous quantum signature schemes which also utilize χ-type entangled states, the proposed scheme provides higher efficiency. Finally, we also analyze its security under various kinds of attacks.

  8. Practical single-photon-assisted remote state preparation with non-maximally entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    Remote state preparation (RSP) and joint remote state preparation (JRSP) protocols for single-photon states are investigated via linear optical elements with partially entangled states. In our scheme, by choosing two-mode instances from a polarizing beam splitter, only the sender in the communication protocol needs to prepare an ancillary single-photon and operate the entanglement preparation process in order to retrieve an arbitrary single-photon state from a photon pair in partially entangled state. In the case of JRSP, i.e., a canonical model of RSP with multi-party, we consider that the information of the desired state is split into many subsets and in prior maintained by spatially separate parties. Specifically, with the assistance of a single-photon state and a three-photon entangled state, it turns out that an arbitrary single-photon state can be jointly and remotely prepared with certain probability, which is characterized by the coefficients of both the employed entangled state and the target state. Remarkably, our protocol is readily to extend to the case for RSP and JRSP of mixed states with the all optical means. Therefore, our protocol is promising for communicating among optics-based multi-node quantum networks.

  9. Practical single-photon-assisted remote state preparation with non-maximally entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2016-05-01

    Remote state preparation (RSP) and joint remote state preparation (JRSP) protocols for single-photon states are investigated via linear optical elements with partially entangled states. In our scheme, by choosing two-mode instances from a polarizing beam splitter, only the sender in the communication protocol needs to prepare an ancillary single-photon and operate the entanglement preparation process in order to retrieve an arbitrary single-photon state from a photon pair in partially entangled state. In the case of JRSP, i.e., a canonical model of RSP with multi-party, we consider that the information of the desired state is split into many subsets and in prior maintained by spatially separate parties. Specifically, with the assistance of a single-photon state and a three-photon entangled state, it turns out that an arbitrary single-photon state can be jointly and remotely prepared with certain probability, which is characterized by the coefficients of both the employed entangled state and the target state. Remarkably, our protocol is readily to extend to the case for RSP and JRSP of mixed states with the all optical means. Therefore, our protocol is promising for communicating among optics-based multi-node quantum networks.

  10. Entropy of entanglement in continuous frequency space of the biphoton state from multiplexed cold atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Hsiang-Hua

    2016-05-01

    We consider a scheme of multiplexed cold atomic ensembles that generate a frequency-entangled biphoton state with controllable entropy of entanglement. The biphoton state consists of a telecommunication photon (signal) immediately followed by an infrared one (idler) via four-wave mixing with two classical pump fields. Multiplexing the atomic ensembles with frequency and phase-shifted signal and idler emissions, we can manipulate and control the spectral property of the biphoton state. Mapping out the entropy of entanglement in the scheme provides the optimal configuration for entanglement resources. This paves the way for efficient long-distance quantum communication and for potentially useful multimode structures in quantum information processing. Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under Grant No. MOST-101-2112-M-001-021-MY3 and the support of NCTS.

  11. Deterministic Positive Operator Valued Measurements Performed Onto Remote Qubits via Partially Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, LiBing; Lu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    We show how a remote positive operator valued measurement (POVM) can be implemented deterministically by using partially entangled state(s). Firstly, we present a theoretical scheme for implementing deterministically a remote and controlled POVM onto any one of N qubits via a partially entangled ( N + 1)-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, in which ( N - 1) administrators are included. Then, we design another scheme for implementing deterministically a POVM onto N remote qubits via N partially entangled qubit pairs. Our schemes have been designed for obtaining the optimal success probabilities: i.e. they are identical to those in the ordinary, local, POVMs. In these schemes, the POVM dictates the amount of entanglement needed. The fact that such overall treatment can save quantum resources is notable.

  12. Distillation of mixed-state continuous-variable entanglement by photon subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2010-12-15

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis for the distillation of one copy of a mixed two-mode continuous-variable entangled state using beam splitters and coherent photon-detection techniques, including conventional on-off detectors and photon-number-resolving detectors. The initial Gaussian mixed-entangled states are generated by transmitting a two-mode squeezed state through a lossy bosonic channel, corresponding to the primary source of errors in current approaches to optical quantum communication. We provide explicit formulas to calculate the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity before and after distillation, including losses in the channel and the photon detection, and show that one-copy distillation is still possible even for losses near the typical fiber channel attenuation length. A lower bound for the transmission coefficient of the photon-subtraction beam splitter is derived, representing the minimal value that still allows to enhance the entanglement.

  13. Entanglement under the renormalization-group transformations on quantum states and in quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2010-06-01

    We consider quantum states under the renormalization-group (RG) transformations introduced by Verstraete [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.140601 94, 140601 (2005)] and propose a quantification of entanglement under such RGs (via the geometric measure of entanglement). We examine the resulting entanglement under RG transformations for the ground states of “matrix-product-state” Hamiltonians constructed by Wolf [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.110403 97, 110403 (2006)] that possess quantum phase transitions. We find that near critical points, the ground-state entanglement exhibits singular behavior. The singular behavior within finite steps of the RG obeys a scaling hypothesis and reveals the correlation length exponent. However, under the infinite steps of RG transformation, the singular behavior is rendered different and is universal only when there is an underlying conformal-field-theory description of the critical point.

  14. Entanglement Evolution of the Extended Werner-like State under the Influence of Different Noisy Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li-Nan; Ma, Jing; Yu, Si-Yuan; Tan, Li-Ying; Ran, Qi-Wen

    2015-02-01

    The entanglement evolution of the bipartite quantum system which is initially prepared in extended Werner-like state under the influence of independent or collective noisy channels are investigated by solving the master equation in Lindblad form. With the aid of the concurrence, we find that the initial state can preserve more entanglement in certain region when it is transmitted through the collective Pauli σ x or σ y noisy channel than the corresponding independent noisy channel. For the Pauli σ z or the depolarizing channel, however, the collective decoherence can speed up the process of entanglement decay. Meanwhile, we show that the purity of initial state has a great influence on the region which the entanglement can be preserved.

  15. Entanglement and discord of the superposition of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Preeti; Rana, Swapan

    2011-03-15

    We calculate the analytic expression for geometric measure of entanglement for arbitrary superposition of two N-qubit canonical orthonormal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the same for two W states. In the course of characterizing all kinds of nonclassical correlations, an explicit formula for quantum discord (via relative entropy) for the former class of states has been presented. Contrary to the GHZ state, the closest separable state to the W state is not classical. Therefore, in this case, the discord is different from the relative entropy of entanglement. We conjecture that the discord for the N-qubit W state is log{sub 2}N.

  16. Quantum teleportation through an entangled state composed of displaced vacuum and single-photon states

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2008-03-15

    We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.

  17. Deterministic controlled bidirectional remote state preparation via a six-qubit entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Zha, Xin-wei; Duan, Ya-jun; Yang, Yu-quan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we presented a controlled bidirectional remote state preparation scheme which used the six-qubit entangled state as quantum channel. In our scheme, Alice and Bob can prepare simultaneously an arbitrary single-qubit state in each other's place with the control of the supervisor Charlie. The success probability for our scheme reaches unit. Furthermore, we analyze the expression of quantum channel for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Finally, we discuss the security of our scheme, the detailed security analysis shows that the supervisor Charlie's control can greatly improve the security of our scheme.

  18. Generation of Steady-State Entanglement in Quadratically Coupled Optomechanical System Assisted by Two-Level Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng-Zhi; Han, Xiang-Gang; Wu, E.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a scheme for the realization of a hybrid, strongly entangled system formed of an atomic ensemble surrounded by a quadratically coupled optomechanical cavity with a vibrating mirror. We firstly investigate the steady-state bipartite entanglement between the movable mirror and the cavity mode with the help of an atomic media. It shows that the introduction of the atomic medium can greatly improve the entanglement between the movable mirror and the cavity mode. Secondly, steady-state tripartite entanglement including the movable mirror, the cavity and atom media are investigated. We find the robust tripartite entanglement persists in the present system.

  19. Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Klimov, Paul V.; Falk, Abram L.; Christle, David J.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is a key resource for quantum computers, quantum-communication networks, and high-precision sensors. Macroscopic spin ensembles have been historically important in the development of quantum algorithms for these prospective technologies and remain strong candidates for implementing them today. This strength derives from their long-lived quantum coherence, strong signal, and ability to couple collectively to external degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, preparing ensembles of genuinely entangled spin states has required high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures or photochemical reactions. We demonstrate that entanglement can be realized in solid-state spin ensembles at ambient conditions. We use hybrid registers comprising of electron-nuclear spin pairs that are localized at color-center defects in a commercial SiC wafer. We optically initialize 103 identical registers in a 40-μm3 volume (with 0.95−0.07+0.05 fidelity) and deterministically prepare them into the maximally entangled Bell states (with 0.88 ± 0.07 fidelity). To verify entanglement, we develop a register-specific quantum-state tomography protocol. The entanglement of a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble at ambient conditions represents an important step toward practical quantum technology. PMID:26702444

  20. Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble.

    PubMed

    Klimov, Paul V; Falk, Abram L; Christle, David J; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V; Awschalom, David D

    2015-11-01

    Entanglement is a key resource for quantum computers, quantum-communication networks, and high-precision sensors. Macroscopic spin ensembles have been historically important in the development of quantum algorithms for these prospective technologies and remain strong candidates for implementing them today. This strength derives from their long-lived quantum coherence, strong signal, and ability to couple collectively to external degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, preparing ensembles of genuinely entangled spin states has required high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures or photochemical reactions. We demonstrate that entanglement can be realized in solid-state spin ensembles at ambient conditions. We use hybrid registers comprising of electron-nuclear spin pairs that are localized at color-center defects in a commercial SiC wafer. We optically initialize 10(3) identical registers in a 40-μm(3) volume (with [Formula: see text] fidelity) and deterministically prepare them into the maximally entangled Bell states (with 0.88 ± 0.07 fidelity). To verify entanglement, we develop a register-specific quantum-state tomography protocol. The entanglement of a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble at ambient conditions represents an important step toward practical quantum technology. PMID:26702444

  1. Tight bound on coherent-state-based entanglement generation over lossy channels

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2010-02-15

    The first stage of the hybrid quantum repeaters is entanglement generation based on transmission of pulses in coherent states over a lossy channel. Protocols to make entanglement with only one type of error are favorable for rendering subsequent entanglement distillation efficient. Here we provide the tight upper bound on performances of these protocols that is determined only by the channel loss. In addition, we show that this bound is achievable by utilizing a proposed protocol [K. Azuma, N. Sota, R. Namiki, S. K. Oezdemir, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, Phys. Rev. A 80, 060303(R) (2009)] composed of a simple combination of linear optical elements and photon-number-resolving detectors.

  2. Fusion of entangled coherent W and GHZ states in cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xue-Ping; Yang, Ming; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-07-01

    Efficient preparation of W and GHZ states encoded in various degrees of freedom of quantum particles is vital in quantum information science. So far, most of the studies have focused on polarization encoded photonic W and GHZ states. In this paper, we focus on W- and GHZ-class entangled coherent states, and propose schemes to fuse small W- and GHZ-entangled coherent states into larger ones. Based on successive detuned interactions between optical modes and an ancilla atom, an (N + M - 2)-mode entangled coherent W state can be probabilistically prepared from an N-mode and an M-mode entangled coherent W states. This fusion scheme applies to entangled coherent GHZ states too, and it can succeed in a deterministic way. The ancilla atom only interacts with a single optical mode, which avoids the problem of synchronizing many atoms in the previous cavity QED based fusion schemes. The detuning property of the interaction makes the current fusion scheme more feasible that the ones based on resonant atom-light interactions. In addition, the two levels of the ancilla atom for encoding quantum information are two degenerate ground states, and the excited state is adiabatically eliminated during the fusion process, so the atomic decay from excited states does not affect the quality of the fusion process.

  3. Teleportation and entanglement distillation in the presence of correlation among bipartite mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Mitsuru

    2003-07-01

    The teleportation channel associated with an arbitrary bipartite state denotes the map that represents the change suffered by a teleported state when the bipartite state is used instead of the ideal maximally entangled state for teleportation. This work presents and proves an explicit expression of the teleportation channel for teleportation using Weyl's projective unitary representation of (Z/dZ){sup 2n} for integers d{>=}2, n{>=}1, which has been known for n=1. This formula allows any correlation among the n bipartite mixed states, and an application shows the existence of reliable schemes for distillation of entanglement from a sequence of mixed states with correlation.

  4. Influences of Initial States on Entanglement Dynamics of Two Central Spins in a Spin Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen-Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming; Li, Lin; Zou, Jian; Li, Hai; Shao, Bin

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two electronic spins coupled to a bath of nuclear spins for two special cases, one is that two central spins both interact with a common bath, and the other is that one of two spins interacts with a bath. We consider three types of initial states with different correlations between the system and the bath, i.e., quantum correlation, classical correlation, and no-correlation. We show that the initial correlations (no matter quantum correlations or classical correlations) can effectively avoid the occurrence of entanglement sudden death. Irrespective of whether both two spins or only one of the two spins interacts with the bath, the system can gain more entanglement in the process of the time evolution for initial quantum correlations. In addition, we find that the effects of the distribution of coupling constants on entanglement dynamics crucially depend on the initial state of the spin bath.

  5. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2004-02-01

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement, and total correlations of general two-mode continuous variable Gaussian states in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity, and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes.

  6. Scheme for realizing the entanglement concentration of unknown partially entangled three-photon W states assisted by a quantum dot-microcavity coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bian-Bian; Hu, Shi; Cui, Wen-Xue; An, Cheng-Shou; Xing, Yan; Hu, Jing-Si; Sun, Guo-Qing; Jiang, Xin-Xin; Wang, Hong-Fu

    2014-11-01

    Assisted by a quantum dot-microcavity coupled system, we propose an entanglement concentration scheme for concentrating two unknown partially entangled three-photon W states into a maximally entangled three-photon W state based on spin selective photon reflection from the cavity and the interference of polarized photons. In the scheme, three parties, say Alice, Bob, and Charlie in different distant locations can successfully share the maximally entangled three-photon W state with a high probability of success by local operations performed by Alice and classical communication. We calculate the probability of success of the scheme and the fidelity of the obtained three-photon W state under practical conditions, whose results show that the scheme can work in both weak coupling and strong coupling regimes.

  7. Generation of states maximally entanglement (EPR states) by passing two atoms through two coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabu-uti, B. F. C.; Nohama, F. K.; Roversi, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    We present the results of the interaction of identical two-level atoms with a system formed by two identical coupled cavities via evanescent field. With new bosonic operators (normal nodes), the interaction Hamiltonian between the cavities can be diagonalized. In a particular case, we can eliminate the interaction of the atoms with the nonresonant normal modes reducing the system to the interaction of the atom with a single-mode (like JCM). As an application of this interaction, we analyze the entanglement between distant atoms. We present two related simple procedures to generate two atoms maximally entangled state (EPR pair) interacting (i)successively (atoms passing through the cavities at different moments) and (ii) simultaneously (at the same time) with the coupled cavities system. Moreover, in contrast with other schemes, we can use identical atoms which simplifies in a experiment point of view.

  8. Entanglement for excited states of ultracold bosonic atoms in one-dimensional harmonic traps with contact interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hsuan Tung; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated quantum entanglement for two interacting ultracold bosonic atoms in one-dimensional harmonic traps. The effective potential is modeled by delta interaction. For this two-atom system, we have investigated quantum entanglement properties, such as von Neumann entropy and linear entropy for its ground state and excited states. Using a computational scheme that is different from previously employed, a total of the lowest 16 states are studied. Here we show the dependencies of entanglement properties under various interacting strengths. Comparisons for the ground state entanglement are made with earlier results in the literature. New results for the other 15 excited states are reported here.

  9. Entangled rings, matrix product states, and exact solutions of XYZ spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Asoudeh, Marzieh; Karimipour, Vahid; Sadrolashrafi, Afsaneh

    2007-07-15

    We show that the ground state of the Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain in an external magnetic field, can be exactly expressed as a matrix product state, provided that the coupling constants are constrained to be on a specific two dimensional surface. This ground state has a very interesting property: all the pairs of spins are equally entangled with each other. In this last respect, the results are of interest for engineering long-range entanglement in experimentally realizable finite arrays of qubits, where the ground state will act as the initial state of a quantum computer.

  10. Thermodynamical property of entanglement entropy for excited states.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Nozaki, Masahiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Ugajin, Tomonori

    2013-03-01

    We argue that the entanglement entropy for a very small subsystem obeys a property which is analogous to the first law of thermodynamics when we excite the system. In relativistic setups, its effective temperature is proportional to the inverse of the subsystem size. This provides a universal relationship between the energy and the amount of quantum information. We derive the results using holography and confirm them in two-dimensional field theories. We will also comment on an example with negative specific heat and suggest a connection between the second law of thermodynamics and the strong subadditivity of entanglement entropy. PMID:23496702

  11. Pretty good state transfer of entangled states through quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Rúben; Omar, Yasser

    2014-12-01

    The XX model with uniform couplings represents the most natural choice for quantum state transfer through spin chains. Given that it has long been established that single-qubit states cannot be transferred with perfect fidelity in this model, the notion of pretty good state transfer has been recently introduced as a relaxation of the constraints on fidelity. In this paper, we study the transfer of multi-qubit entangled and unentangled states through unmodulated spin chains, and we prove that it is possible to have pretty good state transfer of any multi-particle state. This significantly generalizes the previous results on single-qubit state transfer and opens the way to using uniformly coupled spin chains as short-distance quantum channels for the transfer of arbitrary states of any dimension. Our results could be tested with current technology.

  12. Multipartite entanglement indicators based on monogamy relations of n-qubit symmetric states

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Xie, Shu-Cui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Constructed from Bai-Xu-Wang-class monogamy relations, multipartite entanglement indicators can detect the entanglement not stored in pairs of the focus particle and the other subset of particles. We investigate the k-partite entanglement indicators related to the αth power of entanglement of formation (αEoF) for k ≤ n, αϵ and n-qubit symmetric states. We then show that (1) The indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically increasing function of k. (2) When n is large enough, the indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically decreasing function of α, and then the n-partite indicator based on works best. However, the indicator based on 2 EoF works better when n is small enough. PMID:26842264

  13. Multipartite entanglement indicators based on monogamy relations of n-qubit symmetric states.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Xie, Shu-Cui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Constructed from Bai-Xu-Wang-class monogamy relations, multipartite entanglement indicators can detect the entanglement not stored in pairs of the focus particle and the other subset of particles. We investigate the k-partite entanglement indicators related to the αth power of entanglement of formation (αEoF) for k ≤ n, αϵ and n-qubit symmetric states. We then show that (1) The indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically increasing function of k. (2) When n is large enough, the indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically decreasing function of α, and then the n-partite indicator based on works best. However, the indicator based on 2 EoF works better when n is small enough. PMID:26842264

  14. Multipartite entanglement indicators based on monogamy relations of n-qubit symmetric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Xie, Shu-Cui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-02-01

    Constructed from Bai-Xu-Wang-class monogamy relations, multipartite entanglement indicators can detect the entanglement not stored in pairs of the focus particle and the other subset of particles. We investigate the k-partite entanglement indicators related to the αth power of entanglement of formation (αEoF) for k ≤ n, αɛ and n-qubit symmetric states. We then show that (1) The indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically increasing function of k. (2) When n is large enough, the indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically decreasing function of α, and then the n-partite indicator based on works best. However, the indicator based on 2 EoF works better when n is small enough.

  15. A practical introduction to tensor networks: Matrix product states and projected entangled pair states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orús, Román

    2014-10-01

    This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed.

  16. Local hidden variable models for entangled quantum States using finite shared randomness.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-03-27

    The statistics of local measurements performed on certain entangled states can be reproduced using a local hidden variable (LHV) model. While all known models make use of an infinite amount of shared randomness, we show that essentially all entangled states admitting a LHV model can be simulated with finite shared randomness. Our most economical model simulates noisy two-qubit Werner states using only log_{2}(12)≃3.58 bits of shared randomness. We also discuss the case of positive operator valued measures, and the simulation of nonlocal states with finite shared randomness and finite communication. Our work represents a first step towards quantifying the cost of LHV models for entangled quantum states. PMID:25860723

  17. Distillation of arbitrary single-photon entanglement assisted with polarized Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhao-Feng; Ou-Yang, Yang; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2015-10-01

    Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is a promising resource in quantum communication. However, it will suffer from the photon loss. In this paper, we will present an efficient approach to protect the two-mode SPE. This protocol not only can distill the SPE from the mixed state, but also can faithfully protect the information encoded in the polarization degree of freedom. Moreover, different from the previous protocols, if the SPE becomes a less-entangled state, we can also distill it to the maximally entangled state. During the whole protocol, we exploit the polarized Bell states to complete the task. This protocol can also be extended to protect the single-photon multi-mode W state. This protocol is feasible in current technology, for it only requires linear optical elements.

  18. Simplified Scheme for Teleportation of a Multipartite Quantum State Using a Single Entangled Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li-Hua; Gao, Yun-Feng

    2009-02-01

    A simple scheme for teleporting an unknown M-qubit cat-like state is proposed. The steps of this scheme can be summarized simply: disentangle-teleport-reconstruct entanglement. If proper unitary operations and measurements from senders are given, the teleportation of an unknown M-qubit cat-like state can be converted into single qubit teleportation. In the meantime, the receiver should also carry out right unitary operations with the introduction of appropriate ancillary qubits to confirm the successful teleportation of the demanded entangled state. The present scheme can be generalized to teleport an unknown M-quNit state, i.e., an M-quNit state can be teleported by a single quNit entangled pair.

  19. Entanglement sudden death as an indicator of fidelity in a four-qubit cluster state

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2009-05-15

    I explore the entanglement evolution of a four-qubit cluster state in a dephasing environment concentrating on the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD). Specifically, I ask whether the onset of ESD has an effect on the utilization of this cluster state as a means of implementing a single-qubit rotation in the measurement-based cluster state model of quantum computation. To do this, I compare the evolution of the entanglement to the fidelity, a measure of how accurately the desired state (after the measurement-based operations) is achieved. I find that ESD does not cause a change in behavior or discontinuity in the fidelity but may indicate for certain states when the fidelity goes to 0.5.

  20. Excited-state entanglement and thermal mutual information in random spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yichen; Moore, Joel E.

    2014-12-01

    Entanglement properties of excited eigenstates (or of thermal mixed states) are difficult to study with conventional analytical methods. We approach this problem for random spin chains using a recently developed real-space renormalization group technique for excited states ("RSRG-X"). For the random XX and quantum Ising chains, which have logarithmic divergences in the entanglement entropy of their (infinite-randomness) critical ground states, we show that the entanglement entropy of excited eigenstates retains a logarithmic divergence while the mutual information of thermal mixed states does not. However, in the XX case the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence extends from the universal ground-state value to a universal interval due to the degeneracy of excited eigenstates. These models are noninteracting in the sense of having free-fermion representations, allowing strong numerical checks of our analytical predictions.

  1. Tomography of the quantum state of photons entangled in high dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Megan; Leach, Jonathan; McLaren, Melanie; Roux, F. Stef; Boyd, Robert W.

    2011-12-15

    Systems entangled in high dimensions have recently been proposed as important tools for various quantum information protocols, such as multibit quantum key distribution and loophole-free tests of nonlocality. It is therefore important to have precise knowledge of the nature of such entangled quantum states. We tomographically reconstruct the quantum state of the two photons produced by parametric downconversion that are entangled in a d-dimensional orbital angular momentum basis. We determine exactly the density matrix of the entangled two-qudit state with d ranging from 2 to 8. The recording of higher-dimensional states is limited only by the number of data points required and therefore the length of time needed to complete the measurements. We find all the measured states to have fidelities and linear entropies that satisfy the criteria required for a violation of the appropriate high-dimensional Bell inequality. Our results therefore precisely characterize the nature of the entanglement, thus establishing the suitability of such states for applications in quantum information science.

  2. Tripartite entanglement in single-neutron interferometer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erdösi, Daniel; Hasegawa, Yuji; Huber, Marcus; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2014-12-04

    We present experimental evidence of the generation of distinct types of genuine multipartite entanglement between the spin, energy, and path degrees of freedom within single-neutron quantum systems. This is achieved via the development of new spin manipulation apparatuses for neutron interferometry and the entanglement is detected via appropriately designed and optimized non-linear witnesses. We demonstrate the extraordinarily high controllability and fidelity of the generated entangled states.

  3. Bidirectional Quantum Controlled Teleportation by using a Seven-qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit entangled state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice may transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob may transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  4. Bidirectional Quantum Controlled Teleportation via a Maximally Seven-qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ya-Jun; Zha, Xin-Wei; Sun, Xin-Mei; Xia, Jia-Fan

    2014-08-01

    A bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation scheme using a seven-qubit maximally entangled state as quantum channel is proposed. This means that Alice can transmit an arbitrary single qubit state of qubit a to Bob and Bob can transmit an arbitrary single qubit state of qubit b to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  5. Bidirectional Controlled Quantum Teleportation by Using Five-Qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan

    2014-05-01

    We propose a scheme for bidirectional controlled quantum teleportation by using a genuine five-qubit entangled state. In our scheme, Alice may transmit an arbitrary single qubit state of qubit A to Bob and at the same time, Bob may transmit an arbitrary single qubit state of qubit B to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  6. Optimal Remote Preparation of a Four-Qubit Entangled Cluster-Type State Via Two Non-Maximally Entangled GHZ-Type States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhang-yin; Wang, Dong; Han, Lian-fang

    2016-06-01

    We devise an highly efficient protocol for remotely preparing a four-qubit entangled cluster-type state. In this protocol, two non-maximally entangled GHZ-type states are employed to link the sender Alice and the receiver Bob, and the to-be-prepared state can be reconstructed successfully with the probability of (b 1 b 2)2 in general case. Then to achieve our concerns of constructing efficient remote preparation with higher success probability, some special ensembles of four-qubit states are minutely investigated. As a result, it is shown that the total probability of the RSP protocol, in these particular cases, can be improved to twice or even fourfold as that in general case.

  7. Controllable preparation of two-mode entangled coherent states in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ying-Hua; Liu, Yong-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Although the multi-level structure of superconducting qubits may result in calculation errors, it can be rationally used to effectively improve the speed of gate operations. Utilizing a current-biased Josephson junction (λ-type rf-SQUID) as a tunable coupler for superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), under the large detuning condition, we demonstrate the controllable generation of entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED). The coupling between the TLRs and the qubit can be effectively regulated by an external bias current or coupling capacitor. Further investigations indicate that the maximum entangled state can be obtained through measuring the excited state of the superconducting qubits. Then, the influence of the TLR decay on the prepared entangled states is analyzed.

  8. Distinguishing maximally entangled states by one-way local operations and classical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Feng, Ke-Qin; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we mainly study the local indistinguishability of mutually orthogonal bipartite maximally entangled states. We construct sets of fewer than d orthogonal maximally entangled states which are not distinguished by one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC) in the Hilbert space of d ⊗d . The proof, based on the Fourier transform of an additive group, is very simple but quite effective. Simultaneously, our results give a general unified upper bound for the minimum number of one-way LOCC indistinguishable maximally entangled states. This improves previous results which only showed sets of N ≥d -2 such states. Finally, our results also show that previous conjectures in Zhang et al. [Z.-C. Zhang, Q.-Y. Wen, F. Gao, G.-J. Tian, and T.-Q. Cao, Quant. Info. Proc. 13, 795 (2014), 10.1007/s11128-013-0691-9] are indeed correct.

  9. Entropy of entanglement in the continuous frequency space of the biphoton state from multiplexed cold atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, H. H.

    2016-02-01

    We consider a scheme of multiplexed cold atomic ensembles that generate a frequency-entangled biphoton state with controllable entropy of entanglement. The biphoton state consists of a telecommunication photon (signal) immediately followed by an infrared one (idler) via four-wave mixing with two classical pump fields. Multiplexing the atomic ensembles with frequency and phase-shifted signal and idler emissions, we can manipulate and can control the spectral property of the biphoton state. Mapping out the entropy of entanglement in the scheme provides the optimal configuration for entanglement resources. This paves the way for efficient long-distance quantum communication and for potentially useful multimode structures in quantum information processing.

  10. Robust self-testing of unknown quantum systems into any entangled two-qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tzyh Haur; Navascués, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Self-testing is a device-independent approach to estimate the state and measurement operators without the need to assume the dimension of our quantum system. In this paper, we show that one can self-test black boxes into any pure entangled two-qubit state by performing simple Bell-type experiments. The approach makes use of only one family of Bell inequalities with two inputs and two outputs. Furthermore, we outline the sufficient conditions for one to self-test any dimensional bipartite entangled state. All these methods are robust to small but inevitable experimental errors.

  11. Simulated annealing and entanglement of formation for (n ⊗m ) -dimensional mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende, S.; Altbir, D.; Retamal, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The simulated annealing algorithm, a method commonly used to calculate properties of condensed-matter systems, is used to calculate entanglement of formation for higher-dimensional mixed states. The method relies on representing a mixed state as a pure state in an enlarged Hilbert space, and on the search for the extension minimizing the convex roof of entanglement of formation. Exact results are found, and predictions for system reservoir dynamics in higher dimensions are confirmed. These findings open the way for new applications of the method in quantum information.

  12. Preserving entanglement and nonlocality in solid-state qubits by dynamical decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Franco, R.; D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Compagno, G.; Paladino, E.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we study how to preserve entanglement and nonlocality under dephasing produced by classical noise with large low-frequency components, such as 1/f noise, using dynamical decoupling techniques. We first show that quantifiers of entanglement and nonlocality satisfy a closed relation valid for two independent qubits locally coupled to a generic environment under pure dephasing and starting from a general class of initial states. This result allows us to assess the efficiency of pulse-based dynamical decoupling for protecting nonlocal quantum correlations between two qubits subject to pure-dephasing local random telegraph and 1/f noise. We investigate the efficiency of an "entanglement memory" element under two-pulse echo and under sequences of periodic, Carr-Purcell, and Uhrig dynamical decoupling. The Carr-Purcell sequence is shown to outperform the other sequences in preserving entanglement against both random telegraph and 1/f noise. For typical 1/f flux-noise figures in superconducting nanocircuits, we show that entanglement and its nonlocal features can be efficiently stored up to times one order of magnitude longer than natural entanglement disappearance times employing pulse timings of current experimental reach.

  13. Quantum Information Splitting of Arbitrary Three-Qubit State by Using Seven-Qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Deng, Fu-hu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme of quantum information splitting arbitrary three-qubit state by using seven-qubit entangled as quantum channel. The sender Alice first performs Bell-state measurements (BSMs) on her qubits pairs respectively and tells her measurement outcome to authorizers Bob to reconstruct the original state, then Charlie should carries out single-qubit measurement (SQM) on his qubits. According to the results from Alice and Charlie, Bob can reconstruct the original state by applying an appropriate unitary operation. After analyzing, the method achieved the desired effect of quantum information splitting (QIS). We also realize the QIS of arbitrary three-qubit state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  14. Deterministic LOCC transformation of three-qubit pure states and entanglement transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2013-02-15

    A necessary and sufficient condition of the possibility of a deterministic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) transformation of three-qubit pure states is given. The condition shows that the three-qubit pure states are a partially ordered set parametrized by five well-known entanglement parameters and a novel parameter; the five are the concurrences C{sub AB}, C{sub AC}, C{sub BC}, the tangle {tau}{sub ABC} and the fifth parameter J{sub 5} of Acin et al. (2000) Ref. [19], while the other new one is the entanglement charge Q{sub e}. The order of the partially ordered set is defined by the possibility of a deterministic LOCC transformation from a state to another state. In this sense, the present condition is an extension of Nielsen's work (Nielsen (1999) [14]) to three-qubit pure states. We also clarify the rules of transfer and dissipation of the entanglement which is caused by deterministic LOCC transformations. Moreover, the minimum number of times of measurements to reproduce an arbitrary deterministic LOCC transformation between three-qubit pure states is given. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained a necessary and sufficient condition for deterministic LOCC of 3 qubits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We clarified rules of entanglement flow caused by measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found a new parameter which is interpreted as 'Charge of Entanglement'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We gave a set of entanglements which determines whether two states are LU-eq. or not. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our approach to deterministic LOCC of 3 qubits may be applicable to N qubits.

  15. Bell's inequality violation for entangled generalized Bernoulli states in two spatially separate cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Franco, R.; Compagno, G.; Messina, A.; Napoli, A.

    2005-11-15

    We consider the entanglement of orthogonal generalized Bernoulli states in two separate single-mode high-Q cavities. The expectation values and the correlations of the electric field in the cavities are obtained. We then define, in each cavity, a dichotomic operator expressible in terms of the field states which can be, in principle, experimentally measured by a probe atom that 'reads' the field. Using the quantum correlations of couples of these operators, we construct a Bell's inequality which is shown to be violated for a wide range of the degree of entanglement and which can be tested in a simple way. Thus the cavity fields directly show quantum nonlocal properties. A scheme is also sketched to generate entangled orthogonal generalized Bernoulli states in the two separate cavities.

  16. Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Banchi, L.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.

    2010-11-15

    The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.

  17. Tomography of a high-fidelity spin-photon entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Peter; de Greve, Kristiaan; Yu, Leo; Pelc, Jason; Natarajan, Chandra; Kim, Na Young; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Hadfield, Robert; Forchel, Alfred; Fejer, M. M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-03-01

    The generation of entanglement between a quantum memory and a flying qubit is an important step towards building a quantum repeater node. Entanglement between a photon and a matter qubit has been demonstrated in several systems, including neutral atoms, trapped ions, NV centers and quantum dots. Quantum dots have a natural advantage that their radiative lifetimes are short, and therefore the rate of entanglement generation can be much faster than in other systems. We have recently demonstrated entanglement between an electron spin in a quantum dot, and the polarization of an emitted photon. In addition, the photon is converted to the low-loss 1550 nm band, which is important for implementing long-distance quantum communication systems. In this talk, I will present the reconstruction of the full density matrix of the entangled spin-photon state that we produce. We calculate the fidelity of the state from the density matrix, and conclude that it is > 90 % . This work was supported by the JSPS through its FIRST programme, NICT, NSF CCR-08 29694, NIST 60NANB9D9170, Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, and the State of Bavaria.

  18. A Proposed Experiment to Test Whether or Not the Reduced Density Matrix is Applicable to Entangled Particles Where the States of One of the Particles Relevant to the Entanglement are Eliminated before Any Detections are Made

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    It is shown theoretically that the reduced density matrix is not applicable to the case where the states of one of two entangled particles relevant to the entanglement of the particles, and which provide ww info to the other particle, are eliminated before any particle detections are made. Instead, the entanglement is eliminated and the particle whose states are not eliminated enters into a pure state. A proposed experiment where this case (option 1) is tested is presented. The experiment has a second option (option 2) in which the states of both of the entangled particles that are relevant to the entanglement are preserved. In the experiment, the entangled particles become spatially separated. Elimination of the states of one of the entangled particles relevant to the entanglement results in the elimination of the entanglement and the placement of the other particle into a pure state. We have a delayed choice with regard to the particle whose states can be eliminated that affects the overall distribution (either reflecting interference or ww info) of the other particle that it is initially entangled with and that becomes physically distant from it. If the overall distribution of the signal photons in option 1 exhibits fringes and the overall distribution of the signal photons in option 2 is characteristic of ww info, then the reduced density matrix is not applicable to the case where the states of the signal photon relevant to the entanglement are eliminated before any detections are made.

  19. On the entanglement of electronic states of impurity atoms in nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Basharov, Askhat M; Znamenskiy, Nikolay V; Gorbachev, Valery N

    2006-08-31

    By using the derived master equations, it is shown that the decay of electronic impurities in a nanocrystal can be described as a collective relaxation of particles. A set of entangled states of impurity atoms is found, which have immunity to this relaxation. These states can be used for decoherence-free quantum processing. (quantum optics and information)

  20. Scheme for Implementing Teleporting an Arbitrary Tripartite Entangled State in Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Wen; Peng, Zhao-Hui

    2009-10-01

    We propose to teleport an arbitrary tripartite entangled state in cavity QED. In this scheme, the five-qubit Brown state is chosen as the quantum channel. It has been shown that the teleportation protocol can be completed perfectly with two different measurement methods. In the future, our scheme might be realizable based on present experimental technology.

  1. Probing quantum entanglement, quantum discord, classical correlation, and the quantum state without disturbing them

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui

    2011-01-15

    We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.

  2. Multipartite entanglement gambling: The power of asymptotic state transformations assisted by a sublinear amount of quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish V.; Smolin, John A.

    2003-12-01

    Reversible state transformations under entanglement nonincreasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely, LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis) have been considered in the literature. In this paper we show that LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations for multipartite pure states. The basic tool we use is multipartite entanglement gambling: Any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair shared by some pair of parties and any irreducible m-party pure state (m⩾2) can be used to create any other state (pure or mixed) using LOCC. We consider applications of multipartite entanglement gambling to multipartite distillability and to characterizations of multipartite minimal entanglement generating sets. We briefly consider generalizations of this result to mixed states by defining the class of cat-distillable states, i.e., states from which cat states (|0⊗m>+|1⊗m>) may be distilled.

  3. The geometric measure of entanglement for a symmetric pure state with non-negative amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masahito; Markham, Damian; Owari, Masaki; Virmani, Shashank

    2009-12-15

    In this paper for a class of symmetric multiparty pure states, we consider a conjecture related to the geometric measure of entanglement: ''for a symmetric pure state, the closest product state in terms of the fidelity can be chosen as a symmetric product state.'' We show that this conjecture is true for symmetric pure states whose amplitudes are all non-negative in a computational basis. The more general conjecture is still open.

  4. Demonstration of a programmable source of two-photon multiqubit entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Cialdi, Simone; Brivio, Davide; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2010-04-15

    We suggest and demonstrate a novel source of two-photon multipartite entangled states which exploits the transverse spatial structure of spontaneous parametric down-conversion together with a programmable spatial light modulator (SLM). The one-dimensional SLM is used to perform polarization entanglement purification and to realize arbitrary phase gates between polarization and momentum degrees of freedom of photons. We experimentally demonstrate our scheme by generating two-photon three-qubit linear cluster states with high fidelity using a diode laser pump with a limited coherence time and power on the crystal as low as {approx}2.5 mW.

  5. Noise Effects on Entangled Coherent State Generated via Atom-Field Interaction and Beam Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarbashi, G.; Mirzaei, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a controllable method for producing two and three-mode entangled coherent states (ECS's) using atom-field interaction in cavity QED and beam splitter. The generated states play central roles in linear optics, quantum computation and teleportation. We especially focus on qubit, qutrit and qufit like ECS's and investigate their entanglement by concurrence measure. Moreover, we illustrate decoherence properties of ECS's due to noisy channels, using negativity measure. At the end the effect of noise on monogamy inequality is discussed.

  6. Quantum Coherent Feedback Control for Generation System of Optical Entangled State

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaojun; Li, Fang; Yu, Juan; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2015-01-01

    The non-measurement based coherent feedback control (CFC) is a control method without introducing any backaction noise into the controlled system, thus is specially suitable to manipulate various quantum optical systems for preparing nonclassical states of light. By simply tuning the transmissivity of an optical controller in a CFC loop attached to a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA), the quantum entanglement degree of the output optical entangled state of the system is improved. At the same time, the threshold pump power of the NOPA is reduced also. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with the theoretical expectation. PMID:26047357

  7. Efficient quantum secret sharing scheme with two-particle entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-Chao; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Fu, An-Min

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for multi-party quantum secret sharing utilizing four non-orthogonal two-particle entangled states following some ideas in the schemes proposed by Liu et al. (2006 Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 3148) and Zhang et al. (2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 2149) respectively. The theoretical efficiency for qubits of the new protocol is improved from 50% to approaching 100%. All the entangled states can be used for generating the private key except those used for the eavesdropping check. The validity of a probable attack called opaque cheat attack to this kind of protocols is considered in the paper for the first time.

  8. Maximal entanglement concentration for a set of (n+1)-qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban

    2015-12-01

    We propose two schemes for concentration of (n+1)-qubit entangled states that can be written in the form of ( α |\\varphi 0rangle |0rangle +β |\\varphi 1rangle |1rangle ) _{n+1} where |\\varphi 0rangle and |\\varphi 1rangle are mutually orthogonal n-qubit states. The importance of this general form is that the entangled states such as Bell, cat, GHZ, GHZ-like, |\\varOmega rangle , |Q5rangle , 4-qubit cluster states and specific states from the nine SLOCC-nonequivalent families of 4-qubit entangled states can be expressed in this form. The proposed entanglement concentration protocol is based on the local operations and classical communications (LOCC). It is shown that the maximum success probability for ECP using quantum nondemolition technique (QND) is 2β 2 for (n+1)-qubit states of the prescribed form. It is shown that the proposed schemes can be implemented optically. Further, it is also noted that the proposed schemes can be implemented using quantum dot and microcavity systems.

  9. Relation between the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-entanglement cost of preparing a multipartite pure state and its quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungho; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-08-01

    We investigate how much amount of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement is required in order to prepare a given multipartite state by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We present a LOCC procedure that asymptotically converts GHZ states into an arbitrary multipartite pure state, whose conversion rate is given by the multipartite discord of the state. This reveals that the GHZ-entanglement cost of preparing a pure state is not higher than the multipartite discord of the state. It also provides an operational interpretation of multipartite discord for pure states, namely, the consumption rate of GHZ entanglement in the devised procedure.

  10. Entangled collective-spin states of atomic ensembles under nonuniform atom-light interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Chen, Wenlan; Vendeiro, Zachary; Zhang, Hao; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-12-01

    We consider the optical generation and characterization of entanglement in atomic ensembles under nonuniform interaction between the ensemble and an optical mode. We show that for a wide range of parameters a system of nonuniformly coupled atomic spins can be described as an ensemble of uniformly coupled spins with a reduced effective atom-light coupling and a reduced effective atom number, with a reduction factor of order unity given by the ensemble-mode geometry. This description is valid even for complex entangled states with arbitrary phase-space distribution functions as long as the average total spin remains large, and the detection does not resolve single spins. Furthermore, we derive an analytic formula for determining the observable entanglement in the case, of relevance in practice, where the ensemble-mode coupling differs between state generation and measurement.

  11. Compressively Characterizing High-Dimensional Entangled States with Complementary, Random Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Gregory A.; Knarr, Samuel H.; Schneeloch, James; Lum, Daniel J.; Howell, John C.

    2016-04-01

    The resources needed to conventionally characterize a quantum system are overwhelmingly large for high-dimensional systems. This obstacle may be overcome by abandoning traditional cornerstones of quantum measurement, such as general quantum states, strong projective measurement, and assumption-free characterization. Following this reasoning, we demonstrate an efficient technique for characterizing high-dimensional, spatial entanglement with one set of measurements. We recover sharp distributions with local, random filtering of the same ensemble in momentum followed by position—something the uncertainty principle forbids for projective measurements. Exploiting the expectation that entangled signals are highly correlated, we use fewer than 5000 measurements to characterize a 65,536-dimensional state. Finally, we use entropic inequalities to witness entanglement without a density matrix. Our method represents the sea change unfolding in quantum measurement, where methods influenced by the information theory and signal-processing communities replace unscalable, brute-force techniques—a progression previously followed by classical sensing.

  12. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths. PMID:26804326

  13. Steering Bound Entangled States: A Counterexample to the Stronger Peres Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Gittsovich, Oleg; Huber, Marcus; Gühne, Otfried

    2014-08-01

    Quantum correlations are at the heart of many applications in quantum information science and, at the same time, they form the basis for discussions about genuine quantum effects and their difference to classical physics. On one hand, entanglement theory provides the tools to quantify correlations in information processing and many results have been obtained to discriminate useful entanglement, which can be distilled to a pure form, from bound entanglement, being of limited use in many applications. On the other hand, for discriminating quantum phenomena from their classical counterparts, Schrödinger and Bell introduced the notions of steering and local hidden variable models. We provide a method to generate systematically bound entangled quantum states which can still be used for steering and, therefore, to rule out local hidden state models. This sheds light on the relations between the various views on quantum correlations and disproves a widespread conjecture known as the stronger Peres conjecture. For practical applications, it implies that even the weakest form of entanglement can be certified in a semidevice independent way.

  14. Atomic homodyne detection of continuous-variable entangled twin-atom states.

    PubMed

    Gross, C; Strobel, H; Nicklas, E; Zibold, T; Bar-Gill, N; Kurizki, G; Oberthaler, M K

    2011-12-01

    Historically, the completeness of quantum theory has been questioned using the concept of bipartite continuous-variable entanglement. The non-classical correlations (entanglement) between the two subsystems imply that the observables of one subsystem are determined by the measurement choice on the other, regardless of the distance between the subsystems. Nowadays, continuous-variable entanglement is regarded as an essential resource, allowing for quantum enhanced measurement resolution, the realization of quantum teleportation and quantum memories, or the demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. These applications rely on techniques to manipulate and detect coherences of quantum fields, the quadratures. Whereas in optics coherent homodyne detection of quadratures is a standard technique, for massive particles a corresponding method was missing. Here we report the realization of an atomic analogue to homodyne detection for the measurement of matter-wave quadratures. The application of this technique to a quantum state produced by spin-changing collisions in a Bose-Einstein condensate reveals continuous-variable entanglement, as well as the twin-atom character of the state. Our results provide a rare example of continuous-variable entanglement of massive particles. The direct detection of atomic quadratures has applications not only in experimental quantum atom optics, but also for the measurement of fields in many-body systems of massive particles. PMID:22139418

  15. Nonexistence of entangled continuous-variable Werner states with positive partial transpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Daniel; Tatham, Richard; Mišta, Ladislav

    2014-03-01

    We address an open question about the existence of entangled continuous-variable (CV) Werner states with positive partial transpose (PPT). We prove that no such state exists by showing that all PPT CV Werner states are separable. The separability follows by observing that these CV Werner states can be approximated by truncating the states into a finite-dimensional convex mixture of product states. In addition, the constituents of the product states comprise a generalized non-Gaussian measurement which gives, rather surprisingly, a strictly tighter upper bound on quantum discord than photon counting. These results uncover the presence of only negative partial transpose entanglement and illustrate the complexity of more general nonclassical correlations in this paradigmatic class of genuine non-Gaussian quantum states.

  16. Unity fidelity multiple teleportation using partially entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigolin, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    We show that the multiple teleportation protocol (MTP) given in reference (J Modławska and A Grudka 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 110503) is not restricted to the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) framework. Rather, we show that MTP can be implemented using any teleportation scheme. We also present two new MTPs which, under certain situations, are more efficient than the original one, requiring half of the number of its teleportations to achieve at least the same probability of success (\\mathcal {P}_suc). One of the protocols, however, uses less entanglement than the others yielding, surprisingly, the greatest \\mathcal {P}_suc.

  17. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation by using a Seven-qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wen-qin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit entangled state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice wants to transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob wants to transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. One only need perform the Bell-state measurements and single-qubit measurement.

  18. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality.

    PubMed

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2015-01-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724

  19. Mixing nonclassical pure states in a linear-optical network almost always generates modal entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Mattihas; Caves, Carlton; CenterQuantum Information and Control Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state | 1 > ⊗ | 1 > . This suggests the beamsplitter or, more generally, linear-optical networks as a mediator of the two notions of nonclassicality. We show the following: Given a nonclassical pure product state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and anti-squeezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson sampling problem.

  20. Mixing nonclassical pure states in a linear-optical network almost always generates modal entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Matthias D.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2013-10-01

    In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state |1>⊗|1>. This suggests that beamsplitters or, more generally, linear-optical networks are mediators of the two notions of nonclassicality. In this Brief Report, we show the following: Given a nonclassical pure-product-state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and antisqueezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure-product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson-sampling problem.

  1. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality

    PubMed Central

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724

  2. Typical universal entanglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Luo, MingXing; Chen, XiuBo; Yang, YiXian; Wang, XiaoJun

    2014-10-01

    A universal entangler is a very powerful fault-tolerant entangling device for generating quantum entanglements from any joint states. Our paper aims to address the construction of universal entanglers. We prove that universal entanglers may be obtained from random unitary gates according to the Harr measure. The success probability is close to 1 for large system spaces. This result represents the typical density of entanglement subspaces in large state spaces. It also partially solves an open problem of universal bipartite entanglers and is explained by some experiment simulations.

  3. Remote preparation of single-photon "hybrid" entangled and vector-polarization States.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Julio T; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Kwiat, Paul G

    2010-07-16

    Quantum teleportation faces increasingly demanding requirements for transmitting large or even entangled systems. However, knowledge of the state to be transmitted eases its reconstruction, resulting in a protocol known as remote state preparation. A number of experimental demonstrations to date have been restricted to single-qubit systems. We report the remote preparation of two-qubit "hybrid" entangled states, including a family of vector-polarization beams. Our single-photon states are encoded in the photon spin and orbital angular momentum. We reconstruct the states by spin-orbit state tomography and transverse polarization tomography. The high fidelities achieved for the vector-polarization states opens the door to optimal coupling of down-converted photons to other physical systems, such as an atom, as required for scalable quantum networks, or plasmons in photonic nanostructures. PMID:20867752

  4. Bounds on corner entanglement in quantum critical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Witczak-Krempa, William

    2016-01-01

    The entanglement entropy in many gapless quantum systems receives a contribution from the corners in the entangling surface in 2+1d, which is characterized by a universal function a (θ ) depending on the opening angle θ , and contains pertinent low energy information. For conformal field theories (CFTs), the leading expansion coefficient in the smooth limit θ →π yields the stress tensor two-point function coefficient CT. Little is known about a (θ ) beyond that limit. Here, we show that the next term in the smooth limit expansion contains information beyond the two- and three-point correlators of the stress tensor. We conjecture that it encodes four-point data, making it much richer. Further, we establish strong constraints on this and higher-order smooth-limit coefficients. We also show that a (θ ) is lower-bounded by a nontrivial function multiplied by the central charge CT, e.g., a (π /2 ) ≥(π2ln2 ) CT/6 . This bound for 90-degree corners is nearly saturated by all known results, including recent numerics for the interacting Wilson-Fisher quantum critical points (QCPs). A bound is also given for the Rényi entropies. We illustrate our findings using O(N ) QCPs, free boson and Dirac fermion CFTs, strongly coupled holographic ones, and other models. Exact results are also given for Lifshitz quantum critical points, and for conical singularities in 3+1d.

  5. Safe Maritime Autonomous Path Planning in a High Sea State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Quadrelli, Marco; Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a path planning method for sea surface vehicles that prevents capsizing and bow-diving in a high sea-state. A key idea is to use response amplitude operators (RAOs) or, in control terminology, the transfer functions from a sea state to a vessel's motion, in order to find a set of speeds and headings that results in excessive pitch and roll oscillations. This information is translated to arithmetic constraints on the ship's velocity, which are passed to a model predictive control (MPC)-based path planner to find a safe and optimal path that achieves specified goals. An obstacle avoidance capability is also added to the path planner. The proposed method is demonstrated by simulations.

  6. Essentially entangled component of multipartite mixed quantum states, its properties, and an efficient algorithm for its extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akulin, V. M.; Kabatiansky, G. A.; Mandilara, A.

    2015-10-01

    Using geometric means, we first consider a density matrix decomposition of a multipartite quantum system of a finite dimension into two density matrices: a separable one, also known as the best separable approximation, and an essentially entangled one, which contains no product state components. We show that this convex decomposition can be achieved in practice with the help of a linear programming algorithm that scales in the general case polynomially with the system dimension. We illustrate the algorithm implementation with an example of a composite system of dimension 12 that undergoes a loss of coherence due to classical noise and we trace the time evolution of its essentially entangled component. We suggest a "geometric" description of entanglement dynamics and demonstrate how it explains the well-known phenomena of sudden death and revival of multipartite entanglements. For a statistical weight loss of the essentially entangled component with time, its average entanglement content is not affected by the coherence loss.

  7. Perfect state transfer, effective gates, and entanglement generation in engineered bosonic and fermionic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, M.-H.; Bose, Sougato

    2005-03-01

    We show how to achieve perfect quantum state transfer and construct effective two-qubit gates between distant sites in engineered bosonic and fermionic networks. The Hamiltonian for the system can be determined by choosing an eigenvalue spectrum satisfying a certain condition, which is shown to be both sufficient and necessary in mirror-symmetrical networks. The natures of the effective two-qubit gates depend on the exchange symmetry for fermions and bosons. For fermionic networks, the gates are entangling (and thus universal for quantum computation). For bosonic networks, though the gates are not entangling, they allow two-way simultaneous communications. Protocols of entanglement generation in both bosonic and fermionic engineered networks are discussed.

  8. Entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution with multimode states and detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim

    2014-12-01

    Secure quantum key distribution with multimode Gaussian entangled states and multimode homodyne detectors is proposed. In general the multimode character of both the sources of entanglement and the homodyne detectors can cause a security break even for a perfect channel when trusted parties are unaware of the detection structure. Taking into account the multimode structure and potential leakage of information from a homodyne detector reduces the loss of security to some extent. We suggest the symmetrization of the multimode sources of entanglement as an efficient method allowing us to fully recover the security irrespectively to multimode structure of the homodyne detectors. Further, we demonstrate that by increasing the number of the fluctuating but similar source modes the multimode protocol stabilizes the security of the quantum key distribution. The result opens the pathway towards quantum key distribution with multimode sources and detectors.

  9. A practical introduction to tensor networks: Matrix product states and projected entangled pair states

    SciTech Connect

    Orús, Román

    2014-10-15

    This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • A practical introduction to selected aspects of tensor network methods is presented. • We provide analytical examples of MPS and 2d PEPS. • We provide basic aspects on several numerical methods for MPS and 2d PEPS. • We discuss a number of applications of tensor network methods from a broad perspective.

  10. State transfer and entanglement of two mechanical oscillators in coupled cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Taha; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Ling

    2014-08-01

    We investigate coupled two-cavity optomechanical systems to show their potential usages by revealing the physical processes. Under two conditions, we deduce the correspondingly effective Hamiltonian with beam splitter type and nondegenerate parametric-down conversion type, respectively. Including the whole interactions, we show that the state transfer and the stationary entanglement between the two mechanical resonators can be achieved.

  11. Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David

    2005-09-15

    We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.

  12. Mother wavelets for complex wavelet transform derived by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state representation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Lu, Hai-Liang

    2007-03-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state representation is applied to studying the admissibility condition of mother wavelets for complex wavelet transforms, which leads to a family of new mother wavelets. Mother wavelets thus are classified as the Hermite-Gaussian type for real wavelet transforms and the Laguerre-Gaussian type for the complex case. PMID:17392919

  13. Total teleportation of zero- and one-photon entangled states in running waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso B., W.; Avelar T., A.; Baseia, B.; Almeida G. de, N.

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by a recent paper [2002 J. Opt. B 4 316] we present an alternative scheme to teleport an entanglement of zero- and one-photon states of a running-wave field. The scheme employs only linear optical elements plus single-photon sources and detectors.

  14. A Quantum Multi-proxy Blind Signature Scheme Based on Genuine Four-Qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Juan-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yan-Ping

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-proxy blind signature scheme based on controlled teleportation. Genuine four-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement delegation, signature and verification. The security analysis shows the scheme satisfies the security features of multi-proxy signature, unforgeability, undeniability, blindness and unconditional security.

  15. Generating two-photon entangled states in a driven two-atom system

    SciTech Connect

    Almutairi, Khulud; Tanas, Ryszard; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2011-07-15

    We describe a mechanism for a controlled generation of a pure Bell state with correlated atoms that involve two or zero excitations. The mechanism inhibits transitions into singly excited collective states of a two-atom system by shifting them from their unperturbed energies. The shift is accomplished by the dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms. The creation of the Bell state is found to be dependent on the relaxation of the atomic excitation. When the relaxation is not present or can be ignored, the state of the system evolves harmonically between a separable to the maximally entangled state. We follow the temporal evolution of the state and find that the concurrence can be different from zero only in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. Furthermore, in the limit of a large dipole-dipole interaction, the concurrence reduces to that predicted for an X state of the system. A general inequality is found which shows that the concurrence of an X-state system is a lower bound for the concurrence of the two-atom system. With the relaxation present, the general state of the system is a mixed state that under a strong dipole-dipole interaction reduces the system to an X-state form. We find that mixed states admit of lower level of entanglement, and the entanglement may occur over a finite range of time. A simple analytical expression is obtained for the steady-state concurrence which shows that there is a threshold value for the dipole-dipole interaction relative to the Rabi frequency of the driving field above which the atoms can be entangled over the entire time of the evolution.

  16. Steady-state entanglement of harmonic oscillators via dissipation in a single superconducting artificial atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Nie, Wei; Feng, Xunli; Oh, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    The correlated emission lasing (CEL) is experimentally demonstrated in harmonic oscillators coupled via a single three-level artificial atom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 223603 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.223603] in which two-mode entanglement only exists in a certain time period when the harmonic oscillators are resonant with the atomic transitions. Here we examine this system and show that it is possible to obtain the steady-state entanglement when the two harmonic oscillators are resonant with Rabi sidebands. Applying dressed atomic states and Bogoliubov-mode transformation, we obtain the analytical results of the variance sum of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-like operators. The stable entanglement originates from the dissipation process of the Bogoliubov modes because the atomic system can act as a reservoir in dressed state representation. We also show that the entanglement is robust against the dephasing rates of the superconducing atom, which is expected to have important applications in quantum information processing.

  17. Generation of a macroscopic entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    W-type entangled states can be used as quantum channels for, e.g., quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, and quantum key distribution. In this work, we propose a way to generate a macroscopic W-type entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED. The memories considered here are nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs), each located in a different cavity. This proposal does not require initially preparing each NVE in a coherent state instead of a ground state, which should significantly reduce its experimental difficulty. For most of the operation time, each cavity remains in a vacuum state, thus decoherence caused by the cavity decay and the unwanted inter-cavity crosstalk are greatly suppressed. Moreover, only one external-cavity coupler qubit is needed, which simplifies the circuit. PMID:27562055

  18. Generation of a macroscopic entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    W-type entangled states can be used as quantum channels for, e.g., quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, and quantum key distribution. In this work, we propose a way to generate a macroscopic W-type entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED. The memories considered here are nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs), each located in a different cavity. This proposal does not require initially preparing each NVE in a coherent state instead of a ground state, which should significantly reduce its experimental difficulty. For most of the operation time, each cavity remains in a vacuum state, thus decoherence caused by the cavity decay and the unwanted inter-cavity crosstalk are greatly suppressed. Moreover, only one external-cavity coupler qubit is needed, which simplifies the circuit. PMID:27562055

  19. Conditional generation scheme for entangled vacuum evacuated coherent states by mixing two coherent beams with a squeezed vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Sun-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Conditions to generate high-purity entangled vacuum-evacuated coherent states (| 0 > | α>0 - | - α>0 | 0 >) were studied for two cascade-placed beam splitters, with one squeezed state input and two coherent state inputs whenever a single photon is detected. Controlling the amplitudes and the phases of the beams allows for various amplitudes of the vacuum-evacuated coherent states (| α>0 = | α > -e - | α|2 | 0 >) up to α = 2.160 to be manipulated with high-purity.

  20. Driver state examination--Treading new paths.

    PubMed

    Wascher, Edmund; Getzmann, Stephan; Karthaus, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    A large proportion of crashes in road driving can be attributed to driver fatigue. Several types of fatigue are discussed, comprising sleep-related fatigue, active task-related fatigue (as a consequence of workload in demanding driving situations) as well as passive task-related fatigue (as related to monotonous driving situations). The present study investigated actual states of fatigue in a monotonous driving situation, using EEG measures and a long-lasting driving simulation experiment, in which drivers had to keep the vehicle on track by compensating crosswind of different strength. Performance data and electrophysiological correlates of mental fatigue (EEG Alpha and Theta power, Inter Trial Coherence (ITC), and auditory event-related potentials to short sound stimuli) were analyzed. Driving errors and driving lane variability increased with time on task and with increasing crosswind. The posterior Alpha and Theta power also increased with time on task, but decreased with stronger crosswind. The P3a to sound stimuli decreased with time on task when the crosswind was weak, but remained stable when the crosswind was strong. The analysis of ITC revealed less frontal Alpha and Theta band synchronization with time on task, but no effect of crosswind. The results suggest that Alpha power in monotonous driving situations reflects boredom or attentional withdrawal due to monotony rather than the decline of processing abilities as a consequence of high mental effort. A more valid indicator of declining mental resources with increasing time on task seems to be provided by brain oscillatory synchronization measures and event-related activity. PMID:26986022

  1. Local commutativity versus Bell inequality violation for entangled states and versus non-violation for separable states

    SciTech Connect

    Seevinck, Michael; Uffink, Jos

    2007-10-15

    By introducing a quantitative 'degree of commutativity' in terms of the angle between spin observables we present two tight quantitative trade-off relations in the case of two qubits. First, for entangled states, between the degree of commutativity of local observables and the maximal amount of violation of the Bell inequality: if both local angles increase from zero to {pi}/2 (i.e., the degree of local commutativity decreases), the maximum violation of the Bell inequality increases. Secondly, a converse trade-off relation holds for separable states: if both local angles approach {pi}/2 the maximal value obtainable for the correlations in the Bell inequality decreases and thus the non-violation increases. As expected, the extremes of these relations are found in the case of anticommuting local observables where, respectively, the bounds of 2{radical}(2) and {radical}(2) hold for the expectation value of the Bell operator. The trade-off relations show that noncommmutativity gives 'a more than classical result' for entangled states, whereas 'a less than classical result' is obtained for separable states. The experimental relevance of the trade-off relation for separable states is that it provides an experimental test for two qubit entanglement. Its advantages are twofold: in comparison to violations of Bell inequalities it is a stronger criterion and in comparison to entanglement witnesses it needs to make less strong assumptions about the observables implemented in the experiment.

  2. Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement by an Entangled Six-Qubit State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Cai; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jianping; Zhang, Yong; Long, Dongyang

    2016-03-01

    Since the first quantum key agreement protocol based on Bell state was presented by Zhou et al., much attention has focused on it, which is based on entangled states and product states. In this paper, we propose a multi-party quantum key agreement protocol, in which the genuinely maximally entangled six-qubit states are used. The presented protocol allows participants to share a secret key and preserves the following advantages. First, the outcome of the protocol is influenced by all parties; Second, the presented protocol is fairness, i.e., no one can determine the shared key alone; Third, outside eavesdroppers cannot gain the generated key without introducing any error. The security analysis shows that our protocol can resist both outside attacks and inside attacks.

  3. Generation of tree-type three-dimensional entangled states via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Wu, Jin-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme for generating a type of novel tree-type three-dimensional entangled state. In the scheme, an atom and two Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are individually trapped in three spatially separated optical cavities which are connected by two optical fibers. Because the system evolves along the dark state via adiabatic passage, the populations of the intermediate excited states of the atom and BECs are so negligible that the influence of atomic spontaneous radiation on the fidelity is restrained. In addition, because of the certain limit condition used, the cavity decay and fiber loss are efficiently suppressed. This novel three-dimensional entangled state is likely to have applications for improving quantum communication security.

  4. Quantum nonlocality of generic family of four-qubit entangled pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; He, Ying-Qiu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2015-07-01

    We directly introduce a Bell-type inequality for four-qubit systems. Using the inequality we investigate quantum nonlocality of a generic family of states |Gabcd> [Phys. Rev. A 65 052112 (2002)] and several canonical four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the inequality is maximally violated by the so called “four-qubit the maximally entangled state |Gm>” and it is also violated by four-qubit W state and a special family of states |Gab00>. Moreover, a useful entanglement-nonlocality relationship for the family of states |Gab00> is derived. Finally, we present a scheme of preparation of the state |Gm> with linear optics and cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475054 and 11371005), Hebei Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. A2012205013 and A2014205060), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 3142014068 and 3142014125), and Langfang Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014011002).

  5. Witnessing random unitary and projective quantum channels: Complementarity between separable and maximally entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, D.; Sperling, J.; Scheel, S.

    2016-03-01

    Modern applications in quantum computation and quantum communication require the precise characterization of quantum states and quantum channels. In practice, this means that one has to determine the quantum capacity of a physical system in terms of measurable quantities. Witnesses, if properly constructed, succeed in performing this task. We derive a method that is capable to compute witnesses for identifying deterministic evolutions and measurement-induced collapse processes. At the same time, applying the Choi-Jamiołkowski isomorphism, it uncovers the entanglement characteristics of bipartite quantum states. Remarkably, a statistical mixture of unitary evolutions is mapped onto mixtures of maximally entangled states, and classical separable states originate from genuine quantum-state reduction maps. Based on our treatment, we are able to witness these opposing attributes at once and, furthermore, obtain an insight into their different geometric structures. The complementarity is further underpinned by formulating a complementary Schmidt decomposition of a state in terms of maximally entangled states and discrete Fourier-transformed Schmidt coefficients.

  6. Generation of quantum entangled states in nonlinear plasmonic structures and metamaterials (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddubny, Alexander N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    2015-09-01

    The practical development of quantum plasmonic circuits incorporating non-classical interference [1] and sources of entangled states calls for a versatile quantum theoretical framework which can fully describe the generation and detection of entangled photons and plasmons. However, majority of the presently used theoretical approaches are typically limited to the toy models assuming loss-less and nondispersive elements or including just a few resonant modes. Here, we present a rigorous Green function approach describing entangled photon-plasmon state generation through spontaneous wave mixing in realistic metal-dielectric nanostructures. Our approach is based on the local Huttner-Barnett quantization scheme [2], which enables problem formulation in terms of a Hermitian Hamiltonian where the losses and dispersion are fully encoded in the electromagnetic Green functions. Hence, the problem can be addressed by the standard quantum mechanical perturbation theory, overcoming mathematical difficulties associated with other quantization schemes. We derive explicit expressions with clear physical meaning for the spatially dependent two-photon detection probability, single-photon detection probability and single-photon density matrix. In the limiting case of low-loss nondispersive waveguides our approach reproduces the previous results [3,4]. Importantly, our technique is far more general and can quantitatively describe generation and detection of spatially-entangled photons in arbitrary metal-dielectric structures taking into account actual losses and dispersion. This is essential to perform the design and optimization of plasmonic structures for generation and control of quantum entangled states. [1] J.S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y.A. Kelaita and H.A. Atwater, Nature Photonics 8, 317(2014) [2] W. Vogel and D.-G. Welsch, Quantum Optics, Wiley (2006). [3] D.A. Antonosyan, A.S. Solntsev and A.A. Sukhorukov, Phys. Rev. A 90 043845 (2014) [4] L.-G. Helt, J.E. Sipe and M.J. Steel, ar

  7. Generation and purification of maximally entangled atomic states in optical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lougovski, P.; Walther, H.; Solano, E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a probabilistic scheme for generating and purifying maximally entangled states of two atoms inside an optical cavity via no-photon detection at the cavity output, where ideal detectors are not required. The intermediate mixed states can be continuously purified so as to violate Bell inequalities in a parametrized manner. The scheme relies on an additional strong-driving field that realizes, atypically, simultaneous Jaynes-Cummings and anti-Jaynes-Cummings interactions.

  8. Entangled Bloch spheres: Bloch matrix and two-qubit state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamel, Omar

    2016-06-01

    We represent a two-qubit density matrix in the basis of Pauli matrix tensor products, with the coefficients constituting a Bloch matrix, analogous to the single qubit Bloch vector. We find the quantum state positivity requirements on the Bloch matrix components, leading to three important inequalities, allowing us to parametrize and visualize the two-qubit state space. Applying the singular value decomposition naturally separates the degrees of freedom to local and nonlocal, and simplifies the positivity inequalities. It also allows us to geometrically represent a state as two entangled Bloch spheres with superimposed correlation axes. It is shown that unitary transformations, local or nonlocal, have simple interpretations as axis rotations or mixing of certain degrees of freedom. The nonlocal unitary invariants of the state are then derived in terms of local unitary invariants. The positive partial transpose criterion for entanglement is generalized, and interpreted as a reflection, or a change of a single sign. The formalism is used to characterize maximally entangled states, and generalize two qubit isotropic and Werner states.

  9. Teleportation of a general two-photon state employing a polarization-entangled χ state with nondemolition parity analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Employing a polarization-entangled χ state, which is a four-photon genuine entangled state, we propose a protocol teleporting a general two-photon polarization state. Firstly, the sender needs to perform one Controlled-NOT gate, one Hadamard gate, and one Controlled-NOT gate on the state to be teleported in succession. Secondly, the sender performs local nondemolition parity analyses based on cross-Kerr nonlinearities and publicizes the achieved outcomes. Finally, conditioned on the sender's analysis outcomes, the receiver executes the single-photon unitary transformation operations on his own photons to obtain the state originally sit in the sender's location. Due to the employment of nondemolition parity analyses rather than four-qubit joint measurement, it can be realized more feasible with currently available technologies. Moreover, the resources of Bell states can be achieved because the nondestructive measurement is exploited, which facilitates other potential tasks of quantum information processing.

  10. Teleportation of a general two-photon state employing a polarization-entangled χ state with nondemolition parity analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Employing a polarization-entangled χ state, which is a four-photon genuine entangled state, we propose a protocol teleporting a general two-photon polarization state. Firstly, the sender needs to perform one Controlled-NOT gate, one Hadamard gate, and one Controlled-NOT gate on the state to be teleported in succession. Secondly, the sender performs local nondemolition parity analyses based on cross-Kerr nonlinearities and publicizes the achieved outcomes. Finally, conditioned on the sender's analysis outcomes, the receiver executes the single-photon unitary transformation operations on his own photons to obtain the state originally sit in the sender's location. Due to the employment of nondemolition parity analyses rather than four-qubit joint measurement, it can be realized more feasible with currently available technologies. Moreover, the resources of Bell states can be achieved because the nondestructive measurement is exploited, which facilitates other potential tasks of quantum information processing.

  11. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Xu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless quantum communication networks transfer quantum state by teleportation. Existing research focuses on maximal entangled pairs. In this paper, we analyse the distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs. A quantum routing scheme with multi-hop teleportation is proposed. With the proposed scheme, is not necessary for the quantum path to be consistent with the classical path. The quantum path and its associated classical path are established in a distributed way. Direct multi-hop teleportation is conducted on the selected path to transfer a quantum state from the source to the destination. Based on the feature of multi-hop teleportation using partially entangled pairs, if the node number of the quantum path is even, the destination node will add another teleportation at itself. We simulated the performance of distributed wireless quantum communication networks with a partially entangled state. The probability of transferring the quantum state successfully is statistically analyzed. Our work shows that multi-hop teleportation on distributed wireless quantum networks with partially entangled pairs is feasible.

  12. Generation of hybrid four-qubit entangled decoherence-free states assisted by the cavity-QED system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You-Sheng; Li, Xian; Deng, Yun; Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing

    2016-05-01

    We propose three effective protocols to generate four-qubit entangled decoherence-free states assisted by the cavity-QED system. These schemes are based on optical selection rules realized with a single electron charged self-assembled GaAs/InAs quantum dot in a micropillar resonator. Compared with previous photonic protocols, the first scheme is to replace the entangled-state resources with much simpler single-photon resources and has a deterministic success probability. Moreover, the cavity-QED system may be used to generate four-spin entangled decoherence-free states and hybrid four-qubit of spin-photon entangled decoherence-free states. These states may be applied up to different requirements because of different superiorities of photons and spins. All schemes may be implemented with current physical technologies.

  13. Photon-Mediated Interactions: A Scalable Tool to Create and Sustain Entangled States of N Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, Camille; Kulkarni, Manas; Türeci, Hakan E.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and study the use of photon-mediated interactions for the generation of long-range steady-state entanglement between N atoms. Through the judicious use of coherent drives and the placement of the atoms in a network of cavity QED systems, a balance between their unitary and dissipative dynamics can be precisely engineered to stabilize a long-range correlated state of qubits in the steady state. We discuss the general theory behind such a scheme and present an example of how it can be used to drive a register of N atoms to a generalized W state and how the entanglement can be sustained indefinitely. The achievable steady-state fidelities for entanglement and its scaling with the number of qubits are discussed for presently existing superconducting quantum circuits. While the protocol is primarily discussed for a superconducting circuit architecture, it is ideally realized in any cavity QED platform that permits controllable delivery of coherent electromagnetic radiation to specified locations.

  14. Photon-mediated interactions: a scalable tool to create and sustain entangled states of N atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, Camille; Kulkarni, Manas; Tureci, Hakan

    We propose and study the use of photon-mediated interactions for the generation of steady-state entanglement between N atoms that are separated by arbitrary distances. Through the judicious use of coherent drives and the placement of the atoms in a network of Cavity QED systems, a balance between their unitary and dissipative dynamics can be precisely engineered to stabilize a long-range correlated state of qubits in the steady state. We discuss the general theory behind such a scheme, and present an example of how it can be used to drive a register of N atoms to a generalized W-state, and the entanglement sustained indefinitely. The achievable steady-state fidelities for entanglement and its scaling with the number of qubits are discussed for presently existing superconducting quantum circuits. While the protocol is primarily discussed for a superconducting circuit architecture, it is ideally realized in any Cavity QED platform that permits controllable delivery of coherent electromagnetic radiation to specified locations.

  15. Symmetric mixed states of n qubits: Local unitary stabilizers and entanglement classes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, David W.; Walck, Scott N.

    2011-10-15

    We classify, up to local unitary equivalence, local unitary stabilizer Lie algebras for symmetric mixed states of n qubits into six classes. These include the stabilizer types of the Werner states, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and its generalizations, and Dicke states. For all but the zero algebra, we classify entanglement types (local unitary equivalence classes) of symmetric mixed states that have those stabilizers. We make use of the identification of symmetric density matrices with polynomials in three variables with real coefficients and apply the representation theory of SO(3) on this space of polynomials.

  16. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  17. Quantum Authencryption with Two-Photon Entangled States for Off-Line Communicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tian-Yu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a quantum authencryption protocol is proposed by using the two-photon entangled states as the quantum resource. Two communicants Alice and Bob share two private keys in advance, which determine the generation of two-photon entangled states. The sender Alice sends the two-photon entangled state sequence encoded with her classical bits to the receiver Bob in the manner of one-step quantum transmission. Upon receiving the encoded quantum state sequence, Bob decodes out Alice's classical bits with the two-photon joint measurements and authenticates the integrity of Alice's secret with the help of one-way hash function. The proposed protocol only uses the one-step quantum transmission and needs neither a public discussion nor a trusted third party. As a result, the proposed protocol can be adapted to the case where the receiver is off-line, such as the quantum E-mail systems. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides the message authentication to one bit level with the help of one-way hash function and has an information-theoretical efficiency equal to 100 %.

  18. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS Preparation of Squeezed State and Entanglement State Between Vibrational Motion of Trapped Ion and Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Jie

    2010-12-01

    Several schemes have been proposed to prepare two-mode squeezed state and entanglement state between motional states of a single trapped ion and light. Preparation of two-mode squeezed state is based on interaction of a trapped ion located in light cavity with cavity field. Preparation of entanglement state is based on interaction of a trapped ion located in light cavity with cavity field and a traveling wave light field.

  19. Steady-state entanglement of spatially separated qubits via quantum bath engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, Camille; Kulkarni, Manas; Tureci, Hakan

    2015-03-01

    We propose a scheme for driving a dimer of spatially separated qubits into a maximally entangled non-equilibrium steady state. A photon-mediated retarded interaction between the qubits is realized by coupling them to two tunnel-coupled leaky cavities where each cavity is driven by a coherent microwave tone. The proposed cooling mechanism relies on striking the right balance between the unitary and driven-dissipative dynamics of the qubit subsystem. We map the dimer to an effective transverse-field XY model coupled to a non-equilibrium bath that can be suitably engineered through the choice of drive frequencies and amplitudes. We show that both singlet and triplet states can be obtained with remarkable fidelities. The proposed protocol can be implemented with a superconducting circuit architecture that was recently experimentally realized and paves the way to achieving large-scale entangled systems that are arbitrarily long lived.

  20. Steady-state entanglement of spatially separated qubits via quantum bath engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, Camille; Kulkarni, Manas; Türeci, Hakan E.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a scheme for driving a dimer of spatially separated qubits into a maximally entangled nonequilibrium steady state. A photon-mediated retarded interaction between the qubits is realized by coupling them to two tunnel-coupled leaky cavities where each cavity is driven by a coherent microwave tone. The proposed cooling mechanism relies on striking the right balance between the unitary and driven-dissipative dynamics of the qubit subsystem. We map the dimer to an effective transverse-field isotropic X Y model coupled to a nonequilibrium bath that can be suitably engineered through the choice of drive frequencies and amplitudes. We show that both singlet and triplet states can be obtained with remarkable fidelities. The proposed protocol can be implemented with a superconducting circuit architecture that was recently experimentally realized and paves the way to achieving large-scale entangled systems that are arbitrarily long lived.

  1. Robustness measure of hybrid intra-particle entanglement, discord, and classical correlation with initial Werner state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Sarkar, D.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum information processing is largely dependent on the robustness of non-classical correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord. However, all the realistic quantum systems are thermodynamically open and lose their coherence with time through environmental interaction. The time evolution of quantum entanglement, discord, and the respective classical correlation for a single, spin-1/2 particle under spin and energy degrees of freedom, with an initial Werner state, has been investigated in the present study. The present intra-particle system is considered to be easier to produce than its inter-particle counterpart. Experimentally, this type of system may be realized in the well-known Penning trap. The most stable correlation was identified through maximization of a system-specific global objective function. Quantum discord was found to be the most stable, followed by the classical correlation. Moreover, all the correlations were observed to attain highest robustness under initial Bell state, with minimum possible dephasing and decoherence parameters.

  2. Entanglement classification of three fermions with up to nine single-particle states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sárosi, Gábor; Lévay, Péter

    2014-04-01

    Based on results well known in the mathematics literature but not yet common knowledge in the physics literature, we conduct a study on three-fermionic systems with six, seven, eight, and nine single-particle states. Via introducing special polynomial invariants playing the role of entanglement measures the structure of the stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) entanglement classes is investigated. The SLOCC classes of the six- and seven-dimensional cases can elegantly be described by special subconfigurations of the Fano plane. Some special embedded systems containing distinguishable constituents are arising naturally in our formalism, namely, three-qubits and three-qutrits. In particular, the three fundamental invariants I6, I9, and I12 of the three-qutrits system are shown to arise as special cases of the four fundamental invariants of three-fermions with nine single-particle states.

  3. General existence of locally distinguishable maximally entangled states only with two-way classical communication

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Guojing; Wu, Xia; Cao, Ya; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there exist two locally operational settings, local operations with one-way and two-way classical communication. And recently, some sets of maximally entangled states have been built in specific dimensional quantum systems, which can be locally distinguished only with two-way classical communication. In this paper, we show the existence of such sets is general, through constructing such sets in all the remaining quantum systems. Specifically, such sets including p or n maximally entangled states will be built in the quantum system of (np − 1) ⊗ (np − 1) with n ≥ 3 and p being a prime number, which completes the picture that such sets do exist in every possible dimensional quantum system. PMID:27440087

  4. Influence of intrinsic decoherence on tripartite entanglement and bipartite fidelity of polar molecules in pendular states.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia-Xing; Hu, Yuan; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2016-04-01

    An array of ultracold polar molecules trapped in an external electric field is regarded as a promising carrier of quantum information. Under the action of this field, molecules are compelled to undergo pendular oscillations by the Stark effect. Particular attention has been paid to the influence of intrinsic decoherence on the model of linear polar molecular pendular states, thereby we evaluate the tripartite entanglement with negativity, as well as fidelity of bipartite quantum systems for input and output signals using electric dipole moments of polar molecules as qubits. According to this study, we consider three typical initial states for both systems, respectively, and investigate the temporal evolution with variable values of the external field intensity, the intrinsic decoherence factor, and the dipole-dipole interaction. Thus, we demonstrate the sound selection of these three main parameters to obtain the best entanglement degree and fidelity. PMID:27059571

  5. General existence of locally distinguishable maximally entangled states only with two-way classical communication.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guojing; Wu, Xia; Cao, Ya; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there exist two locally operational settings, local operations with one-way and two-way classical communication. And recently, some sets of maximally entangled states have been built in specific dimensional quantum systems, which can be locally distinguished only with two-way classical communication. In this paper, we show the existence of such sets is general, through constructing such sets in all the remaining quantum systems. Specifically, such sets including p or n maximally entangled states will be built in the quantum system of (np - 1) ⊗ (np - 1) with n ≥ 3 and p being a prime number, which completes the picture that such sets do exist in every possible dimensional quantum system. PMID:27440087

  6. Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Roztocki, Piotr; Wetzel, Benjamin; Grazioso, Fabio; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Johnston, Tudor; Bromberg, Yaron; Caspani, Lucia; Moss, David J; Morandotti, Roberto

    2016-03-11

    Complex optical photon states with entanglement shared among several modes are critical to improving our fundamental understanding of quantum mechanics and have applications for quantum information processing, imaging, and microscopy. We demonstrate that optical integrated Kerr frequency combs can be used to generate several bi- and multiphoton entangled qubits, with direct applications for quantum communication and computation. Our method is compatible with contemporary fiber and quantum memory infrastructures and with chip-scale semiconductor technology, enabling compact, low-cost, and scalable implementations. The exploitation of integrated Kerr frequency combs, with their ability to generate multiple, customizable, and complex quantum states, can provide a scalable, practical, and compact platform for quantum technologies. PMID:26965623

  7. Preparation of the entanglement states with distant atoms trapped in separate cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yong-Cheng; Yuan, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimental scheme of preparing the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and the W state with distant atoms trapped in spatially separate cavities by detecting cavity decay through single-photon detectors, based on the original ideas of photon-interference-induced entanglement between bipartite (Feng X L, Zhang Z M, Li X D, Li S D, Gong S Q and Xu Z Z 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 217902). The scheme can be generalized to prepare the general n-qubit GHZ state and W state.

  8. Group transformations and entangled-state quantum gates with directionally unbiased linear-optical multiports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, David S.; Fitzpatrick, Casey A.; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of directionally unbiased optical multiports is introduced, in which photons may reflect back out the input direction. A linear-optical implementation is described, and the simplest three-port version studied. Symmetry arguments demonstrate potential for unusual quantum information processing applications. The devices impose group structures on two-photon entangled Bell states and act as universal Bell-state processors to implement probabilistic quantum gates acting on state symmetries. These multiports allow optical scattering experiments to be carried out on arbitrary undirected graphs via linear optics and raise the possibility of linear-optical information processing using group structures formed by optical qudit states.

  9. Quantum Information Splitting of a Two-qubit Bell State Using a Five-qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Deng, Fu-hu

    2015-09-01

    A scheme for quantum information splitting of a two-qubit Bell state using a five-qubit entangled state as quantum channel is proposed. In the scheme,a genuine five-qubit entangled can be used as the quantum channel. Assume that the sender is called Alice, the receiver is called Bob and the controller id called Charlie. Alice, Bob and Charlie share a five-qubit quantum entangled state. The sender Alice sends the quantum information to the receiver Bob, anyone can not obtain the quantum information, unless they cooperate with each other. Alice first performs Bell-state measurements on her qubit paris (A, 1) (B, 5) respectively and then tells Charlie and Bob measurement results via a classical channel. It is impossible for Bob to reconstruct the original state with local operation, if Charlie allows Bob to reconstruct the original states, he needs to perform a single-qubit measurement on his qubit and tells Bob the results. According to the information from Alice and Charlie, Bob can reconstruct the original state with an appropriate unitary operation of his qubits 3, 4. We also consider the problem of security attacks. This protocol is considered to be secure.

  10. Inversion formula and Parseval theorem for complex continuous wavelet transforms studied by entangled state representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li-Yun; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2010-07-01

    In a preceding letter (2007 Opt. Lett. 32 554) we propose complex continuous wavelet transforms and found Laguerre-Gaussian mother wavelets family. In this work we present the inversion formula and Parseval theorem for complex continuous wavelet transform by virtue of the entangled state representation, which makes the complex continuous wavelet transform theory complete. A new orthogonal property of mother wavelet in parameter space is revealed.

  11. Quantum dialogue protocols over collective noise using entanglement of GHZ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hzu, Geng-Rong; Hwang, Tzonelih; Kao, Shih-Hung

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, two quantum dialogue (QD) protocols based on the entanglement of GHZ states are proposed to resist the collective noise. Besides, two new coding functions are designed for each of the proposed protocols, which can resist two types of collective noise: collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. Furthermore, it is also argued that these QD protocols are also free from the Trojan horse attacks and the information leakage problem.

  12. Quantum dialogue protocols over collective noise using entanglement of GHZ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hzu, Geng-Rong; Hwang, Tzonelih; Kao, Shih-Hung

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two quantum dialogue (QD) protocols based on the entanglement of GHZ states are proposed to resist the collective noise. Besides, two new coding functions are designed for each of the proposed protocols, which can resist two types of collective noise: collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. Furthermore, it is also argued that these QD protocols are also free from the Trojan horse attacks and the information leakage problem.

  13. Laser-driven parametric instability and generation of entangled photon-plasmon states in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokman, Mikhail; Wang, Yongrui; Oladyshkin, Ivan; Kutayiah, A. Ryan; Belyanin, Alexey

    2016-06-01

    We show that a strong infrared laser beam obliquely incident on graphene can experience a parametric instability with respect to decay into lower-frequency (idler) photons and THz surface plasmons. The instability is due to a strong in-plane second-order nonlinear response of graphene which originates from its spatial dispersion. The parametric decay leads to efficient generation of THz plasmons and gives rise to quantum entanglement of idler photons and surface plasmon states.

  14. Nonlocality without inequalities for almost all entangled states of any quantum system

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca

    2005-07-15

    It is shown that it is possible to rule out all local and stochastic hidden variable models accounting for the quantum mechanical predictions implied by almost any entangled quantum state vector of any number of particles whose Hilbert spaces have arbitrary dimensions, without resorting to Bell-type inequalities. The present proof makes use of the mathematically precise notion of Bell locality and it involves only simple set theoretic arguments.

  15. A New Quantum Proxy Multi-signature Scheme Using Maximally Entangled Seven-Qubit States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Liu, Jian; Li, Zeng-You

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum proxy multi-signature scheme using seven-qubit entangled quantum state as quantum channels, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. This scheme is based on controlled quantum teleportation. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability.

  16. Generating large steady-state optomechanical entanglement by the action of Casimir force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, WenJie; Lan, YueHeng; Li, Yong; Zhu, ShiYao

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we study an optomechanical device consisting of a Fabry-Pérot cavity with two dielectric nanospheres trapped near the cavity mirrors by an external driving laser. In the condition where the distances between the nanospheres and cavity mirrors are small enough, the Casimir force helps the optomechanical coupling to induce a steady-state optomechanical entanglement of the mechanical and optical modes in a certain regime of parameters. We investigate in detail the dependence of the steady-state optomechanical entanglement on external control parameters of the system, i.e., the effective detuning, the pump powers of the cavity, the cavity decay rate and the wavelength of the driving field. It is found that the large steady-state optomechanical entanglement, i.e. E N = 5.76, can be generated with experimentally feasible parameters, i.e. the pump power P = 18.2 μW, the cavity decay rate κ = 0.5 MHz and the wavelength of the laser λ L=1064 nm, which should be checked by optical measurement.

  17. Entanglement entropy of excited states in conformal perturbation theory and the Einstein equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Antony J.

    2016-04-01

    For a conformal field theory (CFT) deformed by a relevant operator, the entanglement entropy of a ball-shaped region may be computed as a perturbative expansion in the coupling. A similar perturbative expansion exists for excited states near the vacuum. Using these expansions, this work investigates the behavior of excited state entanglement entropies of small, ball-shaped regions. The motivation for these calculations is Jacobson's recent work on the equivalence of the Einstein equation and the hypothesis of maximal vacuum entropy [arXiv:1505.04753], which relies on a conjecture stating that the behavior of these entropies is sufficiently similar to a CFT. In addition to the expected type of terms which scale with the ball radius as R d , the entanglement entropy calculation gives rise to terms scaling as R 2Δ, where Δ is the dimension of the deforming operator. When \\varDelta ≤ d/2 , the latter terms dominate the former, and suggest that a modification to the conjecture is needed.

  18. Reexamination of entanglement of superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Gilad

    2007-11-01

    We find tight lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of a superposition of two bipartite states in terms of the entanglement of the two states constituting the superposition. Our upper bound is dramatically tighter than the one presented by Linden [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)] and our lower bound can be used to provide lower bounds on different measures of entanglement such as the entanglement of formation and the entanglement of subspaces. We also find that in the case in which the two states are one-sided orthogonal, the entanglement of the superposition state can be expressed explicitly in terms of the entanglement of the two states in the superposition.

  19. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2013-09-15

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.

  20. Generation and protection of a maximally entangled state between many modes in an optical network with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coto, Raul; Orszag, Miguel; Eremeev, Vitalie

    2016-06-01

    We present a three-cavity network model with two modes in each cavity and a nonlinear medium that generates a Kerr-type interaction via both self-phase and cross-phase modulation processes. We have two main goals. The first one is to generate a multipartite maximally entangled state (MES), starting from the ground state of the system. We address the problem both without and with dissipation. Second, we want to protect the MES from decoherence. While studying the MES, we analyze different bipartite and multipartite entanglement measures. We also study the effect of an avoided level crossing identified by the critical behavior of the entanglement measures, thus showing that the quantum correlations act as a witness for such phenomena. Our findings provide the quantum tools to perform the operation of generation and protection of a maximally entangled state in a cavity QED environment.

  1. Deterministic Joint Assisted Cloning of Unknown Two-Qubit Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, You-Bang

    2012-06-01

    We present two schemes for perfect cloning unknown two-qubit and general two-qubit entangled states with assistance from two state preparers, respectively. In the schemes, the sender wish to teleport an unknown two-qubit (or general two-qubit) entangled state which from two state preparers to a remote receiver, and then create a perfect copy of the unknown state at her place. The schemes include two stages. The first stage of the schemes requires usual teleportation. In the second stage, to help the sender realize the quantum cloning, two state preparers perform two-qubit projective measurements on their own qubits which from the sender, then the sender can acquire a perfect copy of the unknown state. To complete the assisted cloning schemes, several novel sets of mutually orthogonal basis vectors are introduced. It is shown that, only if two state preparers collaborate with each other, and perform projective measurements under suitable measuring basis on their own qubit respectively, the sender can create a copy of the unknown state by means of some appropriate unitary operations. The advantage of the present schemes is that the total success probability for assisted cloning a perfect copy of the unknown state can reach 1.

  2. Control and Transfer of Entanglement between Two Atoms Driven by Classical Fields under Dressed-State Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qing-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Juan; Yan, Qiu-Rong; Liu, Ye; Chen, An

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the dynamics and transfer of the entanglement of the two identical atoms simultaneously interacting with vacuum field by employing the dressed-state representation. The two atoms are driven by classical fields. The influence of the initial entanglement degree of two atoms, the coupling strength between the atom and the classical field and the detuning between the atomic transition frequency and the frequency of classical field on the entanglement and atomic linear entropy is discussed. The initial entanglement of the two atoms can be transferred into the entanglement between the atom and cavity field when the dissipation is neglected. The maximally entangled state between the atoms and cavity field can be obtained under some certain conditions. The time of disentanglement of two atoms can be controlled and manipulated by adjusting the detuning and classical driving fields. Moreover, the larger the cavity decay rate is, the more quickly the entanglement of the two atoms decays. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11247213, 61368002, 11304010, 11264030, 61168001, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2013M531558, Jiangxi Postdoctoral Research Project under Grant No. 2013KY33, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province under Grant No. 20142BAB217001, the Foundation for Young Scientists of Jiangxi Province (Jinggang Star) under Grant No. 20122BCB23002, the Research Foundation of the Education Department of Jiangxi Province under Grant Nos. GJJ13051, GJJ13057, and the Graduate Innovation Special Fund of Nanchang University under Grant No. cx2015137

  3. Quantum discord with weak measurement operators of quasi-Werner states based on bipartite entangled coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Gómez, R.; Ladera, C. L.; Zambrano, A.

    2013-11-01

    Among many applications quantum weak measurements have been shown to be important in exploring fundamental physics issues, such as the experimental violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the Hardy paradox, and have also technological implications in quantum optics, quantum metrology and quantum communications, where the precision of the measurement is as important as the precision of quantum state preparation. The theory of weak measurement can be formulated using the pre-and post-selected quantum systems, as well as using the weak measurement operator formalism. In this work, we study the quantum discord (QD) of quasi-Werner mixed states based on bipartite entangled coherent states using the weak measurements operator, instead of the projective measurement operators. We then compare the quantum discord for both kinds of measurement operators, in terms of the entanglement quality, the latter being measured using the concept of concurrence. It's found greater quantum correlations using the weak measurement operators.

  4. Teleportation of a two-qubit arbitrary unknown state using a four-qubit genuine entangled state with the combination of bell-state measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Gao, Ya-Jun; Yi, X. X.

    2013-01-15

    We propose a protocol transferring an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state using the quantum channel of a four-qubit genuine entangled state. Simplifying the four-qubit joint measurement to the combination of Bell-state measurements, it can be realized more easily with currently available technologies.

  5. Remote preparation of N photon GHZ polarization entangled states within a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y.; Song, J.; Ning, Y.; Lu, P.-M.; Song, H.-S.

    2010-02-01

    We propose a new linear optical protocol for remote state preparation (RSP) between two parties under control of a number of controllers in terms of optical elements. The proposed setup involves simple linear optical elements, a N-photon polarization entangled state, and photon de tectors, witch have been widely used in experiment. The realization of this protocol is appealing due to the fact that quantum state of light is robust against the decoherence and photons are ideal carriers for transmitting quantum information over long distances.

  6. Continuous Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz as Holographic Surface-State Correspondence.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2015-10-23

    We present how the surface-state correspondence, conjectured by Miyaji and Takayanagi, works in the setup of AdS(3)/CFT(2) by generalizing the formulation of a continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization group ansatz. The boundary states in conformal field theories play a crucial role in our formulation and the bulk diffeomorphism is naturally taken into account. We give an identification of bulk local operators which reproduces correct scalar field solutions on AdS(3) and bulk scalar propagators. We also calculate the information metric for a locally excited state and show that it reproduces the time slice of AdS(3). PMID:26551098

  7. Bulk-edge correspondence of entanglement spectrum in two-dimensional spin ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raul A.

    2013-01-01

    General local spin S ground states, described by a valence bond solid (VBS) on a two-dimensional lattice are studied. The norm of these ground states is mapped to a classical O(3) model on the same lattice. Using this quantum-to-classical mapping, we obtain the partial density matrix ρA associated with a subsystem A of the original ground state. We show that the entanglement spectrum of ρA in a translation invariant lattice is related with the spectrum of a quantum XXX Heisenberg model and all its conserved charges on the boundary of the region A.

  8. Comment on “Controlled DSQC using five-qubit entangled states and two-step security test”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Meng, Luo-Ming; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2009-07-01

    A controlled deterministic secure quantum communication protocol [X.M. Xiu, L. Dong, Y.J. Cao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 333] with five-qubit entangled states was proposed recently. The aim of Xiu et al. was that the successful realization of communication between Alice and Bob needed the cooperation of a controller, Charlie. However, we show that the controller Charlie's role could be excluded unknowingly. Moreover, an eavesdropper can entangle an ancilla without introducing any error in the first security test and then she can distill a quarter of the secret messages from her entangled ancilla.

  9. Enhanced two-photon absorption using entangled states and small mode volumes

    SciTech Connect

    You Hao; Hendrickson, S. M.; Franson, J. D.

    2009-10-15

    We calculate the rate of two-photon absorption for frequency-entangled photons in a tapered optical fiber whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of the light. The confinement of the electric field in the transverse direction increases the intensity associated with a single photon, while the two-photon absorption rate is further enhanced by the fact that the sum of the frequencies of the two photons is on resonance with the upper atomic state, even though each photon has a relatively broad linewidth. As a result, the photons are effectively confined in all three dimensions and the two-photon absorption rate for frequency-entangled photons in a tapered fiber was found to be comparable to that for unentangled photons in a microcavity with a small mode volume.

  10. Quantum Private Comparison of Equal Information Based on Highly Entangled Six-Qubit Genuine State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhao-Xu; Ye, Tian-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Using the highly entangled six-qubit genuine state we present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, which enables two users to compare the equality of two bits of their secrets in every round comparison with the assistance of a semi-honest third party (TP). The proposed protocol needs neither unitary operations nor quantum entanglement swapping technology, both of which may consume expensive quantum devices. Single particle measurements and Bell-basis measurements, which are easy to implement with current technologies, are employed by two users and TP in the proposed protocol, respectively. The proposed protocol can withstand all kinds of outside attacks and participant attacks. Moreover, none of information about the two users' private secrets and the comparison result is leaked out to TP. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402407

  11. Higher-point conformal blocks and entanglement entropy in heavy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Pinaki; Datta, Shouvik; Sinha, Ritam

    2016-05-01

    We consider conformal blocks of two heavy operators and an arbitrary number of light operators in a (1+1)- d CFT with large central charge. Using the monodromy method, these higher-point conformal blocks are shown to factorize into products of 4-point conformal blocks in the heavy-light limit for a class of OPE channels. This result is reproduced by considering suitable worldline configurations in the bulk conical defect geometry. We apply the CFT results to calculate the entanglement entropy of an arbitrary number of disjoint intervals for heavy states. The corresponding holographic entanglement entropy calculated via the minimal area prescription precisely matches these results from CFT. Along the way, we briefly illustrate the relation of these conformal blocks to Riemann surfaces and their associated moduli space.

  12. Gaussian entanglement of formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, M.M.; Giedke, G.; Krueger, O.; Werner, R. F.; Cirac, J.I.

    2004-05-01

    We introduce a Gaussian version of the entanglement of formation adapted to bipartite Gaussian states by considering decompositions into pure Gaussian states only. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian operations and provide a simplified computation for states of arbitrary many modes. For the case of one mode per site the remaining variational problem can be solved analytically. If the considered state is in addition symmetric with respect to interchanging the two modes, we prove additivity of the considered entanglement measure. Moreover, in this case and considering only a single copy, our entanglement measure coincides with the true entanglement of formation.

  13. Two-Component Structure in the Entanglement Spectrum of Highly Excited States.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Cheng; Chamon, Claudio; Hamma, Alioscia; Mucciolo, Eduardo R

    2015-12-31

    We study the entanglement spectrum of highly excited eigenstates of two known models that exhibit a many-body localization transition, namely the one-dimensional random-field Heisenberg model and the quantum random energy model. Our results indicate that the entanglement spectrum shows a "two-component" structure: a universal part that is associated with random matrix theory, and a nonuniversal part that is model dependent. The nonuniversal part manifests the deviation of the highly excited eigenstate from a true random state even in the thermalized phase where the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis holds. The fraction of the spectrum containing the universal part decreases as one approaches the critical point and vanishes in the localized phase in the thermodynamic limit. We use the universal part fraction to construct an order parameter for measuring the degree of randomness of a generic highly excited state, which is also a promising candidate for studying the many-body localization transition. Two toy models based on Rokhsar-Kivelson type wave functions are constructed and their entanglement spectra are shown to exhibit the same structure. PMID:26765022

  14. Theory of entanglement and entanglement-assisted communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Charles H.

    2011-03-01

    Protocols such as quantum teleportation and measurement-based quantum computation highlight the importance of entanglement as a resource to be quantified and husbanded. Unlike classical shared randomness, entanglement has a profound effect on the capacity of quantum channels: a channel's entanglement-assisted capacity can be much greater than its unassisted capacity, and in any case is given by much a simpler formula, paralleling Shannon's original formula for the capacity of a classical channel. We review the differences between entanglement and weaker forms of correlation, and the theory of entanglement distillation and entanglement-assisted communication, including the role of strong forms of entanglement such as entanglement-embezzling states.

  15. Entanglement convertibility for infinite-dimensional pure bipartite states

    SciTech Connect

    Owari, Masaki; Matsumoto, Keiji; Murao, Mio

    2004-11-01

    It is shown that the order property of pure bipartite states under stochastic local operations and classical communications (SLOCC) changes radically when dimensionality shifts from finite to infinite. In contrast to finite-dimensional systems where there is no pure incomparable state, the existence of infinitely many mutually SLOCC incomparable states is shown for infinite-dimensional systems even under the bounded energy and finite information exchange condition. These results show that the effect of the infinite dimensionality of Hilbert space, the 'infinite workspace' property, remains even in physically relevant infinite-dimensional systems.

  16. Overcoming a limitation of deterministic dense coding with a nonmaximally entangled initial state

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdon, P. S.; Gerjuoy, E.

    2010-02-15

    Under two-party deterministic dense coding, Alice communicates (perfectly distinguishable) messages to Bob via a qudit from a pair of entangled qudits in pure state |{Psi}>. If |{Psi}> represents a maximally entangled state (i.e., each of its Schmidt coefficients is {radical}(1/d)), then Alice can convey to Bob one of d{sup 2} distinct messages. If |{Psi}> is not maximally entangled, then Ji et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 034307 (2006)] have shown that under the original deterministic dense-coding protocol, in which messages are encoded by unitary operations performed on Alice's qudit, it is impossible to encode d{sup 2}-1 messages. Encoding d{sup 2}-2 messages is possible; see, for example, the numerical studies by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A 71, 012311 (2005)]. Answering a question raised by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042311 (2006)], we show that when |{Psi}> is not maximally entangled, the communications limit of d{sup 2}-2 messages persists even when the requirement that Alice encode by unitary operations on her qudit is weakened to allow encoding by more general quantum operators. We then describe a dense-coding protocol that can overcome this limitation with high probability, assuming the largest Schmidt coefficient of |{Psi}> is sufficiently close to {radical}(1/d). In this protocol, d{sup 2}-2 of the messages are encoded via unitary operations on Alice's qudit, and the final (d{sup 2}-1)-th message is encoded via a non-trace-preserving quantum operation.

  17. Almost Perfect Teleportation Using 4-PARTITE Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, H.; Chandra, N.; Prakash, R.; Shivani

    In a recent paper N. Ba An (Phys. Rev. A 68, 022321 (2003)) proposed a scheme to teleport a single particle state, which is superposition of coherent states |α> and |-α> using a 4-partite state, a beam splitter, and phase shifters and concluded that the probability for successful teleportation is only 1/4 in the limit |α| → 0 and 1/2 in the limit |α| → ∞. In this paper, we modify this scheme and find that an almost perfect success can be achieved if |α|2 is appreciable. For example, for |α|2 = 5, the minimum of average fidelity for teleportation, which is the minimum of sum of the product of probability for occurrence of any case and the corresponding fidelity evaluated for an arbitrary chosen information state, is 0.9999.

  18. An Improved Quantum Information Hiding Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of χ-type Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Ding, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Hui

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572297, 61303199, 61272514, and 61373131, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, ZR2014FM003, and ZY2015YL018, the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China under Grant Nos. BS2015DX006 and BS2014DX007, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China under Grant No. MMJJ201401012, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology Funds, and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China under Grant Nos. 2015QN003 and 2013QN007

  19. Genuine multipartite entanglement of symmetric Gaussian states: Strong monogamy, unitary localization, scaling behavior, and molecular sharing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the structural aspects of genuine multipartite entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Generalizing the results of Adesso and Illuminati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150501 (2007)], we analyze whether the entanglement shared by blocks of modes distributes according to a strong monogamy law. This property, once established, allows us to quantify the genuine N -partite entanglement not encoded into 2,…,K,…,(N-1) -partite quantum correlations. Strong monogamy is numerically verified, and the explicit expression of the measure of residual genuine multipartite entanglement is analytically derived, by a recursive formula, for a subclass of Gaussian states. These are fully symmetric (permutation-invariant) states that are multipartitioned into blocks, each consisting of an arbitrarily assigned number of modes. We compute the genuine multipartite entanglement shared by the blocks of modes and investigate its scaling properties with the number and size of the blocks, the total number of modes, the global mixedness of the state, and the squeezed resources needed for state engineering. To achieve the exact computation of the block entanglement, we introduce and prove a general result of symplectic analysis: Correlations among K blocks in N -mode multisymmetric and multipartite Gaussian states, which are locally invariant under permutation of modes within each block, can be transformed by a local (with respect to the partition) unitary operation into correlations shared by K single modes, one per block, in effective nonsymmetric states where N-K modes are completely uncorrelated. Due to this theorem, the above results, such as the derivation of the explicit expression for the residual multipartite entanglement, its nonnegativity, and its scaling properties, extend to the subclass of non-symmetric Gaussian states that are obtained by the unitary localization of the multipartite entanglement of symmetric states. These findings provide strong

  20. Frozen Topology: Entanglements Control Nucleation and Crystallization in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chuanfu; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Polymer chains form lamellar structures during crystallization which display a memory of thermal history. Using molecular dynamics simulations and primitive path analysis, we show a direct dependence of both density and crystalline stem length on the local entanglement length. The slow relaxation of the entanglement state after a change of external conditions can directly explain the role of thermal history for polymer crystallization, in particular memory effects. The analysis of the local entanglement state can be used to predict the occurrence of nucleation events. Our results present a fresh insight of the nonequilibrium properties of polymer crystals which might be identified as "frozen topology" of polymer melts.